ArticlePDF AvailableLiterature Review

Abstract and Figures

Finding safer and more effective treatments for specific cancers remains a significant challenge for integrative clinicians and researchers worldwide. One emerging strategy is the use of nanostructured forms of drugs, vaccines, traditional animal venoms, herbs, and nutraceutical agents in cancer treatment. The recent discovery of nanoparticles in traditional homeopathic medicines adds another point of convergence between modern nanomedicine and alternative interventional strategies. A way in which homeopathic remedies could initiate anticancer effects includes cell-to-cell signaling actions of both exogenous and endogenous (exosome) nanoparticles. The result can be a cascade of modulatory biological events with antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. The Banerji Protocols reflect a multigenerational clinical system developed by homeopathic physicians in India who have treated thousands of patients with cancer. A number of homeopathic remedy sources from the Banerji Protocols (eg, Calcarea phosphorica; Carcinosin-tumor-derived breast cancer tissue prepared homeopathically) overlap those already under study in nonhomeopathic nanoparticle and nanovesicle tumor exosome cancer vaccine research. Past research on antineoplastic effects of nano forms of botanical extracts such as Phytolacca, Gelsemium, Hydrastis, Thuja, and Ruta as well as on homeopathic remedy potencies made from the same types of source materials suggests other important overlaps. The replicated finding of silica, silicon, and nano-silica release from agitation of liquids in glassware adds a proven nonspecific activator and amplifier of immunological effects. Taken together, the nanoparticulate research data and the Banerji Protocols for homeopathic remedies in cancer suggest a way forward for generating advances in cancer treatment with natural product-derived nanomedicines.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Volume 3, Number 1 • January 2014 •
Integrative Nanomedicine: Treating Cancer With Nanoscale
Natural Products
Nanomedicina integral: Tratar el cáncer con productos naturales en nanoescala
Iris R. Bell, MD, PhD, United States; Barbara Sarter, PhD, APRN, FNP-C, United States; Mary Koithan, PhD, RN, United
States; Prasanta Banerji, FMIH, India; Pratip Banerji, MD(Hom), India; Shamini Jain, PhD, United States; John Ives,
PhD, United States
Author Affiliations
Department of Family
and Community
Medicine, The University
of Arizona College of
Medicine, Tucson (Dr
Bell); College of Nursing,
The University of
Arizona (Drs Bell and
Koithan); Hahn School
of Nursing and Health
Sciences, University of
San Diego, California,
and Bastyr University –
California (Dr Sarter);
PBH Research
Foundation, Kolkata,
India (Drs Banerji);
Samueli Institute,
Alexandria, Virginia
(Drs Jain and Ives).
Iris R. Bell, MD, PhD
Global Adv Health Med.
2014;3(1):36-53. DOI:
Key Words
Cancer treatment
protocols, Banerji
Protocols, complementary
and alternative
medicine, integrative
medicine, homeopathy,
nanomedicine, nanopar-
ticles, exosomes, nosodes,
hormesis, pulsed
drug dosing
The authors completed
the ICMJE Form for
Disclosure of Potential
Conflicts of Interest, and
Drs Kothan, Sarter,
Banerji, Jain, and Ives
disclosed no potential
conflicts of interest.
Dr Bell disclosed that she
is a consultant to
Standard Homeopathic/
Hylands Inc, a
United States–based
manufacturer of
homeopathic medicines.
Dr Bell also disclosed
funding to her
institution from the
National Institutes of
Health (NCCAM T32).
Finding safer and more eective treat-
ments for specific cancers remains a
significant challenge for integrative
clinicians and researchers worldwide.
One emerging strategy is the use of
nanostructured forms of drugs, vac-
cines, traditional animal venoms,
herbs, and nutraceutical agents in can-
cer treatment. The recent discovery of
nanoparticles in traditional homeo-
pathic medicines adds another point
of convergence between modern
nanomedicine and alternative inter-
ventional strategies. A way in which
homeopathic remedies could initiate
anticancer eects includes cell-to-cell
signaling actions of both exogenous
and endogenous (exosome) nanopar-
ticles. The result can be a cascade of
modulatory biological events with
antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic
eects. The Banerji Protocols reflect a
multigenerational clinical system
developed by homeopathic physi-
cians in India who have treated thou-
sands of patients with cancer. A num-
ber of homeopathic remedy sources
from the Banerji Protocols (eg, Calcarea
phosphorica; Carcinosin—tumor-
derived breast cancer tissue prepared
homeopathically) overlap those
already under study in nonhomeo-
pathic nanoparticle and nanovesicle
tumor exosome cancer vaccine
research. Past research on antineoplas-
tic eects of nano forms of botanical
extracts such as Phytolacca, Gelsemium,
Hydrastis, Thuja, and Ruta as well as on
homeopathic remedy potencies made
from the same types of source materi-
als suggests other important overlaps.
The replicated finding of silica, silicon,
and nano-silica release from agitation
of liquids in glassware adds a proven
nonspecific activator and amplifier of
immunological eects. Taken togeth-
er, the nanoparticulate research data
and the Banerji Protocols for homeo-
pathic remedies in cancer suggest a
way forward for generating advances
in cancer treatment with natural prod-
uct–derived nanomedicines.
挑战。 一项新兴战略是采用纳米结
疗。 针对传统顺势疗法药物纳米颗
(NP) 的一项近期发现结果,在现
又新发现了一个共同点。 顺势疗法
间信号活动。 这一结果可能是调节
作用之间产生的级联反应。 Banerji
制定的多世代临床系统。 许多源自
Banerji 实验方案的顺势疗法(
的疗法存在共同之处。 针对纳米形
同之处。 研究人员从搅动玻璃器皿
异性催化剂和放大剂。 综合起来,
研究数据和 Banerji 实验方案表
Encontrar tratamientos más seguros
y más eficaces para cánceres específi-
cos sigue siendo un desafío significa-
tivo para los médicos integrales e
investigadores en todo el mundo. Una
estrategia emergente es el uso de for-
mas nanoestructuradas de fármacos,
vacunas, venenos animales tradicio-
nales, hierbas y agentes nutracéuticos
en el tratamiento del cáncer. El reci-
ente descubrimiento de las
nanopartículas en medicinas homeo-
páticas tradicionales aporta otro
punto de convergencia entre la nano-
medicina moderna y las estrategias
intervencionistas alternativas. Una
manera en la que los remedios
homeopáticos podrían iniciar efectos
anticancerígenos incluye acciones de
señalización entre células de nano-
partículas exógenas y endógenas
(exosoma). El resultado puede ser una
cascada de acontecimientos biológi-
cos moduladores con efectos antipro-
liferativos y proapoptóticos. Los pro-
tocolos de Banerji reflejan un sistema
clínico multigeneracional desarrolla-
do por médicos homeopáticos en la
India que han tratado a millares de
pacientes con cáncer. Un número de
fuentes de remedios homeopáticos de
los protocolos de Banerji (p. ej., cal-
cárea fosfórica; carcinosina, tejido
derivado del tumor de cáncer de
mama preparado homeo pática-
mente) se solapan con aquellos estu-
diados en la investigación de la vacu-
na para el cáncer de exosomas tumo-
rales nanovesiculares y nano partí-
culas no homeopáticas). Anteriores • January 2014 • Volume 3, Number 1
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview
of natural product nanomedicine for cancer treatment
as a foundation for understanding the more than
200-years-old complementary and alternative medicine
(CAM) system of homeopathy. Historically, various
homeopaths have reported successful treatment of
patients with cancers using natural product–derived
medicines.1-4 Main topics addressed here are (1) the
rationale for using nanoscale forms of natural products
in cancer treatment; (2) the evidence for homeopathic
medicines as nanoparticle-based natural products; (3)
data on studies of homeopathy in cancer treatment; and
(4) the Banerji Protocols as a promising clinical approach
to cancer using homeopathic remedies, with parallels to
research on modern manufactured nanoparticles.
Finding safer and more effective treatments for
specific cancers remains a significant challenge for
integrative clinicians and researchers worldwide. One
emerging strategy is the use of nanostructured forms of
drugs, vaccines, herbs, and nutraceutical agents in can-
cer treatment.5-10 At the nanoscale range, the source
material is typically in the ultrafine particle size range
of 1 to 100 nanometers (nm) along at least one side,
although some consider nanoforms to include particle
sizes up to 1000 nanometers (see Table 1 for definitions
of common terms in nanoparticle manufacturing).
Poorly soluble drugs or natural source materials
pose practical challenges for administration and effec-
tive treatment. In such situations, preparing a medicine
or natural product in nano form confers multiple advan-
tages over conventional bulk form drugs.15,16 These
Table 1 Glossary of Nanoparticle Terms11
Term Definition
Nanoparticle Very small particle made from a specific source material and measuring between 1 and 100 nm in length along at least
one side (1 nanometer=10-9 m).
The very smallest nanoparticles are called quantum dots (size range 1-10 nm long on a side) because of the
large percentage of atoms of material close to the surface of the particle and the atom-like quantum mechanical
properties that can manifest at that size.
One of multiple procedures for breaking smaller and smaller particles off an initially larger-scale bulk form material to
generate nanoparticles.
Examples include mechanical grinding and milling, photolithography, laser beam processing.
One of multiple procedures for building up or assembling a nanostructure or nano-network from small, nanoscale
building blocks. Process usually relies on a template.
Interactions between the building blocks to assemble the nanostructure can include electrostatic forces, hydrogen
bonds, and other weak forces.
Examples include organic synthesis by plant or fungal extracts, self assembly on DNA12 or protein templates,13 and
colloidal aggregation. Silica nanoparticles can form durable biocomposites using living cells as 3-dimensional templates.14
Capping agent A substance added to a nanoparticle manufacturing process that stabilizes the nanoparticles and prevents them from
agglomerating together once formed.
Examples range from toxic polymer chemicals to natural agents such as ascorbic acid, lactose, or honey.
Agglomeration Clustering of nanoparticles together into larger structures. This process changes size and surface energies and thus can
alter the properties.
Ostwald ripening A spontaneous thermodynamic process of liquid sols allowed to age. Smaller nanoparticles condense or redeposit onto
larger particles. Energetic instability of surface components of the smaller particles contributes to the process.
Brownian motion Irregular motion of nanoparticles suspended in a liquid solution or gas. Caused by interaction of the particles with the
medium or solvent.
Adsorption The accumulation of solutes, liquids, or gases onto the surface of a nanoparticle. For nanoparticles, adsorption is related
in part to the high surface charge and energy.
Self-assembly The capacity of a system to generate an ordered or organized structure from initially unordered building blocks
(see bottom-up manufacturing).
Dopant An impurity or substance added in very small quantity to a pure semiconductor material to modify its conductive
Arsenic, boron, or phosphorus are common dopants for different semiconductor materials, including silicon.
investigaciones sobre los efectos anti-
neoplásicos de nanoformas de extrac-
tos botánicos como la Phytolacca,
Gelsemium, Hydrastis, Thuja y Ruta
así como sobre la potencia de los
remedios homeopáticos derivados de
las mismas clases de materiales de
origen sugieren otras coincidencias
importantes. El descubrimiento repli-
cado de la liberación de silicio, silico-
na y nanosilicio de la agitación de
líquidos en cristal añade un activador
inespecífico probado y un amplifica-
dor de los efectos inmunológicos. En
conjunto, los datos de la investigación
de nanopartículas y los protocolos de
Banerji de remedios homeopáticos en
el cáncer sugieren un camino a seguir
para avanzar en el tratamiento del
cáncer con nanomedicinas derivadas
de productos naturales.
