Article

The Pen Is Mightier Than the Keyboard: Advantages of Longhand Over Laptop Note Taking

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Abstract

Taking notes on laptops rather than in longhand is increasingly common. Many researchers have suggested that laptop note taking is less effective than longhand note taking for learning. Prior studies have primarily focused on students' capacity for multitasking and distraction when using laptops. The present research suggests that even when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing. In three studies, we found that students who took notes on laptops performed worse on conceptual questions than students who took notes longhand. We show that whereas taking more notes can be beneficial, laptop note takers' tendency to transcribe lectures verbatim rather than processing information and reframing it in their own words is detrimental to learning.

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... Por fim, Mueller e Oppenheimer (2014) observaram que independente da maneira em que as anotações digitadas eram feitas, sejam cópias literais e não literais do que estava sendo assistido, os resultados mostraram que a qualidade das informações recuperadas pelos participantes -levando-os a acertar mais questões -foi maior em todos aqueles que fizeram anotações cursivamente. Dessa forma, tratando-se desse tipo de performance acadêmica, fazer registros digitais só é vantajoso para que se tenha uma maior quantidade de palavras anotadas e mais rapidez na pesquisa e revisão de informações (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). ...
... Dessa forma, o que pode ser analisado nos resultados descritos nos estudos anteriores (Dunlosky & Rawson, 2019;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014), levando em consideração a execução da tarefa e não a qualidade das informações -o que poderia muito bem ser estudado em outra oportunidade -considera-se que o registro cursivo por si só poderia ter um custo maior do que o digitado -por demandar mais esforço físico, como por exemplo segurar a caneta, escrever por muito tempo e manter a escrita sobre as linhas. Contudo, só esse tipo de informação não é o suficiente para descrever a o custo da tarefa, pois outros fatores, como os ambientais e comportamentos pré e pós-registro devem ser levados em consideração, e estes variam de acordo com a modalidade observada. ...
... Em RC os passos pré-registro obtiveram resultados semelhantes entre os participantes e foram menores que em RD, mas o tempo de elaboração do documento foi geralmente mais elevado do que em RD. Apesar de ter resultados menores de tempo na pré-registro, também deve ser analisado o custo da resposta em RC por considerar que esse tipo de condição demandou mais esforço físico (Soares et al., 2017) do que em RD, com mais movimentação dos participantes -levantar e ir até a pasta, abrir o objeto, procurar o registro, andar novamente até a cadeira -e um maior esforço no registro em si -ao considerarmos que escrever exige foco mútuo do processamento das informações e da escrita em si (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). Em contrapartida, essa movimentação é mais limitada em RD, onde o participante não precisava sair de sua cadeira e fazia movimentos mais curtos para concluir os passos -desbloquear o tablet, selecionar itens na tela. ...
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A prática de registrar informações das sessões dentro da área de atuação da Psicologia é assunto fundamentado tanto legalmente quanto eticamente. Este livro aborda diversos aspectos dessa atividade, trazendo algumas definições, salientando sua importância legal e profissional, além de reforçar e demonstrar as boas práticas para a elaboração do registro das sessões com base em resoluções do CFP e o Código de Ética em articulação com diretrizes firmadas pela APA e demais associações internacionais. Em um primeiro momento, é discutido sobre a importância e motivos para realizar os registros, como surge essa atividade, os aspectos legais e éticos, as formas de elaboração e a importância de manter essa atividade como parte fundamental do trabalho. Apresenta-se também os benefícios que os registros trazem para a profissão, além de utilizar como base alguns estudos para discutir sobre alguns outros aspectos, tais como: o conteúdo dos registros, a responsabilidade pelos documentos — como sigilo das informações — segurança, manutenção, cuidados e características de registros eletrônicos e digitais, barreiras para a implementação de registros, dentre outros. Permeando essas colocações, as diretrizes da APA sobre elaboração de registro foram amplamente apresentadas durante os capítulos no intuito de trazer mais direcionamentos para o estabelecimento de boas práticas de registro. Por fim, foi disposto ao final do livro um experimento cujo objetivo foi comparar o custo da resposta entre o registro cursivo e o registro digitado. Para isso, foram contabilizados os tempos das tarefas experimentais realizadas por duas Psicólogas e um Psicólogo de uma clínica de Psicologia, dividindo as sessões entre as duas modalidades em questão. Os resultados mostraram diferenças nos tempos obtidos entre os participantes e entre as condições, e constatou-se que o custo da resposta do registro cursivo é mais elevado do que o registro digitado. Com isso, finaliza-se com uma discussão acerca do tema e de algumas implicações para o cotidiano da pessoa profissional de Psicologia.
... However, taking notes does not necessarily lead to understanding. For example, Mueller and Oppenheimer (2014) reported that students who simply transcribed the presented content verbatim had inhibited learning. In addition, compared with university students, secondary students may act in a less self-regulated manner, as they rely on the teacher's instructions and supplement their notes on their own only minimally (Yokoi, 1999). ...
... Previous studies have measured the effects of lecture notetaking on learning by simply measuring the note quantity. Many studies have shown that the more notes students write in class, the better they perform on tests like fact recall and concept application tests (e.g., Kiewra and Benton, 1988;Peverly et al., 2007;Mueller and Oppenheimer, 2014). However, from this point of view, these studies could not explain why taking more notes verbatim had a negative relationship with the test performance of participants (Mueller and Oppenheimer, 2014). ...
... Many studies have shown that the more notes students write in class, the better they perform on tests like fact recall and concept application tests (e.g., Kiewra and Benton, 1988;Peverly et al., 2007;Mueller and Oppenheimer, 2014). However, from this point of view, these studies could not explain why taking more notes verbatim had a negative relationship with the test performance of participants (Mueller and Oppenheimer, 2014). ...
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Lecture note-taking has been proven beneficial for learning at different educational levels. Previous studies have largely focused on the relationship between the outcomes of note-taking on a blank paper (e.g., measurements of the quantity and/or quality of notes taken) and student learning performance. However, there is no consensus as to what makes good notes. It is difficult to judge whether lecture note-taking is effective based only on the measurements of the notes. Past explorations have not adequately considered the cognitive activities that accompany such a process. Thus, using the interview method, the present study aimed to identify how lecture note-taking is used as a cognitive activity, and what factors influence it. To increase the possible range of note-taking approaches that could be observed, data from different cultural environments in Japan and China were sampled. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 high school students from both countries (10 in each) to explore the cognitive activities in which students engage when taking lecture notes in mathematics class. Based on learning strategy models and studies, as well as using a thematic analysis, a new hierarchical framework of lecture note-taking, comprising shallow and deep lecture note-taking, was proposed. Deep lecture note-taking uses cognitive, metacognitive, and resource management functions. Furthermore, a comparison of students from the two countries revealed that their beliefs and teachers’ instructions were potential factors influencing their lecture note-taking. Utilizing interview as the research method allowed us to obtain new insights into the cognitive activities that accompany lecture note-taking, such as the metacognitive function, which has rarely been explored in previous research. Future work is expected to commence on new measures based on this theoretical framework that gauges the cognitive activity of lecture note-taking. This study also calls for the exploration of effective note-taking instruction that considers the cognitive activity of note-taking.
... While research on ADRD and screen time during development is limited, the current literature indicates that cognitive activity and physical activity are the two major modifiable risk factors for ADRD [106] and both cognitive and physical activity have also shown associations with screen time [109]. However, counterarguments on the evidence are mixed and inconclusive as to whether brain structure and physiology are associated with cognitive activity [106]. ...
... For example, correlational and experimental studies show that reducing screen time can improve concentration, learning, and memory [9,12,116], psychological well-being [117][118][119], reduce experiences of anxiousness and depressed moods [120], improve sleep [121] and overall mental health [63]. Studies in humans and animals models show that environmental enrichment can reduce or reverse some of the effects of deprivation, non-normative stimulation and even acute or chronic stress [122,123] at the behavioural and neural levels [109,[124][125][126]. Evidence suggests that brain structure volume is influenced by environmental enrichment [106]. ...
... For instance, the London taxi driver study found that taxi drivers who drove passively (i.e., following fixed routes) had more prominent signs of hippocampal atrophy when compared to taxi drivers who drove actively (i.e., driving routes exclusively from memory) [127]. The latter raises the question as to whether students who passively take notes (i.e., on a lap-top or tablet) may be more at risk for ADRD than students who take notes actively (i.e., longhand) [109], given that active participation increases cognitive-behavioural-brain reserve [106]. Additionally, increasing physical activity can prevent ADRD by improving cognitive reserve [106]. ...
Article
Converging evidence from biopsychosocial research in humans and animals demonstrates that chronic sensory stimulation (via excessive screen exposure) affects brain development increasing the risk of cognitive, emotional, and behavioural disorders in adolescents and young adults. Emerging evidence suggests that some of these effects are similar to those seen in adults with symptoms of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the early stages of dementia, including impaired concentration, orientation, acquisition of recent memories (anterograde amnesia), recall of past memories (retrograde amnesia), social functioning, and self-care. Excessive screen time is known to alter gray matter and white volumes in the brain, increase the risk of mental disorders, and impair acquisition of memories and learning which are known risk factors for dementia. Chronic sensory overstimulation (i.e., excessive screen time) during brain development increases the risk of accelerated neurodegeneration in adulthood (i.e., amnesia, early onset dementia). This relationship is affected by several mediating/moderating factors (e.g., IQ decline, learning impairments and mental illness). We hypothesize that excessive screen exposure during critical periods of development in Generation Z will lead to mild cognitive impairments in early to middle adulthood resulting in substantially increased rates of early onset dementia in later adulthood. We predict that from 2060 to 2100, the rates of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) will increase significantly, far above the Centres for Disease Control (CDC) projected estimates of a two-fold increase, to upwards of a four-to-six-fold increase. The CDC estimates are based entirely on factors related to the age, sex, race and ethnicity of individuals born before 1950 who did not have access to mobile digital technology during critical periods of brain development. Compared to previous generations, the average 17–19-year-old spends approximately 6 hours a day on mobile digital devices (MDD) (smartphones, tablets, and laptop computers) whereas individuals born before 1950 at the same age spent zero. Our estimates include the documented effects of excessive screen time on individuals born after 1980, Millennials and Generation Z, who will be the majority of individuals ≥65 years old. An estimated 4-to-6-fold increase in rates of ADRD post-2060 will result in widespread societal and economic distress and the complete collapse of already overburdened healthcare systems in developed countries. Preventative measures must be set in place immediately including investments and interventions in public education, social policy, laws, and healthcare.
