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Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder


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Milk chocolates were prepared by replacing skim milk powder in the formulation with yoghurt powder at 50% and 100% levels. The effect of incorporating yoghurt powder on quality of chocolates was studied. No significant changes were observed in fatty acid profile and hardness of the chocolates. Sour taste of chocolate with yoghurt powder due to its acidity was neutralized by adding calculated amount of sodium bicarbonate. Sensory analysis showed that probiotic chocolates were highly acceptable and similar to control chocolate. Microbiological studies of chocolates showed the presence of Lactobacillus species to the extent of 3.37 log·cfu/g, which were not present in the control sample prepared only with skim milk powder. Rheological studies showed that milk chocolate prepared using yoghurt powder at 50% showed no significant changes in yield value compared to that of control, but at 100% addition a considerable decrease in yield value was observed. Microstructural properties of chocolate with 50% addition of yoghurt powder showed smaller particles adhering to the cocoa and sugar crystals but at 100% addition of yoghurt powder, the cocoa particles were completely covered by smaller yoghurt powder matrix.
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Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2013, 4, 276-281 Published Online March 2013 (
Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using
Yoghurt Powder
Ramakrishna Chetana, Sunki Reddy Yella Reddy*, Pradeep Singh Negi
Human Resource Development CSIR—Central Food Technological Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research)
Mysore, India.
Email: *
Received January 2nd, 2013; revised February 7th, 2013; accepted February 15th, 2013
Milk chocolates were prepared by replacing skim milk powder in the formulation with yoghurt powder at 50% and
100% levels. The effect of incorporating yoghurt powder on quality of chocolates was studied. No significant changes
were observed in fatty acid profile and hardness of the chocolates. Sour taste of chocolate with yoghurt powder due to
its acidity was neutralized by adding calculated amount of sodium bicarbonate. Sensory analysis showed that probiotic
chocolates were highly acceptable and similar to control chocolate. Microbiological studies of chocolates showed the
presence of Lactobacillus species to the extent of 3.37 log·cfu/g, which were not present in the control sample prepared
only with skim milk powder. Rheological studies showed that milk chocolate prepared using yoghurt powder at 50%
showed no significant changes in yield value compared to that of control, but at 100% addition a considerable decrease
in yield value was observed. Microstructural properties of chocolate with 50% addition of yoghurt powder showed
smaller particles adhering to the cocoa and sugar crystals but at 100% addition of yoghurt powder, the cocoa particles
were completely covered by smaller yoghurt powder matrix.
Keywords: Probiotic Chocolates; SEM; Rheology; Yoghurt Powder
1. Introduction
Chocolate is a suspension of fine solid particles of sugar,
cocoa and milk powder in a continuous fat phase. Choco-
lates are solid at ambient (20˚C - 25˚C) and melt at body
temperature (37˚C) giving a smooth suspension of par-
ticulate solids with a pleasing cooling sensation in the
mouth [1]. The continuous phase influences the sensory
characteristics such as mouth feel or melt in mouth.
Despite high fat and sugar contents, chocolate con-
sumption makes a positive contribution to human nutria-
tion through provision of antioxidants, principally poly-
phenols including flavonoids such as epicatechin, cate-
chin and notably, the procyanidins [2]. Chocolates also
contain minerals, specifically potassium, magnesium,
copper and iron. Due to presence of cocoa, it is rich in
natural antioxidants having health benefits. Milk solids
added as spray-dried skimmed milk powder or full cream
milk powder contributes to flavour, texture and liquid
flow properties [3].
Numerous functional foods are consumed as part of a
normal diet and they provide consumers with well-docu-
mented and physiological benefits such as probiotic bac-
teria. Probiotics are live microorganisms and proliferate
in the human bowels that confer a health benefit by al-
tering the enteric microflora. The main sources of these
organisms are fermented dairy products, for example,
yoghurts. However, the functional dairy product must
contain a defined number of live probiotic bacteria (usu-
ally at least 106 cfu/g). Furthermore, their number at the
end of the shelf life is the most important criterion when
the health-promoting value of a given foodstuff is evalu-
ated [4-7].
Probiotic bacteria beneficially affect human health by
improving the gut micro biota balance and the defenses
against pathogens. Additional health benefits attributed
to probiotics are the stimulation of the immune system,
blood cholesterol reduction, vitamin synthesis, anti-car-
cinogenesis and anti-bacterial activities. Two other im-
portant criteria to determine the efficacy and the success
of the product containing probiotics are the acceptance of
the product by the consumers and the survival of probi-
otic microorganisms during its production [8]. Lactoba-
cilii, Bifido bacteria and several other lactic acid bacteria
are regarded as probiotics, as they do not induce mucosal
inflammation. The main sources of these organisms are
fermented dairy products for example yoghurt (curd). In
general, the food industry had applied the recommended
level of 106 cfu/gm at the time of consumption of lacto-
*Corresponding author.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. FNS
Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder 277
bacillus acidiophilus, Bifidobacteria and other probiotic
bacteria [9]. Traditional yoghurt is produced from milk,
fermented by strains of Streptococcus thermophilus and
Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus [10].