Volume 3, Number 1 • January 2014 •
advantages include enhanced bioavailability, adsorptive
capacity, and intracellular accessibility.17,18 The smaller
nanoparticles can cross cell membranes readily, includ-
ing thosein the skin and even the blood-brain barrier.
Biological targeting with modern nanomedicines is
increasingly precise, including ability to foster specific
uptake into malignant cells, stop proliferation, and
increase apoptosis with less damage to healthy cells.19-21
Nanoparticles also can acquire atom-like properties
and high surface charge because of their small sizes and
large surface area to volume ratios. The altered nanoparti-
cle properties include increased chemical and biological
reactivity, electromagnetic, optical, thermal, and quan-
tum effects.22 In turn, the unique properties of nanomedi-
cines typically reduce required doses by orders of magni-
tude and improve side effect profiles.18,23-26 Minor varia-
tions in surface properties can enhance nanoparticle
uptake, especially into cancer cells, eg, conjugation with
the disaccharide sugar lactose.27,28 Surface adsorption of
sugars also may enhance immune system responsivity to
antigen delivered in vaccines by nanocarriers such as cal-
cium phosphate.29
Nanoparticles under study as diagnostic tools,
drug and vaccine delivery vehicles, and biological
agents in their own right include
various metals (eg, silver, gold);
metal salts (eg, calcium phosphate, magnesium
Semiconductors (eg, silicon and its dioxide silica)33-35;
lipid- or polysaccharide-based carriers (eg, Poly(lactide-
co-glycolic acid) [PLGA] or chitosan)36,37; and
Exosomes are nanosized endogenous vesicles from
endosomes released by a variety of cells containing
proteins, siRNA, and lipids with capabilities for sys-
temic biological signaling.6,39-43 Certain exogenous
nanoparticles can also trigger exosome release and a
cascade of systemic stress-related or pro-apoptotic sig-
naling in the immune and inflammatory pathways as
well.42-46 In the immune system, mature dendritic cells
pulsed with exosomes can stimulate antitumor activi-
ty.47 Exosomes derived from malignant tumor cells are
also used as experimental cancer treatment vaccines.6
One limitation in moving from bench to bedside
with nanoparticle diagnostic and therapeutic approach-
es in mainstream medicine has been concern about the
potential toxicity of nanomaterials. Some nanoparti-
cles are especially likely to accumulate in bodily tis-
sues. For instance, unmodified silver or copper nanopar-
ticles can exhibit toxicity risks.48 Because of their high
adsorptive ability and large surface areas, nanoparticles
can also retain trace amounts of any toxic solvents,
polymer chemicals, botanical agents, or trace metal
dopants used in manufacturing.49 Surface modifica-
tions of nanoparticles can create agents with very dif-
ferent chemical and/or biological properties from the
“same” nanoparticles with unmodified surfaces.28,50,51
An offshoot of this concern has been a shift
toward “green manufacturing” methods. For instance,
nanotechnologists use natural products such as botan-
ical or herbal agents or other types of living organisms
to biosynthesize gold or silver nanoparticles.9,52,53
Then trace amounts of the more benign plant material
remain adsorbed to the outer nanoparticle surfaces,
thereby modifying the nanoparticle sizes and biologi-
cal effects.9 Manufacturing procedures that attach a
benign sugar such as lactose to the surfaces of silver
nanoparticles can also markedly enhance nanoparticle
uptake into malignant, but not healthy cells.28 Plant
extracts, DNA, and proteins also guide bottom-up
manufacturing via self-assembly of silica precursors
into crystalline silica nanostructures54,55 that can
resist drying in some preparations.56
In addition, researchers make nano-encapsula-
tions of certain natural, less soluble products from
herbs or nutraceuticals. Such nanoforms can overcome
gastrointestinal uptake and cellular accessibility prob-
lems of their respective bulk forms in vivo.16 Thus,
nanoparticle forms of antioxidants with antiinflamma-
tory and antiproliferative properties have markedly
enhanced their potential utility for cancer therapy
compared with their bulk forms. Examples include
nano-forms of curcumin,37,57-60 quercetin,5,61,62 and
coenzyme Q10.63 PLGA nano-encapsulated herbal
extracts of Gelsemium sempervirens also acquire
improved anticancer effects.64,65 Overall, nanoscale
forms of natural products add a clinically valuable
method for delivering less toxic or nontoxic treatments
to people with cancers in which the currently available
mainstream approaches are less effective, prone to drug
resistance, and/or highly toxic. Given acceptable treat-
ment efficacy, lower toxicity can translate into better
patient outcomes.
Homeopathy is a more than 200-years-old system
of alternative medicine developed by the German physi-
cian-chemist Samuel Hahnemann, MD. This type of
healthcare is used widely around the world. Homeopathy
is especially popular in India, the United Kingdom,
Germany, France, Belgium, and several Latin American
nations. Homeopathic medicines derive from natural
mineral, plant, and animal sources, sometimes includ-
ing diseased tissues (ie, nosodes such as Carcinosin,
homeopathically prepared breast cancer tumor).66
Unlike in conventional healthcare, the classical
homeopathic diagnosis (ie, remedy selection) depends
on describing the total clinical pattern of biopsychoso-
cial symptoms. Homeopathically relevant symptoms
include adaptive behaviors of the individual person as
an indivisible complex system. Classical remedy pre-
scriptions then involve matching the patient’s com-
plete picture with the previously documented ability of • January 2014 • Volume 3, Number 1
a specific single remedy to cause the same pattern in
healthy persons. Thus, by definition, homeopathic
treatment relies on both (1) individual salience and (2)
state dependency in the host to elicit beneficial rather
than adverse effects. Remedy dosing typically involves
pulsed or intermittent administration at lower doses
and lower frequency than used in conventional bulk
drug treatment.66
A recent development in integrative medicine
research is the discovery of persistent nanoparticles of
source materials (eg, metals, plants) in homeopathic
medicines, sometimes referred to as “remedies” (Figure
1).67-69 Different homeopathic plant remedy tinctures
can also biosynthesize silver nanoparticles, with the
resultant nanoparticles. The homeopathic plant-modi-
fied silver nanoparticles vary slightly in size and demon-
strate somewhat different biological effects against a
melanoma cancer cell line in vitro as a function of the
plant source material.9 In the latter study, the plant-
made variants of silver nanoparticles exhibited antican-
cer effects involving both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Only recently, some homeopaths and nanoscien-
tists recognized the extensive overlaps between green
manufacturing of modern nanoparticles and tradition-
al homeopathic manufacturing methods.9,68,70
Homeopathic manufacturing standards derive from
the empirical techniques originally developed by
Hahnemann in the 19th century.71 The essential pro-
cess of making homeopathic medicines includes72
natural remedy source materials (plant, mineral,
animal, disease tissue sources);
preparation of ethanolic extracts or tinctures;
extensive grinding of source materials in lactose;
serial dilutions and repeated succussions (agitation)
in ethanol-water diluent within glass containers.
Homeopathic manufacturing procedures involve
preparation of an ethanol-based extract (plants, disease
tissue) and/or trituration (grinding or milling) in lactose
over a long period of time for insoluble materials. The
ground or milled remedy in lactose is then serially
diluted, first in dry lactose for the first few steps and then
in ethanol-water diluent in glass containers over multi-
ple subsequent steps. The dilution ratios are typically
1/10 (X or D potencies) or 1/100 (C potencies), followed
by vigorous agitation of the solution. Manual manufac-
Figure 1 Bright field transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of nanoparticles and aggregates in homeopathically prepared gold
(Aurum metallicum) at 30C (e) and 200C (f) potencies from Indian manufacturer SBL (originally Sharda Boiron Laboratories, Ltd, Delhi,
India) and 30C (g) and 200C (h) potencies from the different Indian manufacturer WSI (Schwabe International GmbH, Germany, per Dr
Willmar Schwabe India Pvt Ltd, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India). Bulk form remedy source material was presumably diluted out of solution
beyond the 12C potency. Reprinted with permission from Chikramane et al, 2010.68
Volume 3, Number 1 • January 2014 •
turing methods involve 10-100 vigorous succussions per
dilution step (agitation in solution by pounding the
glass container against a hard surface).64
From the dilution process per se, skeptics have
long assumed that homeopathic medicines could not
plausibly contain any residual molecules of the source
material, at potencies with bulk dilutions past 24X or
12C (ie, diluted past the cut-off for Avogadro’s number
of molecules). They have generally overlooked the
potential role of the other steps in the manufacturing
process for generating bioactive agents. Debates over
the validity of homeopathy center on this primary
dilution argument.73-77
However, new data indicate that while the specif-
ic manufacturing methods for classically prepared
remedies probably remove the bulk source materials
early in the process of serial dilutions, they leave a
layer of detectable source nanoparticles across all dilu-
tions. The data include remedy potencies diluted past
Avogadro’s number for bulk materials (Figure 2).67
Chikramane et al showed heterogenous accumulation
of nanoparticles in a top layer as a result of the creation
and movement in solution of bubbles and nanobub-
bles during succussions. The latter group also pro-
posed that the lactose can serve as a capping agent for
nanoparticle growth during trituration67 as well as a
vehicle for delivering nanoparticles.78,79
The specific alcohol itself (ie, ethanol) and its con-
centration also can modify the properties of nanopar-
ticles made in liquid solutions.80-82 Agitating a solu-
tion of nanoparticles can also help disperse any spon-
taneous agglomerations of larger clusters into smaller
particles.83,84 Thus, nanoparticles of the source mate-
rial are found from the lowest to the highest homeo-
pathic potencies across all dilutions. Dilution appears
to remove bulk forms but not nanoscale forms of
source material.