... We can find the work of many scholars (Frigaard, 2002;Schofield & Davidson, 2003;Brodskaya & Thiele, 2004;Wong, 2004;Timucin, 2006;Girón-García & Gargallo-Camarillas, 2020) within the same line, all claiming that integrating the new technologies in the classroom is effective both for teaching methodologies and for knowledge acquisition. However, even though there is proof about this affirmation, the use of new technologies for certain learning tasks such as note taking is not recommended, as typewriting may be less effective for learning (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014;Alonso, 2015). ...
... The question now is the following: should students be required to do so by hand or by laptop use? Several studies (Haghverdi, 2010;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014) tilt the balance in favor of the former. These authors found out that while taking notes with the use of a laptop resulted in more verbatim records of the lectures, students who took notes by hand performed better in further tests both in factual and conceptual terms. ...
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The integration of ICTs in the classroom allows students to take notes, write summaries of class content, design online mental maps, and many other activities. The use of laptops in the context of Higher Education is widespread, not only to perform the tasks demanded by teachers but also for note taking. It was Mansor (2007) who claimed that the use of technology in class increases students’ motivation, which in turn has a positive impact on their academic performance. Motivation is key for academic success, and fostering meaningful learning is fundamental to making students’ feel motivated, and aware, about their learning process (Salvador, 1990). Metacognition is, precisely, this awareness about one’s cognitive activities while learning (Flavell, 1979). Thinking about what one is learning, how it is learnt, and how one can relate that new information to previous personal experiences make students get involved in their metacognitive mental processes.This idea seems to imply that a person that develops these abilities should have a higher degree of appropriate strategies that allow him/her to know what needs to be inquired or done during the learning process. It is in this line that the Guided Learning Diary (GLD, Bort-Mir, 2016) was born as a tool to be used daily by students in order to make them aware of their processing activities in class but also outside the classroom. The GLD has several objectives: (i) to define both generic and specific objectives of the content of a course (ii) to develop metacognitive skills through a series of strategic questions (iii) to foster competences such as self-criticism and autonomous learning, among others. (iv) to review and improve both the contents of the course and the didactic methodology that is being used in class. The above aims make the GLD a complete academic device that functions as an aid not only to students but also to teachers. Regarding its design, it was firstly conceived as a hand-written diary (Bort-Mir & Silvestre-López, 2017), but then it was also developed with the use of the online tool PenzuTM (Bort.Mir, 2021). This paper opens a debate between both possibilities, arguing that longhand helps process information (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014) while the use of laptops to take notes results in shallow processing (Piolat, Olive & Kellogg, 2005). Then, the GLD is presented in its final and definitive version, offering a complete set of instructions for other teachers to replicate it for their specific subjects. with the aim of promoting meaningful and self-regulated learning within the Higher Education context.
... Finally, there is overwhelming evidence that taking notes during a lecture is better than not taking notes (e.g., Kiewra, 1985). However, Mueller & Oppenheimer (2014) reported that students who took notes using a laptop performed worse on quizzes covering lecture content than those who took notes by hand. This article had a considerable impact, leading to a Brookings Institute report suggesting instructors should ban laptops altogether during instruction (Dynarski, 2017). ...
... Among students who had been in a class with laptops banned, 72% of laptop users felt the notes they took by hand were not as good as when they used a laptop. Taking notes using computers has been consistently tied with superior learning performance as measured by classroom exams (Baker & Lombardi, 1985;Katayama et al., 2010;Oyzon & Olmos, 2010;Quade, 1996;Williams & Eggert, 2003), contrary to the claims by Mueller & Oppenheimer (2014). ...
Article
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Classroom response systems (i.e., clickers) have become increasingly popular to facilitate student learning. Unfortunately, the common practice of pausing a lecture to ask questions takes up precious time to cover content. Asking questions “on the fly” without pausing is a possible solution. But can students both attend to lecture and answer questions simultaneously? Is this multitasking detrimental to student learning? In three experiments, we examined the effects of relevant and irrelevant “on-the-fly” questions and note taking on lecture retention. Undergraduates watched a video of a classroom lecture while either taking notes or not and receiving 0, 6, 18, or 36 questions that were either relevant or irrelevant to the lecture and then took a test. Students performed better on the test when receiving relevant rather than irrelevant questions. As for an optimal number of questions or whether note taking should also be allowed, there were no obvious advantages. Thus, when considering using “on the fly” clicker questions during a lecture vs. having no such questions, our evidence indicates no clear interference. Rather, such activities such as clickers may counter lecture boredom by allowing students to multitask with relevant activities.
... En cuanto a la relación que existe entre el uso de smartphones y la memoria, los autores también destacan algunos aspectos relevantes. Así, una de las conclusiones principales es el hecho constatado de que, en términos generales, cuando confiamos en exceso en la tecnología, tendemos a recordar y aprender menos de nuestras experiencias, en un fenómeno que se ha dado a conocer como "Efecto Google" o "amnesia digital"(Sparrow et al,2011;Kaspersky Lab, 2015).Otro estudio muy influyente en este campo de investigación fue el propuesto porMueller y Oppenheimer (2014). En este caso, los autores buscaban encontrar evidencia empírica que determinara si existen diferencias significativas en el aprendizaje de conceptos en función de si el individuo toma notas utilizando papel y lápiz o, por el contrario, un ordenador portátil. ...
Chapter
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En este trabajo teórico problematizamos el rol de la innovación docente en el marco de la carrera docente universitaria en España, y argumentamos en favor de comenzar a dirigir nuestro foco de atención hacia la implementación de buenas prácticas docentes. Para ello, hacemos en primer lugar una revisión del concepto de innovación docente y analizamos su creciente papel en esta carrera profesional, que genera una presión para que el personal docente e investigador realice méritos bajo esta etiqueta. En esta revisión incluimos, entre otros, los criterios de acreditación en las principales figuras docentes elaboradas por la Agencia Nacional de Acreditación y Evaluación (ANECA). A continuación, en la segunda parte del trabajo cuestionamos este predominio de la innovación con respecto a otras tareas de la labor docente. Por una parte, analizamos por qué no toda innovación docente es buena, ilustrándolo principalmente con ejemplos procedentes del uso de las tecnologías en educación, un área paradigmática que nos muestra que innovar no siempre significa mejorar. Por otra parte, defendemos que hay numerosas prácticas docentes que han mostrado ser efectivas, cuya adecuada implementación aporta un valor a la enseñanza y el aprendizaje a pesar de que no son innovadoras. Ejemplificamos este argumento con la efectividad de metodologías como los grupos cooperativos, y reflexionamos sobre el funcionamiento efectivo de las (a veces) denostadas clases magistrales. En la tercera parte del trabajo planteamos la necesidad de producir un giro en la valoración de las tareas en esta profesión. La creciente relevancia que tiene la actividad innovadora en la docencia aumenta la ya elevada presión sobre los índices de productividad y la necesidad de cubrir nuevos méritos en el currículum. Además de no estar justificada, esta exigencia puede tener el efecto perverso de penalizar la adecuada implementación de prácticas educativas efectivas, que no sean innovadoras y que por tanto tienen un peso reducido en el currículum. Por estas razones, desarrollamos la idea de que es necesario comenzar a enfatizar las buenas prácticas docentes dentro de la labor del personal universitario. Esto implicaría, desde el punto de vista de la carrera profesional, dar más peso a distintos indicadores de calidad en la enseñanza y reducir el rol de la innovación docente, valorándose solo en aquellas personas más interesadas en la experimentación de nuevas prácticas. En conclusión, el eje principal de acción debería ser virar nuestra forma de pensar hacia la necesidad de generar una práctica reflexiva, que ponga la efectividad, el aprendizaje del alumnado y las evidencias científicas educativas en el centro.
... Worksheets have facilitated students' practicing mathematics via traditional methods of writing, and thus, the stability may not be too concerning. Writing, as opposed to typing, requires a single hand and subsequently may reduce cognitive load and allow for more efficient processing (Kordigel Abersek et al., 2018;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). Writing may also support the development of stronger recall and retention (Smoker, Murphy, & Rockwell, 2009). ...
Article
Increasing numbers of students with disabilities (SWD) receive remote or online instruction in secondary mathematics. Unprecedented shifts in teaching modalities during the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the need for effective remote instruction. The present study surveyed 31 general and special education teachers to identify features of remote instruction in secondary mathematics for SWD and understand the changes between Spring and Fall of 2020. Teachers reported increases in the variety of presentation and practice methods and the use of synchronous methods of feedback. Assessment and methods of providing feedback on assessments remained stable over time. Shifts represented alignment with existing frameworks for best practices in online learning and provided opportunities for the incorporation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) into secondary mathematics instruction. Barriers, such as progress monitoring and providing intensive instruction, remain prevalent and critical areas for continued investigation.
... Rule 3 considers these findings. Although it is possible to create digital visualisations (e.g. on a pad), the requirement explicitly demands handwritten visualisation, as handwriting seems to have inherent cognitive processes that support learning further than digital notetaking (Mueller and Oppenheimer, 2014). ...
Article
Various studies have shown that video-based learning by explaining to a fictitious audience can be an effective learning strategy for promoting multiple knowledge domains such as memory, comprehension and knowledge transfer. However, field studies testing the effectiveness of this learning strategy in an applied setting are rare. The present study examines the effectiveness of the one-take video (OTV) approach on undergraduate students' learning performance. The OTV method involves users recording short oral presentations without any editing and with the support of handwritten visualisations (video-based learning by explaining). To test the learning outcomes, 218 undergraduate teaching students for special educational needs were randomly assigned to two test groups (OTV and explaining in writing). After that, they completed three study tasks throughout the semester, each followed by immediate and delayed knowledge tests. The results for the OTV group show that students achieved significantly better results in the immediate memory test the more handwritten visualisations they used, but not the more often they repeated the video recordings. Analyses of variance revealed that the OTV group outperformed the writing group in terms of memory performance in the immediate test but not in the delayed posttest. The OTV group also significantly outperformed the writing group in both posttests in the transfer domain. No significant differences were found in the comprehension test scores. Keywords: field study, higher education, learning by explaining on video, one-take video approach
... A recent meta-analysis showed that writing is an effective way to learn science, social studies, and mathematics [7]. A study from 2014 showed that when college students took written notes, they were better at answering conceptual questions [11]. Writing is also the preferred modality for solving math problems. ...
... The SAI © (Gabbert et al., 2009) is a structured booklet for witnesses to provide written recall, whereas iWitnessed is an app for witnesses to access on a digital device to provide responses by typing, narrating or sketching (Paterson et al., 2018). Research has shown that the act of writing facilitates more elaborate memory processing than does typing, so details elicited using the SAI © at Time 1 are more easily retrieved again at Time 2 (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). In line with this, consistency analyses in Hope et al.'s (2014) study found that the SAI © preserved more of the originally recalled items for retrieval at Time 2 than an initial free recall. ...
