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Sailing Video-Imagery: Impacts on Imagery Ability

  • Reaching Ahead Counseling and Mental Performance


The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a standardized mental practice tool incorporating principles of video, modeling, and traditional-imagery,on the imagery ability of competitive college sailors. A quasi-experimental method using a quantitative pre-test/post-test design was administered with a convenience sample of collegiate sailors recruited via the Internet. An integrated video-imagery intervention was compared with a traditional verbal intervention to measure each intervention’s impact on imagery ability. The Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 (VMIQ-2) was used to assess external visual imagery, internal visual imagery, and kinesthetic imagery. Exposure to video-imagery resulted in significant improvement of external visual, internal visual, and kinesthetic imagery abilities. There was no significant difference between improvements from video-imagery versus traditional-imagery. Future studies should explore best combinations of imagery and observation techniques, and efficacious elements of each
... Good mental imagery incorporates all of the senses and can be facilitated by listening to a scripted audio recording. [48][49][50] These examples for SMART goal setting could be rehearsed through imagery. For instance, training the task of entering and clearing a room provides an excellent example of how to use mental imagery, and it could occur in one of several ways. ...
... Instead, one can just sit quietly and visualize one's self successfully entering and clearing a room over and over. To take advantage of a different, but overlapping, set of mental processes, 48 one may also watch video of room-clearing exercises, simultaneously "feeling" the kinesthetic sensations of what is being watched. And, operators can assemble an imagery script, then listen to an audio-recorded version of the script several times a day (really "getting into it," as if it were real). ...
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The degree of psychological fitness will ultimately impact mission outcomes, so approaches to enhancing it are critical. Performance psychology is one important aspect of psychological fitness that fits into the holistic model of human performance optimization. This article delves into one component of performance psychology: how mental skill training can be applied to improve performance on mission-related tasks. Mental skills training provides added internal resources to help meet the extraordinary external demands that Special Operations Forces personnel can face. Relevance in terms of the demand-resource model and the positive psychology concept of flow are explained. The application of two specific mental skills?executing a goal-setting process and using mental imagery to rehearse technical, tactical, and strategic tasks?will be discussed by using the example of how to enhance performance when entering and clearing rooms.
... Dynamic visualizations are widely used in sport settings for different purposes such as enhancing technical or tactical skills (Burns et al., 2011;Lopes et al., 2009;Schorer, Schapschröer, Fischer, Habben, & Baker, 2018), assessing and developing decision-making performance whether for athletes or referees (Kittel, Larkin, Elsworthy, & Spittle, 2019;Murgia et al., 2014;Put, Wagemans, Spitz, Williams, & Helsen, 2016) and analyzing opponents' strategies to manage match preparation and tactical plans better (Fischer, Keim, & Stein, 2019). Dynamic visualizations can also be used as an extension and/or an alternative to motor imagery to enhance tactical learning since it enables the mental rehearsal of the actions without their actual execution (Battaglia et al., 2014;Gapin & Herzog, 2014). They can, particularly, stimulate learners' external visual imagery (i.e., third person) and lead to significant improvements in soccer skills (e.g., Norouzi et al., 2019). ...
Objectives: Dynamic visualizations have become valuable assets in acquiring and improving sports skills. However, their instructional efficiency depends on their design and on learners’ cognitive abilities. Intending to improve learning sessions using these technologies, this study investigates the effects of visual realism and visuospatial abilities (VSA) on the memorization of soccer scenes. Methods: Twenty-four soccer beginners first performed a multitask VSA test followed by the memorization and reproduction of three dynamic sequences with different levels of realism. An eye-tracking system was used in the memorization phase to record gaze behavior and identify the involved cognitive processes. Results: Findings revealed that increasing visual realism disrupted learners’ memorization performance and visual processing. Moreover, learners with high-VSA were more efficient in memorizing soccer scenes than those with low-VSA and benefited more from reduced visual realism than low-VSA. Learners’ visual processing revealed that high-VSA were more focused on creating a mental representation of the content whereas low-VSA were rather visually guided when memorizing the scene. Conclusions: Results imply considering learners’ VSA and adapting presentations’ visual realism to optimize tactical learning among beginners.
... In this way, the audiovisual applications can be used to provide athletes with a reference point to create vivid and controlled images (see Rymal & Ste-Marie, 2016). Coaches can even try slow-motion playback (commonly available within audiovisual applications) coupled with imagery practice, since slow-motion playback has been shown to improve athletes' overall imagery ability and performance (Gapin & Herzog, 2014;Hall & Erffmeyer, 1983). Here, athletes should focus on creating a vivid and controlled image of the skill with correct technique while using their cue word (i.e., reach). ...
This article provides coaches with a guide for using technology and imagery to improve athletes' sport performance of closed motor skills. During the associative phase of skill learning, when young athletes are still learning to refine their technique, it can be difficult for coaches to change athletes' movements and develop their sport skills. The use of technology — specifically audiovisual applications — and imagery may be an accessible and effective way for coaches to help athletes understand and adjust their movements. Implementing technology and imagery through iSCORE can help coaches: 1) simplify imagery basics, 2) create audiovisual recordings of the sport skill, 3) offer technical feedback that incorporates imagery, 4) reinforce imagery and skill progress through repetition, and 5) evaluate athletes' progress. Using iSCORE may provide additional support for athletes' development during an often long and sometimes difficult skill-learning period.