Furthermore, the succussion process generates read-
ily measurable amounts of silicon, silica (silicon dioxide),
and its precursors from the glass walls of the contain-
er.64,69,85,86 Studies on different glassware containing
succussed homeopathic remedies, agitated non-homeo-
pathic liquid solutions, and succussed control solutions
all demonstrate the variable release of biologically active
silica and related chemicals into solution.69,85,87
Numerous studies show that silicon and silica nanopar-
ticles and crystals can adsorb or attach to source nanopar-
ticles as drug delivery vehicles,87,88 and/or nonspecifical-
ly amplify their biological effects, especially those in the
immune system.45,88,90 Certain forms of porous nanosili-
con possess relatively low toxicity and biodegradability
in medical applications, including sensitizing the photo-
dynamic killing of cancer cells.91 Very small silicon
nanoparticles (quantum dots), depending on their dop-
ant materials, can also generate unique optical effects
and transport electric charges: eg, in solar cells.92,93
1 000 000
100 000
10 000
0 1c 2c 3c 4c 5c 6c 7c 8c 9c 10c 11c 12c 13c 14c 15c
1021041061081010 1012 1014 1016 1018 1020 1022 1024 1026 1030
Serial Centesimal Dilutions in 90%v/v Ethanol
Dilution Factors
Concentration of AuNPs (ng/ml)
AuNPs + Lactose
TL 15C-0.103 ng/mL
Figure 2 Estimation of gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) concentrations in top layer (TL) and middle layer (ML) after dilution and succussion
of commercial AuNPs using classic homeopathic lactose trituration, ethanol-water dilution, and succussion procedures. Beyond the 6C
potency, 99% of the AuNPs are transferred to the next dilution. The original authors indicate that these findings result from a bubble-
induced froth flotation process of nanoparticles forming a monolayer at the air-liquid interface. Reprinted with permission from
Chikramane et al, 2012.67 • January 2014 • Volume 3, Number 1
Notably, as with silver, plant tinctures can also
biosynthesize nanocrystals of silica from its precur-
sors.55 Therefore, in addition to the remedy source
nanoparticles, the nanosilica and silica crystals from
agitation of liquid solutions within glassware likely
provide an additional remedy-modified delivery vehi-
cle and nonspecific amplifier of biological effects relat-
ed to the specific remedy source.70,94 The documented
variability in release of silicon, silica, and its precursors
from different types of glassware87 could contribute to
the well-known variability reported in both basic sci-
ence and clinical trial studies of homeopathically-pre-
pared medicines.95,96 From a nanotechnology perspec-
tive,15,82,84,97,98 methodological variations in homeo-
pathic source materials, grinding procedures, dilutions,
succussion procedures, pH, temperature, and ethanol
concentrations during remedy preparation would also
affect the sizes, shapes, amounts, and properties of the
final homeopathic medicines. Even aging during stor-
age can significantly change the properties of both
nanoparticles99-101 and homeopathic remedies.102
What would the presence of nanosilica add to
natural product cancer treatment? Several nonhomeo-
pathic studies of the effects of a traditional Middle
Eastern animal venom–derived treatment on cancer
cells begin to answer that question. The addition of
modern manufactured silica nanoparticles to a snake
venom–derived medicine significantly enhanced the
apoptotic and growth arrest effects of the treatment on
breast cancer cells (Figure 3).103 The same type of com-
bination treatment (snake venom with silica nanopar-
ticles) also improved anticancer effects against malig-
nant myeloma cells104 and human prostate cancer
cells.105 Like certain types of nanoparticles,106-108 some
homeopathic remedies with antineoplastic properties
exhibit the ability to attack cancer cells while leaving
healthy cells intact.109,110
Most nanomedicine applications of natural
products are still in developmental or early clinical
trial phases of study.5,111 However, with the discov-
ery of nanoparticles in homeopathic remedies, both
homeopathic manufacturers and modern nanomed-
icine practice stand to learn from each other. The
overall goal would be to improve research and clini-
cal care of people with cancer using less toxic natu-
rally-based interventions.
What nanoscience brings to homeopathy is mod-
ern technological methods. Nanomedicine research
insights into nanoparticle characterization and how
nanoparticles interact with living systems can help
homeopathic investigators design better products
and improve reproducibility from study to study.68,112-
114 On the other hand, homeopaths possess over two
centuries of practical clinical experience and texts on
using their naturally-sourced nanoparticles safely to
treat patients. Modern nanomedicine could benefit
from these real-world homeopathic experiences with
nanoparticle-based clinical practice. Multiple studies
on cancer cell cultures and animals indicate that both
modern nanomedicines and homeopathic remedies
have beneficial effects in vitro and in animals toward
promoting apoptosis and modulating biological sig-
naling pathways to limit cancer cell growth.115-117
Accelerating targeted research and identifying opti-
mal treatments for people with cancer could result.
Table 2 lists relevant studies that suggest paral-
lels between some mainstream natural product nano-
medicine agents and homeopathic remedy effects.
The evidence to date suggests that nanoparticle forms
of a number of natural products can treat cancer. For
instance, nanoparticles from certain mineral salts
such as calcium phosphate,31,118 the metalloid arse-
nic,135 a variety of specific plant extracts (concen-
trated mother tinctures),9 animal venom toxin treat-
ments,103-105,136 and exosomes (endogenous nanopar-
ticles released by bodily cells) from cancerous tissue
or dendritic cells of the immune system6 can all exert
antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on specific
cancer cell lines in in vitro. Several plant nanoparti-
cle studies used homeopathic mother tinctures to
manufacture the nanoparticles.9 Moreover, studies of
specific homeopathic remedies prepared in potencies
ranging from 3X to 1000C (1M) made from mineral
salts (calcium phosphate), certain plants, and cancer-
ous tissue and used in clinical treatment of people
with cancer also reveal similar effects.1,2,109,110
As noted above, homeopathy potentially brings to
integrative clinical nanomedicine treatment for cancer a
well-described practice theory and more than 200 years
of clinical experience. For homeopathy, the data indicate
high patient satisfaction, very low toxicity, no drug-drug
% Apoptotic Cells
MDA-MB-231 MCF-7 MCF-10
Figure 3 Silica nanoparticles amplify apoptotic effects of biologi-
cally active natural agent. Data from five different experiments
are expressed as the mean percentage of apoptotic cells ± SEM
for the control (open bars), NP-treated (gray bars), WEV-treated
(closed black bars), and WEV+NP–treated (hatched bars). *P < .05,
WEV-treated vs NP; #P < .05, WEV+NP-treated vs NP; +P < .05,
WEV+NP-treated vs WEV-treated cells. WEV = venom of Walterin-
nesia aegyptia snake; NP = silica nanoparticles. MDA-MB-231 and
MCF-7 are human breast cancer cells; MCF-10 are normal breast
epithelial cells. Reprinted with permission from publisher S. Karger
AG, Basel, from reference.103
Volume 3, Number 1 • January 2014 •
or drug-herb interactions, and low side effect rates.95,96
Allergic reactions at low potencies may be a minor
risk,137,138 though the rates appear to be extremely low,
serious events are rare, and relatedness to the remedies
per se uncertain.96,139,140 In one sense, homeopaths in
clinical practice may be many years ahead of conven-
tional physicians in applied understanding of how and
when to use nanoparticles of natural products for safe
and effective clinical treatment.
Although there is a growing research literature on
the effects of homeopathic remedies on cancer in cell
culture and animal studies, there are very few clinical
trials of homeopathy in cancer patients. Most reports in
the literature involve case reports.2,141 A long-articulated
concern of mainstream healthcare providers has been
the presumption that homeopathy and other forms of
complementary and alternative interventions are
Table 2 Parallels Between Effects of Modern Nanoparticles and Homeopathically-prepared Medicines on Cancer Cells
Nanoparticle Studies
Cancer Cell Types
Affected by Nanoparticles
Cancer Cell Types Affected
by Homeopathy
Calcium Phosphate
Nanoparticles (80 nm size
had greater effects than 20
nm size)31
MG-63 osteosarcoma cells
Brain cancer (glioma); decrease
toxicity of chemotherapy drugs118
Leukemia P388 tissue120
Liver tissue
Gastric cancer
Calcarea phosphorica 3X109
(low potency: bulk and
nanoparticles both likely
Osteosarcoma (clinical case
Brain cancer (glioma)
Tumor cell-derived
Colon melanoma
Lung cancer
Skin melanoma
Pancreatic cancer cells
Carcinosin 200C110 (breast cancer
tissue nosode remedy)
Breast cancer cells
Ruta Graveolens 6C109
Ruta Graveolens 200C123,124
Thuja 30C and 200C125
Brain cancer (glioma)
Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma and
Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites
Liver tumor
Hydrastis 200C124
Hydrastis 1M (1000C)126
Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma and
Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites
B16F-10 Melanoma
Lycopodium 30C127
Lycopodium 200C128
Lycopodium 1M126
Liver cancer
Liver cancer
B16F-10 Melanoma
Gelsemium sempervirens
extract encapsulated with
PLGA nanoparticles65,129
Skin cancer line A375
Phytolacca decandra extract
encapsulated with PLGA
Lung adenocarcinoma Phytolacca decandra 200C110
Conium maculatum 3C110
Thuja occidentalis 30C110
MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast
cancer cells
Chelidonium 30C and 200C131 Liver tumor
Phytolacca decandra,
Gelsemium sempervirens,
Hydrastis canadensis,
Thuja occidentalis extracts
biosynthesize silver
A375 skin melanoma cells
Secale 30C115 Skin papilloma
Polygala senega extract
encapsulated with PLGA
A549 lung cancer cells
Homeopathic combination
medication Canova (originally,
Aconitum napellus D11,
Arsenicum album D19, Bryonia
alba D18, Lachesis mutus D18,
Thuja occidentalis D19)133,134
Sarcoma 180
PLGA is a copolymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), a widely-used nanoparticle form.
Botanical extracts are homeopathic mother tinctures in ethanolic solutions (concentrated bulk form materials).
Homeopathic potencies are serially diluted and succussed in accord with standard manufacturing methods. “D” potencies are equivalent to “X” decimal
potencies (serial dilution factor of 1 part source to 9 parts diluent or solvent or a ratio of 1/10). Each dilution step is followed by 10 or more succussions. • January 2014 • Volume 3, Number 1
ineffective and could dangerously cause patients to
delay more effective conventional treatments (ie, con-
ventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery) of
life-threatening serious diseases such as cancer. Partly
as a result, homeopathic cancer research in Western
countries has largely confined itself to preclinical stud-
ies and evaluations of adjunctive treatments of the side
effects of conventional cancer treatments.142
In that context, one small double-blind placebo-
controlled trial showed significant benefits of a com-
plex combination homeopathic remedy Traumeel
(Heel, GmbH, Baden-Baden, Germany) for treating che-
motherapy-induced stomatitis in children undergoing
stem cell transplantation.143 A positive phase III ran-
domized clinical trial on 254 patients demonstrated
that homeopathic Calendula was significantly more
effective in preventing acute dermatitis during adju-
vant radiation therapy than a standard of care topical
agent.144 An observational study of individualized
homeopathy for radiation-induced itching in breast
cancer patients suggested that homeopaths identified
several other specific beneficial remedies for 21 out of
25 individuals.145
Other trials of specific remedies for specific con-
ventional cancer treatment side effects were negative
or mixed, suggesting either lack of benefit or homeo-
pathic and researcher limitations in choosing and/or
managing the correct remedies.142,146,147 The emergent
conclusion from considering both the general and can-
cer-related homeopathic research literatures is that, as
in conventional medicine, proper selection of the cor-
rect medicine for a given patient with a given clinical
condition makes a difference as to whether or not
homeopathic treatments are likely to work. The hetero-
geneity of patients, diagnoses, and remedy and potency
effects make it essential to begin with tapping exten-
sive clinical experience in designing research on
homeopathic remedies and cancer that has reasonable
face, model, and external validity.148
What is the experience of homeopaths in more
comprehensive treatment of patients with cancer?
India is a country with perhaps the most extensive his-
tory in this regard. In contrast with countries such as
the United States or United Kingdom, India maintains
more than 100 teaching institutions on homeopathy,
many associated with universities, including 4- or
5-year homeopathic medical schools. These facilities
include hospitals and homeopathic pharmacies, and all
government hospitals include homeopathic treatment.
Private practitioners often develop large clinics staffed
by multiple homeopathic physicians, treating thou-
sands of patients for all types of acute and chronic con-
ditions, including cancers. Several different homeo-
pathic approaches to treating all types of cancers have
evolved in this context.1,3,4
Only one such approach, the Banerji Protocols,
however, has submitted its clinical cases to successful
review in the Best Case Series Program of the National
Cancer Institute (NCI) in the United States.2,149 After
this review, NCI’s Office of Cancer Complementary and
Alternative Medicine prioritized additional research on
this treatment approach. Nonetheless, historical skepti-
cism about the nature and plausibility of homeopathic
remedies as biologically active agents previously limit-
ed interest in pursuing research on homeopathy in the
United States. The emerging data on the natural nano-
medicine nature of homeopathic remedies is beginning
to shift the discussion.