Today, India is the largest producer of milk in the
world and the Indian dairy industry is witnessing rapid
changes. Yoghurt/curd is the most popular fermented dairy
product in India, prepared by the use of mixed mesophilic
cultures that ferment lactose to lactic acid. Products like
yoghurt are known more for their therapeutic significance
than nutritional value [11]. It has a limited keeping quality
of 1 - 2 days at ambient temperature and its quality is not
retained for more than 1 week under refrigerated conditions
[12]. Dried yoghurt powder has enhanced shelf life and it
can also be used as a base for formulation of health foods.
Nebesny et al. [13] have reported that chocolate formu-
lated with isomalt and enriched with viable cells of lactic
acid bacteria, introduced in the form of powdered yo-
ghurt, is not only a sucrose-free, low-calorie product but
additionally displays nutritional and dietetic attributes,
and can be regarded as a functional food additional spe-
cies in the fingerprints. Possemiers et al. [14] have re-
ported bacteria and chocolate to be a successful combina-
tion for probiotic delivery. They have showed that coating
of the probiotics in chocolate is an excellent solution to
protect them from environmental stress conditions and
for optimal delivery. The aims of the present study is to
incorporate dried probiotic powder for the preparation of
probiotic chocolate, and study the effects of replacing
skim milk powder with yoghurt powder on the rheologi-
cal and other quality parameters of milk chocolate.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Composition of Yogurt
Yoghurt was procured locally in bulk and used for the
studies. The yoghurt had protein content was 3.3%, fat
3.0%, minerals 0.7%, calcium 120 mg, vitamin A 35 ug
and carbohydrates (as Lactose) 3.9%.
2.2. Preparation of Yoghurt Powder
The yoghurt was dried in a freeze drier (Lyophilisation
Inc. USA, Model LT 5S): Freezing cycle : 26˚C for 2 h,
Drying cycle: 25˚C to +25˚C for 18 h and vacuum from
100,000 m·torr to 250 m·torr were used for a total period
of 20 h. The powder obtained was packed in polypro-
pylene covers and stored in refrigerator.
2.3. Composition of Yoghurt Powder
The prepared yoghurt powder had of: 3.0% - 3.5% mois-
ture, 35% protein, 1.5% - 2.0% fat, and total acidity of
5.8% as lactic acid.
2.4. Preparation of Chocolate
Milk chocolate was prepared using the formulation given
in Table 1. Skim milk powder was replaced at 50% and
100% level by yoghurt powder in milk chocolate formu-
lation and compared with control chocolate prepared
with skim milk alone. All the ingredients were mixed and
passed through a triple-roll chocolate refiner (Pascal,
England), three times, keeping the distance between the
rollers and number of passes constant for all the batches.
The mass was then conched by adding the remaining
cocoa butter and lecithin for 3 h at 50˚C - 55˚C. The
mass after conching was taken for viscosity measurement.
The mass was then tempered and moulded. The samples
were kept at refrigerated condition for further analyses.
2.5. Texture of Chocolate
The hardness of the chocolate was measured using a
Lloyd’s texture measuring system (model LR 5K, UK).
The samples of uniform dimension (4 × 8 × 1 cm·lbh),
were conditioned by keeping at 25˚C ± 2˚C for about 3 h
before measuring. Penetration was measured at 25˚C ±
2˚C using a probe of 3 mm dia at a speed of 50 mm/min
and 2 mm deflection using a 50 N load cell; the force
required to penetrate was measured as hardness (N) and
an average of 12 measurements was reported.
2.6. Fatty Acid Analysis
The fat from chocolate samples was extracted with chlo-
roform and converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)
using KOH/Methanol (AOCS, 1993). FAME were ana-
lysed by GC (Varian GC 450, Hercudiesweg, The Neth-
erlands) with FID and using Supelco, SP-2340 (0.25 mm
× 30 m) capillary column, programmed from 50˚C to
200˚C at 5˚C/min and maintaining at 200˚C for 10 min;
injection temperature 230˚C, split ratio 1:20; detector
temperature 240˚C and nitrogen flow, 0.9 mL/min. The
fatty acids were identified by using authentic standards
and reported as relative percentage.
Table1. Viscosity of chocolates prepared with yoghurt powder.
Chocolate Casson Yield Value (Pa) τ0 Casson Plastic Viscosity (Pa S)
p R2
Control 40.23b 1.87a 0.99
50% Yoghurt Powder 41.02b 2.11a 0.99
100% Yoghurt Powder 28.65a 3.76b 0.99
a,bMean values (n = 6) bearing different superscripts in a column are significantly different (p 0.05).
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. FNS
Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder
2.7. Viscosity Measurement
The rheological behaviour of chocolate was measured at
40˚C using HAAKE Viscotester, VT550 (Haake, Karlsruhe,
Germany), using coaxial cylinder SV, from 0 to 100
shear rate in 3 min, and the curves of shear rate versus
shear stress and viscosity were recorded. The shear rate
and shear stress curves were subjected to various rheologi-
cal models to see the best fit and determine viscosity,
using Rheo Win (Haake, Karlsruhe, Germany) software.
All the measurements were made in triplicate and the
average was reported. The basic casson equation is used
to describe the flow behavior of chocolate. Casson yield
value and plastic viscosity were used to describe the flow
behavior of chocolate.