Article
The current study investigated the effects of immediate recall and subsequent interview on mock witnesses’ memory of a crime. After watching a video of a crime, 111 participants were randomly allocated to an immediate recall condition (the iWitnessed mobile app, free recall). One week later, participants were randomly allocated to a retrieval condition (timeline aid, category clustering recall, free recall). Results showed that iWitnessed elicited more correct details than free recall at immediate recall (Time 1), without compromising accuracy. However, the immediate recall tool did not affect memory performance at a one-week delay (Time 2). At Time 2, participants with retrieval support (timeline aid, category clustering recall) reported more details than those with no retrieval support (free recall), without compromising accuracy. The findings highlight that high-quality immediate recall and retrieval support during a subsequent interview are necessary to elicit more complete and accurate accounts.
... Also, writing helps in broadening knowledge. Mueller (2014) suggests that writing down information helps reinforce learning, making it more likely to retain information for longer. ...
Article
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This paper focuses on Moroccan high school students' challenges regarding writing skills. Its purpose is to determine what problems students have with their writing skills, why they have them, and how to fix them. To achieve the study's goal, a total of 72 high school students and two English teachers took part in this study. The students were first-and second-year baccalaureate students of Ibn Sina high school for the 2019 term. They had at least three years of school-based exposure to the English language. This study used students' writing assessments for students. According to the findings, Moroccan high school students struggle with writing due to a lack of grasp of grammar, syntax, vocabulary, punctuation, cohesion, and spelling as well as the effect of the French language. | 1. Introduction Language is a primary source of communication. It is how we communicate our ideas and thoughts to others. People of all cultures, ethnicities, and social backgrounds use English as a lingua franca worldwide, says Dewi (2015). While learning English, there are skills that the learner has to master to become fluent. Those skills are listening, reading, speaking, and writing. Writing skills are always less focused on in the curriculum. Also, they are not given much time and attention in class, which results in the incompetence of students' potential to master these skills. Writing, as a skill, allows students to learn a variety of other helpful skills that will benefit them in their academics, careers, and other aspects of their lives. According to Harmer (2004), writing was considered a support system for acquiring grammar and vocabulary rather than a skill on its own.
... Whilst technology is seen to make interpretation and analysis ever easier by using software for qualitative data analysis such as Atlas-Ti and NVivo (Faste & Lin, 2012), where coding can be used on transcribed interviews, there is value in the researcher themselves engaging in the data and processing it to help map out what the research key ideas or findings are, and how they relate to one another, rather than outsourcing transcription (Kitchin & Tate, 1999). All mind maps were drawn by hand as studies demonstrate the value of writing and sorting data through writing increases memory and understanding whilst enforcing connections far more than typing, or using computer software (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014;Wiley & Rapp, 2021). In addition, there are audio nuances that cannot be captured in transcription that help the comprehension and analysis of the data (Thomas Markle et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Typically, interviews are transcribed to enable coding and analysis of the data to establish the research findings. However, where discourse is not central, this article argues that mind mapping is a valuable tool to identify relationships and differences across large datasets. This is particularly useful for large‐scale research projects that may also be interdisciplinary and/or multi‐sited where the ability to transcribe and analyse audio‐recordings is often a time‐intensive process for the researcher and costly if outsourced. Additionally, there are challenges to analysing vast amounts of text into something meaningful. This article first reviews what mind maps are, and how they work. Second it explores the value of mind maps in qualitative data collection and analysis, particularly in the role of transcription. Third, using research conducted on volcano alert level systems, a methodology using mind maps to analyse interview recording is established. Fourth, the pros and cons of mind maps and potential application in other qualitative research methods and in different academic fields is discussed. Findings demonstrate that mind maps can be highly time beneficial providing a close and intimate reading of the data and enabling the researcher to make sense of the emerging themes, particularly for large data sets typically collected through multi‐sited research, or smaller research projects with limited resources. This paper aims to outline what mind maps are, how they work, and have been applied in key research literature. By using my PhD research as a case study I demonstrate how mind maps can be used to analyse large amounts of data to help provide a succinct analysis ready to start writing up from. This is particularly useful for interdisciplinary and multi‐sited research not conducting a discourse analysis.
... Les travaux de Junco (2012) ont montré par exemple que le fait de consulter Facebook lors d'un cours affecte négativement les résultats aux examens. La question de la gestion des ressources attentionnelles est au centre de ces travaux et se discute depuis les modalités de prise de notes en cours (Mueller et Oppenheimer, 2014) jusqu'à l'information dans un hypertexte (Rouet et Tricot, 1998). L'usage des outils numériques peut également être perçu comme une forme d'incivilité numérique ou entraîner cette dernière (Boudokhane-Lima et al., 2019) envers les enseignants ou une problématique de dépendance dans la population estudiantine (Kim et Koh, 2018). ...
... Since they are portable and wearable, they are also utilized in different areas such as robotics (Tick et al. 2012;Hidalgo-Carrió et al. 2016), positioning (Zhao 2017;Lu et al. 2019), sign language recognition (Khomami and Shamekhi 2021;Gałka et al. 2016), daily human activities, and sports exercises (Sepahvand and Abdali-Mohammadi 2021b;Hsu et al. 2018), medical surveillance (Serrano et al. 2017), and character recognition (Sepahvand et al. 2017). In fact, these sensors have been introduced into the human-computer interaction to manufacture writing pens due to the psychological importance of writing in human life (Mueller and Oppenheimer 2014) as well as the increasing importance of digitization of handwritten characters. In other words, the resultant information is used in various devices such as computers and smartphones to facilitate messaging, storage, easy search, accessibility, and processing tasks including writing-to-speech conversion. ...
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With advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), researchers have now become interested in the systems operating based on inertial signals. In fact, inertial signals have proven useful in different areas due to advances in their manufacturing technology, availability, and inexpensiveness as well as the development of powerful processing methods such as deep learning techniques. Handwritten character recognition (HCR) is among such areas. This paper aimed to design, implement, and evaluate a novel system for the recognition of handwritten Farsi characters extracted from an inertial pen. For this purpose, a wireless inertial pen was designed. Its motion trajectory was then determined by combining the signals of its angular velocity and acceleration and using the concepts of navigation systems such as quaternion in order to estimate the position signals of characters. A convolutional neural network (CNN) was also employed to facilitate the extraction of high-level features and the classification of characters. The position signal was also extracted as an image used for model learning to enhance the classifier efficiency. The experimental results indicated the CNN-6 architecture outperformed the other CNN-n architectures in terms of character classification accuracy. According to the evaluation of the proposed method through test data, character recognition accuracies of Farsi letters and numbers were reported 91.06% and 94.52%, respectively. In comparison with the previous systems, the proposed method managed to improve the recognition of handwritten Farsi characters.
... This may be true; however, having participants take notes of the interview would have likely affected multiple cognitive factors simultaneously, ultimately affording us a less pure manipulation of cognitive load than using a passage of unrelated content. That is, task-relevant note-taking would still likely increase the cognitive load of the interviewing task (Jansen et al., 2017;Piolat et al., 2005); however, taking notes on the interview itself would have also likely encouraged participants to more deeply process the information they received during the interviews via encoding (e.g., Di Vesta & Gray, 1972;Jansen et al., 2017;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). Consequently, to employ a more internally valid, singular KITH ET AL. | 5 manipulation of cognitive load (rather than a dual manipulation of cognitive load and encoding; see Jansen et al., 2017), we opted to have participants conduct the physical act of notetaking, without affording them the benefit of making those notes about the interview or candidates in the study. ...
Article
Job interviews are cognitively demanding tasks for interviewers. However, it is unclear whether the high cognitive load (CL) that interviewers face will ultimately compromise the resistance to discrimination that otherwise distinguishes structured interviews from other selection methods. Using a two-study experimental design, we explored the effect of cognitive load on gender discrimination in structured job interviews. In Study 1, participants completed an online interview simulation in which they assessed both a male and a female candidate applying for either a male- or female-dominated job, while under either a high or low degree of cognitive load. Participants provided ratings of each candidate's suitability for the job as well as a final, ipsative hiring decision. Study 2 served as a larger replication of Study 1. Overall, CL was not found to affect candidate ratings. These results support the structured interview's general resistance to discrimination. Practitioner points • Previous research supports structured interviews' relative resistance to discrimination. • Our research demonstrates that structured interviews can minimize discrimination, even when hiring for highly “gendered” jobs. • The (small) effects of discrimination were different in our study for each of the following outcomes: ratings of specific competencies, global candidate ratings, and final hiring decisions. • Certain competencies themselves may be gender-typed. Using structured ratings can mitigate the extent to which stereotypes ultimately translate into discriminatory candidate ratings. • Across the two studies, there was some reliance on heuristic decision-making under conditions of high cognitive load. • The overall weak effects of cognitive load on participants' overall hiring decisions highlights the structured interview's resistance to discrimination.
... (For the sake of this paper, digital media is some data presented using an application software, on a hardware device capable of digital computing, for the purpose of consumption by humans [8].) In that regard, it could be noted that paper and digital media appeal to different human senses [8,15], reading on physical medium is different from that on digital medium [8,16,17,18], and handwriting is different from typing [19]. ...
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It is broadly accepted that requirements engineering is one of the most important phases of a software project, and requires tools to be effective. For a variety of reasons, paper as a tool has lasted for millennia and remains ubiquitous. This paper makes a case for a contextual, conscientious, and evidence-based use of paper in a competency-oriented approach to software requirements engineering education (REE). It argues that the prophecies for the obsolescence of paper are premature, there are unique benefits in the use of paper, and the decision to use paper should be based on [0, 1] rather than {0, 1}. In this regard, a need-centered conceptual model for human-paper interaction is proposed. The characteristics of paper that make it historically unique are reported and the affordances of paper relevant to REE are discussed. The REE-related activities that benefit from viewing paper as a boundary object and using different types of paper are highlighted and illustrated by means of examples. In advocating polyliteracy, the potential for a convergence of paper and digital media towards a harmonic coexistence is underscored.
... Although the quantity and quality of current research is insufficient to provide a general norm regarding the extent to which educational technologies can meet the expectations of teaching, studies should be mentioned to exist showing the exact opposite of the claims the educational technologies will provide student-centered teaching in education and teachers will change their teaching methods. While educational technologies are a neutral element in the classroom environment according to these studies, the factors that enable education to improve are still very diverse (Herold, 2015;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014;Selwyn, 2011;Wang, 2001). For this reason, critics have pointed at the deep gap between the promises of educational technology and the improvements it creates (Cuban, 2004). ...