The Banerji Protocols are based on the cumulative
experience of three generations of homeopaths treat-
ing thousands of patients.1 It is an empiric treatment
system developed through careful analysis of observed
trends in patient-medicine interaction. These exten-
sive practical experiences ultimately led to standard-
ized disease or symptom-specific protocols for pre-
scribing homeopathic medicines. This standardization
of treatment has made it possible to apply rigorous
scientific methods to test its efficacy. Collaborators
from around the world have recently organized a con-
sortium to coordinate their various efforts to advance
the clinical and laboratory research on the Banerji
Protocols. Because of their reputation for effective
clinical treatment of many cancers that generally have
a poor prognosis, we seek to apply the principles of
nanoparticle behavior to the particular approach used
in these protocols.
Given that an average of 120 to 200 cancer cases a
day are treated at the PBH Research Foundation,
Kolkata, India, there is a fertile ground for further inves-
tigation of this treatment method. A majority of the
cancer cases treated at this facility are not treated with
any other therapy, although there is no explicit require-
ment that this be so. In fact, most of the thousands of
consultations that are provided to patients from other
countries are from patients who have already had or are
currently undergoing conventional Western treat-
ment. Concomitant or previous conventional cancer
treatment is not considered to be a contraindication to
the Banerji Protocols.
However, a recent case review conducted by one of
our authors (Sarter, unpublished data) revealed that for
all categories of brain neoplasms, the cases that were
treated with the Banerji Protocols alone (1) fared sub-
stantially better in terms of fewer adverse events than
those that were combined with conventional Western
treatment and (2) had median survival estimated by the
Kaplan Meier method comparable to those reported in
the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data-
base of the NCI ( This provides
support for the premise that homeopathic nanomedi-
cines stimulate a robust host-dependent immune
response from healthy cells that is typically impaired
by chemotherapy and radiation therapy.150
Other distinguishing characteristics of the Banerji
Protocol are (1) its combination of multiple medicines
Volume 3, Number 1 • January 2014 •
into a treatment regimen, (2) repeated daily or weekly
dosing over many months, and (3) the actual mixing
together of some homeopathic medicines into stan-
dardized combination remedies. All of these are in
contradiction to traditional classical homeopathy’s
principles of treatment.66,151 The protocols for the dif-
ferent types of cancer are mostly customized accord-
ing to the specific location, organ and tissue type, and
the specific medicines, in their specific dilutions and
dosage patterns, have been standardized after genera-
tions of experience.1
Thus, it appears plausible that in addition to a
general stimulation of the immune system, there is
also a tumor-specific effect in which tumor cells are
preferentially killed but normal cells preserved.105,106
As noted above, nanoparticles are capable of these
types of differential effects on diseased vs healthy
cells.31,106,108 One hypothesis for this phenomenon is
the greater “leakiness” of blood vessels in tumors. As
a result, malignant cells may permit greater uptake of
nanomedicines as opposed to healthy cells.16,152
Studies conducted to date in which specific
tumor cell lines are treated with the Banerji Protocol
medicines have supported this hypothesis. One
report on the Banerji protocols109 described 15
patients diagnosed with documented intracranial
tumors who were treated exclusively with the homeo-
pathic remedies Ruta graveolens 6C and Calcarea phos-
phorica 3X without additional chemotherapy or radia-
tion. Of these 15 patients, six of the seven who had
glioma showed complete regression of the tumors. In
this study, we also reported that these medicines
stimulated induction of survival-signaling pathways
in normal lymphocytes and induction of death-sig-
naling pathways in brain cancer cells. Cancer cell
death was initiated by telomere erosion and com-
pleted through mitotic catastrophe events.109 Bulk
herbal extract forms of Ruta graveolens have also dem-
onstrated the ability to exert antitumor effects, but
with some caveats on possible risks from prolonged
use at high doses.123,153-156 The ability to use low
doses of Ruta in nanoparticle form might help reduce
such risks.123,126,157
More recently, Frenkel et al reported a study of
four homeopathic remedies from the Banerji protocols
for treating breast cancer.110 The remedies were tested
against two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines
(MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and a cell line derived from
immortalized normal human mammary epithelial
cells. The homeopathic medicines exerted preferential
cytotoxic effects against the two breast cancer cell lines,
causing cell cycle delay/arrest and apoptosis. These
effects were accompanied by altered expression of the
cell cycle regulatory proteins, including downregula-
tion of phosphorylated Rb and upregulation of the
CDK inhibitor p27. These effects were likely responsi-
ble for the cell cycle delay/arrest as well as induction of
the apoptotic cascade that manifested in the activation
of caspase 7 and cleavage of PARP in the treated cells.110
Another distinguishing feature of the Banerji
Protocols is the use of both very low and moderately
high potency medicines within the same protocol.
Very low homeopathically prepared potencies would
fall into the mother tincture to 3X range, whereas
moderately high potencies would fall into the 30C to
200C range. Dosing in the protocols is generally more
frequent than in classical homeopathy, again, because
experience has shown this combination pulsed dose
approach to be more effective for cancer than the iso-
lated single-dose method typical of classical homeopa-
thy. It should be clarified that when speaking of the
potency of a homeopathic medicine, the guiding
principle is “less is more,” meaning the more serially
diluted and succussed the medicine, the higher its
potency and apparent duration of action.158
Many of the protocols in use for cancer treatment
involve the use of medicines that are low potency com-
bined with a high potency. Very low potencies are likely
to contain mainly remedy source nanoparticles reduced
and stabilized (capped) by lactose. In nanotechnology,
capping agents stabilize nanoparticles and keep them
from aggregating or agglomerating once formed. Natural
products such as sugars, eg, lactose, honey,159 or ascorbic
acid can serve as nanoparticle-reducing and capping
agents in water-based solutions (Table 1).160,161
In contrast, higher potencies would likely contain
both remedy source nanoparticles and various nano-
silica/nanosilicon structures from repeated rounds of
multiple succussions in ethanolic solutions within
glass containers.69,85,86 As noted elsewhere, evidence
shows that nanosilica and other nanoparticle carriers
can enhance effects of traditional treatments for can-
cers such as snake venoms.103-105,120,162 Silica in nano-
form is also generally effective as an adjuvant to boost
cellular and immune responses to oral and other vac-
cines for various conditions.45,88,90,163,164
Table 3 lists the Banerji protocols in use for some
specific cancers. It is noteworthy that Calcarea phosphori-
ca 3X is included in the protocols for two cancers with
generally very poor prognoses: brain and bone. These
same types of cancers have responded very well to the
Banerji Protocols with cases verified by NCI.1,2,109
Also noteworthy is the occurrence of complete
regressions in a consistent pattern among most of the
cancers treated by the Banerji Protocols. Retrospective
data collected over a 1-year period on patients treated
for lung, brain, and esophageal cancer showed that
complete regressions ranged from 22% to 32% (Figure
4). A similar complete regression of approximately
33% of brain neoplasms, including glioblastoma mul-
tiforme, over a different 1-year period (2010) was
observed after the data in Figure 4 were compiled
(Sarter, unpublished data). Although spontaneous
regressions are a known phenomenon in oncology,
the percentage of complete remissions typically
observed at the Prasanta Banerji Homeopathic
Research Foundation certainly justifies further inves-
tigation of this approach. • January 2014 • Volume 3, Number 1
Dosing in homeopathy involves the use of low
doses and pulsed intermittent administrations.
Interestingly, mainstream oncology has developed
pulsed dosing regimens for the more toxic chemother-
apy agents to allow recovery of healthy tissue between
treatments. Pulsed dosing is also reported in experi-
mental models using exosomes (endogenous vesicular
nanoparticles) from cancer tumor, dendritic, or malig-
nant ascitic cells for cancer vaccines.38,165 The value of
intermittent doses in homeopathy166,167 may be to take
advantage of the stimulus properties of the treatment
agent and the endogenous adaptive capacity of the
recipient biological system to restore healthier homeo-
static balance.70,113,168,169
A possible objection to the therapeutic value of
homeopathic remedy nanoparticles might be that
Table 3 Exemplars of Banerji Cancer Protocols With Homeopathic Remedies and Potenciesa
Type of Cancer First Line Second Line Third Line Related
Breast cancer Phytolacca 200C 2x/d;
Carcinosin 30C on alternate
Phytolacca 200C 2x/d;
Carcinosin 30C on
alternate nights;
Conium maculatum
3C 2x/d
Thuja occidentalis
30C 2x/d;
Carcinosin 30C every
Open ulcer
with offensive
Psorinum 1000C on
alternate mornings;
Antimonium crudum
200C + Arsenicum
album 200C 4x/d
Osteosarcoma Symphytum 200C and Calcarea
phosphorica 3X, every 3 h alter-
Carcinosin 30C on alternate
Ruta 200C and
Calcarea phosphorica
3X, every 3 h alter-
Lung metastasis:
Stop Carcinosin
and start:
Kali carbonicum 200C
on alternate days;
Thuja 30C 2x/d
Hypericum 200C +
Arsenicum album
200C 4x/d
Lung cancer Kali carbonicum 200C on
alternate days;
Thuja 30C 2x/d;
Ferrrum phosphoricum 3X
alternating every 3 h with
Kali muriaticum 3X
Carbo animalis 200C
Bryonia 30C +
Aconitum napellus
200C, 2x/d
Chest pain
Pleural effusion
Ipecacuanha 30C 2
pills every 1-3 h
Hypericum 200C
every 2 h
Lycopodium 30C
liquid 4x/d
Hamamaelis 200C +
Arnica 200C 4x/d
Carduus marianus MT and
Conium maculatum 3C liquid
every 3 h alternately;
Chelidonium majus 6X liquid
Hydrastis canadensis
MT and
Chelidonium 6X
liquid every 3 h alter-
Pain Belladonna 3C every
10 min
Liver cancer Hydrastis canadensis MT and
Chelidonium majus 6X liquid
every 3 h alternately;
Conium maculatum 3C 2x/d
Myrica MT and
Hydrastis canadensis
MT every 3 h alter-
Carduus marianus MT
Belladonna 3C every
10 min
Tabacum 200C 2x/d or
Ipecacuanha 30C 4x/d
Brain cancer Ruta 6C 2x/d
Calcarea phosphorica
3X 2x/d
1000C 1x/wk,
added to first line
Cuprum metallicum
6C + Arnica 3C 2x/d
Picric Acid 200C+
Belladonna 3C every
10 min
Helleborus 30C liquid
Conium maculatum
3C 2x/d
Lycopodium 30C
liquid 2x/d
a Notes on nomenclature and dosages:
MT = mother tincture
X = serial dilutions in 1/10 ratios, with each step followed by 10 or more succussions (agitations)
C = serial dilutions in 1/100 ratios, with each step followed by 10 or more succussions (agitations)
All doses are 2 drops of liquid or 2 size #40 pills unless otherwise specified.
“+” indicates that the two medicines are to be mixed together in equal proportions for administration.
Volume 3, Number 1 • January 2014 •
people are constantly exposed to low levels of natural
and manmade nanoparticles without curative effects.
