Book

The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature And Design

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Abstract

To understand the way children develop, Bronfenbrenner believes that it is necessary to observe their behavior in natural settings, while they are interacting with familiar adults over prolonged periods of time. His book offers an important blueprint for constructing a new and ecologically valid psychology of development.
... The influence of children's physical exposures has been summarised differentially by various models, theorems, and theorists over the previous century. Notably, these include the physical environmental elements of children's exposome (a term introduced by Wild [1,2] regarding the non-genetic influences on outcomes across the lifespan) and Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model [3][4][5], proposing that children develop within an environmental milieu of five interconnected systems, spanning aspects from urban design (e.g., presence and structure of sidewalks), traffic density, and design of venues for physical activity (e.g., playgrounds, parks, and school yards), to biologically active chemicals, radiation, the internal chemical environment, and psychosocial aspects [6]. The difficulty with these conceptualisations of child development is that they include both physical environmental and (psycho)social influences. ...
... In this work, an operationalised definition of "physical environment" was incorporated to identify eligible environmental exposures. This classification was derived from a coalescence of Harris's [7], Bronfenbrenner's [3][4][5] and Wild's [1,2] theorems. This resulted in the inclusion of a diverse array of domains, from ambient exposures (sunlight, sound, meteorology), interior design elements (colour, lighting), architectural features (space/spatial crowding), and biological active agents (i.e., air particulate pollutants), to physical aspects of children's microsystem (i.e., home, school, and neighbourhood characteristics). ...
... 2 CBCL Version used: 6-18 years[100].3 Lithuanian version of the SDQ was used[134].4 The German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used in this study[185].5 ...
Article
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The physical environment is of critical importance to child development. Understanding how exposure to physical environmental domains such as greenspace, urbanicity, air pollution or noise affects aggressive behaviours in typical and neurodiverse children is of particular importance given the significant long-term impact of those problems. In this narrative review, we investigated the evidence for domains of the physical environment that may ameliorate or contribute to the display of aggressive behaviours. We have considered a broad range of study designs that include typically developing and neurodiverse children and young people aged 0–18 years. We used the GRADE system to appraise the evidence. Searches were performed in eight databases in July 2020 and updated in June 2022. Additional articles were further identified by hand-searching reference lists of included papers. The protocol for the review was preregistered with PROSPERO. Results: We retrieved 7174 studies of which 67 are included in this review. The studies reported on green space, environmental noise and music, air pollution, meteorological effects, spatial density, urban or rural setting, and interior home elements (e.g., damp/sensory aspects/colour). They all used well validated parent and child reported measures of aggressive behaviour. Most of the studies were rated as having low or unclear risk of bias. As expected, noise, air pollution, urbanicity, spatial density, colour and humidity appeared to increase the display of aggressive behaviours. There was a dearth of studies on the role of the physical environment in neurodiverse children. The studies were heterogeneous and measured a range of aggressive behaviours from symptoms to full syndromes. Greenspace exposure was the most common domain studied but certainty of evidence for the association between environmental exposures and aggression problems in the child or young person was low across all domains. We found a large knowledge gap in the literature concerning neurodiverse children, which suggests that future studies should focus on these children, who are also more likely to experience adverse early life experiences including living in more deprived environments as well as being highly vulnerable to the onset of mental ill health. Such research should also aim to dis-aggregate the underlying aetiological mechanisms for environmental influences on aggression, the results of which may point to pathways for public health interventions and policy development to address inequities that can be relevant to ill health in neurodiverse young people.
... Ecological systems theory (EST) was proposed by Bronfenbrenner (1979), which has changed the approaches for conducting research on the relations between human beings and their surrounding environments among numerous behavioral scientists and sociologists (Ceci, 2006, p. 173). Ecological systems were composed of a set of homocentric and nested sub-systems, including microsystems, mesosystems, exosystems, and macrosystem based on the extent of closeness between a person and the corresponding systems. ...
... The above three lower-order systems are embedded in macrosystem. Macrosystem could be the underlying belief or ideologies for the above three systems (for more details, see Bronfenbrenner, 1979). ...
... Drawing upon ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979), this study constructed an ecological model to demonstrate the relations among stakeholders who could make efforts for overcoming EFL teachers' DTCR ( Figure 4) based on the thematic analysis results. ...
Article
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Competences for conducting research is vitally important for college EFL teachers’ career development, but many college English teachers are demotivated in academic research. To investigate teachers’ motivation on academic activities, this study firstly explored motivational changes of college EFL teachers (mean age 37.39, SD 9.77) for conducting research in their teaching career, and then delved into the factors underlying their demotivation by sending questionnaires. In the end, several English teachers and officers managing research projects were interviewed to elicit solutions to overcome EFL teachers’ demotivation to conduct research. This study found that college EFL teachers had large possibilities to suffer from demotivation to conduct research. Exploratory factor analysis indicated five factors causing their demotivation, including weak research ability, negative emotions and attitudes, poor research surroundings, research management problems and insufficient resources. Thematic analysis demonstrated that ecological solutions should be taken by different stakeholders in EFL teachers’ working ecology, including universities, research communities, government, and publishers. This study problematized the static view on teachers’ demotivation to conduct research and provided some insights and implications for reasons and solutions for demotivation.
... Factors affecting school bullying prevention operate on different levels. A holistic view of school bullying and its prevention have largely been investigated and explained in light of Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological systems theory (EST). Applying EST as a theoretical framework to the current study, the comparative analysis of school bullying and preconditions for school bullying prevention make clear that both phenomena can be explored on multiple levels, all of which are interconnected; if an activity is initiated on any one level, the effects radiate to the other levels. ...
... This study therefore investigates teacher practices aimed at preventing school bullying by applying a whole-school approach, anti-bullying programme in schools in Lithuania and Norway within the theoretical framework of Bronfenbrenner's (1979) EST. Socioeconomic, cultural, educational, and legal factors regarding the prevention of school bullying are explored indirectly as part of the macrosystem of each country. ...
... The microsystem provides prohibited, encouraged and/or restricted opportunities for intellectual and social development through progressively more complex interaction in the environment (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). A school can therefore be regarded as a microsystem in which many factors that are unique to the school contribute to school bullying prevention. ...
Article
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This study investigates similarities and differences in Lithuanian and Norwegian teacher practices aimed at preventing school bullying by applying a whole-school approach anti-bullying programme. The quantitative data was collected from 1576 teachers from 99 schools in Lithuania, and 82 teachers from 13 schools in Norway that have implemented the Olweus Bullying Prevention Programme (OBPP). The comparative analysis of the study results indicates that Norwegian teachers are slightly more active in working with the OBPP on the school and individual levels, as well as in working with the programme in general. The study reveals that female teachers are more active than male teachers on the classroom and individual levels of the OBPP as well as the whole programme, and that primary education teachers are more active than lower secondary education teachers on the classroom level of the OBPP. The implications of teacher practices aimed at preventing bullying by applying the OBPP are discussed, and limitations of the current study emphasised.
... Bu çalışmada ikincil veri değerlendirmesi (secondary literature evaluation) yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın teorik çerçevesi özellikle bio-ekolojik sistemler kuramı (Bronfenbrenner, 1979), mülteci çocukların eğitimsel uyumuna yönelik bütünsel model (Cerna, 2019), mülteci uyumu ve gelişimi modeli (Anderson vd., 2004), kültürlenme teorileri (Berry, 2005;Rudmin, 2009) ve çalışmanın devamında tartışılan alanyazındaki çeşitli kuramsal çalışmalarla şekillenmiştir. Bu teorik zeminden hareketle küresel, yerel, mikrosistem ve bireysel faktörlerin Türkiye'deki mülteci çocukların eğitim süreçlerine etkileri bir model olarak tasarlanmış ve betimlenmiştir. ...
... Ekolojik sistemler kuramı (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) bireyin gelişimini doğrudan ya da dolaylı bir şekilde etkileyen okul, aile, devlet kurumları ve toplum gibi çeşitli çevreleri içeren katmanlı bir yapı sunmaktadır. Bu kuram bireyin gelişimini değişen çevrelere uyum olarak kavramsallaştırmaktadır. Merkezinde bireyin yer aldığı söz konusu yapı, bireye en yakından uzağa doğru iç içe geçen halkalar şeklindedir. ...
... Şekil 4: Yerel politikalar düzeyinin mikrosistem düzeyi ile ilişkisi * Şekil 4'ün modelin tamamıyla ilişkisini görmek için Şekil 1'e bakınız. Bronfenbrenner (1979) bu düzeyde kritik bir terim olarak deneyimlemek kavramına dikkat çekmektedir. Yani mikrosistem, yüz yüze etkileşimin gerçekleştiği belirli bir ortamdaki faaliyetleri, rolleri ve kişiler arası ilişkileri içeren yapıdır. ...