2.8. Sensory Evaluation
A trained panel was employed for carrying out sensory
evaluation of chocolate by following the method of
Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA). The defini-
tions of the attributes were discussed and descriptors
were developed by asking the panelists to describe the
product with the suitable descriptive terms for develop-
ment of a score card, which consisted of each attribute on
a 15-cm line scale. Quantitative descriptive analysis
methods were adopted and the panelists were asked to
mark the intensity of each attribute [15]. The main de-
sirable sensory attributes of chocolate, such as gloss,
snap, melt-in-mouth, sweetness, chocolate flavour and
overall quality were assessed by a panel of 15 trained
judges. Calculated amount of sodium bicarbonate based
on their neutralization equivalent of the total acid present
in yoghurt powder was added to the chocolates to avoid
the acidic taste in chocolates. The judges were asked to
mark by drawing a vertical line on the scale for all qual-
ity attributes of the coded samples.
2.9. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
The microstructure of chocolate samples was studied by
SEM using LEO Scanning electron model 435 VP (Leo
electronics system, Cambridge, UK). The chocolate was
defatted with hexane and placed on the sample holder
with the help of a double scotch tape and sputter coated
with gold (2 min, 2 m Bar) where it was observed at 15
2.10. Statistical Analysis
Data obtained was statistically analysed using Duncan’s
Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at significant level of P
0.05 [16]. All the analyses were performed in triplicate
except for texture (n = 12). The mean values with stan-
dard deviations (SD) are reported.
2.11. Microbiological Analysis
Number of Lactobacilli was counted by pour plate method
using 1 ml of appropriate dilution of each sample in De
Man Rogosa-Sharpe agar (MRS agar, Hi media, Mum-
bai). After 2 days of incubation at 37˚C the colonies were
counted and the results expressed in logarithm of colo-
nies forming units per gram of product (log·cfu/g). The
representative colonies were tested for absence of cata-
lase to confirm the presence of LAB
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Viscosity of Chocolates
The viscosity of chocolate plays an important role during
manufacture of chocolate. The solid ingredients, proc-
essing parameters and amount of fat influence viscosity
of chocolate mass. The rheological behavior of chocolate
followed non-Newtonian flow, as reported in literature,
due to presence of solids in molten fat and followed the
Casson model, which is the best fit as shown by the cor-
relation coefficient (Table 1). Casson model is recom-
mended by IOCCC [17] and has been used as an interna-
tionally accepted standard model for determination of
viscosity of chocolates. It is now accepted and applied as
an appropriate mathematical model for predicting flow
behavior and rheological analysis of different kinds of
chocolates [18,19].
Milk chocolate prepared using yoghurt powder at 50%
by weight of milk powder showed no significant changes
in yield value compared to that of control chocolate pre-
pared with milk powder. However, chocolate with 100%
addition of yoghurt powder showed considerable decrease
in yield value. Plastic viscosity of chocolate increased
with increase in addition of yoghurt powder from 50% to
100% (Table 1), which may be due to finer particles of
yoghurt powder compared to milk solids.
3.2. Texture of Chocolate
Only marginal differences in hardness were observed
among the chocolates, i.e., control and with added yo-
ghurt powder, ranging from 34 to 36 N.
3.3. Fatty Acid Composition
No significant differences in fatty acid composition were
observed among the chocolates prepared with yoghurt
powder as all samples contain cocoa butter and milk fat
as fat sources (Table 2). Short chain fatty acids are from
milk fat from milk powder or yoghurt powder. The prod-
uct contains about 30% of monounsaturated (oleic) fatty
acids and equal quantity of stearic acid, which is neutral
with respect to affecting serum cholesterol [20].
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. FNS
Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder 279
Table 2. Fatty acid composition (%) of fat in chocolates prepared with yoghurt powder.
Chocolate with
Fatty Acid Control 50% Yoghurt Powder 100% Yoghurt Powder
C4:0 2.50 2.45 2.50
C10:0 1.50 - -
C14:0 0.42 0.71 1.32
C16:0 24.63 25.18 25.87
C18:0 34.61 35.07 34.56
C18:1 32.2 32.32 32.82
C18:2 4.00 3.00 2.96
Mean values (n = 3).
3.4. Microstructural Properties of Probiotic
The outer topography of probiotic milk chocolates were
assessed by SEM (Figures 1(a)-(c)), in order to study the
effect of addition of yoghurt powder into chocolates.
Figure 1(a) shows coarse particles of cocoa mass sheared
during refining and conching process in the manufacture
of chocolate. A few sugar particles and skim milk pow-
der can also be seen along with the cocoa mass. Skim
milk powder particles are smaller than cocoa and sugar
particles and adhere to the larger and coarser cocoa parti-
In chocolates with 50% addition of yoghurt powder,
the smaller particles adhering to the cocoa and sugar crys-
tals are more in number (Figure 1(b)). In chocolate with
100% addition of yoghurt powder, the cocoa particles are
completely covered by smaller yoghurt powder matrix
(Figure 1(c)). Skim milk powder shows surface dents,
which can be attributed to the atomization conditions [21]
but yoghurt powder which is freeze dried has smaller
particle size compared to skim milk powder which forms
a cluster around the larger cocoa and sugar particles
without dents.