In fact, at higher levels, certain nanoparticles are
toxic and may contribute to various chronic diseas-
es.17,170 However, there are at least three necessary
properties for a given stimulus to initiate endogenous
adaptation and even amplification responses: (1) a
salient and discrete signal that is recognized as a
potential threat to survival of the organism, rising
above (and then falling back to) background noise,
rather than continuous exposure70,112,1113,171-175; (2) a
sufficiently low dose of nanoparticles to serve as a
danger signal or mild environmental stressor without
inducing toxicity: eg a hormetic dose level (see
below)70,168,176,177; and (3) adequate time for the pro-
cesses of cellular and organism adaptation and cross-
adaptation to take hold, amplify effects, and evolve
after cessation of the stimulus.112,178-183
The proposed primary targets of homeopathic
remedies are mediators of the stress response networks
(nervous, endocrine, immune, metabolic) of the
body.70,112 The correct remedies or nanoparticles would
serve as mild stressors to initiate hormesis (biological
adaptation).168,184,185 This conceptualization accom-
modates the use of very low, carefully timed doses.186 It
is also compatible with the work of other investigators
showing that homeopathic remedies171-173 or nanopar-
ticles168,176 can initiate the adaptive process of horme-
sis in an organism. A complex cascade of intracellular
and intercellular biological mediators would carry out
the adaptive changes.112,187,188
Khuda-Bukhsh115 originally proposed modulation
of signal proteins as the mechanism by which homeo-
pathic remedies can produce epigenetic changes and
effects on regulatory pathways in stopping cancer cell
proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Recently we
extended this hypothesis to postulate that the pulsed
dosing approach of homeopathy is a more general treat-
ment strategy. This approach uses the biological signal-
ing properties of remedies to initiate systemic adaptive
changes across the organism as a whole.70,112-114
The ability of nanoparticles to release exo-
somes42,43 offers an initial focus for future research on
homeopathic remedies as biological triggers for salu-
tary responses against cancer. Exosomes have demon-
strated cell-to-cell and systemic signaling proper-
ties.39-42 nanoparticles also can enter cells and activate
intracellular defense cascades44,114 involving inflam-
masomes. Inflammasome protein activation leads to
release of cytokines and other self-regulatory elements
of the immune system.45,89,189
Smaller sized nanosilica (eg, 15 nm diameter) can
produce effects on global genomic hypomethylation,
which might contribute to subtle modulation of epi-
genetic expression.190 Nanosilica also has the capacity
for bottom-up self-assembly of three-dimensional
nanostructure networks built upon biological tem-
plates. These biotemplates include living cells,13,28
proteins,191 collagen,192 and/or DNA12,14,193-195 itself.
Self-assembly processes involving silica in homeopath-
ic remedies might add additional means of amplifying,
reproducing, and transmitting structural and perhaps
electromagnetic information196,197 of specific remedies
in higher potency.
Bronchogenic Cancer Brain Tumors Oesophageal Cancer All Cases
Complete Regression Improved Static Aggravated Expired Discontinued Treatment
Figure 4 Results of treatment of 1132 cases of lung, brain, and esophageal cancers, August 2006 to August 2007.
Source: Accessed December 3, 2013. • January 2014 • Volume 3, Number 1
Hours of agitation via sonication in different sol-
vents can also create extremely small, light-emitting
tunable silicon nanoparticles (quantum dots).93 Some
silicon nanomaterials already play emerging roles as
not only drug-delivery vehicles,198 but also semicon-
ductors in microelectronics memory, bioimaging, and
nanocatalysis applications.199 The possible role of
homeopathically succussed nanosilicon and nanosilica
per se in retaining and transmitting some of the remedy
source-specific information at higher homeopathic
potencies remains to be explored.196,197
Hormesis is the well-documented phenomenon of
nonlinear dose-response relationships. In hormesis, a
low dose of an agent can stimulate beneficial respons-
es whereas higher doses cause inhibitory or adverse
effects.200 Depending on the nature of the substance,
the dose size cutoff point for defining below the toxic
level or “no observed adverse effect level” (NOAEL) can
vary. In the oncology literature, low dose arsenic has
been found to produce anticancer effects, whereas
higher, more toxic doses can cause cancer.201 Recent
research demonstrates that a nanoform of arsenic tri-
oxide further improves efficacy against breast can-
cer202 and lymphoma while protecting fertility in
mice.119 In homeopathic form, arsenic trioxide is the
widely used remedy Arsenicum album.203-205
Some investigators have proposed that repeated
intermittent mild stressors may improve resilience
against future more intense stressors and foster longev-
ity via epigenetic adaptations.177,188,206 Figure 5 high-
lights the concept of “optimal stress.”207 With suffi-
cient adaptive capacity, an organism can make modest
overcompensations to a mild stressor that counteract
the immediate effects and strengthen it against future
onslaughts. The latter process would involve hormesis.
However, more intense, frequent, or prolonged stress
would instead overwhelm and kill the system or bring
about chronic disease.170,208,209
The Banerji protocols also raise new questions. For
instance, are there differences in effects and/or mecha-
nisms of low- vs high-potency remedies? Are there dif-
ferences in the sizes, shapes, and properties of remedy
nanoparticles at low vs high potencies? The use of low-
potency Calcarea phosphorica in combination with other
higher-potency remedies may provide a generalized
nanoparticulate biological augmentation strategy.
Calcarea phosphorica 3X is a very low-potency form of
calcium phosphate remedy, still well within the range
of homeopathic dilutions that would leave both bulk
form and nanoform source materials together with
Tipping Point
Modest Overcompensation
Minor Avalanche
Cycles of
and Repair
Depletion of
Stage 1
Minimal Load
Stage 2
Optimal Load
Stage 3
Major Avalanche
Level of Complexity
Figure 5 Levels of stress and hormesis, with an optimal stress level that maximally fosters beneficial adaptations. Excessive stress produces
overload and development of disease. Homeopathic remedies at low pulsed doses would act therapeutically on the left side of the curve
to shape adaptive changes, recovery of complexity, and healing. The dosage and size-related properties of the nanoparticles as a mild cel-
lular and systemic stressor, the adaptability of the cells and organism as complex adaptive systems, and the interaction between the rem-
edy nanoparticles and the system determine the type and direction of effects. The analogy is the nonlinear changes that occur in a sand
pile as each grain of sand is added one by one. A single grain of sand arriving at just the critical time can tip the system into an avalanche,
thereby triggering vigorous compensatory adaptive responses. Reprinted with permission from Stark et al, 2012.207
Volume 3, Number 1 • January 2014 •
mechanically milled lactose78 in any given dose.
Nanomedicine research has repeatedly shown antican-
cer properties of nanoparticulates of this mineral salt
source substance for a variety of cancers, including gli-
oma, osteosarcoma, leukemia, and gastric and liver
malignancies (Table 2).
However, the Banerji protocols also use much
higher potencies of plant and cancer nosode remedies
(ie, more highly diluted and succussed, with only
source nanoparticles and presumably no residual
source bulk form material remaining). Higher remedy
potencies also typically contain glass-derived silica
and/or silicon in bulk and nano forms.85,86 Are there
optimal potencies for eliciting the best anticancer
effects with the lowest risks? Basic science studies on
homeopathic remedies in non-cancer models suggest
that this may be the case.210,211 Consecutive potencies
appear not to exhibit linear dose-response relationships
but rather oscillatory or sinusoidal bidirectional types
of nonlinear curves.211,212
Knowing the composition of a material will not
always reliably predict the nature or direction of its
effects in nanoparticulate form.213 A large body of
research on the properties of top-down manufactured
nanoparticles suggests that their properties are high-
ly sensitive to slight variations in size, shape, defects,
and surface charge.9,22,31,82,97,214 Such structural vari-
ables may be contributing in complex ways to reme-
dy effects and variability from study to study or
patient to patient.112 The complex adaptive network
nature of living systems, including human beings
and animals, adds the likelihood of state-dependent
nonlinear dynamical processes in the nature of the
interactive response to any salient exogenous biologi-
cal signal.70,215 Even conventional nanomaterials can
still convey therapeutic effects at very low doses
when tested.216
Furthermore, the Banerji Protocols use multiple
remedies at the same time, an approach that diverges
from classical homeopathic practice.1 However, the
evidence from mainstream oncology research suggests
the potential therapeutic value of combining multiple
therapies to overcome epigenetic-based resistance to
any single intervention or cancer type.217-219 Studying
the incremental or synergistic effects of various single
vs combinations of remedies on specific cancer cell
lines would therefore be a crucial component of future
research programs in this area. Earlier research on the
combination remedy Canova supports this possibility.
Canova originally contained a fixed combination of
four or five different homeopathic remedies to target
various cancers and infections. The current Canova
formula for immune support in the United States
includes 17 remedies, including homeopathic arsenic
trioxide (Arsenicum Album 17X), a snake venom
(Lachesis mutus 18X), silica (Silicea 18X), and the plant
Thuja occidentalis 16X; see also Table 2).
Human beings have a limited repertoire of ways in
which their bodies can react to stressors or disease pro-
cesses.220 Various cancers, for example, may involve
maturation arrest of pluripotential stem cells and/or
dedifferentiation of mature cells.221,222 Thus, need for
the full person–focused individualization of remedy
selection in classical homeopathy may become clini-
cally less essential in the setting of neoplastic cells. The
Banerji Protocols and other homeopathic cancer treat-
ment programs, therefore, may represent a valid
approach for using homeopathic remedies to address
the usual clinical presentation of a given cancer. In this
type of disease, many patients will show limited, cir-
cumscribed variants of possible mechanisms and symp-
tom manifestations. At the same time, various classical
homeopaths in India and other countries also claim
extraordinary case reports of positive outcomes in indi-
vidualized homeopathic treatment of some of their
own cancer patients.203,223
Existing research expertise on the biological
effects of homeopathic remedies on cancer cells can
inform the design of new nanomedicine studies on
ways to use less toxic natural products in cancer treat-
ment.5 Available data point to the need for studies on
the possible role of exosomes in the initial interface of
homeopathic remedies as nanoparticles conveying
salient biological signals to bodily cells. Comparison of
effects from (1) traditionally made homeopathic rem-
edies such as the mineral salt Calcarea Phosphorica,109
plant remedy Gelsemium sempervirens,64 and the nos-
ode breast cancer tumor remedy Carcinosin110 with (2)
modern nanoparticles such as calcium phosphate
nanoparticles,31 nano-encapsulated Gelsemium
extract,65 and breast cancer tumor–derived exosomes6
would be useful. Techniques such as nanoparticle
tracking analysis,224,225 scanning electron microscopy,
and ultraviolet visual and Raman spectroscopy226,227
combined with fluorescent-labeled antibodies provide
contemporary research tools to evaluate and character-
ize exosomes released during cell interactions with
remedies and nanoparticulates.225,228,229
Finally, although the Banerji Protocols from India
involve more diagnosis-related remedy selection than
classical homeopathy, they still employ a flexible,
albeit limited, set of remedies, partially individualized
in their approach to specific types of cancers and associ-
ated symptoms. From a public health perspective, the
Banerji approach strikes a pragmatic balance between
the ideals of complete individualization of remedy
selection in classical homeopathic constitutional pre-
scribing71 and the need for broader accessibility of
homeopathic treatment to large, often indigent, popu-
lations worldwide.
The systemization of the Banerji approach also
might permit dissemination to busy integrative clini-
cians who may lack the years of detailed homeopathic
education needed for accurate constitutional remedy
selection and case management in classical homeo-
pathic practice.147 A larger number of integrative • January 2014 • Volume 3, Number 1
healthcare providers can learn the essential decision
trees of the Banerji Protocols1 as compared with classic
alhomeopathy. Nonetheless, systematic comparative
effectiveness studies of the Banerji Protocols vs (1)
fully individualized classical homeopathic treatment
and (2) conventional drugs and radiation treatment
would better reveal the optimal clinical strategies.
