Article

Analyse phytogéographique de la région des Monts Kouffé au Bénin

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The Mounts Kouffé region is located in the central part of Benin between 1 °40′ and 2 °30′ N, and 8 °25′ and 9 °15′ E. This study dealt with the plant communities of the protected area of Wari Maro and Mounts Kouffé. The vegetation is composed of savannah, woodland and patches of dry forests. The aim of this study is to determine the phytogeographical position of the Mounts Kouffé region within Benin and western Africa. Between 1996 and 1998, floristical surveys were carried out. Some 159 phytosociological relevés were done. They resulted in 954 herbarium specimens corresponding to 584 species. Species of the Sudanian base element represent 16.1% of the total flora spectrum of Mounts Kouffé region. Species of two of the three endemic genera to sudanian regional centre of endemism (RCE) were collected, i.e. Vitellaria paradoxa and Pseudocedrela kotschyi. The species present in both Sudanian and Zambesian RCE made up 13.5% of the phytogeographical spectrum and those of the Guineo-Congolian element accounted for 11.3% of the spectrum. They mostly belonged to gallery forests and dry forests because of the position of this region which is located in the most southern part of the Sudanian RCE close to the regional transition zone of Guinea-Congolia/Sudania. The other species widespread in several RCE's within continental african phytochoria represented 33% of the spectrum. Species of wide distribution represented 25.2% of the spectrum. This vegetation is entirely located into the Sudanian RCE as defined by White, with an important contribution of Guineo-Congolian species. /// La région des Monts Kouffé est située au centre du Bénin entre 1 °40′ et 2 °30′ N et 8 °25′ et 9 °15′ E. Elle regroupe les forêts classées de Wari Maro, des Monts Kouffé et les terroirs villageois environnants. La végétation est composée de savanes, de forêts claires et d'îlots de forêts denses sèches ou denses semi-décidues. L'objectif de la présente étude est d'analyser le spectre phytogéographique des espèces recensées dans les Monts Kouffé au sein des principales formations. Des inventaires floristiques et 159 relevés phytosociologiques effectués dans cette région de 1996 à 1998, résultent une collection de 954 échantillons d'herbier correspondant à 584 espèces qui constituent les données de base de cette étude. Les espèces de l'élément base soudanien représentent 16,1% du spectre brut de la florule totale de la région des Monts Kouffé. Deux des trois genres endémiques du centre régional d'endémisme (CRE) soudanien ont été récoltés; il s'agit de Vitellaria paradoxa et Pseudocedrela kotschyi. 13,5% des espèces sont répandues à la fois dans les CRE soudanien et zambésien; 11,3% appartiennent à l'élément guinéen et se développent dans les forêts-galeries et forêts denses sèches ou semi-décidues. Ces dernières sont situées dans la zone la plus méridionale du CRE soudanien en contact sud avec la zone de transition guinéo-congolaise/soudanienne. Les espèces plurirégionales africaines représentent 33% du spectre brut. Il s'agit surtout des espèces afrotropicales. Les taxons à plus large distribution constituent 25,2% du spectre brut. Au vu de ce qui précède, on peut conclure que la région des Monts Kouffé est située entièrement dans le Centre régional d'endémisme soudanien (CRE) défini par White avec une contribution importante des espèces guinéennes.

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... The aqueous decoction of the roots and rhizomes is used for treating female infertility and endometriosis (Noudogbessi et al., 2013;Houinato and Sinsin, 2001) Endangered (Houinato and Sinsin, 2001) Burkina Faso Wuan-guriga (Bissa and Mosse) The whole plant is used as a decoction to treat malaria (Devineau and Fournier, 2005;Ouédraogo et al., 2011;Nadembega et al., 2011) Not available ...