3.5. Microbiological Studies
Microbiological studies revealed that the chocolates pre-
pared with yoghurt powder showed the presence of lactic
acid bacteria to the extent of 3.37 log·cfu/g, which were
not present in the control sample prepared only with skim
milk powder (Table 3). There was no significant increase
in the viable LAB count in 100% substitution over 50%
as the cells were exposed (as seen in SEM) and probably
they were more susceptible to processing treatments. It is
well established that foods containing viable lactic acid
bacteria as probiotics, improve gut health.
3.6. Sensory Analysis
Sensory evaluation revealed that chocolate with 50%
addition of yoghurt powder was more acceptable than
Melt in mouth
choc f lavour
Off taste
Control 50% addition of yogh urt powder 100 % addition of yoghurt powder
Figure 1. Sensory evaluation of chocolates prepared with
yoghurt powder.
Table 3. Microbiological studies of chocolates prepared
with yoghurt powder.
Samples Lactobacillus sp. (log·cfu/g)
Yoghurt Powder 4.758 ± 0.11b
50% Yoghurt Powder 3.581 ± 0.23a
100% Yoghurt Powder 3.586 ± 0.24a
Control -Nil-
Mean values (n = 6) bearing different superscripts in a column are signifi-
cantly different (p 0.05).
that with 100% addition and both had slightly lower
overall quality when compared to control prepared only
with skim milk powder (Figure 2). No significant dif-
ferences were observed in attributes such as colour, gloss
and sweetness among all the three samples. Snap, melt in
mouth and chocolate flavour attributes decreased with
addition of yoghurt powder. Chocolates with added yo-
ghurt powder are sour in taste due to acid present in yo-
ghurt powder. However, chocolates with addition of re-
quired amount of sodium bicarbonate to neutralize the
acid did not show any sour taste. Similar results have
been reported by Nebesny et al. [13], where sensory
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. FNS
Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder
(a) Control chocolate
(b) Chocolate with 50% addition of yoghurt powder
(c) Chocolate with 100 addition of yoghurt powder
Figure 2. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of chocolates prepared with yoghurt powder (Mag. 4000×).
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. FNS
Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder 281
attributes of sucrose-free yoghurt-containing dark and
milk chocolates and their yoghurt-free counterparts re-
vealed excellent quality. The sensory attributes of yo-
ghurt and isomalt containing dark chocolates received a
high average score which was only slightly lower than
that of analogous milk chocolates.
4. Conclusion
Milk chocolate with yoghurt powder was prepared re-
placing milk powder to make it probiotic. Marginal dif-
ferences in viscosity, texture and sensory evaluation of
chocolate with yoghurt were observed in comparison
with those of control milk chocolate. Chocolate with yo-
ghurt powder contain probiotic lactobacilli species and
thus making it probiotic. Chocolate is reported to contain
natural antioxidants and the nutritional quality of this
was further enhanced by making it probiotic. Thus, milk
chocolate with probiotic yoghurt powder was prepared
without affecting the desirable quality of conventional
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... Hardness (N) was reported as the force recorded during the penetration of the sample. Eight replications were performed for each sample set (Chetana, Yella Reddy, & Negi, 2013). ...
... The samples were taken in triplicate and the average values of Casson yield value and plastic viscosity reported. Casson equation was found to be the best suited among the models used to describe the flow behavior (Chetana, Yella Reddy, & Negi, 2013). ...
... The scale was anchored at 1.25 cm on both the ends, indicating 'Recognition Threshold' and 'Saturation Threshold' respectively. Scores provided for all the attributes of both the samples were tabulated, followed by calculation of the mean value for each attribute of a sample, which represents the panel's judgment about the sensory quality of the samples (Chetana, Yella Reddy, & Negi, 2013). ...
Chocolates are high in calories due to high fat and sugar content; these are known to have negative effects on health. In order to overcome these adverse effects, a dark chocolate was prepared by incorporating bioactives (sterols, tocopherols and carotenoids) of wheat bran oil (WBO). In this study, the physicochemical, quality characteristics and sensory properties of the dark compound chocolate with added WBO concentrate along with quantification of the fat soluble bioactives and fatty acid profile of WBO concentrate incorporated at various levels (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%) were evaluated. Addition of WBO concentrate softened the chocolate, but no changes in colour were observed. The WBO dark compound chocolate showed higher degree of unsaturation (2.42, 3.10, 3.41 and 3.8) and marginal increase in Free fatty acids (FFA) (3.56, 3.61, 3.65 and 3.68) compared to control chocolate (2.1 and 3.46) respectively. The fatty acid profile showed increased poly-unsaturated fatty acids compared to control chocolate. The e-nose and sensory results showed clear flavor discrimination in control and WBO dark compound chocolate. Therefore, chocolates can be prepared with enriched bioactives for nutraceutical supplementation with only marginal differences in textural and sensory characteristics.
... The provided scores for all the sensory traits by the panel members were tabulated and calculated by the mean value for each attribute of a prepared sample. It indicated the judgment of the panel's regarding the sensory quality of the product (Chetana et al. 2013). ...