Key next steps for preclinical and clinical research
could involve the following.
Replicating and extending electron microscopy
studies on homeopathic remedies in independent
laboratories to focus on Banerji Protocol remedies
and specific homeopathic remedies previously
demonstrated to exhibit antineoplastic effects in
vitro or in vivo.
Systematically applying widely used nanoparticle
characterization methods to evaluate effects of
varying pH, temperature, ethanol concentration,
dilution procedures, succussion methods, glass-
ware, and age of solution on the size, shape, stabil-
ity, and biological effects of nanoparticles in
specific homeopathic remedies made from plants,
minerals, animal venoms, and malignant tumor
cells. Methods would include
measuring particle zeta potentials, dynamic light
scattering (DLS), and conducting nanoparticle
tracking analysis (NTA) of remedies192,224,230 and
characterizing and comparing homeopathic
medicine potencies found most effective in
the Banerji protocols1,216 with other potencies
of the “same” medicine, given evidence in pre-
vious research that all potencies of a given
agent are not comparably active231,232 and
that nanocluster size can lead to nonlinear
dose-response findings.22
Identifying biochemical or physiological biomark-
ers used in conventional cancer research to use for
testing dose-response relationships of specific
homeopathic remedies.
A wide range of doses from possible beneficial
hormetic range to toxic should be evaluated.
Exosome release, inflammasome proteins and
cytokine activation patterns are possible biomark-
er candidates in addition to known mediators
involved in blocking cancer cell proliferation and
facilitating apoptosis of malignant cells.
Using cell culture and animal models to deter-
mine the comparative advantages and disadvan-
tages of homeopathically prepared vs modern
manufactured nanoparticle forms and doses of
specific natural products found most promising
from outcomes study data.
Pursuing clinical outcomes studies, comparative
effectiveness trials, and randomized controlled
trials based on the most promising Banerji
Protocols for specific cancers. Candidate condi-
tions include brain tumors (gliomas, glioblasto-
mas multiforme) and osteosarcomas.
The overlaps between the manufacturing, nature,
and properties of nanoparticles and those of homeo-
pathic remedies merit additional examination.70,112-114
Given the recent empirical findings of source nanopar-
ticles at low and high potencies of metal68 and plant69
homeopathic remedies and even some homeopathi-
cally prepared conventional drugs,212 the similarities
in effects of nanoparticles and homeopathic remedies
on cancer cell lines add rationale for further investiga-
tion. The fact that many homeopathic remedies begin
as source materials milled/ground in lactose for hours
makes initial generation of top-down nanoparticles
obligatory.98 The documented ability of (1) succus-
sions to release silica and nanosilica from the inside
walls of glassware85 and (2) plant mother tinctures to
biosynthesize nanoparticles from silica55 or metal pre-
cursors9,233 in solution offer additional routes for mak-
ing other types of nanoparticles in liquid remedies.
Succussions, like sonication,84 could also disperse larg-
er nanoparticles into smaller particles.
Once formed, nanoparticles accumulate heteroge-
neously in colloidal solution and are transferred from
container to container after succussions during homeo-
pathic manufacturing procedures.67 These data empiri-
cally address the main historical objection of skeptics
to the persistence of specific source material in higher
homeopathic dilutions. Based on nanotechnology,214 it
is also possible that either (1) the remedy nanoparticles
attach to, coat, dope, and/or modify the silica and sili-
con nanoparticles at the “higher” liquid potencies or (2)
some silica nanoparticles form shells around the reme-
dy source nanoparticle cores as templates. With or
without attachment of remedy source materials to sili-
ca and/or silicon nanoparticles, nonhomeopathy stud-
ies show that silica nanoparticles85 can augment anti-
cancer effects of traditional natural products such as
snake venom103-105 and activate heightened immune
responsivity to very low quantities of antigens164 and
vaccines overall.88,89
Overall, the Banerji cancer protocols raise integra-
tive healthcare possibilities for blending the traditional
clinical wisdom of experienced homeopathic practitio-
ners from India on how to select and dose nanoparticu-
lates for cancer treatment with the advanced contem-
porary methods of manufacturing nanoparticles using
more replicable modern nanotechnology. Together,
these concepts and tools suggest the possibility of accel-
erating evidence-based advances in natural product
nanomedicine for treatment of people with cancer.
This article began with discussions among the
authors about the Banerji protocols and their interest in
pursuing systematic and rigorous research to follow up
the National Cancer Institute Best Case Series findings.
IRB initially drafted the article; BS, PB, and PB drafted the
section on the Banerji Protocols. MK edited the article
for clarity and context of integrative cancer care in com-
This study was supported
in part by National Center
for Complementary and
Alternative Medicine
grant T32 AT01287
(PI: IRB).
Volume 3, Number 1 • January 2014 •
plex adaptive systems. SJ and JI edited the information
on biological effects of nanoparticles and homeopathic
remedies. All authors edited, revised, and approved the
final article.
1. Banerji P, Banerji P. The Banerji Protocols: a new method of treatment with
homeopathic medicine. Kolkata, India: Prasanta Banerji; 2013.
2. Banerji P, Campbell DR, Banerji P. Cancer patients treated with the Banerji
Protocols utilising homoeopathic medicine: a Best Case Series Program of the
National Cancer Institute USA. Oncol Rep. 2008;20(1):69-74.
3. Ramakrishnan AU. A homeopathic approach to cancer. St Louis, MO: Quality
Medical Publishing; 2001.
4. Master FJ. Homeopathy in cancer. India: Narayana Publishers; 2006.
5. Nair HB, Sung B, Yadav VR, Kannappan R, Chaturvedi MM, Aggarwal BB.
Delivery of antiinflammatory nutraceuticals by nanoparticles for the preven-
tion and treatment of cancer. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80(12):1833-43.
6. Tan A, De La Pena H, Seifalian AM. The application of exosomes as a nanoscale
cancer vaccine. Int J Nanomed. 2010;5:889-900.
7. Bhattacharyya SS, Paul S, De A, et al. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid nanoencap-
sulation of a synthetic coumarin: cytotoxicity and bio-distribution in mice, in
cancer cell line and interaction with calf thymus DNA as target. Toxicol Appl
Pharmacol. 2011;253(3):270-81.
8. Bhattacharyya SS, Paul S, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Encapsulated plant extract
(Gelsemium sempervirens) poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles enhance cellu-
lar uptake and increase bioactivity in vitro. Exp Biol Med
9. Das S, Das J, Samadder A, Bhattacharyya S, Das D, Khuda-Bukhsh AR.
Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles by ethanolic extracts of Phytolacca decandra,
Gelsemium sempervirens, Hydrastis canadensis and Thuja occidentalis induce differ-
ential cytotoxicity through G2/M arrest in A375 cells. Colloids Surf B
Biointerfaces. 2013 Jan 1;101:325-36.
10. Liang XJ. Nanopharmaceutics: the potential application of nanomaterials.
Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co; 2013.
11. Ju-Nam Y, Lead JR. Manufactured nanoparticles: an overview of their chemistry,
interactions and potential environmental implications. Sci Total Environ.
12. Wang DC, Chen GY, Chen KY, Tsai CH. DNA as a template in self-assembly of Au
nano-structure. IET Nanobiotechnol. 2011;5(4):132-5.
13. Baca HK, Carnes E, Singh S, Ashley C, Lopez D, Brinker CJ. Cell-directed assem-
bly of bio/nano interfaces-a new scheme for cell immobilization. Acc Chem Res.
14. Kaehr B, Townson JL, Kalinich RM, et al. Cellular complexity captured in durable
silica biocomposites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109(43):17336-41.
15. Merisko-Liversidge E, Liversidge GG. Nanosizing for oral and parenteral drug
delivery: a perspective on formulating poorly-water soluble compounds using
wet media milling technology. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. May 30 2011;63(6):427-440.
16. Siddiqui IA, Adhami VM, Chamcheu JC, Mukhtar H. Impact of nanotechnology in
cancer: emphasis on nanochemoprevention. Int J Nanomed. 2012;7:591-605.
17. Buzea C, Pacheco II, Robbie K. Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: sources and tox-
icity. Biointerphases. 2007;2(4):MR17-71.
18. Armstead AL, Li B. Nanomedicine as an emerging approach against intracellular
pathogens. Int J Nanomed. 2011;6:3281-93.
19. Hirsjarvi S, Passirani C, Benoit JP. Passive and active tumour targeting with nano-
carriers. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2011;8(3):188-96.
20. Hu CM, Zhang L. Nanoparticle-based combination therapy toward overcoming
drug resistance in cancer. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;83(8):1104-11.
21. Jain KK. Advances in the field of nanooncology. BMC Med. 2010;8:83.
22. Roduner E. Size matters: why nanomaterials are different. Chem Soc Rev.
23. Agadjanian H, Chu D, Hwang JY, et al. Chemotherapy targeting by DNA capture
in viral protein particles. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2012;7(3):335-52.
24. Bershteyn A, Hanson MC, Crespo MP, et al. Robust IgG responses to nanograms
of antigen using a biomimetic lipid-coated particle vaccine. J Control Release.
25. Ahmad Z, Pandey R, Sharma S, Khuller GK. Alginate nanoparticles as antituber-
culosis drug carriers: formulation development, pharmacokinetics and thera-
peutic potential. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci. 2006;48(3):171-6.
26. Prakash DJ, Arulkumar S, Sabesan M. Effect of nanohypericum (Hypericum per-
foratum gold nanoparticles) treatment on restraint stress induced behavioral
and biochemical alteration in male albino mice. Pharmacognosy Res.
27. Jain SK, Gupta Y, Ramalingam L, et al. Lactose-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles
for enhanced delivery of rifampicin to the lung for effective treatment of pulmo-
nary tuberculosis. PDA J Pharm Sci Technol. May-Jun 2010;64(3):278-87.
28. Sur I, Cam D, Kahraman M, Baysal A, Culha M. Interaction of multi-functional
silver nanoparticles with living cells. Nanotechnology. Apr 30
29. Sahdev P, Podaralla S, Kaushik RS, Perumal O. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles
for transcutaneous vaccine delivery. J Biomed Nanotechnol. Jan 2013;9(1):132-41.
30. Maitra A. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles: second-generation nonviral vectors
in gene therapy. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2005;5(6):893-905.
31. Shi Z, Huang X, Liu B, Tao H, Cai Y, Tang R. Biological response of osteosarcoma
cells to size-controlled nanostructured hydroxyapatite. J Biomater Appl.
32. Bhakta G, Shrivastava A, Maitra A. Magnesium phosphate nanoparticles can be
efficiently used in vitro and in vivo as non-viral vectors for targeted gene deliv-
ery. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2009;5(1):106-14.
33. Liu Y, Lou C, Yang H, Shi M, Miyoshi H. Silica nanoparticles as promising drug/
gene delivery carriers and fluorescent nano-probes: recent advances. Curr Cancer
Drug Targets. 2011;11(2):156-63.
34. Kleps I, Ignat T, Miu M, et al. Nanostructured silicon particles for medical appli-
cations. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2010;10(4):2694-700.