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This chapter describes the structural features and problem areas of modern education systems, then discusses new social and educational ideas that offer solutions to these problems. From the nineteenth to the twenty-first century, information was given on the social models and educational systems that coincided with the turning points of industrial developments. While factory organization as characterized by mass production and nation-state citizenship shaped the education system of industrial societies, digitization and its values have left their mark on educational systems in the information society. Advanced technological developments in areas such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, or the Internet of things have led to a techno-futuristic model of society being placed on the agenda. In this context, we pursue the questions of how new technologies are changing the education system and what kind of solutions they are offering to its problems for education in future societies. New technologies are argued to have not eliminated the basic problems we must deal with in the contemporary world such as equal opportunity in education and student-centered education.
... Students, then, post video recorded responses or can respond to others, which is similar to current social media sites. Additionally, students submitted handwritten notes guides each week in both courses, and in Math Methods, completed Khan Academy assignments to improve math skills (Luo et al., 2018;Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014;2018). These assignments worked to ensure preservice teachers covered the necessary content prior to attending class. ...
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This study analyzes the flipped instruction model used in three special education educator preparation courses to examine which components preservice teachers perceived most contributed to their content knowledge, motivation, and engagement (n=50). Weekly pre-class asynchronous assignments included the use of educational technology tools such as an interactive e-textbook site, Perusall, and online academic activities such as Khan Academy to strengthen their content knowledge. This allowed more time for a student-centered approach during synchronous instruction to incorporate tools such as Nearpod, Pear Deck, Flipgrid and digital badges to strength-en their motivation and engagement. Data were collected through a post-course survey; results indicate that preservice teachers perceived this model was motivating, engaging, and contributed significantly to their content knowledge. They also identified hands-on activities during class as a significant component of their learning. This article discusses the project, limitations, and implications for future flipped instruction research in special education educator preparation programs.
... In studies that included hundreds of students from Princeton and UCLA, we find results that reveal that when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing. The research analysis concludes that the keyboard use negatively affects performance on educational assessments, even-or perhaps especially-when the computer is used for its intended function of easier note-taking (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). ...
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Data show that, across the world, the ubiquity of technology impacts on the capacity of many children and adults to handwrite or even decipher their own handwriting. But this short note is also referring to the current trend of (and debate over) the demise of cursive handwriting. Considered by many as an obsolete reminiscence of the past in the age of technology and computers, cursive writing is left out of school curriculum in different countries in the world.
... Of particular relevance to the current work in this thesis are some recent studies that have tried to examine the embodied effects of actually typing on keyboards in typical lecture settings, where one study concluded that taking notes on a laptop seemed to lead to "shallower processing" compared to longhand writing (Mueller & Oppenheimer, 2014). The laptop students showed worse performance on both facts and conceptual questions, and the authors hypothesize that this could be because of the laptop-user's tendencies to transcribe the lecture verbatim instead of reformulating, distilling, or summarizing the concepts themselves. ...
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Computer programming is fast becoming a required part of School curricula, but students find the topic challenging and university dropout rates are high. Observations suggest that hands-on keyboard typing improves learning, but quantitative evidence for this is lacking and the mechanisms are still unclear. Here we study neural and behavioral processes of programming in general, and Hands-on in particular. In project 1, we taught naïve teenagers programming in a classroom-like session, where one student in a pair typed code (Hands-on) while the other participated by discussion (Hands-off). They were scanned with fMRI 1-2 days later while evaluating written code, and their knowledge was tested again after a week. We find confidence and math grades to be important for learning, and easing of intrinsic inhibitions of parietal, temporal, and superior frontal activation to be a typical neural mechanism during programming, more so in stronger learners. Moreover, left inferior frontal cortex plays a central role; operculum integrates information from the dorsal and ventral streams and its intrinsic connectivity predicts confidence and long-term memory, while activity in Broca’s area also reflects deductive reasoning. Hands-on led to greater confidence and memory retention. In project 2, we investigated the impact of feedback on motivation and reaction time in a rule-switching task. We find that feedback targeting personal traits increasingly impair performance and motivation over the experiment, and we find that activity in precentral gyrus and anterior insula decrease linearly over time during the personal feedback condition, implicating these areas in this effect. These findings promote hands-on learning and emphasize possibilities for feedback interventions on motivation. Future studies should investigate interventions for increasing Need for Cognition, the relationship between computer programming and second language learning (L2), and the role of explicit verbalization of knowledge for successful coding, given the language-like processing of code.
... In both studies, students expressed their preference for digital writing over pen-and-paper writing, particularly due to the availability of spelling and grammar check software (Kaputa & Palus, 2013) as well as the presence of an online audience, which appears to have motivated students to perform to a higher standard. However, most research within the field has concluded that students' preferences highly depend on the context and the nature of the tasks being performed and showed that students were very much aware of the advantages and disadvantages of both writing environments and therefore, would prefer one or the other depending on the specific outcome requirements of the task they were performing, as well as a number of personal and external variables (Farinosi et al., 2015;Mueller &Oppenheimer, 2014 andVincent, 2016). ...
Chapter
This case study presents a model of integrated pedagogy in a two-semester college-level General Chemistry course. The model was designed to engage students safely during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors use the term “Integrated Pedagogy” to emphasize that several modes of active learning pedagogy. The technology incorporated into the course was not as an add-on enhancement but as an essential and central element. The laboratory component was integrated into the course as an independent, self-directed experience. Informal student surveys suggest that the model may transform the traditional approaches to chemistry education to meet the changing needs of diverse student populations.
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Work-integrated learning (WIL) continues to be an essential topic of conversation among governments, educators, employers, and students. By various names and definitions, WIL attempts to inject the realism of workplace employment tasks into the post-secondary learning environment. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced stakeholders to innovate in the WIL space often using the advances in information and communications technologies (ICT) to build further bridges between learners and real work experiences. The chapter provides an overview of WIL followed by three specifics cases from marketing faculty at the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT). In each of the three cases, faculty used different ICT to provide engaging learning environments linking business, industry, consumers, and the learners.
Chapter
This chapter examines the distractive potential of digital devices and summarizes existing scholarly work in this area. The chapter begins with a background on the overall problem of distractions caused by digital devices and how this problem has changed over time. This is followed by a detailed accounting of the digital distractions research, emphasizing the role of message relevance in this process, as well as discussion of research that has examined the interplay between note-taking and digital distractions. The last major section summarizes scholarly work and additional sources that provide examples of how mobile devices, and technology more broadly, can be used in the classroom to help support student learning.
Article
Personal technology devices are now a primary method of note-taking in graduate learning. This study compared student learning outcomes using laptops for digital note-taking compared with handwritten notes. Various results were reported in the literature of which note-taking method in undergraduate and graduate levels of learning results in best learning outcomes. Subjects were 117 first-year doctoral physical therapy students enrolled in a 3-week wound care course. The study was completed over 3 consecutive years. Subjects volunteered to either use their laptop for digital note-taking or take handwritten notes on slide handouts. After course completion, course grades were compared between the 2 different note-taking method groups. A 1-way analysis of variance yielded no significant difference due to the method of note-taking on overall course grade F(1, 115) = .048 (P = .827). A 2-way analysis of variance yielded no significant interaction between the method of note-taking and gender, but the main effect of gender was significant, with female subjects scoring higher than male subjects. Another 2-way analysis of variance yielded a significant interaction between the method of note-taking and the age of the student F(1, 113) = 9.402 (P = .003), and a simple main effects analysis for age found a significant difference in course grade between the 2 note-taking methods for older students F(1, 113) = 8.923 (P = .003) but not for younger students. This indicates that the effect of note-taking method on the course grade depended on the age group, specifically the older group tended to perform better with handwritten notes. With our findings focusing on graduate physical therapy students, we found that handwritten note-takers tended toward having higher course grades, but they did not significantly outperform the digital note-taking group. Our findings found that the age of student and handwritten note-taking resulted in significantly higher course grades. Female gender was also found to be a significant factor for improved classroom performance in this study. Results from this study indicated that modality of note-taking may not matter for most students, but it may matter for older students. Older students performed better in the handwritten notes group, and these findings are important to share with course instructors and with older students who may be struggling in graduate coursework.
Chapter
Several research works have demonstrated the high importance of handwriting in a language acquisition. Learners prefer to use the traditional method of writing with a pen and pencil to strengthen the understanding of the language vocabularies. Research has shown that an assistive haptic device can greatly benefit handwriting skills development and language learning. In this paper, we propose a haptic device with a pen and control algorithms that can improve the acquisition of Arabic letters and facilitate the mastering of the language. We tested the device with none-native Arabic speakers over several sessions with full and partial guidance methods. Experiments showed that both methods helped the learners to improve their skills of writing. The proposed haptic device is part of the MOALEM platform to teach the Arabic language for children and forging learners. MOALEM incorporates components for text understanding, text-image pairing, and a talking face for vocabulary proper pronunciation.
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Generative note taking, being one of the strategies applied to manage difficult texts, requires not only comprehension and selection of information but also production. The current study focuses on note taking formats for a text read with the intention to summarize. Its focal aim is to improve both practical and theoretical understanding of this activity. It involves the investigation into note taking behaviors of 103 second-year English Department students, how they, as readers of FL, engage with complex texts, how they were instructed in note taking and what note taking strategies they employ for comprehending academic texts. The analysis of the collected data attempts to identify how readers' (n = 103) translan-guaging and transmedia (n = 103) note taking formats help increase their engagement in and access to difficult texts in L2. It shows that the subjects have not transitioned from the paper interface to the digital one, since they still display the screen inferiority effect in their reading habits. The collected data shows that only some subjects (n = 42/103) received some form of instruction in paper note taking techniques or digital applications facilitating note taking. The students were not able to enumerate more than four note taking applications which would be conducive to their formation of a coherent interpretation of the digital text they read. The author contends that overt note taking instruction in both paper and digital mode will create avenues for encouraging, interacting and engaging in reading. Instruction in that field needs to be modified with regard to digital note taking/annotating tools to make use of the note taking formats available for processing digitally interfaced texts.
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Presentasi ini mengulas efek literasi informasi teknologi terhadap kesantunan berbahasa masyarakat pengguna bahasa.
Article
Video-based learning is widely adopted by online learners, yet, learning experience and quality may be negatively affected by asynchronous and remote natures of video-based learning. As note-taking is a common practice employed by video-based learners and is known to be an effective way to trigger active construction and processing of knowledge, yet as a meta-skill, it is challenging to most learners. In this study, we aim to approach the goal of providing cognitive and social scaffolds to video-based learners by structuring their note-taking process. We presented and evaluated structured note-taking systems designed for learners in two contexts, namely, individual learning context and social learning context. With an online controlled study involving 43 participants, we compared the structured note-taking systems with two baseline systems (for individual learning and social learning contexts respectively) and found that structured note-taking significantly improved certain aspects of video-based learning such as and higher cognitive engagement and lower distraction. We discussed our results to inform the design, iteration, and adoption of note-taking tools in video-based learning.
