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Digitalisierung und das Paradox informatorische Reichweite in der Agenturfotografie

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Incomplete information implies a lack of market transparency and rising transaction costs. But how does a market react to an excess of information? Using the example of stock photography in Germany, this paper discusses the consequences of digitization for the organization of the supply chain. A qualitative case study in Munich demonstrates that the relationship between stock agencies and customers has become spatially disembedded through digitization and that it is being increasingly virtualized. Two significant aspects of the consequences of this disembedding are discussed: Information-economy studies show that digitization creates new transaction costs due to a new abundance of information which creates strategic space for navigation services in the supply chain. Secondly, as a result of digitization, new geographies of organization are emerging with regard to picture demand, the locational consolidation of stock picture agencies, and the offshoring of production. In the context of the growing expansion of e-commerce, the stock photography sector serves as an example for many other industries.
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... Während der Anteil lange Zeit bis zu siebzig Prozent betrug, hat sich dieser in den letzten Jahren auf dreißig bis fünfzig Prozent reduziert (Frosh, 2009;Glätscher, 2017;Glückler, 2005 Bei diesen Agenturen handelt es sich damit um sogenannte "Digital Natives" (Glückler & Panitz, 2013), die über kein analoges Bildarchiv mehr verfügen. Das eingespielte Verhältnis zwischen Kunden und dem Bildagent als Makler mit einem profunden spezifischen Wissen erklärt auch, warum die Akzeptanz gegenüber der neuen digitalen Bildsuche zu Anfang der Jahrtausendwende gering war. ...
... Aktuelle Entwicklungen des journalistischen Bildermarktes Etwa die Hälfte der heute existierenden Agenturen sind vor dem Beginn der Digitalisierung des Bildermarktes in der Mitte der neunziger Jahre entstanden, als Getty Images und Corbis erstmals den Vertrieb über das Internet revolutionierten (Glückler & Panitz, 2013, S. 4 lizenzfreien Fotos und dazu mit einer höheren Marge (Glückler, 2005). 2011 wurde wissenschaftlich eine weltweite Stagnation des Bildermarktes nach gewiesen (Glückler & Panitz, 2013, S. 10 (Rossig, 2007, S. 176) Tendenzen der Stagnation ließen sich jedoch schon seit den neunziger Jahren Da die Kundenbeziehungen nicht mehr lokal begrenzt sind, wird der Wettbewerb international ausgetragen (Glückler, 2005 (Glätscher, 2017, S. 10 (Feck, 2017, S. 8). ...
... Aktuelle Entwicklungen des journalistischen Bildermarktes Etwa die Hälfte der heute existierenden Agenturen sind vor dem Beginn der Digitalisierung des Bildermarktes in der Mitte der neunziger Jahre entstanden, als Getty Images und Corbis erstmals den Vertrieb über das Internet revolutionierten (Glückler & Panitz, 2013, S. 4 lizenzfreien Fotos und dazu mit einer höheren Marge (Glückler, 2005). 2011 wurde wissenschaftlich eine weltweite Stagnation des Bildermarktes nach gewiesen (Glückler & Panitz, 2013, S. 10 (Rossig, 2007, S. 176) Tendenzen der Stagnation ließen sich jedoch schon seit den neunziger Jahren Da die Kundenbeziehungen nicht mehr lokal begrenzt sind, wird der Wettbewerb international ausgetragen (Glückler, 2005 (Glätscher, 2017, S. 10 (Feck, 2017, S. 8). ...
... We begin by reconstructing the historical stages of the division of labor in the stock photo trade, and we identify an emergent alliance boom among photo agencies as the specific phenomenon in need of explanation. Based on the deep-cutting transformations in photography (Benner, 2008;Munir, 2005), but particularly in the stock photo industry (Frosh, 2001(Frosh, , 2003Glückler, 2005;Glückler and Sánchez Hernández, 2014), we investigate this alliance boom as a process of creating a new social and geographical division of labor. In Section 3, we distinguish vertical and horizontal divisions of labor and hypothesize distinct roles within a structure of divisions of labor in contemporary stock photography. ...
... One geographical consequence of the profound shift in technology, licensing, and business models has been the rapid emergence of an inter-firm network at a subnational geographical scale (CEPIC, 2008;Glückler, 2010). The evidence from a regional case study in Munich and qualitative interviews with picture agencies suggest that the proliferation of sales partnerships within a national market reflects a process of intermediation in the value chain, where agencies specialize in distinct activities such as the collection of visual content on the one hand and the distribution of large stocks of image content on the other (Glückler, 2005). Such a process of intermediation would correspond to a deepening of the social division of labor ( Fig. 1). ...
... The two questions are pursued together since the increasing specialization of value stages potentially permits each new network position to respond to distinct locational advantages and thus explain a new locational geography in stock photography. We aim to answer these questions by drawing on existing expertise and knowledge of the recent historical shifts in stock photography (Glückler, 2005(Glückler, , 2010Glückler and Panitz, 2015) to develop a set of propositions on the contemporary social and spatial division of labor. This contextual knowledge enables us to endorse a research design of prespecified generalized blockmodeling (Doreian et al., 2005), which is discussed in the following sections and empirically tested in the German stock photography market. ...
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During the advent of digital technology, the market for stock photography has undergone radical transformations that have disrupted incumbent businesses and produced new divisions of labor. Picture agencies have responded to this challenge with a veritable proliferation of inter-firm alliances. In the attempt to understand this network boom, this paper develops a theoretical link between the concept of regular equivalence and its capacity to detect intra-industry divisions of labor. Based on a network survey of picture agencies in Germany, a prespecified generalized blockmodel yields a valid representation of an increasing functional specialization of new value stages that translates into an extended social and spatial division of labor in ways that challenge a dualist theory of the division of creative labor.
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... Industries that produce commodities which rely on copyright legislation for their efficient commercial exploitation but that can also be rendered in digital form have been subject to significant processes of restructuring over the past decade or so. They include the motion picture, photographic, publishing, and software industries (Currah, 2003Currah, , 2006 Gluckler, 2005; Pratt, 2007; Vaidhyanathan, 2001). However, it has been within the music industry that this digitally induced crisis of reproduction first came to prominence and arguably has developed most fully (Leyshon et al, 2005b). ...
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