Article
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Dünyada en fazla mülteci barındıran ülke konumundaki Türkiye, bu kitlenin barınma, istihdam, sağlık ve eğitim gibi zorunlu ihtiyaç alanlarında ciddi bir baskı ile karşı karşıya kalmıştır. Özellikle 2011 yılında başlayan Suriye iç savaşından sonra Türkiye’de mülteci çocukların okullaşma oranlarında hızlı bir artış yaşanmıştır. Bu durum eğitim süreçlerinde yeni problem ve ihtiyaç alanlarının ortaya çıkmasını beraberinde getirmiştir. Buradan hareketle bu çalışmada, Türkiye'deki mülteci çocukların eğitim süreçlerini çerçeveleyen teorik bir model önerilmektedir. Bu model, mülteci çocukların içinde yer aldıkları çeşitli çevrelerin ve aktörlerin eğitim deneyimlerine etkilerinin yanı sıra ihtiyaç, risk ve olanak unsurlarını içermektedir. Küresel dinamiklerin ve yerel politikaların etkilerine de odaklanan söz konusu model, bütünleştirici ve yeni boyutların eklenmesine müsaade eden gelişimsel bir yapıya sahiptir. Çalışmada kullanılan yöntem ikincil veri değerlendirmesidir. Bu yönteme dayalı olarak bu çalışmada, Türkiye'deki okullaşma oranları her geçen gün hızla artan mülteci çocukların çeşitli ihtiyaçlarına (psikolojik, kültürel ve eğitimsel) ve bu çocukların karşılaştığı akran zorbalığı, yabancı düşmanlığı ve travma gibi konulara odaklanan yayınlar sentezlenmektedir. Böylece, mülteci çocukların yeni ortamlarındaki koşulları ve Türkiye’ye başarılı uyumları için gerekli olan kültürel yaklaşım betimlenmektedir. Araştırmacı tarafından tasarlanan özgün model, mülteci çocuklara sağlanacak eğitim hizmetlerindeki uygulamalara ve gelecekteki araştırmalara bir çerçeve sağlama iddiasına sahiptir.
... Με αφετηρία τη θέση αυτή, μέσα από τη θεωρία των οικολογικών συστημάτων (ecology systems theory) 25 του Bronfenbrenner (1979) επιχειρείται η παρουσίαση των παραγόντων του άμεσου και του ευρύτερου περιβάλλοντος που αλληλεπιδρούν με το αναπτυσσόμενο άτομο. ...
... Οι λόγοι που επιλέχθηκε η συγκεκριμένη θεωρία (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) είναι επειδή: (α) αποτελεί μια από τις πιο αποδεκτές εξηγήσεις για την ερμηνεία της σχέσης ανάμεσα στο κοινωνικό περιβάλλον και στην ανθρώπινη ανάπτυξη (Berk, 2000. Corden, 2001 Darling, 2007. ...
... Αυτό σημαίνει, ότι το άτομο δεν είναι παθητικό σε αυτή τη διαδικασία αλλά είναι μια δυναμική οντότητα που προοδευτικά μετακινείται και αναδιαμορφώνει το 25 Η θεωρία των οικολογικών συστημάτων του Bronfenbrenner (1979) παρουσιάστηκε για πρώτη φορά στο τέλος της δεκαετίας του 1970. Ωστόσο, μέχρι και το 2005 -όπου και απεβίωσε-συνέχισε να εξελίσσεται από τον ίδιο (Bronfenbrenner, 1979. ...
Thesis
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Η παρούσα έρευνα μελετά τις αντιλήψεις και τις κοινωνικές δεξιότητες των μαθητών/τριών της προσχολικής και πρώτης σχολικής ηλικίας στην πόλη της Φλώρινας, σε σχέση με την πρόσληψη της έννοιας της ιδιότητας του πολίτη. Συγκεκριμένα, η μελέτη επικεντρώνεται (α) στη δυνατότητα αναγνώρισης κοινωνικών- πολιτειακών αξιών σε οπτικό υλικό, (β) στη δυνατότητα αναγνώρισης πολιτικών αξιών, (γ) σε δεξιότητες ανάπτυξης/εκδήλωσης κοινωνικής-πολιτειακής δράσης, (δ) σε δεξιότητες ανάπτυξης/εκδήλωσης κοινής ομιλίας-δράσης, (ε) στη δυνατότητα αναγνώρισης συγκεκριμένων πολιτικών ηγετών/πολιτικής ιδιότητας και (στ) στη συσχέτιση όλων των παραπάνω με τις μεταβλητές του φύλου, της ηλικίας, της τάξης φοίτησης και της εθνικότητας των μαθητών/τριών. Οι λόγοι που οι συγκεκριμένες δεξιότητες μελετώνται στην παρούσα διατριβή είναι επειδή: (i) θεωρούνται απαραίτητες για την επιτυχή συμμετοχή των πολιτών σε συλλογικές δράσεις που αφορούν πολιτικά και κοινωνικά ζητήματα, (ii) παρέχουν γνώσεις στους πολίτες σχετικά με τα δικαιώματα και τις υποχρεώσεις που έχουν απέναντι στην κοινωνία, αλλά και τις αξίες που πρεσβεύει το πολίτευμα της δημοκρατίας και (iii) προάγουν τη συνεργασία ανάμεσα στα μέλη της κοινωνίας για την επίτευξη κοινών στόχων. Ακόμα, πολλές έρευνες (π.χ. Verba et al., 1995. Moely et al., 2002. Schur, 2003) επισημαίνουν ότι οι συγκεκριμένες δεξιότητες συνδέονται με υψηλότερα ποσοστά πολιτικής και κοινωνικής συμμετοχής των πολιτών και όπως είναι γνωστό, η δημοκρατία συνεπάγεται υψηλά επίπεδα συμμετοχής στη λήψη αποφάσεων. Ειδικότερα, (α) η αναγνώριση των κοινωνικών-πολιτειακών αξιών συνδέεται με τις πραγματικές και βαθύτερες ανάγκες της κοινωνίας και επιπλέον αποτελούν θεμελιώδες συστατικό για τη συνοχή και την πρόοδο των κοινωνιών, (β) η αναγνώριση των πολιτικών αξιών στο οπτικό υλικό συνδέεται με τους πολιτικούς θεσμούς, τις σχέσεις, τους οργανισμούς, τα δικαιώματα και τις υποχρεώσεις του πολίτη και το πολίτευμα της δημοκρατίας που πηγάζει και ασκείται από τον λαό, (γ) οι δεξιότητες ανάπτυξης/εκδήλωσης κοινωνικής-πολιτειακής δράσης και κοινής ομιλίας-δράσης θεωρούνται από τις σημαντικότερες δεξιότητες των ενεργών πολιτών, καθώς συνδέονται με τη δυνατότητα συνεργασίας με άλλα μέλη, το ομαδικό πνεύμα, την ενότητα και την κοινή δράση για την επίλυση προβλημάτων σε μια κοινωνία και (δ) η δυνατότητα αναγνώρισης συγκεκριμένων πολιτικών ηγετών/πολιτικής ιδιότητας, αφορά την αναγνώριση πολιτικών ζητημάτων -όπως ακριβώς και στην περίπτωση για τις πολιτικές αξίες. Ως ερευνητική στρατηγική επιλέχθηκε η μελέτη περίπτωσης, ενώ για τη συλλογή του υλικού κατασκευάστηκαν δύο οπτικά ερωτηματολόγια που βασίστηκαν στο Ευρωπαΐκό πρόγραμμα imago 2010 -«Μάθηση με εικόνες. Εναύσματα για την εργασία στην προσχολική ηλικία και στην ηλικία δημοτικού» του Πανεπιστημίου Gießen, του Πανεπιστημίου της Σόφιας και του Βόλου, καθώς και του Mozarteum στο Salzburg. Όσον αφορά την ανάλυση και επεξεργασία του πολυτροπικού υλικού εφαρμόστηκαν (α) η κοινωνικοσημειωτική και η ερμηνευτική μέθοδος, ως τεχνικές που ερμηνεύουν το οπτικό και γλωσσικό υλικό και υποστηρίζουν την έρευνα και την ανάλυση των παιδικών ιχνογραφημάτων και (β) η ποσοτική και ποιοτική ανάλυση περιεχομένου, ως αναλυτική τεχνική για τις απαντήσεις των μαθητών/τριών στη δομημένη συνέντευξη. Η ερευνητική διαδικασία έδειξε ότι οι μαθητές/τριες που συμμετείχαν στην έρευνα ανέπτυξαν ένα βαθμό οπτικού γραμματισμού όταν αναγνώρισαν τα σενάρια, τους ρόλους και τις ιδιότητες των εικονιζόμενων προσώπων μέσα από τα ποικίλα είδη εικόνων που τους προσφέρθηκαν και ταυτόχρονα οδηγήθηκαν σε προσωπικές μορφές κατανόησης, ερμηνείας και αξιολόγησης του κόσμου. Επιπλέον, έγινε η υπόθεση ότι τα παιδιά μέσω των ιχνογραφημάτων αποτύπωσαν τις αντιλήψεις τους για την ιδιότητα του πολίτη όπως τη βίωσαν και όπως την είδαν, δηλαδή, παρήγαγαν και αφηγήθηκαν μέσω των εικόνων ιστορίες, ανάλογα με τον τίτλο-θέμα που τους έδωσαν. Παράλληλα, το υλικό της έρευνας μπορεί να αξιοποιηθεί από/και για το παιδί, τον εκπαιδευτικό και τον/την ερευνητή/τρια ως υλικό πληροφόρησης για την πολιτική κοινωνικοποίηση του παιδιού, για τα στερεότυπα που συνειδητά ή ασυνείδητα έχει ενστερνιστεί ή όχι, ενώ συγχρόνως αποτελεί ερευνητική και διδακτική πρόταση για την ιδιότητα του πολίτη στην προσχολική και πρώτη σχολική ηλικία. Συνοψίζοντας, θα πρέπει να επισημανθεί ότι επιχειρείται μια πολυτροπική ανάλυση με τη μετατόπιση του ενδιαφέροντος από το ιχνογράφημα ως αντικείμενο και ως εργαλείο έρευνας στο ίδιο το παιδί - δημιουργό, στη διαδικασία της ιχνογράφησης και στις διαδικασίες που συντελούνται την ώρα της ιχνογράφησης, καθώς και στην εξέταση των πλαισίων επικοινωνίας και των σχέσεων με στόχο να ανιχνευθεί η επιρροή συγκεκριμένων διαδικασιών στα συναισθήματα και στις αντιλήψεις τους.