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Unlabelled: Three different drying methods: hot-air-drying (HAD), dehumidified drying (DD) and freeze drying (FD) were used to dry Indian white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). Dehumidified drying method has been proposed as an alternative technique to improve the quality of dehydrated mushroom. Mushroom powder obtained by DD method had 33.29% protein, 17.21% uronic acid, and 10.93% ash content. It was also a good source of ergosterol (422.18±5.80 mg/100 g dw), which is known as the precursor of Vitamin D2. Ethanolic extract of mushroom powder showed good antioxidant activity with lower DPPH IC50 value (7.16±0.23 mg/mL) and also lower EC50 value of ABTS (4.36±0.04 mg/mL). Mushroom powder is added to ready to cook green gram based chilla mix (vegetable omelette mix) at 10%, 20% and 30% levels. The effect of incorporation of mushroom powder on quality characteristics of the formulation was studied. The results showed that the ready to cook mix containing 20% of mushroom powder had protein: 23.33 g; total dietary fiber: 10.75 g; ergosterol: 79.08 mg and also important minerals like calcium: 99.57 mg; potassium: 1203.49 mg; magnesium: 137.80 mg and zinc: 2.23 mg in 100 g of formulation. The formulated products were shelf-stable at ambient temperature for three months. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13197-023-05680-9.
... Viscosity plays an important role in the chocolate manufacturing industry, such as regard to the mouthfeel, consumer acceptance, and handling properties during application. Solid materials, process parameters, and fat content can influence the viscosity of chocolate (Chetana et al., 2013). Viscosity is also affected by the particle density and moisture of the chocolate. ...
Dark chocolate is considered a nutritious food due to its high polyphenol and antioxidant activity. The improvement of chocolate functionality can be conducted by enriching it with probiotics. Replacement of sucrose in probiotics-enriched chocolate with palm or coconut sugar serves as a probiotic protective agent and increases its functional value. The addition of probiotics and sugar replacement will change the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of dark chocolate products. This research aimed to investigate the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of probiotic dark chocolate with sucrose replacement by coconut sugar and palm sugar. The viscosity, colour, melting profile and surface microstructure were investigated for physical properties of probiotic dark chocolate. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant activity was quantified by the DPPH radical method. Total lactic acid bacteria were evaluated for microbiological properties of chocolates. As a reference, probiotics enriched dark chocolate with sucrose were also studied. The results showed that the viscosity of all the samples was significantly different, and chocolate sweetened with coconut sugar was the most viscous. Based on the DSC profile, chocolate sweetened with sucrose had a lower melting temperature than chocolate sweetened with coconut and palm sugar. The antioxidant activity of chocolate sweetened with palm sugar was significantly higher than that of chocolate sweetened with coconut sugar and reference. Probiotic dark chocolate sweetened with coconut sugar and palm sugar had significantly higher total polyphenols than reference. Sugar replacement did not significantly influence the calorie value, but palm sugar was proven in reducing the calorie of the probiotic dark chocolate. Dark chocolate provided suitable protection in fulfilled adequate viability for being claimed as a probiotic food, i.e., 6.88, 6.94, 7.16 log CFU/g respectively. Microscopy visualization showed that sugar agglomeration happened in both probiotic dark chocolates sweetened with coconut sugar and palm sugar. In general, the replacement of sucrose with palm and coconut sugar slightly increases the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of probiotics-enriched dark chocolate.
... General aspects of probiotics indicated that chocolate can act as a potent base for probiotics. In a study by Ramakrishna (2013), it was deduced that milk chocolate can be prepared by substituting skimmed milk powder with yoghurt powder to impart it a probiotic character. Another interesting study by Succi et al. (2017) concluded that viable count of probiotics can be maintained in dark chocolates by encapsulation. ...
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The human gut microbiota is inhabited by approximately 1013 to 1014 microorganisms, which can be divided into four main phyla, that is, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. The diet is considered to play a key role in the composition and diversity of gut microbiota. The change in food habits and dietary components, including probiotics and prebiotics, can help to regulating the gut microbiota. Probiotics are intended to follow the different mechanisms of action, such as prevention of pathogen adhesion or colonization, metabolites production (ranging from proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, enzymes, oligosaccharides, exopolysaccharides, short-chain fatty acids and bacteriocins), and production of immunomodulatory compounds. This chapter focuses on the types of microorganisms forming the gut microbiota implicated in the production of bioactive metabolites and their action mechanism of action linked to health benefits and supplementation in food products.
... Evaluation was conducted under red light in order to mask color differences between food samples and avoid sample color suggestion. Once identified, they had to rate the sensory evaluation criteria of aroma, color, taste, texture and overall acceptability on a 10-point hedonic scale with boundary indications: "I do not like it extremely" (1) to "I like it extremely" (10). Finally, the most liked samples out of seven concentrations for yellow tea extract were selected for further analyses. ...