... The aqueous decoction of the roots and rhizomes is used for treating female infertility and endometriosis (Noudogbessi et al., 2013;Houinato and Sinsin, 2001) Endangered (Houinato and Sinsin, 2001) Burkina Faso Wuan-guriga (Bissa and Mosse) The whole plant is used as a decoction to treat malaria (Devineau and Fournier, 2005;Ouédraogo et al., 2011;Nadembega et al., 2011) Not available ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance In sub-Saharan Africa, African ginger (Siphonochilus aethiopicus) is used for treating common illnesses including colds, coughs, inflammation and related symptoms. The available literature survey on this plant provided scarce anecdotal information, particularly in western and eastern Africa, with a few reports on its bioactivity. In addition, the indigenous knowledge and conservation strategies of this economically important and critically endangered species are currently fragmented. Aim of the review This review entails a critical appraisal of existing literature on the ethnomedicinal uses, biological activities, phytochemicals, research opportunities and prospects for the sustainable use of S. aethiopicus. Materials and methods This review was conducted using a comprehensive literature search on the ethnomedicinal uses, biological activities and phytochemistry of S. aethiopicus throughout its distributional range. The conservation status and associated bio-economy potential of African ginger were also assessed. We searched different online databases (e.g. Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed and Scopus) for peer-reviewed journals, conference outputs, international, regional and national organizational reports, published books and theses. Results We established that S. aethiopicus is used to treat a wide variety of ailments such as respiratory problems (including cough, influenza), pain, inflammation and malaria. Extracts of African ginger are used as an ingredient in some commercialised products for nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical purposes. The rhizome extract demonstrated anti-asthmatic, anti-inflammatory, and antiplasmodial activities, which led to the development of a patented novel extract for treating asthma and allergies. Phytochemical analysis of leaf, root and rhizome extracts of African ginger revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic acids, volatile and essential oils as the major constituents. These phytochemicals are known to possess bioactivities such as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. Particularly, the bioactive compounds, siphonochilone and eucalyptol, found in the roots and rhizomes have demonstrated potential to be used in remedies for treating asthma and allergic reactions. Furthermore, extracts of S. aethiopicus contained natural anti-inflammatory mediators with potential to combat and manage chronic inflammation. This plant is classified on the Red List of South African Plants as a critically endangered plant. Its high risk of extinction due to its unsustainable harvesting and exploitation necessitates its rapid propagation and cultivation to meet its increasing demand. Conclusions The review highlights the therapeutic potential of S. aethiopicus and rational prioritization of this plant species with the potential for isolating new bioactive compounds. In the light of the use of this plant extract in traditional medicine and many commercial products, there is a heightened need to explore the mechanism(s) of action of the identified extracts and bioactive compounds in order to fully understand their pharmacokinetics and probably elucidate the pathways of their activities.
... (Glèlè Kakaï and Sinsin 2009). The climate is described as Sudanian humid with a dry season of five months (November to March) and a rain season from April to October (Houinato and Sinsin 2002). Annual precipitations fluctuate from 900 to 1200 mm. ...
... Characteristic species are Isoberlinia doka, I. tomentosa, Monotes kerstingii, Uapaca togoensis, Pseudocedrela kotschyi and Anogeissus leiocarpa. Herbaceous stratum is luxuriant within woody and shrub savanna (Houinato and Sinsin 2002). It is a favorable area for livestock herds coming from elsewhere in the dry season, and this fact is emphasizing the pastoral pressure on woody species. ...
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... The dominant life form and phytogeographical spectra of termitaria vegetation were compared between land-use type and termitaria status. Woody and herbaceous species found on termitaria were taken to determine the life form and phytogeographical types of each species as indicated respectively by Sinsin [29], Houinato and Sinsin [30] and Adomou [31]. The main life forms used were: Th: Therophytes, Ch: Chamephytes, G: Geophytes Ph: Phanerophytes and Hc: Hemicryptophytes. ...
... The importance of sudanian species on mound reflects the effect of climate [28][29][30][31][32][33]. This confirms the fact that the specific plant composition of termitaria and their physiognomy vary between phytogeographical regions [15-17, 42, 43, 44]. ...
Article
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... Au Bénin, malgré les nombreuses études réalisées dans la zone soudanoguinéenne sur les groupements végétaux (Sinsin, 1994 ;Sinsin et al., 1996 ;Oumorou, 1998 ;Sinsin, 1999 ;Sinsin et Oumorou, 2000 ;Houinato et Sinsin, 2001 ;Sinsin, 2001 ;Sinsin et Wotto, 2003 ;Orthmann, 2005 ;Orekan, 2007 ;Toko et al., 2010 ;Toko Imorou et al., 2010), certaines interrogations demeurent, concernant les facteurs déterminant la répartition spatiale des groupements végétaux en considérant les bassins versants comme unités d'analyse. Plus spécifiquement, ces études n´ont pas abordé la structure et le fonctionnement de la végétation à l'échelle des bassins versants. ...