... School climate is a broad, multi-dimensional concept that refers to social aspects of the learning environment, including school members' interactions and relationships, shared values, and norms [1]. According to the social ecological theory [35], bullying is not just the result of individual characteristics such as individual biological differences and psychological traits but is also influenced by multiple relationships with peers, families, teachers, neighbors, and interactions with societal influences (e.g., media and technology) [36]. Adolescents who perceive a positive school climate are less likely to bully others [37]. ...
... Bronfenbrenner [35] also proposed that proximal processes, or the interactions between individuals and others within their immediate environment, have the most direct impact on development. In a school setting, these proximal processes would include students' interactions with peers and adults within the school. ...
... Furthermore, according to Rudasill and colleagues' systems view of school climate (SVSC), which is situated within ecological systems theory [35] and provides a conceptual map to guide the formation of smaller causal models for individuals who experience dissonance in their home and school environments, individual characteristics and the societal expectations based on race, ethnicity, and gender are central to the experiences of students in the school environment, and individual characteristics of students are potential influences on school climate. Empirical research demonstrates that students respond differently to school climate based on individual characteristics such as race [45][46][47] and sexual orientation [48]. ...
Article
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The study explored sex differences in traditional school bullying perpetration and victimization among Chinese adolescents and the effects of Machiavellianism and school climate. Data were collected from 727 adolescents (M = 16.8 years, SD = 0.9) who completed the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire, Kiddie Machiavellian Scale, and School Climate Perception Questionnaire. Results showed: (1) boys were more likely to bully others and be bullied; (2) both Machiavellianism and school climate partially mediated sex differences in school bullying perpetration and victimization; (3) the chain-mediating effect of Machiavellianism and school climate on sex differences in bullying perpetration and victimization was significant. These results provide insight into the sex differences in Chinese traditional school bullying perpetration and victimization. The implications are interpreted and discussed.
... Theoretical framework is based on Vygotsky's [1] socio-cultural theory and a socio-constructivist approach where knowledge is transformed in interaction, and quality, not quantity of interaction shapes the individual's meaning making. A Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory [2] is also referred to in the context of transition in a way that by connecting multiple systems it provides continuous and effective support for successful transition for all participants. ...
... It also calls for reflection on one's own implicit pedagogy because socio-constructivist theory lies on the foundations of the social construction of the image of a child. A Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory [2] is also referred to in the context of transition to school. By connecting multiple systems, continuous and effective support is provided for successful transition for all stakeholder. ...
... Bronfenbrenner states that the developmental potential of the environment in which an individual finds himself increases with the number of quality connections between different environments. High-quality, numerous and strong connections between different microsystems that interact with an individual facilitate his transition from one microsystem to another and strengthen his position within the system [2]. So, the stronger the positive connections that make up the mesosystems are, more sustainable and holistic the development of an individual is. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper explores the current theory and practice of transition from kindergarten to school from the perspective of early childhood education and care educators and primary school teachers in the Republic of Croatia. Theoretical framework is based on Vygotsky’s (1978) socio-cultural theory and a socio-constructivist approach where knowledge is transformed in interaction, and quality, not quantity of interaction shapes the individual's meaning making. A Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory (1979) is also referred to in the context of transition in a way that by connecting multiple systems it provides continuous and effective support for successful transition for all participants. The study was conducted within a mixed method research as a part of a doctoral dissertation of one of the authors. This paper will present the qualitative data extracted through a grounded theory method. A transitional period of professional development, a double image of a child and a greenhouse pedagogy are the main concepts characterizing educator’s pedagogy and practice in the context of transition from kindergarten to school. Those concepts are further explored in this paper due to their implications on the continuous professional learning in the early childhood education and care (ECEC) and compulsory school education (CSE) system. Main findings and discussion implies that continuous professional learning concerning transition from kindergarten to school should focus on educator’s implicit pedagogies rather than on current practice of creating short-term transition activities for children. By focusing on educator’s knowledge, beliefs and practices that are responsive to their individual’s context it is possible to make sustainable changes in the educational process that go beyond evanescent transitional activities that have no long-term effects neither for children, for their families or educators. A transitional period of professional development, a double image of a child and a 'greenhouse' pedagogy are important indicators of educator’s implicit pedagogies and current state of practice and they should have an impact on policy and practice. These findings suggest ways on how professional development might be organized to positively influence sustainable changes in the educational processes that go beyond the transition process.
... The next context (the mesosystem) includes interaction with the broader community; inter-university activities; the university's culture and position in relation to other institutions; the geographical location of the institution; and the inf luence and role of the media or mass media on the student (Beekman, 2012). The broader context of the exosystem includes settings that can bear on the individual with greater or lesser intensity (Bronfenbrenner, 1981), such as family and extended family structures; the community whence the student came; cultural settings; and economic status and occurrences (Beekman, 2012). Then, the macrosystem implies the larger society; governmental regulations; and policy or legal changes; while the global system implies events and occurrences in the even broader, global environment. ...
... Then, the macrosystem implies the larger society; governmental regulations; and policy or legal changes; while the global system implies events and occurrences in the even broader, global environment. These systems may have strong inf luences on individual (student) life in direct or indirect ways (Bronfenbrenner, 1981). ...
Article
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This conceptual, reflective article explores recent innovations in mental health service provision at a large urban, residential university in South Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic. Prior to the pandemic, mental health services at this university were generally offered through face-to-face consultations, with secondary offerings in the form of well-being workshops at student residences and faculty houses. The need for mental health support was acute during the pandemic, placing great pressure on service provision. At the same time, however, everyone – that is, all staff and students – were working remotely as campuses had been closed under national lockdown. In this context, it was necessary to connect students to mental health services while they were studying remotely during the various phases of lockdown and to revisit the conventional and possibly largely reactive model of mental health service provision. Innovation in the promotion and provision of mental health services and products at this university, including through corporate partnerships and the responsible use of automation and technology, helped to achieve market penetration and widespread utilisation of services. In addition, ethical considerations; the factors inhibiting and supporting change; and the sustainability of the efforts undertaken during this period had to be addressed. Drawing lessons from the experience at this university, it is recommended that, while there will always be a place for conventional mental health service offerings, it may be time to expand the model permanently on modern campus environments, where there is a need for a caring community; committed leadership; the development of resilience in the student body; and the building of personal strengths in individuals.
... From a social-ecological perspective, a complex series of individual and structural factors shape risk for IPV and its related health outcomes (Bronfenbrenner, 1979;Drexler et al., 2021;Jewkes, 2002). Women of low socioeconomic status disproportionately experience physical IPV (Aizer, 2011;Jewkes, 2002) and poverty and IPV often co-occur, which can lead to increased stress, social isolation, and depression; these effects can be particularly pronounced for vulnerable racial and ethnic minorities Gillum, 2019). ...
... Experiences of IPV that affect prenatal care are likely to be shaped by both structural and individual-level ecological risk factors (Bronfenbrenner, 1979;Drexler et al., 2021;Jewkes, 2002). At the individual level, the prenatal period is frequently a time when control by an abusive partner begins (Heward-Belle, 2017). ...
Article
Rationale: Past research has shown that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with less adequate access to prenatal care. However, less is known about why IPV creates challenges for accessing prenatal care, including how IPV is related to unique barriers to prenatal care. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the association between physical IPV around the time of pregnancy (preconception IPV, prenatal IPV, or both preconception and prenatal IPV) and (1) adequacy of prenatal care, and (2) barriers to prenatal care. Methods: Data are from 35 sites (34 states and New York City) from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) for years 2009-2016 (n = 166,840). Adequacy of prenatal care is examined using multinomial logistic regression and measures of barriers to prenatal care are assessed using negative binomial regression and logistic regression. Results: The findings reveal that women with IPV exposure-especially those who experience IPV both before and during pregnancy-are more likely to experience inadequate prenatal care. In addition, women with IPV exposure incur a higher rate of barriers to prenatal care, as well as several specific barriers to prenatal care including not having transportation, not being able to get time off work, being too busy, being unable to find child care, and keeping a pregnancy a secret. Conclusions: Considering the adverse consequences of both IPV and inadequate access to prenatal care for maternal and child health, the findings of this study highlight the need for public health interventions that both reduce the prevalence of IPV and remove barriers to prenatal care for IPV-exposed women.
... Being part of this complex world requires that we are capable of engaging with and relating to our environment. This environment includes significant and less significant others, organizations, communities, institutions, society and societal developments, ecology and climate, and all the accompanying crises (Bronfenbrenner 1977(Bronfenbrenner , 1979Page and Howard 2010). All these factors affect our mental health. ...
... Others also underline that recovery is relational in nature (Price-Robertson et al. 2017). Likewise, socio-ecological perspectives based on the work of Bronfenbrenner (1977Bronfenbrenner ( , 1979 specify the influence of intrapersonal factors, interpersonal processes, institutional factors, community factors and public policy on health (Golden and Earp 2012;McLeroy et al. 1988). However, in scientific and clinical approaches to mental health, the multiple interactions and multidimensional networks in which people are involved are not alwaysor are often not-taken into account. ...
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This article argues how the clinical psychology of religion can support mental health and mental health care. The starting point is an ecological–existential approach to mental health, that stresses the interactions between person and environment, with an emphasis on the existential dimension of interactions. This approach will be related to religion and spirituality (R/S) and the study of R/S and mental health. To show the added value of an ecological–existential approach, the emotion of shame will be discussed as an illustrative case. Finally, implications for clinical psychology of religion and mental health care will be outlined and a clinical case report will be presented.
... Clare et al. 3. To explore the benefits and challenges of offering a psychoeducational support program. Draws on ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) and group practice model (Penninx et al., 1999); also the value of psycho-education to increase resilience, coping skills and empowerment (Hayes & Gantt, 1992;Landsverk & Kane, 1998 ...