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Chocolate and tea leaves are considered the most valuable sources of highly bioactive polyphenols due to their potential anti-cancer properties and beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and nervous systems. The objective of the present study was the development of a sensory profiling modality that is correlated with the taste of the chocolate enriched with yellow tea phytochemicals. The additive concentration was optimized in white chocolate and the designed product was evaluated using the sensory profiling method. It was shown that the yellow tea extract in chocolate had a significant effect on the taste and color of the product. Addition of 2.0% yellow tea powdered extract increased the value of color acceptance and caused an intensification of the aromas, particularly the leafy taste, compared to the control samples. The next step of the study was to determine the influence of tea addition in white, milk and dark chocolate subjected to 6 months of storage. The designed chocolates were tested for their activity as antioxidants (DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assay) and cholinesterase inhibitors (AChE, BChE assay). It was confirmed that the yellow tea addition affected the activity of prepared chocolates with respect to radical scavenging activity and was highest for dark chocolate with yellow tea where the values were as follows: 4373 mg Tx/100 g (DPPH), 386 mg Tx/100 g (ABTS) and 4363 ΜM Tx/100 g (ORAC). An increase in the anti-radical activity of chocolate with yellow tea was found after 3 months of storage, but the subsequent 3 months of storage resulted in its reduction. AChE values ranged from 0.118 to 0.730 [ΜM eserine/g dw] and from 0.095 to 0.480 [ΜM eserine/g dw] for BChE assay. Total capacity to inhibit AChE and BChE differed depending on the type of chocolate and was negatively influenced by the half-year storage. Summarizing tested values for individual samples were higher, with increasing content of cocoa liquor and yellow tea extract in the product. The results of the research show that the use of yellow tea in confectionery is promising and may appoint a new direction in functional foods.
... However, smaller particles of yoghurt powder added to probiotic milk chocolate in a concentration of 50% adhered to the larger and coarser cocoa and sugar particles. The cocoa particles were completely covered by smaller yoghurt powder particles in chocolate fortified with 100% yoghurt powder [25]. ...
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In this study, dark chocolates (DCh) containing zinc lactate (ZnL) were enriched with extracts from elderberries (EFrE), elderflowers (EFlE), and chokeberries (ChFrE) to improve their functional properties. Both dried plant extracts and chocolates were analyzed for antioxidant capacity (AC) using four different analytical methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), cupric ion-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), while total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu (F–C) assay. An increase in antioxidant properties of fortified chocolates was found, and the bioaccessibility of their antioxidants was evaluated. The highest AC and TPC were found in ChFrE and chocolate with chokeberries (DCh + ChFrE) before and after simulated in vitro digestion. Bioaccessibility studies indicated that during the simulated digestion the AC of all chocolates reduced significantly, whereas insignificant differences in TPC results were observed between chemical and physiological extracts. Moreover, the influence of plant extracts on physicochemical parameters such as moisture content (MC), fat content (FC), and viscosity of chocolates was estimated. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy with dispersive energy spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was used to analyze surface properties and differences in the chemical composition of chocolates without and with additives.
... A key element of the research on the prohealth features of probiotic chocolate is conducting in vitro tests, simulating the conditions of the digestive tract (Fig. 4). Similar tests on the biofunctionality of probiotic chocolates were conducted by Ramakrishna et al. [44]. The authors prepared milk chocolates substituting defatted powdered milk by a powdered yogurt at the ratios of 50% and 100%. ...
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Background A key challenge for manufacturers of pro-health food containing active probiotic microorganisms is to develop a product with attractive sensory features along with maintenance of declared number of microorganisms during storage and transfer by alimentary tract. Results The highest concentration of polyphenols was observed in snacks without an additive of probiotics as well as those with an additive of L. rhamnosus and B. animalis bacteria and concentration of these compounds increased by 9.5% during six months of storage. None of the products distinguished itself in the sensorial assessment although each was assessed positively. The number of microorganisms was stable and comparatively high during six months of storage at a room temperature and in cooling conditions (10⁸ cfu/g). In the digestion model, an influence of aggressive digestion conditions was examined in the alimentary tract on the number of microorganisms, which allowed to arrange strains from the most resistant (S. boulardii) to the most sensitive (B. breve). It must be noted that currently on the market there is no available snack containing probiotic yeast as well as there is no literature data on works on such formulation of food. Conclusions In the newly developed snack made of chocolate, in which sugar has been replaced with maltitol, a raw material was added in the form of raspberry, prebiotic in the form of inulin and a strain of probiotic bacteria, including the unprecedented so far S. boulardii, which stands a high chance to occupy a good place on the market of functional food. How to cite: Cielecka-Piontek J, Dziedziński M, Szczepaniak O, et al. Survival of commercial probiotic strains and their effect on dark chocolate synbiotic snack with raspberry content during the storage and after simulated digestion. Electron J Biotechnol 2020;48.
... Live form of bacteria can be injected into the intestine of person by using this synbiotic chocolate and main motive of probiotic can be achieved. The DPPH radical scavenging There is a report on probiotic chocolate prepared using yoghurt powder (Chetana et al. 2013). Also, study is done on preparation of dark chocolate incorporating probiotic Lb. plantarum isolated from cocoa beans (Foong et al. 2013). ...