... Her tensed frontalis was quantified with EMG biofeedback, and she learned to quiet the mind by relaxing her brow. She also learned to have a quieter mind through neurofeedback and achieved ideal EMG/EEG while engaging in video-assisted imagery integrating imagery of past performances and skills that were coming along (Gapin & Herzog, 2014). ...
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Car engines make for good performance metaphors. Imagine you are getting in your car to go somewhere, you’re in a hurry, and your gas tank is on “E”. Or, maybe you’ve already got gas, but your engine is overly revved up with the needle hitting high RPM’s. Either situation could prevent you from reaching your destination. Parallels between car woes and mind-body processes during high-stakes performance seem clear. If you are sleep deprived prior to “go time”, it is like riding on “E”. Ideally you can fill up with a good night’s sleep (like filling up with high-octane fuel) or at least squeeze in a nap or some kind of recharging recovery technique, such as engaging in a short meditation (like putting in $5 of lower-octane gas). Even if you have had enough good rest, you could be overly anxious (like being too revved up) or bored (not able to achieve high enough RPM’s).Performance can be thought of as the net result of self-regulation approaches (used inten-tionally or as a consequence of good habits) to mitigate/optimize levels of stress, both from a pre-emptive and a restorative or corrective stance. When intentionally trained, evidence-based approaches tap into what is known regarding psychophysiology, sleep and cognitive-behavioral training. These techniques can be categorized as either: (a) active energy management, which includes strategies to influence cognitions, emotions, physiological processes, behaviors, as well as the interplay between them and (b) passive energy management, which includes recovery in the form of sleep. This chapter will address applicable psychophysiological theory, informing practical ways to conceptualize and intervene with optimal performers aiming to improve en-ergy and stress management through optimal sleep habits and psychophysiological self-regula-tion of physical and mental states.
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Os principais estudos realizados no contexto da Vela ligeira têm-se centrado em parâmetros fisiológicos e no processo de tomada de decisão. O presente estudo tem como objectivos, identificar os principais factores psicológicos evidenciados pelos velejadores e determinar quais aqueles que permitem predizer o rendimento em Vela. Para tal, 43 jovens velejadores (32 rapazes e 11 raparigas) com idades compreendidas entre os 10 e os 15 anos de idade (M= 12.86, SD= 1.39) preencheram o Perfil Psicológico de Prestação. Os procedimentos estatísticos utilizados foram o teste t de Student, e a regressão linear múltipla. Os factores mais evidenciados pelos velejadores foram a motivação e a autoconfiança. Contudo, revela-se como essencial o controlo do negativismo, na medida em que foi a única variável que distinguiu os melhores velejadores (top-10) dos restantes e foi o factor com menor valor médio. As únicas variáveis psicológicas que permitiram definir o rendimento em Vela ligeira, foram a visualização e a motivação, evidenciando-se a importância destas variáveis na diminuição de erros, definição espacial do campo de regatas, controlo atencional e melhoria auto-referenciada.
Describes experiments in which happy or sad moods were induced in Ss by hypnotic suggestion to investigate the influence of emotions on memory and thinking. Results show that (a) Ss exhibited mood-state-dependent memory in recall of word lists, personal experiences recorded in a daily diary, and childhood experiences; (b) Ss recalled a greater percentage of those experiences that were affectively congruent with the mood they were in during recall; (c) emotion powerfully influenced such cognitive processes as free associations, imaginative fantasies, social perceptions, and snap judgments about others' personalities; (d) when the feeling-tone of a narrative agreed with the reader's emotion, the salience and memorability of events in that narrative were increased. An associative network theory is proposed to account for these results. In this theory, an emotion serves as a memory unit that can enter into associations with coincident events. Activation of this emotion unit aids retrieval of events associated with it; it also primes emotional themata for use in free association, fantasies, and perceptual categorization. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The effects of an imagery training program on imagery ability, imagery use, and figure skating performance were investigated. In addition, the influence of imagery training on skating performance was compared to verbalization training. The study employed two groups of figure skaters, an imagery training group, and a verbalization training group. All skaters were assessed for movement imagery ability, their use of imagery, and their skating performance prior to and following a 16-week training period. During this training period the imagery and verbal groups received instruction and guidance in the use of their respective types of mental practice. The imagery group improved in visual movement imagery ability and showed several changes in imagery use. Specifically, they were more likely to use imagery in practice, had more structured imagery practice sessions, and could more easily visualize and feel certain aspects of their skating performance compared to the verbalization group, In terms of performance, skaters in both the imagery and verbalization groups attempted and passed more skating tests than would normally be expected.
Ch. 1. Introduction : the power of imagination -- Ch. 2. Definitions : what is imagery? -- Ch. 3. Theories : how does imagery work? -- Ch. 4. Imagery-ability and imagery-use assessment -- Ch. 5. Imagery research -- Ch. 6. Imagery perspectives -- Ch. 7. Psychophysiological research on imagery -- Ch. 8. Strategies for applying imagery -- Ch. 9. Uses for imagery -- Ch. 10. Technical aids to imagery -- Ch. 11. Injury rehabilitation and imagery -- Ch. 12. Exercise and imagery -- Ch. 13. Future directions in research and practice<br /