... Interventions that were delivered by psychologists (O'Connell et al., 2014;Taylor-Rubin et al., 2020) placed considerable importance on Yalom's (2005) universality and altruism factors, although delivering support groups as opposed to group psychotherapy. Finally, Morhardt et al. (2019) introduced ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) to explain how people "understand and cope with their illness in relation to others" (p. 1312), and group psychoeducation as a means of expanding social networks alongside normalizing experiences, developing tools for self-care (Penninx et al., 1999) and coping and empowerment (Hayes & Gantt, 1992;Landsverk & Kane, 1998). ...
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Objectives The aim of this integrative review was to identify and synthesize the literature on peer support interventions for people living with or caring for someone with a rare or young onset dementia. Design A literature search of articles was performed using the Nipissing University Primo search system, a central index that enables simultaneous searches across databases which included MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, Cochrane Library. Results The eleven papers that met the inclusion criteria spanned eighteen years and from five countries. Studies reported on peer support programs that were either hospital-based (n = 6) or community-based (n = 4), and were predominantly led by disciplines in the health sciences. Only one study did not involve delivering services. There was a range of methodological quality within the studies included in the review. Further analysis and synthesis led to the identification of three overarching peer support themes. These included: (1) peers as necessarily part of social support interventions; (2) a theoretical portmanteau; and (3) dementia spaces and relationality. Conclusion Consistent with a much larger body of work examining peer involvement in social interventions, this review reinforced the valuable contribution of peers. A full understanding of the mechanisms of change was not achieved. Notwithstanding, the issue of studies neglecting to sufficiently conceptualize and describe interventions is an important one – drawing attention to the need to continue to explore varied delivery, including co-produced models, and more effective evaluation strategies to inform the dementia care sector.
... Drawing inspiration from the levels used in ecological models (e.g., Bronfenbrenner, 1979), a micro-, meso-, macro-, exo-and chrono-level was adopted in the final model. Originally, the ecological systems theory of Bronfenbrenner (1979;2009) described how children's development is influenced by multiple levels of surrounding environment, typically displayed as a nested arrangement of structures (each level contained within the next). These levels differ in the degree to which their influence on children's development is direct. ...
... Drawing inspiration from this ecological systems theory in the fourth and fifth step of data analysis, but still starting inductively from the data, the current study organised the different factors that parents mentioned as having an influence on their children's attachment in five levels. In the current study, these levels were defined as: micro (i.e., factors related to the child or the parent himself), meso (i.e., factors related to the mutual interactions between parents and children, as well as the family interactions), exo (i.e., factors related to the environment that children were not directly part of), macro (i.e., the broader community and policy) and chrono (i.e., changes over time, both experiences related to past changes or concerns regarding possible future changes) (Bronfenbrenner, 2009;Berk, 2018). ...
Article
Being confident as attachment figures is not self-evident for parents of children with severe or profound intellectual disabilities (SPID) given the children’s limited clear communicative responses. The current study drew upon the Attachment Strengths and Needs Interview to get an overview of factors that parents identify as influencing their parent-child attachment relationships. Inductive semantic thematic analysis was conducted on 23 semi-structured interviews (including responses of 35 parents). These were the parents of children (1–9 years) with a severe or profound intellectual (or multiple) disability. The results showed that parents mentioned a large number of inhibiting and facilitating factors related to developing attachment relationships with their children. Adopting an ecological systems perspective, these influences were organised in a micro-, meso-, macro-, exo- and chrono-level. This implies that not only factors related to the child (and his/her disability) were mentioned, but also factors related to (amongst others) the parents, the parent-child and family interactions, the broader environment and policy. Concluding, from parents’ perspectives, it seemed that the factors influencing the (development of) attachment relationships can be positive and negative, are versatile, layered in different levels, interconnected and not necessarily linked to their children’s disability. Both generic factors across parents and specific factors, related to individual families, should be taken into account to provide tailored support.
... To better understand the complexity of the phenomena under observation, the adoption of a socio-ecological approach [28] is needed because it allows us to consider all the relevant factors related to both the individual sphere (such as sex, age, time spent in front of a screen, prosociality and perceived emotions) and the social context (socio-economic context, school climate, parental education and parental employment status) [29]. Concerning the gender differences in cyberbullying involvement, the results of the scientific literature are quite inconsistent: some studies have found that the prevalence rates of cyber victimisation are higher among girls than among boys [30][31][32], others suggest that boys have a higher probability of being perpetrators [33][34][35][36][37], while most of the studies have not found any significant correlation between gender and the prevalence rates of cyberbullying [38,39]. ...
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The increase in the use of the Internet, strongly boosted by the spread of COVID-19, has amplified the risk of involvement in cyberbullying and online grooming among minors. To date, most research on these phenomena has focused on middle and high school students, with fewer studies on younger children. The present study aims to fill this knowledge gap by measuring the spread of cyberbullying and online grooming in a sample of 410 primary school students in the city of Rome and by identifying the main individual and environmental predictors associated with the involvement of children in these phenomena using factor analysis. Results indicate that both cyberbullying and online grooming are widespread among respondents, showing common traits within the four latent dimensions identified. Screen time is among the main predictors of children's involvement, together with parental supervision, phubbing behaviours, prosocial tendencies and family socioeconomic background. These findings highlight the need for further studies on representative samples of this age group, as well as for a greater cooperative effort among schools, parents and caregivers to keep children safe in the virtual world.
... Meta-analyses showed that whole school multi-level prevention programs that integrate a socio-ecological perspective on development (Swearer & Espelage, 2004) are on average successful to reduce rates of bullying and victimization (e.g., Farrington et al., 2017;Gaffney et al., 2019Gaffney et al., , 2021). Whole school multi-level prevention programs often use Bronfenbrenner's socio-ecological model as the overarching theoretical framework (Bronfenbrenner, 1979), but usually also integrate other theoretical ideas to structure their complex interventions that are carried out on different systemic levels (Strohmeier et al., 2012b). Importantly, interventions are often designed to target the needs of distinct sub-groups. ...
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The effectiveness and program mechanisms of a whole-school anti-bullying program that builds on the socio-ecological framework were investigated by applying person-oriented methods of data analyses. A longitudinal cluster randomized control study was utilized comprising 1377 adolescents (48.5% girls, Mage = 11.7) who participated in a 1-year whole school anti-bullying program that was implemented in 13 schools and 665 adolescents (45.2% girls, Mage = 11.6) who attended 5 control schools. Student reports were collected at pre- and post-test within a 1-year interval. Applying latent profile analyses (LPA), students who were actively involved in bullying as perpetrators (e.g., bullies), who were the target of bullying (e.g., victims), who were both (e.g., bully-victims), and who were not involved either as perpetrators or victims (e.g., uninvolved) were identified. Latent transition analyses (LTA) investigated transition patterns between bully, victim, bully-victim, and uninvolved subgroups in the control and intervention group before and after the 1-year program implementation. Program effectiveness (e.g., a higher transition probability in the intervention compared to the control group) were found for victims and bully-victims. It was explored whether changes in program mechanisms were differently related to changes in these sub-group memberships in the intervention group. Victims transiting to the uninvolved sub-group increased in help-seeking and anti-bullying norms, while bully-victims transiting to the uninvolved sub-group increased help-seeking, perceived teacher intervention, and anti-bullying norms. It can be concluded that this program works differently for different sub-groups of students and that different mechanisms of change drive changes in different sub-groups of students.
... Though early circumstances are not wholly deterministic of adult life, there is substantial empirical evidence supporting the echo of early circumstances into lifelong outcomes (e.g., Duncan et al., 2010;Dunn et al., 2016;Liu & Hannum, 2017). Drawing on ecological systems theory, children's development is shaped by the interactions between an individual and context, where nested spheres of varying proximity (e.g., family, neighborhood, culture) interact to influence development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979(Bronfenbrenner, , 1977. Temporality (i.e., the chronosystem) is highlighted in this theory, where the timing and duration of children's contextual interactions play an important role in development (Bronfenbrenner, 1986). ...
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Children’s learning and cognitive development have a distinct receptivity to the circumstances of childhood. However, not all children have equal opportunities and learning inequities continue to be influenced by the social and economic circumstances of childhood. Examining factors within the environments that children are growing up in, and the associations of these factors with learning, can help to identify leverage points for change, enabling more children to be supported to reach their potential. Specifically, turning attention to the timing and duration of exposure to specific social and economic factors across childhood can provide essential details to determine who is most susceptible to contextual effects and at what ages. This paper presents a systematic review of 75 longitudinal studies of families and children carried out between 2000 and 2021. These studies tracked social and economic circumstances between pregnancy and early adolescence in relation to educational and cognitive outcomes across the lifespan. The results of the included studies were examined and grouped into themes using reflexive thematic analysis. The findings largely suggest that the degree to which educational and cognitive outcomes are affected by specific social and economic circumstances depends on the duration, timing, and mobility across childhood. In particular, findings relating to the developmental timing of exposure, as well as persistent exposure, revealed distinct evidence of the effects of temporality. These findings provide detail into how much and in what instances temporality should be considered—results which can be used to inform avenues for reducing learning disparities.
... This raises concerns about whether or not they are having sufficient influence on the result. Instead, we suggest that the MaaS context represents a nested ecosystem (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) with complex interacting and overlapping structures. Public authorities set the principles, policies, and rules to guide the structures and the ecosystem's emergence. ...
... The ecological approach sees children developing not in isolation, but as part of a larger system. There are many influences upon children and each of these needs to be taken into consideration when dealing with children (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). This is perhaps even more evident in a rural or remote locality where the impact of larger systems on individuals can often be more obvious because of the small community. ...