Thesis
A l’heure où les espaces épistémiques numériques constituent une source d’information fondamentale, nous nous demandons si ces espaces, et en particulier Wikipédia, sont des déterminants ou des révélateurs d’une évolution du rapport au savoir des étudiant.es entrant à l’université en histoire de l’art et archéologie. Dans le sillage des travaux sur les lycéens de l’équipe ESCOL, qui définissent le rapport au savoir comme ce « rapport au monde, à l’autre et à soi-même d’un sujet confronté à la nécessité d’apprendre » (Charlot, 1997, p. 33), il s’agit d’interroger les stratégies d’accès aux contenus de savoir disponibles en ligne et de réutilisation de ces contenus pour réaliser des productions académiques complexes du type exposé, commentaire, dissertation ou dossier. A l’entrée à l’université, les étudiant.es développent leur autonomie, mettent en place des méthodes de travail et se confrontent avec un savoir qui n’est plus seulement un objet constitué en tant que tel mais un objet en perpétuelle construction. Wikipédia est au cœur de cette recherche doctorale. Ses caractéristiques en font un objet à la croisée de différentes problématiques propres au document numérique compris dans sa dimension de source documentaire, en même temps qu’un objet avec ses particularités propres. La recherche confirme l’impression empirique que l’utilisation de Wikipédia par les étudiant.es dans un contexte académique est très répandue alors même qu’elle ne semble pas perçue comme une source fiable, ou du moins légitime, à l’université. Quelles sont alors les caractéristiques de l’apprentissage du métier d’étudiant.e à l’heure où la multiplication des espaces épistémiques numériques implique de repenser le rapport aux savoirs dont l’université, à travers l’enseignant.e, reste un vecteur de transmission légitime ? Une double approche, à la fois quantitative et qualitative, a été retenue pour examiner la relation que les étudiant.es entretiennent avec Wikipédia et avec différentes sources numériques qu’ils/elles sont amené.es à collecter, évaluer et réinvestir dans leurs propres productions académiques.
Chapter
Students are distracted by mobile technology in the classroom when learning from lectures and outside the classroom when studying. Students are susceptible to distractions because they are not fully engaged in learning. In the classroom, they record notes mindlessly that capture just one-third of important lesson ideas. When they study outside the classroom, they study information in a piecemeal fashion and employ mindless repetition strategies. These weak and unengaging learning strategies open the door for digital distractions. One potential means to engage students in meaningful learning and to offset digital distractions is an integrated strategy system called SOAR, which stands for select, organize, associate, and regulate. This chapter describes SOAR and how instructors can maximize SOAR's components to curb digital distractions by improving student note taking in the classroom and study behaviors outside the classroom. The chapter concludes by specifying how instructors can teach students to SOAR on their own.
Conference Paper
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Os estilos de ensino tradicionais geralmente dependem do aprendizado passivo do material de aula pelos alunos, o que envolve ouvir palestras e fazer anotações. No entanto, as pesquisas que examinam a pedagogia eficaz tendem a apoiar estilos de ensino mais voltados para a aprendizagem ativa. Ao contrário do estilo de ensino tradicional, as metodologias ativas buscam a instrução centrada no aluno, que é uma abordagem educacional em que os estudantes influenciam o conteúdo, atividades, materiais e ritmo de aprendizagem. Este modelo coloca o estudante no centro do processo de aprendizado. O instrutor oferece aos alunos oportunidades para aprender de forma independente e uns com os outros e os treina nas habilidades de que precisam para fazê-lo com eficácia .
Article
Often considered an enhancement to the learning experience, technology can also stifle creativity and higher levels of thinking. This study repositions students away from technology and back to the basics to stimulate engagement and higher levels of learning. It investigates the relationship between learning outcomes and the reflective journaling process in the context of an undergraduate marketing class in the United States. In addition, this study investigates a technique in which students are introduced to topics that are sensitive in nature, yet relevant to the real world. Although reflective journaling has been utilized in courses in areas such as educational psychology and social work, it has not been widely practiced in business courses such as marketing. Through the lens of Bloom’s Taxonomy, we qualitatively analyze handwritten reflective journaling assignments about loneliness and social media to determine how the process highlights higher levels of learning. The opportunity to use handwritten journals provided a unique learning experience and a hands-on approach to allow marketing students to experience learning in a new light.
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel richten wir den Blick zunächst zurück in die Vergangenheit. Menschliche Erinnerung ist immer subjektiv, denn Informationen werden im Gehirn zusammen mit Gefühlen abgelegt, und nie in der Lage, die Vergangenheit korrekt abzubilden. Dabei gilt es, zwischen Erinnerungsverfälschung (der unabsichtlichen Veränderung bestehender eigener Gedächtnisinhalte) und falscher Erinnerung (an ein nicht real erlebtes Ereignis) zu unterscheiden. Beide Phänomene gehen nicht mit bewusstem Lügen einher und lassen sich durch eine Reihe kognitiver Phänomene erklären, z. B. den Rückschaufehler. Erinnerungen sind nicht ausreichend extrem: Durch den Fading-Affect-Bias etwa werden negative Erinnerungen mit der Zeit schwächer, was am Beispiel „Ostalgie“ erläutert wird. Sie sind nicht gleichförmig, sondern hängen vom zeitlichen Verlauf ab (Primacy-Recency-Effekt), emotionalen Einflüssen (Positivitätseffekt) und der Stärke der Empfindungen (Peak-end Rule, Vernachlässigung der Dauer, Bizarreness-Effekt). Bestimmte Verzerrungen (Verzögerungseffekt, Abstandswirkung, Generation und Processing-Difficulty-Effekt) können für besseres Merken und Behalten genutzt werden.
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Many universities have slowly moved to online teaching due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Without the physical presence of instructors, students can easily engage in cyberslacking behaviour during online classes. Hence, the purpose of this research is to examine the association of student engagement with students’ cyberslacking behaviour during online classes. Both student engagement and cyberslacking are multidimensional constructs. Partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) is used to analyse data from 194 university students using a survey method. The results reveal that psychological motivation, cognitive problem-solving, and interactions with instructors do not have a significant association with cyberslacking behaviour. On the other hand, peer collaboration, community support, and learning management are found to have different associations with different dimensions of cyberslacking behaviour. Learning management is identified as the most robust predictor of cyberslacking behaviour. This research fills the research gaps by investigating the associations of various dimensions of student engagement with different dimensions of students’ cyberslacking behaviour in the context of e-learning environments.
Article
Objective: To investigate the effect of an online module in promoting study strategies based on neuroscience applied to education for first-year dental students at the University of the Andes in Santiago, Chile. Methods: Four weeks after the start of the 2018 first academic semester, all 82 first-year dental students (72% females, 28% males, average 19.0 years old) were invited to voluntarily and anonymously complete the self-reported Study Strategies Questionnaire (SSQ) in a session of an Introduction to Dentistry course, which served as a baseline. Subsequently, the session included an interactive workshop on learning how to learn so that students could analyse how the human brain learns and relate this information to mental tools to foster learning. Furthermore, during the semester, students were sent information via email to reinforce the content they were exposed to during the learning how to learn activity so that they could use the toolbox of study techniques to improve their learning in all subjects. At the end of the semester, students were invited to voluntarily and anonymously complete a second SSQ to assess the effects of the study intervention. Exam marks from the previous (2017) and studied year (2018), as well as both SSQ results, were compared and analysed using IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: A total of 75 and 71 students answered the SSQ before and after the intervention, respectively. The mean exam mark from 2017 was 63.7% (SD=8.8), while in 2018, it was 69.6% (SD=5.0) (p<0.044); the effect size of the intervention was 0.75. The most significant changes observed after the intervention were reductions in the number of students who studied while checking messages on their smartphones (p=0.001), studied by highlighting and/or underlining in their notes or textbooks (p<0.0001) and studied the day before an exam (p>0.0001). On the other hand, there were significant increases in the number of students who studied without access to social networks (p=0.046), wrote notes or words in the margins of texts (p=0.001), practised self-testing (p=0.001), and studied the day before an exam (p<0.0001). Conclusions: An online module to promote evidence-based study strategies in first-year dental students can have an impact on increasing students' marks as well as on some practices that can improve their academic achievements and learning.
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As laptops and tablets become more popular, handwriting is slowly fading away. While new technology has many benefits such as helping us stay connected with each other and allowing us to quickly search for information, activities such as printing our letters by hand may help the brain learn. There are many potential reasons for this. When people write letters by hand, they: (1) actively see and feel the letter being written; (2) see several different versions of that letter; and (3) pay more attention to what they are doing. In this article, you will learn about how handwriting helps us learn symbols and aids in remembering information. You will also learn how your brain responds when you write by hand compared with when you type. Handwriting is still important, even if most of how we communicate these days is through a keyboard or touchscreen.
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Das Zentrum für Lehrerbildung der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster war vom 8. bis 10. September 2021 Gastgeber der Onlinetagung Diversität Digital Denken – The Wider View. Eine Vielzahl der Tagungsbeiträge ist in diesem Band dokumentiert. Nach der durch die SARS-CoV-2-Pandemie schnellen und teils überstürzten Digitalisierung wird die Frage nach nachhaltigen Chancen von Digitalisierung im Hinblick auf Diversität aktueller denn je. Auf der Tagung wurde diskutiert, wie Diversität an Schulen und Hochschulen mit Hilfe digitaler Methoden und Tools gewinnbringend begegnet werden kann – oder auch, wie Digitalisierung bei der Vorbereitung auf das diverse Klassenzimmer helfen kann. Der Band bietet zu dieser Fragestellung ein breites Spektrum an Theorie- und Praxisbeiträgen mit folgenden Schwerpunkten: - Diklusion als Entwicklungskonzept für Schule und Hochschule; - Barrierefreies Lernen für alle durch ganzheitliche digitale Ansätze; - Umgang mit Diversität im coronabedingten Distanzunterricht: Stärken und Schwächen; - Gestaltung eines diversitätssensiblen Fachunterrichts mit Hilfe digitaler Lernumgebungen und Lernplattformen; - Individuelle Förderung von Schüler*innen durch digitale Binnendifferenzierung; - Förderung sprachlicher Kompetenz von Schüler*innen durch digitale Hilfsmittel; - Digitale Lehrkonzepte in Hochschule / Ausbildung zum Thema Diversität sowie Digital vermittelte Förderung (fremd-) sprachlicher und selbstregulativer Kompetenzen.