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People have affection for confectionary products. Confectionery products are of two types, baker and sugar confectionary. Dark chocolates belong to sugar confectionery class. The present invention was carried out on the preparation of synbiotic dark chocolates. Synbiotics are food products that contain both prebiotics and probiotic microorganisms, wherein prebiotics encourage the growth of probiotics. The synbiotic dark chocolates were amended with flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) as a prebiotic for LAB. Flax seed contains fiber and phenolic antioxidants which makes them prebiotic source. The isolated LAB culture, which was identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides based on morphological, biochemical tests and MALDI-TOF, showed the properties of a probiotic culture viz., tolerance to sodium chloride, bile salt, pH, and temperature, sensitivity to antibiotics, nonhemolytic and production of hydrogen peroxide. Cytotoxic activity of the cell free supernatant was assessed against MDA MB 231 and neuroblastoma cell line. Probiotic strain showed 48% and 30% cytotoxicity against MDA MB 231 and neuroblastoma cell line. The synbiotic chocolate was found to have more antioxidant activity, i.e. 90 U/mL by DPPH assay and 200 (μg Trolox/mL) by FRAP assay. The synbiotic chocolate prepared will be beneficial for the gut health of the humans and will also have excellent nutritional value.
... This polyphenols include theobromine, phenethylamine, epicatechin, procyanidins and caffeine (45). Chocolates also contain minerals, specifically potassium, magnesium, copper and iron (46). Chocolate phenols may positively affect arteries by reducing blockages; reducing intestinal inflammation, resisting oxidative stress and inhibiting lipid oxidation etc (47). ...
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The yoghurt industry is presently booming with the introduction of new tart flavors in the row while green tea is emerging as a proven health-beneficial drink in the market. An amalgamation of the two brings in a healthy, tasty and filling platter in today's food souk. Besides, addition of a hint of chocolate will help to enrich the flavor of the product by masking the bitterness of green tea. A blend of all these will surely be satisfying both the nutrition and taste quotient, as desired by today's health-conscious and indulgenceseeking consumers in the growing markets. With this view, green tea infused chocolate flavored yoghurt was developed from double toned milk with infusion of green tea and addition of chocolate syrup at the rate of 2% (w/v) and 9% (v/v) respectively. Yoghurt was procured from local market and used as starter culture. The innoculum level of 2% (w/v) yielded a product having good setting properties with no syneresis which was preferred most by the sensory panelists. After setting the yoghurt, honey was added to obtain a product with smooth texture, semisolid consistency and sweet taste and aroma. A storage study of the final product was also carried out against plain yoghurt in refrigerated condition (7±1°C) whereby its sensory, physico-chemical and microbiological quality were monitored to approximately determine its shelf life. The shelf life of the formulated yoghurt was found to be 21 days under refrigerated conditions as compared to 15 days for plain yoghurt under same condition.
Chocolate; It is a foodstuff obtained by using cocoa products, sugars and/or sweeteners, milk or dairy products and additives and/or flavorings permitted in the Turkish Food Codex Regulation. Cocoa (Theobroma cocoa), the raw material of chocolate, positively affects heart health, due to the minerals, polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity. Functional foods are foods that do not contain synthetic components and have health and well-being promoting properties as well as nutritious effects. For a food to be functional, it must contain factors such as bioactive components, probiotic microorganisms and prebiotic substances. Today, consumers to be healthier to their nutrition and turn to products with reduced fat and calorie content. Since chocolate is a high-calorie food with its high fat and sucrose ratio, its consumption is at a low rate. To positively affect human health, functional chocolate is produced by using probiotic microorganisms, adding ingredients such as inulin, polydextrose, sweeteners, different fat substitutes to it, reducing the amount of sugar and fat, and increasing the antioxidant capacity. In this review, the developments in chocolate production from year to year, what is functional chocolate, studies on functional chocolate and the health aspect of chocolate composition are examined.
In this chapter the flow properties of chocolate will be limited to those of its liquid state. We will discuss (i) flow behaviour (Bingham and Casson models); (ii) flow measurement; and (iii) factors influencing flow properties.
Understanding "what" consumers want and "why" are two of the most significant hurdles faced by any business creating products for consumers. Properly conducted sensory research experiments can provide answers to these questions and more. Sensory evaluation provides strategic information at various stages in the product lifecycle including the front end of innovation, new product development, product optimization, marketplace audits, and quality control among others. Sensory research can help identify issues that contribute to a product's success (or failure). This fourth edition draws on the author's practical experience in partnering with business associates in marketing and development teams to bring creativity and innovation to consumer driven product development in today's global business environment. The field of sensory science continues to grow and is now recognized as a strategic source of information for many Fortune 500 companies. Many scientists working in this field depend on the core textbooks such as this one to enhance their working knowledge base with practical business applications. * Appeals to sensory professionals in both in academia and business * Methods to integrate sensory descriptive information and consumer assessment * Coordinate marketing messages and imagery with the product's sensory experience.
The nutraceutical environment is emerging as the number one food industry trend in the United States and the world, as strong consumer, demographic, and international trends combine with nutritional and nutraceutical advances in medical science, and the food, pharmaceutical, and dietary supplement industries take note of the opportunity. This market trend is taking shape in the wake of a complex interplay of factors in many different sectors: accelerating scientific discovery, consumer trends that follow the aging of the 'baby boomer' birth cohort, proliferating governmental nutritional policy, health care industry trends, food industry marketing, pharmaceutical industry trends, and differential international factors support for nutraceuticals.