Article
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Across Australia there are many courses preparing graduates to work with children in various capacities, child care workers, teachers, play leaders and other positions too numerous to mention. Many of these courses recognise the importance of practical experience and have incorporated practical components within their courses. However, many of these practices are located in the city giving new graduates little practice in the specific needs faced by children and families in rural communities. In an attempt to address this situation one of these courses, currently operating in Western Australia, decided to incorporate a Rural and Remote Practice into its program. Each year this practice is offered in a different setting, depending upon the needs of the rural community. It would appear that there are four key stake holders in this practical arrangement, the students, the staff, the university and the community. All seem to gain a great deal from their involvement in such a practical experience. This paper will describe the type of experiences offered and look at the gains made by each of these stake holder groups. Unfortunately it is not possible to capture on paper all the golden moments that were had during these experiences and therefore a video and pictorial presentation accompanied the paper at theconference.
... From an ecological perspective coined by Bronfenbrenner (1979), the view is held when dealing with autistic children that parents' well-being is important in child development because of the reciprocal interaction that exists between family members, services and resources they access. The ecological perspective looks at the individual and how they interact with their environment and it seeks to assist them interact better with their environment. ...
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Autism is not a disability; it is a condition. Quite a few literatures are available on autism and awareness about this condition is almost non-existent. The aim of the research was to establish what social work services exist to improve the general functioning of mothers of children living with autism. The study focused on the importance of social work services in respect of mothers with autistic children in Rustenburg, North West province. The concept as well as prevalence of autism were highlighted. Unstructured interview schedule was used purposefully to conduct this qualitative study to gain in-depth information from the key informants. The ecosystem perspective was utilized to understand the environment in which the participants live, as well as the strength based perspectives that emphasizes that individuals have the capacity to make necessary changes in their lives provided they are given support and information. The findings confirmed that mothers with autistic children face a lot of challenges and that social work intervention is needed to autistic child and the family.
... To summarise, the focus in Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory is on the quality and context of the child's environment. As a child develops, the interaction within these environments becomes more complex (Bronfenbrenner, 2009). This complexity can arise as the child's physical and cognitive structures grow and mature, thus creating a link between nature and the child's development (nurture). ...
Article
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Drawing on interviews with parents of indigenous communities, this article presents insights into indigenous parenting aspects related to inside-and-outside classroom learning, cross-cultural complexities, and literacy practices by taking perspectives of Malaysia’s indigenous parents as an example. Using Bronfenbrenner's ecological model on how individuals navigate complex interactions in a particular society, indigenous parents' authority and agency play important roles in navigating competing issues of indigenous learners' literacy, learning, and class. Implications on parenting practices, particularly on uplifting indigenous parents with sociocultural, learning, and literacy engagement within changing and challenging expectations of indigenous learners inside and outside their homes, are presented.
... The roots of nature-based education are based on different theories which have significant influences on early years education: the views of Comenius on the relationship between nature and sensory experiences; the opinions of Froebel on nature and collaboration; the ideas of Piaget on nature and first-hand experiences; the views of Montessori on nature and intrinsic motivation; the opinions of Steiner on nature and experiential learning; and the statements of Rousseau on nature and healthy development (Ahi & Kahriman-Pamuk, 2021;Blackwell, 2015). While Bronfenbrenner (1979) discussed the importance of mutual interaction between the child and nature, Dewey (1986) highlighted that nature and natural resources should be in children's lives to support their development. In these philosophical tenets, nature creates spaces for children to play, transform, and become independent learners (Duhn, 2012). ...
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The activities, approaches, and classroom instructions in which technology is at the center gradually increase as a necessity of our world. Through classroom practice, it is aimed that children develop competence and skills from an early age. On the other hand, substantial research has been undertaken on nature-based approaches to children’s learning. However, integrating the benefits of nature-based learning and digital competencies has yet to be understood. The present study seeks to understand and explain this integration and relationship between nature and technology in the early years of education. For this purpose, this study used previous literature as a supporting resource. This review found evidence that the practice of integrating nature-based learning with technology is effective in children’s understanding and development. Therefore, this study can contribute to a better understanding of why and how to integrate these different approaches and should be valuable to practitioners wishing to support children with a well-rounded approach.
... Interview data has further shown that parents struggle to allocate attention between their children and the use of mobile devices for work or social purposes, making it challenging to read and respond to their children's behavioral and emotional cues [53]. In addition, ecosystem theory shows that the family environment strongly influences the behavioral development of children [54]. Young children's development is highly sensitive to external conditions and will be hindered by an indifferent environment, uncaring parents, and lack of interactive language, thereby increasing their propensity to behavioral problems. ...
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Phubbing—the act of ignoring someone physically present in favor of a mobile phone—is increasingly prevalent in families, and mothers’ phubbing behaviors may have a particularly important effect on young children’s development. Accordingly, this study explores the mediating role of mother–child attachment in the relationship between mother phubbing and children’s emotional and behavioral problems, as well as the role of maternal parenting stress in moderating the mediation effect. A total of 988 mothers of young children (mean age = 4.93, SD = 0.94) were surveyed using four scales, and the resulting data was statistically analyzed. The study found that (1) mother phubbing was significantly and positively correlated with children’s emotional and behavioral problems (r = 0.19, p < 0.01), (2) mother–child attachment mediated the relationship between mother phubbing and children’s emotional and behavioral problems, and (3) the relationship between mother–child attachment and children’s emotional and behavioral problems was moderated by maternal parenting stress. The present study offers fresh evidence of how mother phubbing affects young children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties. The need to reduce maternal parental stress and buffer mothers from its effects are highlighted as vital factors in promoting secure mother–child attachment and alleviating young children’s problems.
... Theoretically, the study applies a convergence of three perspectives that explain human development as a function of environment and social experiences. Firstly, Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological system contends that children's experiences and interactions in micro and meso systems provide initial socialization to development, of which literacy is a part. In these settings, all children have direct or indirect experience of literacy in their families, neighbourhoods, schools and churches. ...
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This study examined the effect of home environment factors in the acquisition of early reading skills (orthographic awareness and decoding competence). To assess these factors, a sample of seventy-two (72) first grade learners (females = 55%; age range = 7–8 years) and their maternal parents (age range 26–61 years old) from low SES in Zambia's capital city, Lusaka were recruited. Parents, in response to a home literacy questionnaire, reported on their attitudes towards reading, literacy teaching in the home, the home literacy environment, presence of reading materials for adults and children, parental education, occupation, family size and family possessions. Two measures of reading skill were administered at school. Correlations revealed that parental education, occupation and the size of the family were not significantly associated with the reading measures. Family possessions, parental reading attitudes, literacy activities, and reading materials significantly predicted orthographic awareness. In predicting decoding competence, only family possessions, parental reading attitudes and literacy activities were predictive. Regardless of the context, children experience literacy in varied forms and quantities.
... Additionally, a surgical center for excellence in Brisbane, was identi ed as a facilitator of surgical training and to ensure high quality healthcare (31). Bronfenbrenner's (1981) Ecological Systems Theory (EST) was utilized to map the rst four levels of EST onto the Australian public health system and provided a framework to examine the barriers and challenges to publicly-funded in GAS in Australia. ...
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Background: Barriers to publicly-funded gender-affirming surgery (GAS) in Australia have been identified as cost, limited availability of qualified providers and lack of public hospital systems performing/offering these services. Our study explores barriers, facilitators, and potential implications for expanding, and improving publicly-funded GAS in Australia from the perspectives of an Australian cohort of gender-affirming clinicians. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with eight clinicians who currently work within gender-affirming health services in Queensland, Australia. Through ecological systems theory, gender minority stress framework, and reflexive thematic analysis, themes and subthemes were identified. Results: Our study identified three themes and five sub-themes exploring the barriers and facilitators to publicly-funded GAS in Queensland, Australia. The first theme “I don’t know how this it’s ever going to happen” captures participant concerns that gender-affirming surgery is a misunderstood intervention within the wider medical community and this perception impedes progress of publicly-funded GAS. The second theme, “Hoping Against Hope” depicts the double-edged dilemma of maintaining hope of accessing surgery even if it is “unrealistic.” The last, and third theme, “No if, When” depicts the certainty amongst participants that publicly-funded GAS is inevitable and will become a reality in Queensland, Australia. Conclusions: Gender-affirming clinicians indicated establishing a surgical center for excellence in trans and non-binary healthcare is an essential facilitator needed to implement publicly-funded GAS. This would allow for a best-practice decentralized model of gender-affirming care to be realized in future to optimize health and wellbeing among trans and non-binary persons. Thereremain substantial barriers, specifically at exosystem and macrosystem levels, within the public health service needing urgent attention. Implications of findings are relevant to funding, clinical practice, research, and policy within and beyond Australia.
... According to ecological theory, two environmental systems, home and childcare affect child development not only independently but also by interaction between them ( Bronfenbrenner, 1979 ). The significance of relationships between parents and teachers of preschool children is well established ( Epstein, 2018 ;Galindo and Sheldon, 2012 ). ...
Article
Educators and researchers increasingly recognise the impact of teachers’ agency on language education policy enactment in their classrooms. The study is aimed to conduct cross-cultural comparisons of Israeli and Icelandic teachers regarding their agency towards linguistically and culturally diverse children in a preschool context. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 selected teachers who had rich pedagogical experience in educating children with immigrant background. In both countries, we found that teachers’ agency was expressed on continuums from teachers’ proactivity to teachers' passiveness regarding linguistically and culturally diverse teaching; from perception of home language as a resource to viewing it as a barrier to the child’s progress in the societally dominant language; and from equal relationships to teacher-parents’ hierarchical relationships. Despite historical and socio-cultural differences between the two countries, we found striking similarities between the teachers in their reports on classroom management of diversity and interactions with children and families.