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Zusammenfassung Der Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz bei vorwiegend informationsverarbeitenden, geistigen Erwerbstätigkeiten – zunehmend mit digitalen Arbeitsmitteln und künstlicher Intelligenz – erfordert das Verwirklichen der Merkmale menschenzentrierter Arbeitsgestaltung (DIN EN ISO 6385/2016). Der Beitrag betrifft das menschzentrierte Gestalten des Arbeitsprozesses, nicht der Arbeitsmittel. Das Erfüllen dieser Merkmale soll nicht nur physische und psychische Beeinträchtigungen der Arbeitenden verhindern, sondern auch ihre Kompetenzen erhalten und erweitern sowie das gesundheitliche Wohlbefinden und die Arbeitsleistung fördern. Es werden übertragbare (generische) Vorschläge an die präventive, bedingungszentrierte und partizipative Gestaltung, insbesondere die Funktionsteilung zwischen Menschen und Technik und die Arbeitsorganisation/-teilung bei informationsverarbeitenden Tätigkeiten abgeleitet, die helfen, die Merkmale menschzentrierter Gestaltung zu erfüllen. Arbeitsschritte zur praktischen Verwirklichung sind skizziert. Eine Schwierigkeit beim Anwenden der Vorschläge ist ihre allgemeingültige Form. Sie erfordert das Übertragen auf die vielfältigen informationsverarbeitenden Arbeitstätigkeiten. Eine Hilfe bei ihrer Übertragung sind bewährte duale, partizipative und iterative Strategien der Automatisierung. Das Hauptanliegen ist zu verdeutlichen, dass und in welcher Hinsicht menschenzentrierte Arbeitsgestaltung auch bei vorwiegend informationsverarbeitenden, geistigen Erwerbstätigkeiten unerlässlich ist, und dass Digitalisierung diese präventive menschzentrierte Gestaltung nicht ersetzt, sondern voraussetzt.
Article
Handwriting research lies mostly within discipline-specific boundaries, hindering knowledge transfer across disciplines into academic skills instruction in schools. This paper attempts to review the literature on handwriting across the occupational therapy and education disciplines to propose an interdisciplinary conceptual framework to guide research and intervention on handwriting in the Malay language. This cross-disciplinary review revealed four major factors that may influence Malay language handwriting: i) neuromotor development; ii) ergonomic; iii) orthographic and iv) cognitive factors. The sub-factors under these four major factors also are identified. Many of the neuromotor development and ergonomic factors are derived from the occupational therapy discipline, while the education discipline provides most of the information on orthographic and cognitive factors. As orthography influences handwriting, it is necessary to revisit handwriting from the perspective of languages other than English. In conclusion, an interdisciplinary framework of handwriting synthesised from this crossdisciplinary review will stimulate more coordinated and coherent research on handwriting. The Malay language serves as a future case study for research into orthographies in handwriting.
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ICL2021 was the 24th edition of the International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning and the 50th edition of the IGIP International Conference on Engineering Pedagogy. This interdisciplinary conference aims to focus on the exchange of relevant trends and research results as well as the presentation of practical experiences in Interactive Collaborative Learning and Engineering Pedagogy. ICL2021 has been organized by Technische Universität Dresden and University of Applied Science Dresden, Germany, from September 22 to 24, 2021, as a hybrid event. This year’s theme of the conference was “Mobility for Smart Cities and Regional Development – Challenges for Higher Education”.
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This paper reports on a study that examined the use of wireless laptops for promoting active learning in lecture halls. The study examined students’ behavior in class and their perceptions of the new learning environment throughout three consecutive semesters. An online survey revealed that students have highly positive perceptions about the use of wireless laptops, but less positive perceptions about being active in class. Class observations showed that the use of wireless laptops enhances student-centered, hands-on, and exploratory learning as well as meaningful student-to-student and student-to-instructor interactions. However, findings also show that wireless laptops can become a source of distraction, if used for non-learning purposes.
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Through this study the authors investigated undergraduate students’ memory recall in three media environments with three note-taking options, following an A x B design with nine experiments. The three environments included no-distraction, auditory-distraction, and auditory–visual-distraction; while the three note-taking options included no-note-taking, taking-notes-on-paper, and taking-notes-on-computer. The results of word recalls from 21 participants showed significant interactions between media environments and note-taking options. In the no-distraction environment, the participants had better word recall taking notes on paper than taking notes on computer or not taking notes. However, in the auditory–visual-distraction environment, the participants had better word recall with no note taking than taking notes on computer or taking notes on paper. The participants’ comments provided insights for implications for learning in different media environments.
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Abstract Performance during a learning ,event is frequently used as a measure of learning; however, basic cognitive research suggests that this may ,be an ,unreliable predictor of long-term learning and transfer. Rather, in some training paradigms, higher error rates during ,training may ,predict greater retention and generalization of learning. One such paradigm ,is training in which learners generate, rather than read, during study opportunities. A second,is training in which,study for two sets ofinformation,is interleaved rather than grouped into separate blocks. Educationally relevant learning requires retention and the capacity to generalize information across contexts, leading tothe,hypothesis that these paradigms ,may ,have important implications,for ,educational ,practice. An experiment ,is described in which the effects of generation and interleaving are examined using complex, educationally-relevant materials.
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Because of decreased prices, increased convenience, and wireless access, an increasing number of college and university students are using laptop computers in their classrooms. This recent trend has forced instructors to address the educational consequences of using these mobile devices. The purpose of the current study was to analyze and assess beneficial and challenging laptop behaviours in higher education classrooms. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 177 undergraduate university students (89 males, 88 females). Key benefits observed include note-taking activities, in-class laptop-based academic tasks, collaboration, increased focus, improved organization and efficiency, and addressing special needs. Key challenges noted include other student’s distracting laptop behaviours, instant messaging, surfing the web, playing games, watching movies, and decreased focus. Nearly three-quarters of the students claimed that laptops were useful in supporting their academic experience. Twice as many benefits were reported compared to challenges. It is speculated that the integration of meaningful laptop activities is a critical determinant of benefits and challenges experienced in higher education classrooms.
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This paper examines undergraduate student use of laptop computers during a lecture-style class that includes substantial problem-solving activities and graphic-based content. The study includes both a self-reported use component collected from student surveys as well as a monitored use component collected via activity monitoring "spyware" installed on student laptops. We categorize multitasking activities into "productive" (course-related) versus "distractive" (non course-related) tasks. Quantifiable measures of software multitasking behavior are introduced to measure the "frequency" of student multitasking, the "duration" of student multitasking, and the "extent" to which students engage in distractive versus productive tasks. We find that students engage in substantial multitasking behavior with their laptops and have non course-related software applications open and active about 42% of the time. There is a statistically significant inverse relationship between the ratio of distractive versus productive multitasking behavior during lectures and academic performance. We also observe that students understate the frequency of email and instant messaging (IM) use in the classroom when self-reporting on their laptop usage. (Contains 9 tables and 5 endnotes.)
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Developed and validated the Need for Cognition Scale (NCS). In Study 1, a pool of items was administered to 96 faculty members (high-need-for-cognition group) and assembly line workers (low-need-for-cognition group). Ambiguity, irrelevance, and internal consistency were used to select items for subsequent studies. Factor analysis yielded one major factor. In Study 2, the NCS and the Group Embedded Figures Test were administered to 419 undergraduates to validate the factor structure and to determine whether the NCS tapped a construct distinct from test anxiety and cognitive style. The factor structure was replicated, and responses to the NCS were weakly related to cognitive style and unrelated to test anxiety. In Study 3, 104 undergraduates completed the NCS, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and a dogmatism scale. Results indicate that need for cognition was related weakly and negatively to being closeminded, unrelated to social desirability, and positively correlated with general intelligence. Study 4 (97 undergraduates) furnished evidence of the predictive validity of the NCS. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article reports on how law students use laptops, based on observations of 1072 laptop users (though there was considerable overlap among those users from one class to another) during 60 sessions of six law school courses. Some findings: More than half the upper-year students seen using laptops employed them for non-class purposes more than half the time, raising serious questions about how much they learned from class. By contrast, first-semester Civil Procedure students used laptops for non-class purposes far less: only 4% used laptops for non-class purposes more than half the time while 44% were never distracted by laptops. Students in exam courses were more likely to tune out when classmates asked and professors responded to questions and less likely to tune out when a rule was discussed or textual material read in class. For first-semester students, policy discussions generated the highest level of distraction while displaying a PowerPoint slide which was not later posted on the web elicited the lowest level. With some exceptions, what was happening in the class did not affect whether upper-year students tuned out or paid attention. The format used to convey information - lecture, calling on students, or class discussion - seemed to make little difference to the level of attention. Student attentiveness to the facts of cases is comparable to their overall attention levels.The article speculates that student decisions on whether to pay attention are responses to the tension between incentives and temptation. While the temptation to tune out probably remains constant, ebbs and flows in incentives may cause students to resist or yield to that temptation. Because first-semester grades have more of an impact on job prospects, first-semester students have a greater incentive than upper-year students to attend to classes. Similarly, because students probably anticipate that rules are more likely to be tested on exams, students perceive that they have more of an incentive to pay attention when rules are discussed. Conversely, students may suspect that matters asked about by classmates are less likely to be tested on and so their grades are unlikely to be affected if they miss the question and answer, reducing the incentive to pay attention. Because of methodological limits to the study, the article notes that its conclusions cannot be considered definitive, and so it urges others to conduct similar studies.
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THE EFFECTS OF MULTITASKING IN THE CLASSROOM were investigated in students in an upper level Communications course. Two groups of students heard the same exact lecture and tested immediately following the lecture. One group of students was allowed to use their laptops to engage in browsing, search, and/or social computing behaviors during the lecture. Students in the second condition were asked to keep their laptops closed for the duration of the lecture. Students in the open laptop condition suffered decrements on traditional measures of memory for lecture content. A second experiment replicated the results of the first. Data were further analyzed by “browsing style.” Results are discussed from Lang’s Limited Process Capacity model in an attempt to better understand the mechanisms involved in the decrement.
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Previous meta-analyses indicate that the overall encoding effect of note-taking is positive but modest. This meta-analysis of 57 note-taking versus no note-taking comparison studies explored what limits the encoding effect by examining the moderating influence of seven variables: intervention, schooling level, presentation mode and length, test mode, and publication year and source. It was found that (a) either positive interventions or rise in schooling level did not enhance the benefits of note-taking; (b) visual presentation of learning material interfered with the note-taking process, whereas longer presentation did not; (c) recall test detected the encoding effect more than recognition and higher-order performance tests; and (d) publication year and source contributed to the variation in effect sizes. These results suggest that the modest encoding effect is not due to the incompleteness of students’ spontaneous note-taking procedures, but mechanical demands of note-taking, type of learning outcome measure, and publication characteristics.