35. Tan YT, Kamiya T, Durrani ZA, Ahmed H. Room temperature nanocrystalline sil-
icon single-electron transistors. J Appl Physics. 2003;94(1):633-7.
36. Xie H, Smith JW. Fabrication of PLGA nanoparticles with a fluidic nanoprecipita-
tion system. J Nanobiotechnol. 2010;8:18.
37. Anitha A, Maya S, Deepa N, Chennazhi KP, Nair SV, Jayakumar R. Curcumin-
loaded N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles for cancer drug delivery. J
Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2011 Jun 28. [Epub ahead of print]
38. Sun D, Zhuang X, Zhang S, et al. Exosomes are endogenous nanoparticles that
can deliver biological information between cells. Adv Drug Deliv Rev.
39. Beloribi S, Ristorcelli E, Breuzard G, et al. Exosomal lipids impact notch signaling
and induce death of human pancreatic tumoral SOJ-6 cells. PLoS One.
40. Ristorcelli E, Beraud E, Mathieu S, Lombardo D, Verine A. Essential role of Notch
signaling in apoptosis of human pancreatic tumoral cells mediated by exosomal
nanoparticles. Int J Cancer. 2009;125(5):1016-26.
41. Ristorcelli E, Beraud E, Verrando P, et al. Human tumor nanoparticles induce
apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. FASEB J. 2008;22(9):3358-69.
42. Zhu M, Li Y, Shi J, Feng W, Nie G, Zhao Y. Exosomes as extrapulmonary signaling
conveyors for nanoparticle-induced systemic immune activation. Small.
43. Zhu M, Tian X, Song X, et al. Nanoparticle-induced exosomes target antigen-pre-
senting cells to initiate Th1-type immune activation. Small. 2012;8(18):2841-8.
44. Mohamed BM, Verma NK, Prina-Mello A, et al. Activation of stress-related signal-
ling pathway in human cells upon SiO2 nanoparticles exposure as an early indi-
cator of cytotoxicity. J Nanobiotechnol. 2011;9:29.
45. Winter M, Beer HD, Hornung V, Kramer U, Schins RP, Forster I. Activation of the
inflammasome by amorphous silica and TiO2 nanoparticles in murine dendritic
cells. Nanotoxicology. 2011;5(3):326-40.
46. Marano F, Hussain S, Rodrigues-Lima F, Baeza-Squiban A, Boland S.
Nanoparticles: molecular targets and cell signalling. Arch Toxicol.
47. Hao S, Bai O, Li F, Yuan J, Laferte S, Xiang J. Mature dendritic cells pulsed with
exosomes stimulate efficient cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses and antitumour
immunity. Immunology. 2007;120(1):90-102.
48. Bowman CR, Bailey FC, Elrod-Erickson M, Neigh AM, Otter RR. Effects of silver
nanoparticles on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922): a com-
parison of toxicity based on total surface area versus mass concentration of parti-
cles in a model eukaryotic and prokaryotic system. Environ Toxicol Chem. Aug
49. Yang J, Sandoval S, Alfaro JG, et al. Red-luminescent europium (III) doped silica
nanoshells: synthesis, characterization, and their interaction with HeLa cells. J
Biomed Opt. 2011;16(6):066012.
50. Van Hoecke K, De Schamphelaere KA, Ramirez-Garcia S, Van der Meeren P,
Smagghe G, Janssen CR. Influence of alumina coating on characteristics and
effects of SiO2 nanoparticles in algal growth inhibition assays at various pH and
organic matter contents. Environ Int. Aug 2011;37(6):1118-25.
51. Christen V, Fent K. Silica nanoparticles and silver-doped silica nanoparticles
induce endoplasmatic reticulum stress response and alter cytochrome P4501A
activity. Chemosphere. Apr 2012;87(4):423-34.
52. Daisy P, Saipriya K. Biochemical analysis of Cassia fistula aqueous extract and
phytochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles as hypoglycemic treatment for
diabetes mellitus. Int J Nanomed. 2012;7:1189-202.
53. Dipankar C, Murugan S. The green synthesis, characterization and evaluation of
the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Iresine herbstii
leaf aqueous extracts. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2012 Oct 1;98:112-9.
54. Belton DJ, Deschaume O, Perry CC. An overview of the fundamentals of the
chemistry of silica with relevance to biosilicification and technological advanc-
es. FEBS J. 2012;279(10):1710-20.
55. Perry CC, Keeling-Tucker T. Crystalline silica prepared at room temperature
from aqueous solution in the presence of intrasilica bioextracts. Chem Commun
(Camb). 1998;1998(23):2587-8.
56. Baca HK, Carnes EC, Ashley CE, et al. Cell-directed-assembly: directing the for-
mation of nano/bio interfaces and architectures with living cells. Biochim
Biophys Acta. Mar 2011;1810(3):259-67.
57. Bansal SS, Goel M, Aqil F, Vadhanam MV, Gupta RC. Advanced drug delivery sys- • January 2014 • Volume 3, Number 1
tems of curcumin for cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Prev Res (Phila).
58. Ghosh D, Choudhury ST, Ghosh S, et al. Nanocapsulated curcumin: oral chemo-
preventive formulation against diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocellular car-
cinoma in rat. Chem Biol Interact. 2012;195(3):206-14.
59. Bisht S, Mizuma M, Feldmann G, et al. Systemic administration of polymeric
nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin (NanoCurc) blocks tumor growth and
metastases in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer Ther.
60. Chun YS, Bisht S, Chenna V, et al. Intraductal administration of a polymeric
nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NanoCurc) significantly attenuates inci-
dence of mammary tumors in a rodent chemical carcinogenesis model:
Implications for breast cancer chemoprevention in at-risk populations.
Carcinogenesis. 2012;33(11):2242-9.
61. Leonarduzzi G, Testa G, Sottero B, Gamba P, Poli G. Design and development of
nanovehicle-based delivery systems for preventive or therapeutic supplementa-
tion with flavonoids. Curr Med Chem. 2010;17(1):74-95.
62. Li H, Zhao X, Ma Y, Zhai G, Li L, Lou H. Enhancement of gastrointestinal absorption
of quercetin by solid lipid nanoparticles. J Control Release. 2009;133(3):238-44.
63. Beg S, Javed S, Kohli K. Bioavailability enhancement of coenzyme Q10: an exten-
sive review of patents. Recent Pat Drug Deliv Formul. 2010;4(3):245-55.
64. Bhattacharyya SS, Mandal SK, Biswas R, et al. In vitro studies demonstrate anti-
cancer activity of an alkaloid of the plant Gelsemium sempervirens. Exp Biol Med
(Maywood). 2008;233(12):1591-601.
65. Bhattacharyya SS, Paul S, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Encapsulated plant extract
(Gelsemium sempervirens) poly (lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles enhance cellu-
lar uptake and increase bioactivity in vitro. Exp Biol Med (Maywood).
66. Fisher P. What is homeopathy? An introduction. Front Biosci (Elite Ed).
67. Chikramane PS, Kalita D, Suresh AK, Kane SG, Bellare JR. Why extreme dilu-
tions reach non-zero asymptotes: a nanoparticulate hypothesis based on froth
flotation. Langmuir. 2012;28(45):15864-75.
68. Chikramane PS, Suresh AK, Bellare JR, Kane SG. Extreme homeopathic dilutions
retain starting materials: a nanoparticulate perspective. Homeopathy.
69. Upadhyay RP, Nayak C. Homeopathy emerging as nanomedicine. Int J High
Dilution Res. 2011;10(37):299-310.
70. Bell IR, Schwartz GE. Adaptive network nanomedicine: an integrated model for
homeopathic medicine. Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Ed.). 2013;5(2):685-708.
71. Hahnemann S. Organon of the Medical Art. 6th ed. Redmond, WA: Birdcage
Books; 1843.
72. Kayne SB. Homeopathic pharmacy: theory and practice. 2nd ed. Churchill
Livingstone; 2006.
73. Ludtke R, Rutten AL. The conclusions on the effectiveness of homeopathy high-
ly depend on the set of analyzed trials. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008;61(12):1197-204.
74. Rutten AL, Stolper CF. The 2005 meta-analysis of homeopathy: the importance
of post-publication data. Homeopathy. Oct 2008;97(4):169-77.
75. Shang A, Huwiler-Muntener K, Nartey L, et al. Are the clinical effects of homoe-
opathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of
homoeopathy and allopathy. Lancet. 2005;366(9487):726-32.
76. Lancet. The end of homeopathy. Lancet. 2005;366:690.
77. van Haselen R. The end of homeopathy: wishful thinking? Complement Ther
Med. 2005;13(4):229-230.
78. Caron V, Willart JF, Lefort R, Derollez P, Danede F, Descamps M. Solid state amor-
phization kinetic of alpha lactose upon mechanical milling. Carbohydr Res.
79. Tavares Cardoso MA, Talebi M, Soares PA, Yurteri CU, van Ommen JR.
Functionalization of lactose as a biological carrier for bovine serum albumin by
electrospraying. Int J Pharmaceut. 2011;414(1-2):1-5.
80. Sand KK, Yang M, Makovicky E, et al. Binding of ethanol on calcite: the role of
the OH bond and its relevance to biomineralization. Langmuir.
81. Yang Y, Yang AL, Yang RQ, Yuan GJ, Shi YL. Investigation of the enhancement flu-
orescence of ethanol doped SiO2 nanoparticles. J Nanosci Nanotechnol.
82. Yoo JW, Yun DS, Kim HJ. Influence of reaction parameters on size and shape of
silica nanoparticles. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2006;6(11):3343-6.
83. Genina N, Raikkonen H, Antikainen O, Heinamaki J, Yliruusi J. Ultrasound-
assisted powder-coating technique to improve content uniformity of low-dose
solid dosage forms. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech. 2010;11(3):1320-7.
84. Tang C, Zhou T, Yang J, et al. Wet-grinding assisted ultrasonic dispersion of pris-
tine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in chitosan solution. Colloids
Surf B Biointerfaces. 2011;86(1):189-97.
85. Ives JA, Moffett JR, Arun P, et al. Enzyme stabilization by glass-derived silicates in
glass-exposed aqueous solutions. Homeopathy. 2010;99(1):15-24.
86. Demangeat JL. NMR relaxation evidence for solute-induced nanosized super-
structures in ultramolecular aqueous dilutions of silica-lactose. J Mol Liquids.
87. Liu L, Randolph TW, Carpenter JF. Particles shed from syringe filters and their
effects on agitation-induced protein aggregation. J Pharm Sci. 2012;101(8):2952-9.
88. Wang T, Jiang H, Zhao Q, Wang S, Zou M, Cheng G. Enhanced mucosal and sys-
temic immune responses obtained by porous silica nanoparticles used as an oral
vaccine adjuvant: effect of silica architecture on immunological properties. Int J
Pharm. 2012;436(1-2):351-8.
89. Demento SL, Eisenbarth SC, Foellmer HG, et al. Inflammasome-activating
nanoparticles as modular systems for optimizing vaccine efficacy. Vaccine.
90. Hornung V, Bauernfeind F, Halle A, et al. Silica crystals and aluminum salts acti-
vate the NALP3 inflammasome through phagosomal destabilization. Nat
Immunol. 2008;9(8):847-56.
91. Xiao L, Gu L, Howell SB, Sailor MJ. Porous silicon nanoparticle photosensitizers
for singlet oxygen and their phototoxicity against cancer cells. ACS Nano.