... It has existed for decades, or even longer, across a variety of disciplines. General systems theory (von Bertalanffy, 1968) and ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1976(Bronfenbrenner, , 1981 are two of the foundational theories that were later developed into other fields, including education. Approaching academic integrity from a systems perspective can provide a useful way to talk about this complex topic (Bertram Bertram Gallant & Kalichman, 2011;. ...
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The original version of the book was inadvertently published with an incorrect line inthe Abstract in Chapter 9 (Ethics, EdTech, and the Rise of Contract Cheating). This has now been rectified and the line has been removed. The chapter and book have been updated with the changes. The updated
... However, the authors also report another interesting finding of an interaction between the ratings and location, with the postures of Iranian men suggesting cross-cultural differences in the topography of effective coping. This highlights the importance of taking a multilevel approach to the study of human behaviour that considers the influence of progressively larger ecosystems [4]. In which the individual and their behaviour is situated [1]. ...
Article
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The last thirty years have seen significant advances in cognitive and behavioural psychotherapies and their application in health care/clinical practices [...]
... Moreover, in order to promote healthy lifestyle behavior, it is helpful to develop programs driven by theoretical frameworks, such as the ecological model. The ecological model is multidimensional, and it focuses on three general levels: individual, interpersonal, and community factors [16,17]. Reference [18] categorized the ecological system into a microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem. ...
Article
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A healthy lifestyle among the elderly is associated with improved health. However, many older adults are not engaging in such behavior. The purpose of the study was to develop an individually tailored online/telephone program to increase healthy lifestyle behaviors among community-dwelling elderly people. The program includes individually tailored healthy lifestyle recommendations based on participants’ functional level. Community-dwelling elderly people aged 60+ years (n = 77; mean age: 72.98 ± 6.49) participated in the study. Significant associations were observed between health promotion activities and health status (r = 0.23, p = 0.04) and physical functional level (r = 0.44, p < 0.001). Twenty-seven percent of participants claimed that they learned “a lot” of new things about themselves, and 31% claimed that the recommendations received were new to them. Most participants engaged in the recommendations at least 1–2 times a week. Regression analyses showed that barriers significantly predicted reduced compliance with the health-related recommendations received (adjusted R2 = 0.18). The main barrier for compliance was inaccessible information about services (32.46% of the participants). The most prevalent facilitator for compliance with the recommendation was health behavior motivation (59.74% of the participants). In conclusion, this study provided evidence on the effectiveness of a multicomponent tailored intervention program among the elderly in increasing health-related knowledge and behavior about the recommendations.
... According to Bronfenbrenner, the microsystem, intermediate external system, and macrosystem represent a complete hierarchical system around individuals. Individual represents the core of the system and family is an important component of microsystem [48]. Parents are the first teachers of children and are important initial contacts. ...
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Backgrounds In the face of the new environment, different individuals have different reactions. Those who have good adaptability constantly establish individual self-efficacy through making friends and completing their studies, thus forming a good dependency with the university environment. However, individuals with poor ability to adapt to the new environment will have some bad phenomena, such as truancy, weariness and self denial. As a result, the students’ adaptations of to the growth environment where in universities are the important topics in recent years. Methods Present study introduces irrational beliefs to investigate the effects of parenting mode on maladaptation of university students. The questionnaires based on simplified parenting mode (Chinese), irrational belief and adaptability were administered in a survey of 510 university students in Zhanjiang on October, 2021, the list of students of Guangdong Ocean University is taken as the sampling frame and determined by random sampling. Parenting mode was used as the independent variable, while the emotionally warm, overprotective and rejecting types were used as the indices. Further, the irrational beliefs including summary comments, awful beliefs and low tolerance to setbacks as well as maladaptation were included in the mediation model for analysis. Results The results showed that the rejection parenting mode was negatively related with absolute requirements (r = − 0.143), and learning motivation (r = − 0.157), interpersonal adaptation (r = − 0.283) and physical and psychological adjustment (r = − 0.083). Overprotection was negatively correlated with absolute requirements (r = − 0.042) and interpersonal adaptation (r = − 0.042). The mediating effect of irrational beliefs (low tolerance to setbacks, awful beliefs and absolute requirements), the lower and upper limits of Bootstrap confidence interval were 0.135 and 0.461, respectively, excluding 0, which indicated that the mediating effect is true. Conclusion Through the analysis of the data, this study believes that irrational beliefs such as low tolerance to setbacks, awful beliefs and absolute requirements mediate the effects on school adjustment. Negative parenting modes such as overprotection and rejection inculcate irrational beliefs, resulting in maladaptation of university students.
... The activation of a need in Maslow's hierarchy (Maslow, 1943), be it the need for safety, intimacy, or the more sophisticated need for self-CULTURAL CURES 31 actualization, likewise depends on the fulfillment of a need that preceded it. Uri Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems model of development (Bronfenbrenner, 1996) is different from Piaget's and Maslow's in that it looks at the tiered influences on a child's development, such as the immediate home environment or the wider cultural landscape, rather than at the tiered stages through which a child passes. Regardless of what the tiers are across these varying psychological frameworks, and putting aside questions pertaining to how closely these frameworks match reality, all are indicative of the general human tendency to conceive of life as a journey through stages (or, in the case of ecological systems, a journey across the levels of influence on a developing person). ...
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The current article advances the hypothesis that creative culture evolved, in part, to allay the costs of the overgrown human brain and the cognitive integration limit that it imposes. Specific features can be expected among cultural elements best suited to allaying the integration limit and also among the neurocognitive mechanisms that might undergird these cultural effects. Music, visual art, and meditation are used as examples to illustrate how culture helps to bridge or sidestep the integration limit. Tiered religious, philosophical, and psychological concepts are considered in light of their reflection of the tiered process of cognitive integration. The link between creativity and mental illness is offered as additional support for the role of cognitive disconnection as a wellspring of cultural creativity, and I propose that this link can be harnessed in defense of neurodiversity. Developmental and evolutionary implications of the integration limit are discussed.
... The multilevel emphasis and meta-theoretical perspective, integrating different frame-of-reference effects into single theoretical framework, is consistent with a broader systems perspective on the centrally important role played by different contextual settings (Marsh, Pekrun, et al., 2017;Parker, Marsh et al., in press), including the theoretical models of Bronfenbrenner (1979) andElder (1985). The approach taken here can also be seen as a systems approach that articulates the processes by which macro-contextual effects influence individual students (Marsh, Pekrun, et al., in press). ...
... Moreover, in a context in which ethical issues are often discussed from a micro perspective, our study helps shed light on both the micro-and macro-level ethical dimensions of research (Bronfenbrenner, 1979;Glaser 1994). However, given that ethical issues in research are not only diverse, but also and above all complex, a broader perspective that encompasses the interplay between the micro and macro dimensions can enable a better understanding of these issues and thereby support the identification of the multiple factors that may be at their origin. ...
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In the context of academic research, a diversity of ethical issues, conditioned by the different roles of members within these institutions, arise. Previous studies on this topic addressed mainly the perceptions of researchers. However, to our knowledge, no studies have explored the transversal ethical issues from a wider spectrum, including other members of academic institutions as the research ethics board (REB) members, and the research ethics experts. The present study used a descriptive phenomenological approach to document the ethical issues experienced by a heterogeneous group of Canadian researchers, REB members, and research ethics experts. Data collection involved socio-demographic questionnaires and individual semi-structured interviews. Following the triangulation of different perspectives (researchers, REB members and ethics experts), emerging ethical issues were synthesized in ten units of meaning: (1) research integrity, (2) conflicts of interest, (3) respect for research participants, (4) lack of supervision and power imbalances, (5) individualism and performance, (6) inadequate ethical guidance, (7) social injustices, (8) distributive injustices, (9) epistemic injustices, and (10) ethical distress. This study highlighted several problematic elements that can support the identification of future solutions to resolve transversal ethical issues in research that affect the heterogeneous members of the academic community.
... Further discussions identified key themes related to the COVID-19 pandemic. We then organized these themes into domains by applying an existing social-ecological framework [17], which posits that individual, relationship, community, and societal factors converge and interact to influence health. We chose this framework because the social-ecological model recognizes that an individual child does not exist in isolation but is nested within family and clinician relationships, community contexts, and social policies. ...
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Due to a national shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists, pediatric primary care providers (PCPs) are often responsible for the screening, evaluation, and treatment of mental health disorders. COVID-19 pandemic stay-at-home orders decreased access to mental health care and increased behavioral and emotional difficulties in children and adolescents. Despite increased demand upon clinicians, little is known about mental health care delivery in the pediatric primary care setting during the pandemic. This focus group study explored the experiences of pediatric PCPs and clinical staff delivering mental health care during the pandemic. Transcripts from nine focus groups with San Francisco Bay Area primary care practices between April and August 2020 were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Providers expressed challenges at the patient-, provider-, and system-levels. Many providers reported increased patient mental health symptomatology during the pandemic, which was often intertwined with patients’ social determinants of health. Clinicians discussed the burden of the pandemic their own wellness, and how the rapid shift to telehealth primary care and mental health services seemed to hinder the availability and effectiveness of many resources. The findings from this study can inform the creation of new supports for PCPs and clinical staff providing mental health care.
... This mechanism applies to other WVS values such as work, where family background is a key influence in relation to education and career choice, as outlined in the ecological model of Bronfenbrenner (1979). Thus, professionally qualified parents instil value sets that replicate their experiences and facilitate inter-generational transfers of privilege. ...