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We report on a field study of the multitasking beha vior of computer users focused on the suspension and resumption of tasks. Data was collected with a tool that logge d users' interactions with software applications and their a ssociated windows, as well as incoming instant messaging and email alerts. We describe methods, summarize results, and discuss design guidelines suggested by the findings. Author Keywords
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Students in two different courses at a major research university (one a Communication course, the other a Computer Science course) were given laptop computers with wireless network access during the course of a semester. Students' Web browsing on these laptops (including: URLs, dates, and times) was recorded 24 hours/day, 7 days/week in a log file by a proxy server during most of a semester (about 15 weeks). For each student, browsing behavior was quantified and then correlated with academic performance. The emergence of statistically significant results suggests that quantitative characteristics of browsing behavior—even prior to examining browsing content—can be useful predictors of meaningful behavioral outcomes. Variables such as Number of browsing sessions and Length of browsing sessions were found to correlate with students' final grades; the valence and magnitude of these correlations were found to interact with Course (i.e., whether student was enrolled in the Communication or Computer Science course), Browsing Context (i.e., setting in which browsing took place: during class, on the wireless network between classes, or at home) and Gender. The implications of these findings in relation to previous studies of laptop use in education settings are discussed.
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This paper briefly reviews the evidence for multistore theories of memory and points out some difficulties with the approach. An alternative framework for human memory research is then outlined in terms of depth or levels of processing. Some current data and arguments are reexamined in the light of this alternative framework and implications for further research considered.
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In previous work assessing memory at various levels of representation, namely the surface form, textbase, and situation model levels, participants read texts but were otherwise not actively engaged with the texts. The current study tested the influence of active engagement with the material via note taking, along with the opportunity to review such notes, and the modality of presentation (text vs. spoken). The influence of these manipulations was assessed both immediately and 1 week later. In Experiment 1 participants read a text, whereas in Experiment 2 participants watched a video recording of the material being read as a lecture. For each experiment the opportunity to take notes was manipulated within participants, and the opportunity to review these notes before the test was manipulated between participants. Note taking improved performance at the situation model level in both experiments, although there was also some suggestion of benefit for the surface form. Thus, active engagement with material, such as note taking, appears to have the greatest benefit at the deeper levels of understanding.
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The present research investigated whether test-enhanced learning can be used to promote transfer. More specifically, 4 experiments examined how repeated testing and repeated studying affected retention and transfer of facts and concepts. Subjects studied prose passages and then either repeatedly restudied or took tests on the material. One week later, they took a final test that had either the same questions (Experiment 1a), new inferential questions within the same knowledge domain (Experiments 1b and 2), or new inferential questions from different knowledge domains (Experiment 3). Repeated testing produced superior retention and transfer on the final test relative to repeated studying. This finding indicates that the mnemonic benefits of test-enhanced learning are not limited to the retention of the specific response tested during initial learning but rather extend to the transfer of knowledge in a variety of contexts.
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We present an easy-to-administer and automated version of a popular working memory (WM) capacity task (operation span; Ospan) that is mouse driven, scores itself, and requires little intervention on the part of the experimenter. It is shown that this version of Ospan correlates well with other measures of WM capacity and has both good internal consistency (alpha = .78) and test-retest reliability (.83). In addition, the automated version of Ospan (Aospan) was shown to load on the same factor as two other WM measures. This WM capacity factor correlated with a factor composed of fluid abilities measures. The utility of the Aospan was further demonstrated by analyzing response times (RTs) that indicated that RT measures obtained in the task accounted for additional variance in predicting fluid abilities. Our results suggest that Aospan is a reliable and valid indicator of WM capacity that can be applied to a wide array of research domains.
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Despite a century's worth of research, arguments surrounding the question of whether far transfer occurs have made little progress toward resolution. The authors argue the reason for this confusion is a failure to specify various dimensions along which transfer can occur, resulting in comparisons of "apples and oranges." They provide a framework that describes 9 relevant dimensions and show that the literature can productively be classified along these dimensions, with each study situated at the intersection of Various dimensions. Estimation of a single effect size for far transfer is misguided in view of this complexity. The past 100 years of research shows that evidence for transfer under some conditions is substantial, but critical conditions for many key questions are untested.
Article
Three experiments examined note-taking strategies and their relation to recall. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed either to take organized lecture notes or to try and transcribe the lecture, and they either took their notes by hand or typed them into a computer. Those instructed to transcribe the lecture using a computer showed the best recall on immediate tests, and the subsequent experiments focused on note-taking using computers. Experiment 2 showed that taking organized notes produced the best recall on delayed tests. In Experiment 3, however, when participants were given the opportunity to study their notes, those who had tried to transcribe the lecture showed better recall on delayed tests than those who had taken organized notes. Correlational analyses of data from all 3 experiments revealed that for those who took organized notes, working memory predicted note-quantity, which predicted recall on both immediate and delayed tests. For those who tried to transcribe the lecture, in contrast, only note-quantity was a consistent predictor of recall. These results suggest that individuals who have poor working memory (an ability traditionally thought to be important for note-taking) can still take effective notes if they use a note-taking strategy (transcribing using a computer) that can help level the playing field for students of diverse cognitive abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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The smallest words in our vocabulary often reveal the most about us, says James W. Pennebaker, including our levels of honesty and thinking style
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Much of the research on notetaking has distinguished and compared its process and product functions. Conclusions are that the act of notetaking is beneficial independent of review (the process function), and that the review of notes is additionally beneficial (the product function). Although such research informs us that these activities are effective, it fails to explain how learners should take notes and how notes should be reviewed. A depth of processing framework that can lead to more functional implications is proposed for reassessing and for redirecting the investigation of notetaking and review. Essentially, the framework specifies that levels of notetaking and/or review should be manipulated and examined with regard to levels of learning outcomes. Presently, few studies conform to these guidelines, but those that do provide more specific instructional implications. This article concludes with an account of these implications and with guidelines for investigating depth of processing during notetaking and review.
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Twelve subjects who are not touch typists, but have a median of ten years experience using computer keyboards performed two writing tasks: writing a short memorized passage and copying a four paragraph passage. Subjects performed each task once using a pen and paper and once using a display oriented text-editor. Typing speed was over five words per minute (wpm) faster than handwriting for both memorized and copied passages. Typing and writing were each about ten words per minute faster from memory than from copy. The number of errors was greater when typing from copy than in any other condition. These results suggest that for experienced two-finger typists, typing from a display-oriented document processor can be faster than handwriting.
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The pedagogic usefulness of the computer is examined by focusing on student attitudes and use of computers in a “computer-enriched” environment. Our analysis uses data from three years of a five-year longitudinal study at Wake Forest University. The results indicate that a computer-enriched environment is positively correlated with student attitudes toward computers in general, their role in teaching and learning, and their ability to facilitate communication. In addition, there were few changes in attitudes for students who did not have seamless access to the network. This study concludes that a networked institution where students have easy access can foster positive attitudes toward the use of computers in teaching and learning.
Article
This study examined the roles which note-taking method (either pencil and paper or an online computer notepad) and style (verbatim, paraphrasing, etc.) play in retention and depth of processing during computer-delivered instruction. Participants were 112 junior and senior undergraduates from a southern Minnesota university whose major was computer and information science. They were asked to view modules from a tutorial and take notes using either paper and pencil or an online computer notepad. Thirty-two idea units (single complete ideas or blocks of information) were selected from the four modules and used as a basis for assessing notes. A posttest and an exit questionnaire were administered. The study found that: (1) there was a difference in total posttest scores between the control group which took no notes and the treatment group which took notes online. The difference, which supports online notetaking, appeared to be due to the way the control and online notetakers answered the factual-type questions on the posttest; (2) the type of notes taken did not affect the overall retention of information; (3) the method used to take notes and the type of notes taken did not affect the number of idea units recorded by the subjects; (4) a difference in recall scores was found between the verbatim and both the "own-style" and paraphrase notetakers, supporting the verbatim notetakers; and (5) there was a positive correlation between the recall scores and total posttest scores of the subjects. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/AEF)
Article
Twenty adults were asked to read a three-paragraph expository text on differences among insects. Information in the text had been rated for importance and interestingness. Half of the adults read the text with "seductive details" (propositions presenting interesting, but unimportant, information), half without. After reading, the adults recalled the important information (a macroprocessing task), rated the text for overall interestingness, reported the single most interesting piece of information read, and matched pictures of animals on the basis of differences mentioned in text (a microprocessing task). The adults presented with seductive details in text were significantly less adept than their peers at including three main ideas in their recall protocols. Microprocessing performance and interestingness ratings were unaffected by text condition. In a second study, with 36 seventh graders, macroprocessing performance in general was weak. Students presented with seductive details in text were significantly less adept at macroprocessing than students given no such irrelevant information and given redundant signaling of the main ideas. Microprocessing success of seventh graders was also affected by the presence of seductive details. Results are examined in the context of current theories of expository text processing.