IntroductionMilk fatMilk powderMilk crumbLactoseNew consumer requirementsSummaryAcknowledgementsReferences
Phytochemicals, as plant components with discrete bio-activities towards animal biochemistry and metabolism are being widely examined for their ability to provide health benefits. It is important to establish the scientific rationale to defend their use in foods, as potential nutritionally active ingredients. Phytochemicals could provide health benefits as: (1) substrates for biochemical reactions; (2) cofactors of enzymatic reactions; (3) inhibitors of enzymatic reactions; (4) absorbents/sequestrants that bind to and eliminate undesirable constituents in the intestine; (5) ligands that agonize or antagonize cell surface or intracellular receptors; (6) scavengers of reactive or toxic chemicals; (7) compounds that enhance the absorption and or stability of essential nutrients; (8) selective growth factors for beneficial gastrointestinal bacteria; (9) fermentation substrates for beneficial oral, gastric or intestinal bacteria; and (10) selective inhibitors of deleterious intestinal bacteria. Such phytochemicals include terpenoids, phenolics, alkaloids and fiber. Research supporting beneficial roles for phytochemicals against cancers, coronary heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, inflammation, microbial, viral and parasitic infections, psychotic diseases, spasmodic conditions, ulcers, etc is based on chemical mechanisms using in vitro and cell culture systems, various disease states in animals and epidemiology of humans. However, it must be emphasized that a distinction needs to be drawn between the types of information that can be obtained from studies in vitro, in animals and in humans. Mechanisms of action must certainly be established in vitro; however, the efficacy of these same ingredients with their mechanisms of action, must also be demonstrated in vivo. The rapid growth in the use of phytochemicals in nutraceutical and functional foods requires that the food and pharmaceutical industries face new challenges: in addressing worldwide public concern over the efficacy and safety of supplements and foods claimed to be health-promoting; in government regulations related to safety, labeling and health claims for products that contain phytochemicals; in the manufacturing of foods with different qualities and stabilities; and in marketing issues, particularly as they relate to consumers' recognizing added value.© 2000 Society of Chemical Industry
Streptococcus thermophilus (74 strains) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (75 strains) isolates from traditional Greek yogurts were tested on the basis of their acidification kinetics, acidity, viscosity, and aroma compounds formation in milk pure cultures. Strains of Lb. bulgaricus presented greater viscosity values, higher acidification activity and produced more acetaldehyde at culture pH 4.6 than S. thermophilus strains. Acetoin was formed only by the latter strains, while diacetyl was not detected in either species. Application of cluster and discriminant analysis permitted definition of distinct groups of strains and of the most significant variables to discriminate among them. Finally, classification and regression tree analysis allowed clusters characterization by critical values of the most discriminant variables. Evaluation of results as above could be a useful tool to select, through a large number of screened strains, the suitable starters for specific purposes.
Encapsulating properties of whey protein concentrate (WPC), skimmed milk powder (SMP), and their mixtures with maltodextrins (MD) for encapsulation of caraway essential oil by spray drying were studied. Encapsulation efficiency (EE) was higher in WPC-based matrices compared to SMP. Partial replacement of WPC by various MD increased the retention of volatiles during spray drying and enhanced protective properties of solidified capsules against oxidation and release of volatiles during storage. The opposite tendency was shown by SMP matrices: adding MD to the wall composition resulted in lower retention of volatiles during drying and lower oxidation stability compared to the SMP and all WPC based matrices. Dynamic headspace analysis (DHS) was applied to determine the rate of release of volatiles from the microencapsulated powders. Results revealed that combined matrices of SMP and carbohydrates had the highest volatile release ratio. Partial replacement of WPC by MD significantly reduced release of volatiles from capsules as determined by DHS. Flavor profile of caraway oil entrapped in the matrix was similar to that of pure essential oil: a small decrease in limonene content was recorded for some matrices. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of microencapsulated particles showed WPC-based matrices to have less visible cracks and holes compared to SMP. More dented surfaces could be observed in particles containing MD as compared to WPC only. It was concluded that WPC-based matrices were more effective as caraway oil encapsulating agents as compared to those of SMP. The incorporation of carbohydrates to WPC results in obtaining more effective microencapsulants.
Chocolate formulated with isomalt and enriched with lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus MK-10 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 151, added in the form of powdered yoghurt, prepared by spray-drying is a sucrose-free, low-calorie product with functional properties. The technique of the production of chocolate sweetened with isomalt and containing live cells of the aforementioned bacterial strains has been established. Physicochemical and sensory properties of this product as well as survival of cells during 6-months storage at 4 and 18C have been determined. The isomalt-containing yoghurt chocolates displayed satisfactory sensory attributes. Their calorific value and consistency (hardness) were similar to those of control sucrose-free chocolates. The total acidity of yoghurt and standard milk chocolates was also similar, whereas yoghurt-containing dark chocolates displayed higher acidity. The characteristics of yoghurt-containing chocolates were a relatively low solid substance content (96.82–96.91% w/w), low Casson viscosity and yield value for milk chocolate masses, and enhanced rheological parameters for dark chocolate masses compared with control sucrose-free chocolates. Because the total number of lactic acid bacteria after 6-months storage at 4 and 18C was high (approximately 107cfu/g), the sucrose-free yoghurt-containing chocolates can be regarded as functional foods.