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The collection of data on values through instruments such as the World Values Survey has focused attention on two opposing but inter-related trends, namely the combination of substantial cultural change in many countries and the persistence of distinctive traditional values. This reflects the interplay between social changes associated with modernisation and globalisation—including increased global trade and the rise of global popular culture—with traditional values country-specific systems. In this paper, we introduce a focus on another potentially important source of change, that of widening higher education participation and attainment, and the extent to which self-reported values differ between university graduates and non-graduates. We investigated this question using data from the most recent collection of the World Values Survey (2017–2020) for six core values—family, friends, leisure, work, politics, and religion—and tested for the influence of higher education attainment on the perceived “importance” of each value and the extent to which this influence differs across values and in gender, generation and country grouping sub-samples. We find evidence for consistent effects in most contexts, with no statistical differences between graduates on non-graduates in relation to the propensity to view family and work as important, statistically significant positive effects on the propensity of graduates to view friends, leisure, and politics as important, and a significant negative effect in relation to religion.
... Lewin (1945) travaille par exemple sur l'interdépendance de la personnalité et du milieu environnant. Bronfenbrenner (1977Bronfenbrenner ( , 1979) en s'appuyant sur Lewin (1945) développe par la suite un modèle de l'écologie du développement humain appliqué au développement de l'enfant, permettant d'envisager la relation qu'il entretient avec l'environnement sous la forme de différentes structures (Fougeyrollas, 2010). Pour ce dernier, l'objet de l'écologie du développement humain est d'étudier « Les ajustements progressifs, mutuels se produisant tout au long de la vie entre un organisme humain en croissance et les environnements immédiats en changement dans lequel il vit, ce processus étant influencé par les relations entretenues dans et entre ces contextes immédiats ainsi que par les contextes sociaux formels et informels plus vastes dans lesquels ces environnements s'insèrent » (Bronfenbrenner, 1977, in Fougeyrollas, 2010). ...
Thesis
Cette thèse ambitionne d’appliquer la géographie au secteur médico-social. Réalisée en Convention Industrielle de Formation par la Recherche (CIFRe) au sein de l’association LADAPT, elle a été menée auprès de personnes ayant subi des lésions cérébrales « acquises » accompagnées par les Établissements et Service d’Aide par le Travail (ESAT) des structures de Clermont-Ferrand et de Lyon. Défendant l’idée que le handicap est un phénomène n’existant pas en soi et intervenant uniquement dans l’interaction entre un individu et l’environnement dans lequel il évolue, cette recherche, s’appuyant sur le modèle conceptuel du Processus de Production du Handicap (PPH) prend le contre-pied de la perception individuelle, médicale et administrative du handicap véhiculée dans les politiques sociales françaises.Le postulat de départ s’articule autour de la mobilisation des rapports spatiaux et de l’habiter des individus dans le but d’appréhender l’ensemble des liens qui les unissent avec leur environnement social, culturel et spatial.En analysant les relations objectives et subjectives que chaque personne entretient avec les lieux qu’elle fréquente et les déplacements qu’elle effectue, le point de départ consiste dans le déploiement d’une approche spatiale et géographique pour identifier les ruptures entre l’individu et son environnement. Sur la base des situations de handicap constatées, la finalité est de comprendre et d’évaluer l’efficacité de l’accompagnement médico-social dans sa capacité à agir sur les freins, les limites et les obstacles existant dans le milieu de vie des personnes.
... Therefore, when studying the effects of social change on adolescents' SWB, we need to consider both short-term and longterm effects. Cohort comparisons of samples gathered at different historical points are suitable designs to achieve this aim (Bronfenbrenner, 1979;Crockett and Silbereisen, 1999;Due et al., 2019). In the present cohort-comparison study, we focused on the extent to which personality characteristics (self-esteem), proximal situational influences (daily hassles), and changes in the macrosocial environment during the period of three decades (tracking four cohorts of adolescents at intervals of 8-9 years) influenced adolescents' life satisfaction. ...
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While the assumption that the sociopolitical and economic situation affects adolescents’ well-being, encompassing life satisfaction and a positive sense of self, is plausible, few studies have confirmed such macrosocial influences. The case of the Czech Republic offers an example of a society transitioning from totalitarian government (from 1989) to western democracy. Our study provides statistical description of Czech adolescents’ well-being over the past 30 years in association with the subjective perception of everyday problems. These daily hassles represent experiences and conditions of daily living that have been appraised as salient and harmful or threatening to adolescents’ well-being. We analyzed four samples of adolescents aged 14–17 years surveyed at four time points over the last three decades—1992, 2001, 2011, and 2019, total N = 4,005 (1992: 255, 2001: 306, 2011: 363, 2019: 3081; 54.6% females). The results show that life satisfaction, self-esteem, and self-reported daily hassles changed only marginally from 1992 to 2019 with small differences related to the post-revolution 1992 cohort. Adolescents reported increasing problems in school, relationships with parents, sports, and leisure time over the study period. A model linking daily hassles and self-esteem to life satisfaction across four cohorts showed that daily hassles strongly predicted life satisfaction except in the post-revolution cohort of 1992 when life satisfaction was also the lowest. The effect was slightly higher in females. Across the cohorts, gender differences in life satisfaction changed from males being more satisfied in 1992 to females being more satisfaction in 2019. Limitations stemming from sampling differences across cohorts are discussed.
... The Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory has been applied as a theoretical framework for examining the contextual layers of enablers and barriers to continued breastfeeding (Härkönen, 2001). Although this theoretical model has evolved and been adapted over time (Tudge et al. 2009), this study adopts the earlier perspective, which offers explanation on how individual's behaviour interplays with five layers of social environment 'systems' (Bronfenbrenner 1975(Bronfenbrenner , 1979. The microsystem layer incorporates elements which are directly related to the breastfeeding women whereas the mesosytem layer considers wider formal and informal social structures. ...
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There is a large body of evidence which demonstrates that breastfeeding a child to the age of two years and beyond provides the optimal health benefits for both women and child. However, the wider perception of the ideal breastfeeding duration is often debated and there are stark differences in prevalence of breastfeeding beyond infancy globally. Therefore, this narrative synthesis was employed as a way of rapidly and efficiently gathering relevant information to provide context to understanding a woman’s ability to continue breastfeeding. Extracted emerging themes were categorised against the Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems framework, a widely accepted theoretical model which offers explanation on how individual’s behaviour interplays with five layers of social environment ‘systems’. The themes include 1) Microsystems: Postnatal challenges, Parental style and preference, Age, First-time mothers and Adversity and trauma. 2) Mesosytems: Fathers/domestic relationships, Grandparents, Peer to peer. 3) Exosystems: Public perception and representations, Returning to work. 4) Macrosystems: ethnic group distinctions, religion, national systems. 5) Chronosytems: inequality groups, immigration, and historical context. The review has demonstrated that breastfeeding, and any interventions targeted to support the initiation or continuation of it, must be viewed with an intersectional lens.
Article
The article examines the situation of children of parents in conflict with the law from a victimological and socio-criminological perspective, considering them as secondary victims of their parents’ offences. A comparative analysis was conducted on the conditions of these minors in Italy and Europe, investigating the legal framework, the maternity management, the possible presence of children residing in prison, and providing some examples of organisations and associations working to safeguard the well-being of these children. Particular attention was dedicated to the role of the school as protective factor for children experiencing parental imprisonment. Moreover, a questionnaire was developed which examined the awareness level of teachers in the Italian school system to understand whether these professionals were aware of the presence of underage students with at least one imprisoned parent in their classrooms.
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Over the last decade Ireland has experienced increased interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education across educational contexts from early childhood to adult learning (Department of Education and Skills2017a; DES, 2017b; DES 2020). The STEM Education Policy Statement and Implementation Plan positions early years educators (EYEs) as key players in facilitating young children’s experiences with STEM activity. The plan states that early years educators should possess a thorough understanding of STEM and the teaching and learning of these disciplines. As a result, early childhood settings are now inspected in the area of STEM provision (DES, 2018). However, early years educators in the Republic of Ireland have not received training in the area of STEM education and are often unsure how to provide this important aspect of education in their preschool settings (DES, 2020). Consequently, early years educators must be supported in their role in providing STEM experiences and in supporting children’s engagement with STEM learning in early childhood contexts. To address this need for continuing professional development (CPD) UCD, proposes to establish a ‘STEM Network’, a community of practice (Wenger-Trayner & Wenger-Trayner, 2015), to support educators of children from 0-6 years, in developing their subject content knowledge and appropriate pedagogies in relation to the implementation of STEM education within preschool practice.
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Using data from the Survey of Social Cohesion for the Prevention of Violence and Crime (ECOPRED) 2014, this paper analyzes the incidence of bullying and cyberbullying in young people aged 12 to 16 from the Metropolitan Area of Monterrey, Mexico (AMM). Nine situations were classified according to the type of bullying (physical, psychological, social, and sexual) and one situation was classified as cyberbullying. All these cyberbullying and bullying aggressions (except for the sexual harassment) took place mainly at school and schoolmates were identified as the main aggressors. In the case of sexual bullying, the aggression occurred at the victim’s own house and either a stranger or a member of the household was identified as the aggressor. By gender, in the AMM, a greater proportion of women are victims of physical and sexual bullying, while a greater proportion of men are victims of cyberbullying. In both the AMM and the national average, the incidence of female victims of sexual bullying almost doubles that of males. The proportion of victims of cyberbullying in the national average doubles the incidence in the AMM, with women as the main victims.