Article
Conducted 2 experiments in which 230 undergraduates listened to a passage divided into 6 segments of 5 min each; manipulations were made of thematic relatedness of content, listen-study intervals, and note taking. More ideas were recalled when note taking was not permitted and when the material was on different topics or unconnected than when the material was on the same topic and/or connected. These effects were noted especially on a delayed-recall test administered 1 wk following the listening period. No significant effects due to variations in listen-study intervals were found. The hypothesis that note taking is beneficial for Ss with high memory span but not for Ss with low memory span was provided some support. Results are interpreted in terms of less interference in discontinuous themes than in continuous themes. (16 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
High-formality and low-formality versions of a passage were read by 120 undergraduate education students who either took notes for a presentation to professionals or to students, or simply read the text. A free-recall test showed superiority for notetakers and for those reading low-formality text. Despite passage style and type of instruction, Ss took essentially verbatim notes, but in recall, informal material was paraphrased significantly more than formal prose. A conditional probability analysis showed that an idea unit was more likely to be recalled if it had been written in notes than if it had only been read. Results support the encoding function of note-taking and its relation to informal prose. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this ethnographic interview study, college students' theory of note-taking emerged after 4 phases. The theory was confirmed in a 5th interview phase. The students' theory includes conclusions consistent with ones already in the note-taking literature, but also many insights into note-taking dynamics that have not been identified in previous research. The amalgamation of previous note-taking theory and empirical outcomes with the students' theory provides a more complete theory of self-regulated note-taking than existed previously. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined retention of a lecture by 180 undergraduates. Note-taking procedure, information density, and speech rate were varied. Retention was measured after 48 hrs and found to be superior when note taking was separated from listening and the lecture delivered at a normal speech rate or a twice-through speeded presentation. Variables tending to interfere with S's information handling resulted in a terse note-taking style. Recall content was highly contingent on note content, although variables favorably influencing overall recall benefited recall of both noted and non-noted material. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the encoding function of note taking and processing differences between successful and less successful students in lecture situations in 2 experiments. In Exp I, 48 undergraduates either took notes or listened during a lecture. Different memory patterns were found for these 2 groups, with note-takers recalling many more high- than low-importance propositions and listeners recalling an equal number of high- and low-importance propositions. Results suggest that note taking enhanced organizational processing of lecture information. In Exp II, the notes and recall of 80 successful and less successful students were compared. Successful Ss recalled more of the most important propositions, but these 2 groups of Ss did not differ in their recall of less important propositions. For both groups of Ss, recall content was closely related to the content of the notes, with successful Ss recording more high-importance propositions in their notes. Also, successful and less successful Ss were similar in their note-taking styles and the degree to which they benefited from reviewing their notes. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This mixed-methods study examined cognitive correlates and learning outcomes related to the use of copy and paste (CP). Quantitative results indicated that college students whose CP capability was restricted to a small amount of text as they entered information into a matrix-like tool recalled more facts, recognized more concepts, and inferred more relationships among information from text than students for whom copying and pasting into the matrix was unrestricted. Then, 24 interviews revealed depth of processing and decision-making differences that may account for the discrepancies in learning between the restricted and unrestricted groups. This study suggests that both individuals' differing habits and experimentally induced variations in CP note-taking approaches may have significant differential consequences for cognitive processes and for learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Over the last several years law school classrooms have seen an explosion of student laptop use. Law professors have allowed this by default, generally under the pretense that laptops make note-taking easier. However, many professors complain that students use their laptops to play games, watch movies, or if they have an Internet connection, to do web surfing and e-mailing during class. This paper presents my experience in banning laptops from my classroom in the Fall of 2006, the first time it was done at my institution. The article covers the reasons for and against allowing laptops in the classroom, my reasoning and procedure for banning them, perceived differences in the classroom experience and relevant student comments from my course evaluations, which were overwhelmingly positive to the laptop ban. Also covered are the cognitive psychological reasons in support of banning laptops. Studies show that lower grades were correlated with increased student web browsing during class (Grace-Martin & Gay, 2001; Hembrooke & Gay, 2003), and the amount of time which students used their laptops for tasks other than taking lecture notes (Fried, 2007). MRI studies of the brain indicate that the brain stores information differently when distracted, which occurs when students attempt to multi-task in class (Foerde, Knowlton, & Poldrack, 2006). The science of note-taking is also covered, which indicates verbatim typing may interfere with learning (e.g., Kiewra, 1991). The paper concludes by urging law school professors to review why laptops are allowed in their classrooms and, unless they feel that laptops increase student learning, to ban or heavily restrict their classroom use.
Article
This review article investigates the encoding and storage functions of note-taking. The encoding function suggests that the process of taking notes, which are not reviewed, is facilitative. Research specifying optimal note-taking behaviors is discussed as are several means for facilitating note-taking, such as viewing a lecture multiple times, note-taking on a provided framework, or generative note-taking activities. The storage function suggests that the review of notes also is facilitative. Research addressing particular review behaviors, such as organization and elaboration, is discussed as are the advantages of reviewing provided notes, borrowed notes, or notes organized in a matrix form. In addition, cognitive factors related to note-taking and review are discussed. The article concludes with an alternative means for defining and investigating the functions of note-taking, and with implications for education and for research.
Article
Three years of graduating business honors cohorts in a large urban university were sampled to determine whether the introduction of ubiquitous laptop computers into the honors program contributed to student achievement, student satisfaction and constructivist teaching activities. The first year cohort consisted of honors students who did not have laptops; the second and third year cohorts were given laptops by the University. The honors students found that their honors classrooms were statistically significantly more constructivist than their traditional (non-honors) classroom. The introduction of laptop computing to honors students and their faculty did not increase the level of constructivist activities in the honors classrooms. Laptop computing did not statistically improve student achievement as measured by GPA. Honors students with laptops reported statistically significantly less satisfaction with their education compared to honors students with no laptops.
Article
Recently, a debate has begun over whether in-class laptops aid or hinder learning. While some research demonstrates that laptops can be an important learning tool, anecdotal evidence suggests more and more faculty are banning laptops from their classrooms because of perceptions that they distract students and detract from learning. The current research examines the nature of in-class laptop use in a large lecture course and how that use is related to student learning. Students completed weekly surveys of attendance, laptop use, and aspects of the classroom environment. Results showed that students who used laptops in class spent considerable time multitasking and that the laptop use posed a significant distraction to both users and fellow students. Most importantly, the level of laptop use was negatively related to several measures of student learning, including self-reported understanding of course material and overall course performance. The practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
Four levels of notetaking (summary, paraphrase, verbatim, and letter search) were used to control depth of processing of a prose passage with 180 high school students, who then either reviewed their notes or read an interpolated text. A separate control group took no notes. On immediate and delayed post-tests, post hoc analyses with the depth (notetaking) condition showed the following ranking: summary = paraphrase > control = verbatim > letter search. A paraphrase notes × review × test-position interaction was significant, indicating that less forgetting occurred on a delayed post-test when students reviewed their paraphrase notes than when they read an interpolated text. Analysis of reading times showed that the additional time required for notetaking was only worthwhile when meaningful notes were taken.
Article
Previous research has shown that disfluency--the subjective experience of difficulty associated with cognitive operations - leads to deeper processing. Two studies explore the extent to which this deeper processing engendered by disfluency interventions can lead to improved memory performance. Study 1 found that information in hard-to-read fonts was better remembered than easier to read information in a controlled laboratory setting. Study 2 extended this finding to high school classrooms. The results suggest that superficial changes to learning materials could yield significant improvements in educational outcomes.
Article
Pretested 120 students on a battery of personality tests, including the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale and Internal-External Control Scale. Ss listened to a set of 3 5-min passages with 4 orthogonally crossed variables: position of the criterion passage on an imaginery scientific system in the set, note taking while listening, rehearsal immediately after listening, and testing. A free-recall test scored for number of words and ideas, and a multiple-choice test were then administered. It was found that there were more words generated and higher multiple-choice test scores when the study interval was used for review than for other activities. The number of ideas recalled was favorably influenced by note taking, rehearsal, and testing. There were no significant effects due to position of the passage in the set. Significant correlations were obtained between performance and the individual difference variables of anxiety and tolerance of ambiguity. A significant interaction between social desirability and performance was obtained for certain treatments. Implications for a minitheory of listening and note taking are discussed. (20 ref.)
Article
This study examines how quantitative and qualitative differences in spontaneously taken notes are related to text comprehension in combination with reviewing or not reviewing previously made notes. High school graduates (N = 226) were allowed to take notes in any way they desired while reading a philosophical text. Approximately half the participants were told that they could review their notes during writing tasks designed to measure the ability to define, compare, and evaluate text content. The other half of the participants answered the subsequent questions without their notes. The process of taking notes was rated on the basis of note quality and quantity. The results revealed significant review and process effects in spontaneous note-taking. Reviewing the notes during essay-writing generally resulted in good performance in an exam calling for deep-level text comprehension. However, this review effect was mainly limited to detailed learning instead of making one's own inferences. Results pertaining to note quality indicated that the participants who summarized the content of the text resulted in better performance in all tasks in comparison with those who produced notes following the text order or verbatim notes. The amount of note-taking was also positively related to text comprehension. The discussion focuses upon the situational appropriateness of note-taking effects that pose challenges to educators. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Article
In 4 experiments, participants alternated between different tasks or performed the same task repeatedly. The tasks for 2 of the experiments required responding to geometric objects in terms of alternative classification rules, and the tasks for the other 2 experiments required solving arithmetic problems in terms of alternative numerical operations. Performance was measured as a function of whether the tasks were familiar or unfamiliar, the rules were simple or complex, and visual cues were present or absent about which tasks should be performed. Task alternation yielded switching-time costs that increased with rule complexity but decreased with task cuing. These factor effects were additive, supporting a model of executive control that has goal-shifting and rule-activation stages for task switching. It appears that rule activation takes more time for switching from familiar to unfamiliar tasks than for switching in the opposite direction.
Article
Despite a century's worth of research, arguments surrounding the question of whether far transfer occurs have made little progress toward resolution. The authors argue the reason for this confusion is a failure to specify various dimensions along which transfer can occur, resulting in comparisons of "apples and oranges." They provide a framework that describes 9 relevant dimensions and show that the literature can productively be classified along these dimensions, with each study situated at the intersection of various dimensions. Estimation of a single effect size for far transfer is misguided in view of this complexity. The past 100 years of research shows that evidence for transfer under some conditions is substantial, but critical conditions for many key questions are untested.
Researchers often conduct mediation analysis in order to indirectly assess the effect of a proposed cause on some outcome through a proposed mediator. The utility of mediation analysis stems from its ability to go beyond the merely descriptive to a more functional understanding of the relationships among variables. A necessary component of mediation is a statistically and practically significant indirect effect. Although mediation hypotheses are frequently explored in psychological research, formal significance tests of indirect effects are rarely conducted. After a brief overview of mediation, we argue the importance of directly testing the significance of indirect effects and provide SPSS and SAS macros that facilitate estimation of the indirect effect with a normal theory approach and a bootstrap approach to obtaining confidence intervals, as well as the traditional approach advocated by Baron and Kenny (1986). We hope that this discussion and the macros will enhance the frequency of formal mediation tests in the psychology literature. Electronic copies of these macros may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society's Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.
Ubiquitous laptop usage in higher education: Effects on student
  • C Wurst
  • C Smarkola
  • M A Gaffney
Wurst, C., Smarkola, C., & Gaffney, M. A. (2008). Ubiquitous laptop usage in higher education: Effects on student
Utilization of laptop com-puters in the school of business classroom
  • R Skolnick
  • M Puzo
Skolnick, R., & Puzo, M. (2008). Utilization of laptop com-puters in the school of business classroom. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 12, 1–10.
Disruption and recov Exploring the benefits and chal-lenges of using laptop computers in higher education class-rooms: A formative analysis
  • S T Iqbal
  • E Horvitz
  • Oppenheimer Mueller
  • R Kay
  • S Lauricella
Iqbal, S. T., & Horvitz, E. (2007). Disruption and recov-Mueller, Oppenheimer Kay, R., & Lauricella, S. (2011). Exploring the benefits and chal-lenges of using laptop computers in higher education class-rooms: A formative analysis. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 37(1). Retrieved from http://www.cjlt.ca/ index.php/cjlt/article/view/565/299