... Au Bénin, malgré les nombreuses études réalisées dans la zone soudanoguinéenne sur les groupements végétaux (Sinsin, 1994 ;Sinsin et al., 1996 ;Oumorou, 1998 ;Sinsin, 1999 ;Sinsin et Oumorou, 2000 ;Houinato et Sinsin, 2001 ;Sinsin, 2001 ;Sinsin et Wotto, 2003 ;Orthmann, 2005 ;Orekan, 2007 ;Toko et al., 2010 ;Toko Imorou et al., 2010), certaines interrogations demeurent, concernant les facteurs déterminant la répartition spatiale des groupements végétaux en considérant les bassins versants comme unités d'analyse. Plus spécifiquement, ces études n´ont pas abordé la structure et le fonctionnement de la végétation à l'échelle des bassins versants. ...
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Les effets des facteurs abiotiques sur la répartition spatiale des groupements végétaux ont été étudiés dans la zone de transition soudano-guinéenne du Bénin. Les relevés phytosociologiques ont été réalisés le long des toposéquences dans 156 placeaux de 900 m2. Le logiciel PC ORD 5.0 a servi à l’ordination des groupements (DCA), à l’analyse discriminante des groupements suivant la topographie et les propriétés du sol (CCA) et à l’identification des espèces caractéristiques (IVA). L’indice de Jaccard est déterminé par le logiciel CAP. Au total, 430 espèces réparties en 257 genres et 78 familles ont été recensées. Huit groupements végétaux répartis suivant un gradient pédologique et topographique sont obtenus après l’ordination. L’analyse discriminante des groupements indique que la profondeur du sol est le facteur le plus déterminant dans la distribution des groupements végétaux. Les groupements végétaux établis au bas des versants sur des ols profonds et humides sont nettement distincts de ceux établis sur les interfluves et à mi-pente sur des sols exondés. L´indice de Jaccard discrimine les groupements, et, la richesse spécifique augmente avec la profondeur du sol, tandis qu’elle baisse avec l’augmentation de la pente et de la pression anthropique. L’indice de Shannon et l’équitabilité de Pielou sont très faibles dans les champs et les dépressions marécageuses dominées par les herbacées. La densité et la surface terrière des ligneux varient respectivement de 104 tiges/ha et 3,21 m2/ha dans les champs à 1007 tiges/ha et 18,01 m2/ha au bas des versants et à mi-pente sur des sols profonds et humides. Le biovolume de la strate herbacée varie de 1917 m3/ha dans les champs à 15105 m3/ha dans les dépressions.Mots clés : groupements végétaux, facteurs abiotiques, répartition spatiale, bassin versant, Bénin.
... Woody species are important in Benin for medicine and may be threatened by logging and agricultural activity, among other factors. Herbaceous species with short life cycles seem to be less threatened than woody ones, and seedling recruitment is more abundant in herbs, whereas stasis is more common in woody plants (Silvertown Houinato and Sinsin (2002); Akoègninou et al. (2006) 23 33 23 50 129 23 60 101 184 51 109 53 213 526 Women 1 8 10 23 42 2 3 17 22 0 0 0 0 64 Total 171 206 213 , 1993;Crow and Perera, 2004;Gooden et al., 2009). However, the use of wood in general and the trade of woody species for their timber will enhance their unavailability and prevent their medicinal use. ...
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... Par ailleurs, le cortège floristique de la périphérie du W est dominé par des espèces soudano-zambéziennes et soudaniennes qui sont les plus recouvrantes. Houinato et Sinsin (2001) dans la zone de Wari Maro ont remarqué que les espèces les plus recouvrantes sont soudaniennes et soudanozambéziennes et ont conclu que la proportion relativement élevée des espèces soudaniennes indique que le milieu est relativement peu perturbé. Malgré la forte dégradation évoquée plus haut, il subsisterait donc des zones peu perturbée qui justifient toujours l'intérêt des animaux transhumants pour la zone du W. ...
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