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The use of integrative medicine (IM) practices during pregnancy are on the rise in the United States and a growing number of individuals seek pregnancy support outside of the conventional medical system every year. There is a variety of integrative medicine providers (IMPs) who work outside the clinical system to fill the gaps in pregnancy support by providing a set of services such as midwifery, doula care, childbirth education, and lactation support. Evidence suggests integrative medicine providers positively impact pregnancy experiences, yet IMPs are often marginalized and excluded from the conventional pregnancy healthcare system. We present results from an ongoing investigation that seeks to understand the roles IMPs play in pregnancy healthcare journeys, and the pregnancy ecology. We interviewed 12 integrative medicine providers to understand their needs and challenges concerning technology, business models, and communication practices. Our findings reflect on a broad range of topics including the intersection of personal and professional journeys, legitimacy within the healthcare system, and the provision of personalized care. We discuss the potential for technology to support IMPs and present implications for the design of future pregnancy support technologies. Improving collaborative care and communication technologies for the IM community has the potential to improve professional experiences and the quality of care provided by IMPs. WARNING: This paper includes detailed personal narratives of individuals' pregnancy healthcare journey including information about, pregnancy, labor, delivery, birth stories, and pregnancy loss.
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People feel lonely when their social needs are not met by the quantity and quality of their social relationships. Most research has focused on individual-level predictors of loneliness. However, macro-level factors related to historical time and geographic space might influence loneliness through their effects on individual-level predictors. In this Review, we summarize empirical findings on differences in the prevalence of loneliness across historical time and geographical space and discuss four groups of macro-level factors that might account for these differences: values and norms, family and social lives, technology and digitalization, and living conditions and availability of individual resources. Regarding historical time, media reports convey that loneliness is on the rise, but the empirical evidence is mixed, at least before the COVID-19 pandemic. Regarding geographical space, national differences in loneliness are linked to differences in cultural values (such as individualism) but might also be due to differences in the sociodemographic composition of the population. Research on within-country differences in loneliness is scarce but suggests an influence of neighbourhood characteristics. We conclude that a more nuanced understanding of the effects of macro-level factors on loneliness is necessary because of their relevance for public policy and propose specific directions for future research. People feel lonely when their social needs are not met, which can lead to long-term health issues. In this Review, Luhmann et al. summarize empirical findings on differences in the prevalence of loneliness across time and space and consider macro-level factors that might account for these differences.
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This article examines alternative and supplementary ways in which theorists and researchers have sought to account for bullying behavior among students in schools. Contemporary explanations acknowledge the variety, complexity, and interactivity of both person and environmental factors in determining acts of bullying in schools. Two explanatory models or frameworks are described: (i) an adaptation of the theory of planned behavior proposed by Ajzen (Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50:179–211, 1991); and (ii) the comprehensive model of bullying (CMB) by Rigby (Multiperspectivity in school bullying, page 64. Routlege, 2021b). The strengths and limitations of these models are discussed, together with applications in addressing school bullying.
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It is perplexing that some preschool teachers not only advise parents who have children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to go to religious healers, but also attribute such neurological disorders to The curse of The “evil eye” or vaccines. Although it is now The twentieth century, this behavior simply reflects The concerns of over-protective teachers and The cultural misperceptions about The actual definition of ASD. In Yemen, The term “ASD”, with its wide range of symptoms, is still ambiguous among preschool teachers. Thus, in a rather insightful piece for The education community, this study has attempted to look beneath The surface of The beliefs (religious belief–social belief–personal belief) of Yemeni preschool teachers regarding ASD. Based on The data collected from 213 teachers (20–30\31–40-~≥40 age) in The Taiz district, this study found that misconceptions specific to autism spectrum disorder were strongly evidenced among teachers who taught preschoolers. Due to personal ignorance and growing superstitions, these teachers tend to believe The society’s perceptions of ASD, thus resulting in The ignorance of scientific views. However, The mass media can increase this group’s awareness of ASD by continually assessing The inaccurate views on ASD, and correcting them. And by influencing The teachers to take a more conceptual scientific approach in serving their special needs students, furthermore, by informing preschool teachers of children’s rights in normal life in The future through providing children with an optimal chance of development by early intervention.
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Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and gender diverse people, and queer people (LGBTQ people) are at increased risk of some chronic diseases and cancers. NSW Health palliative care health policy prioritises equitable access to quality care, however, little is known about community members' perspectives on palliative care. This study aimed to understand LGBTQ community views and preferences in palliative care in NSW. A community survey and follow-up interviews with LGBTQ people in NSW were conducted in mid-2020. A total of 419 people responded to the survey, with 222 completing it. Six semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with participants who volunteered for follow-up. The sample included LGBTQ people with varied levels of experience in palliative care. Thematic analysis was conducted on survey and interview data, to identify perceived barriers and enablers, and situate these factors in the socio-ecological model of health. Some perceived barriers from community members related to considering whether to be 'out' (i.e., making one's sexual orientation and gender known to services), knowledge and attitudes of staff, concern about potential substandard care or mistreatment (particularly for transgender health), decision making, biological family as a source of tension, and loneliness and isolation. Perceived enablers related to developing and distributing inclusive palliative care information, engaging with community(ies), fostering inclusive and non-discriminatory service delivery, ensuring respectful approaches to person-centred care, and staff training on and awareness building of LGBTQ needs and issues. Most of the participants who had experienced palliative care recounted positive interactions, however, we identified that LGBTQ people require better access to knowledgeable and supportive services. Palliative care information should be inclusive and services respectful and welcoming. Particular consideration should be given to how services respond to and engage with people from diverse population groups. These insights can support ongoing policy and service development activities to further enhance palliative care.
Chapter
Focusing on education as a particularly vital aspect of community-engaged health, the utilization of GC values holds potential to inspire lifelong learning and advance a collective understanding of what can lead to greater overall well-being. The education component takes shape in numerous ways, raising questions of how we learn, what we learn, and why we learn. GC suggests that collaboration demands a mutual exchange of ideas and a willingness to actively listen. It is through an open-minded attitude that we see individuals holding the power to not only learn from but also teach others in a mutual fashion. In the context of public health, a doctor may come bearing the necessary scientific knowledge to educate a community on disease prevention, for example, while the community holds the responsibility of educating the doctor on the unique lifestyles, belief systems, or societal norms that may intersect with the disease. If this doctor intends to be a global citizen, they would prompt meaningful discourse to cultivate a deep connection with the community and ensure the community plays an active role in the initiative from start to finish. GC equips individuals with the knowledge and skills to do just that—share information cross-culturally and broaden perspectives on good health. Moreover, if done effectively, this leads to conscious and targeted health-based education which is essential for communities to remain self-reliant and provide themselves with proper care and resources in the long-term. Achieving an ideal balance of ideas in the public health space, though challenging at times, aids in the creation of a more formal science-based approach to education that is also tailored to complement the beliefs and customs of a given population. Ultimately this will help to promote a concept of health that garners widespread support from all stakeholders, while also advocating for the values of GC.KeywordsPublic healthDiscourseCross-cultural communicationWellbeingCulturally-competent healthcare
Chapter
Resilience can be defined as adaptability to change and capacity for successful adaptation, despite challenges and difficult circumstances. Every day a large number of children experience violence, which takes many forms and occurs in different contexts. It is first necessary to distinguish whether the child was directly abused by the parents or the environment or was just present with violence. It is also necessary to pay attention to the age of the child, his level of development, and understanding of violence. These are some of the factors that can affect the consequences in the future. The chapter will explore theoretical and practical aspects on the topic of risks and resilience associated with violence in the family and the environment. The chapter will also present models of resilience, as well as research conducted, which aims to reduce the level of violence against children.
Chapter
Because of the negative consequences associated with adolescent behavioral problems, such as violence, more research is needed that focuses on the interconnectedness between unsafe schools, bully victimization, and subsequent violence. Additional research may also help identify the processes through which victimized individuals become offenders. Drawing from Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory and Coleman's social capital theory, this researcher argues that the bonds between youths and their families and youths and their schools are important for understanding violent offending. Additionally, this chapter merges insights from sociological and criminological research to explore how unsafe schools and victimization occurring in multiple contexts contributes to youths becoming violent offenders. This chapter also provides policy implications, stressing the importance of an approach that considers how we can best invest in youth's future by bridging families and schools to promote safer schools for all students.
Article
Across phenomena and areas of inquiry, social psychology often emphasizes social categories as the unit of explanation. However, the primacy of categories often leads social psychologists to neglect contextual features that might shape people’s psychologies and behaviour, limiting social psychology theories and their real-world applications. In this Perspective, we urge researchers to move beyond categories and incorporate context more deeply into their theorizing. To make this call actionable, we introduce social constructionism, assemblage theory and dynamic systems as alternative frameworks and present examples of how these frameworks already inform social psychology research. The work featured is not an exhaustive review of research emphasizing context in psychological theorizing, but rather serves to highlight the importance of alternatives to category-based or pseudo-universal frameworks. Social science that considers context must focus on psychological, structural and material features (rather than classifications), their interconnections, and temporal dynamism. Social psychology often emphasizes social categories as the unit of explanation. In this Perspective, Cikara et al. argue that the primacy of categories leads to neglect of contextual features that shape behaviour; they describe alternative frameworks for incorporating context into social psychology theorizing.
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This article argues that in haste to define people as victims, from specific identities like race, a new woke religion is giving an interesting world a malign image. Higher Education (HE) promotes woke agendas that narrow debates and confine curricula content, by dismissing thinking and action that does not align with new identity policy and practice. This is the roar of “smug, entitled mediocrities”, says Burchill (2021). The word woke is discussed and how HE uses it to limit opportunities, damage relationships and foster divisions with disastrous results. Woke-speak robs people of individuality and decency. Education, with a duty to fit students for life and work, should also have a role in developing personal awareness, responsibility and ideas of citizenship. To achieve this, governing systems need radical overhaul to minimise human divisions and improve life quality. HE must take a lead by promoting both instrumental and intrinsic values. In moral philosophy, these values are the distinction between what is a means to an end and what is an end in itself.
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