92. Conibeer G, Perez-Wurfl I, Hao X, Di D, Lin D. Si solid-state quantum dot-based
materials for tandem solar cells. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2012;7:193.
93. Troia A, Giovannozzi A, Amato G. Preparation of tunable silicon q-dots through
ultrasound. Ultrason Sonochem. 2009;16(4):448-51.
94. Anick DJ, Ives JA. The silica hypothesis for homeopathy: physical chemistry.
Homeopathy. 2007;96(3):189-95.
95. Witt C, Albrecht H, eds. New directions in homeopathy research. Essen,
Germany: KVC Verlag; 2009.
96. Bornhoft G, Matthiessen PF. Homeopathy in healthcare—effectiveness, appro-
priateness, safety, costs. New York: Springer; 2011.
97. Abbasi AR, Morsali A. Influence of solvents on the morphological properties of
AgBr nano-structures prepared using ultrasound irradiation. Ultrason
Sonochem. 2012;19(3):540-5.
98. DeCastro CL, Mitchell BS. Nanoparticles from mechanical attrition. In: Baraton
MI, editor. Synthesis, functionalization, and surface treatment of nanoparticles.
Valencia, CA: American Scientific Publisher; 2002:1-15.
99. Liu Y, Kathan K, Saad W, Prudhomme RK. Ostwald ripening of B-carotene
nanoparticles. Phys Rev Lett. 2007;98(035102):1-4.
100. Xin HL, Zheng H. In situ observation of oscillatory growth of bismuth nanoparti-
cles. Nano Lett. 2012;12(3):1470-4.
101. Gualtieri M, Skuland T, Iversen TG, et al. Importance of agglomeration state and
exposure conditions for uptake and pro-inflammatory responses to amorphous
silica nanoparticles in bronchial epithelial cells. Nanotoxicology. 2012;6(7):700-12.
102. Elia V, Napoli E, Germano R. The ‘Memory of Water’: an almost deciphered enig-
ma. Dissipative structures in extremely dilute aqueous solutions. Homeopathy.
103. Al-Sadoon MK, Abdel-Maksoud MA, Rabah DM, Badr G. Induction of apoptosis
and growth arrest in human breast carcinoma cells by a snake (Walterinnesia
aegyptia) venom combined with silica nanoparticles: crosstalk between Bcl2 and
caspase 3. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2012;30(3):653-65.
104. Sayed D, Al-Sadoon MK, Badr G. Silica nanoparticles sensitize human multiple
myeloma cells to snake (Walterinnesia aegyptia) venom-induced apoptosis and
growth arrest. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:386286.
105. Badr G, Al-Sadoon MK, Rabah DM, Sayed D. Snake (Walterinnesia aegyptia) ven-
om-loaded silica nanoparticles induce apoptosis and growth arrest in human
prostate cancer cells. Apoptosis. 2013;18(3):300-14.
106. Harhaji L, Isakovic A, Raicevic N, et al. Multiple mechanisms underlying the anti-
cancer action of nanocrystalline fullerene. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;568(1-3):89-98.
107. Lim KJ, Bisht S, Bar EE, Maitra A, Eberhart CG. A polymeric nanoparticle formu-
lation of curcumin inhibits growth, clonogenicity and stem-like fraction in
malignant brain tumors. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011 Mar 1;11(5):464-73.
108. Meng J, Xing J, Wang Y, et al. Epigenetic modulation of human breast cancer by
metallofullerenol nanoparticles: in vivo treatment and in vitro analysis.
Nanoscale. 2011;3(11):4713-9.
109. Pathak S, Multani AS, Banerji P, Banerji P. Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in
brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: a
novel treatment for human brain cancer. Int J Oncol. 2003;23(4):975-82.
110. Frenkel M, Mishra BM, Sen S, et al. Cytotoxic effects of ultra-diluted remedies on
breast cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2010;36(2):395-403.
111. Venditto VJ, Szoka FC, Jr. Cancer nanomedicines: so many papers and so few
drugs! Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2013;65(1):80-88.
112. Bell IR, Koithan M. A model for homeopathic remedy effects: low dose nanopar-
ticles, allostatic cross-adaptation, and time-dependent sensitization in a complex
adaptive system. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12(1):191.
113. Bell IR, Koithan M, Brooks AJ. Testing the nanoparticle-allostatic cross-adapta-
tion-sensitization model for homeopathic remedy effects. Homeopathy.
114. Bell IR, Schwartz GE, Boyer NN, Koithan M, Brooks AJ. Advances in integrative
nanomedicine for improving infectious disease treatment in public health. Eur J
Integr Med. 2013;5(2):126-40.
115. Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Bhattacharyya SS, Paul S, Dutta S, Boujedaini N, Belon P.
Modulation of signal proteins: a plausible mechanism to explain how a poten-
tized drug secale cor 30C diluted beyond Avogadro’s limit combats skin papillo-
ma in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Jul 16 2011;2011:286320.
116. Biswas R, Mandal SK, Dutta S, Bhattacharyya SS, Boujedaini N, Khuda-Bukhsh
AR. Thujone-rich fraction of Thuja occidentalis demonstrates major anti-cancer
Volume 3, Number 1 • January 2014 •
potentials: evidences from in vitro studies on A375 cells. Evid Based
Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:568148.
117. de Oliveira CC, de Oliveira SM, Goes VM, Probst CM, Krieger MA, Buchi Dde F.
Gene expression profiling of macrophages following mice treatment with an
immunomodulator medication. J Cell Biochem. 2008;104(4):1364-77.
118. Chu SH, Feng DF, Ma YB, Li ZQ. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles inhibit the
growth of human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo. Int J Nanomed. 2012;7:3659-
119. Li G, Huang JM, Aoki H, Li Y, Zhang R, Deng BF. In vivo study on influence of a
discrete nano-hydroxyapatite on leukemia P388 tissue in BALB/C mice.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2007;45(9):692-6. Chinese.
120. Li G, Huang J, Li Y, et al. In vitro study on influence of a discrete nano-hydroxyap-
atite on leukemia P388 cell behavior. Biomed Mater Eng. 2007;17(5):321-7.
121. Hu J, Liu ZS, Tang SL, He YM. Effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on the
growth and p53/c-Myc protein expression of implanted hepatic VX2 tumor in
rabbits by intravenous injection. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13(20):2798-802.
122. Chen X, Deng C, Tang S, Zhang M. Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induced
by nanoscale hydroxyapatite in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Biol
Pharm Bull. 2007;30(1):128-32.
123. Kumar KB, Sunila ES, Kuttan G, Preethi KC, Venugopal CN, Kuttan R. Inhibition
of chemically induced carcinogenesis by drugs used in homeopathic medicine.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007;8(1):98-102.
124. Sunila ES, Kuttan G, Preethi KC, Kuttan R. Effect of homeopathic medicines on
transplanted tumors in mice. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 2007;8:390-4.
125. Sunila ES, Kuttan R, Preethi KC, Kuttan G. Dynamized preparations in cell cul-
ture. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009;6(2):257-63.
126. Es S, Kuttan G, Kc P, Kuttan R. Effect of homeopathic medicines on transplanted
tumors in mice. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007;8(3):390-4.
127. Pathak S, Kumar Das J, Jyoti Biswas S, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Protective potentials of
a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium-30, in ameliorating azo dye
induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;285(1-2):121-31.
128. Pathak S, Bhattacharjee N, Das JK, et al. Supportive evidence for the anticancer-
ous potential of alternative medicine against hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.
Forsch Komplementmed. 2007;14(3):148-56.
129. Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Bhattacharyya SS, Paul S, Boujedaini N. Polymeric nanoparti-
cle encapsulation of a naturally occurring plant scopoletin and its effects on
human melanoma cell A375. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2010;8(9):853-62.
130. Das J, Das S, Samadder A, Bhadra K, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Poly (lactide-co-gly-
colide) encapsulated extract of Phytolacca decandra demonstrates better interven-
tion against induced lung adenocarcinoma in mice and on A549 cells. Eur J
Pharm Sci. 2012;47(2):313-24.
131. Biswas SJ, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Effect of a homeopathic drug, Chelidonium, in ame-
lioration of p-DAB induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. BMC Complement
Altern Med. 2002 Apr 10;2:4.
132. Paul S, Bhattacharyya SS, Boujedaini N, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Anticancer poten-
tials of root extract of Polygala senega and its PLGA nanoparticles-encapsulated
form. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011. pii: 517204.
133. Sato DY, Wal R, de Oliveira CC, et al. Histopathological and immunophenotyp-
ing studies on normal and sarcoma 180-bearing mice treated with a complex
homeopathic medication. Homeopathy. 2005;94(1):26-32.
134. Leal MF, Antunes LM, Lamarao MF, et al. The protective effect of Canova homeo-
pathic medicine in cyclophosphamide-treated non-human primates. Food
Chem Toxicol. 2012;50(12):4412-20.
135. Ahn RW BS, Raja MR, Jozefik JK, Spaho L. Nano-encapsulation of arsenic trioxide
enhances efficacy against murine lymphoma model while minimizing its
impact on ovarian reserve in vitro and in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(3):e58491.
136. Biswas A, Gomes A, Sengupta J, et al. Nanoparticle-conjugated animal venom-
toxins and their possible therapeutic potential. J Venom Res. 2012;3:15-21.
137. Posadzki P, Alotaibi A, Ernst E. Adverse effects of homeopathy: a systematic
review of published case reports and case series. Int J Clin Pract.
138. Walach H, Lewith G, Jonas W. Can you kill your enemy by giving homeopathy?
Lack of rigour and lack of logic in the systematic review by Edzard Ernst and col-
leagues on adverse effects of homeopathy. Int J Clin Pract. 2013;67(4):385-6.
139. Thompson E, Barron S, Spence D. A preliminary audit investigating remedy
reactions including adverse events in routine homeopathic practice.
Homeopathy 2004;93(4):203-9.
140. Endrizzi C, Rossi E, Crudeli L, Garibaldi D. Harm in homeopathy: aggravations,
adverse drug events or medication errors? Homeopathy. 2005;94(4):233-40.
141. Rajendran ES. Homeopathy as a supportive therapy in cancer. Homeopathy.
142. Kassab S, Cummings M, Berkovitz S, van Haselen R, Fisher P. Homeopathic medi-
cines for adverse effects of cancer treatments. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.
143. Oberbaum M, Yaniv I, Ben-Gal Y, et al. A randomized, controlled clinical trial of
the homeopathic medication TRAUMEEL S in the treatment of chemotherapy-
induced stomatitis in children undergoing stem cell transplantation. Cancer.
144. Pommier P, Gomez F, Sunyach MP, D’Hombres A, Carrie C, Montbarbon X. Phase
III randomized trial of Calendula officinalis compared with trolamine for the pre-
vention of acute dermatitis during irradiation for breast cancer. J Clin Oncol.
145. Schlappack O. Homeopathic treatment of radiation-induced itching in breast can-
cer patients. A prospective observational study. Homeopathy. 2004;93(4):210-215.
146. Jacobs J, Herman P, Heron K, Olsen S, Vaughters L. Homeopathy for menopausal
symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.
J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(1):21-27.
147. Frei H, Everts R, von Ammon K, et al. Randomised controlled trials of homeopa-
thy in hyperactive children: treatment procedure leads to an unconventional
study design experience with open-label homeopathic treatment preceding the
Swiss ADHD placebo controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial.
Homeopathy. 2007;96(1):35-41.
148. Mathie RT, Roniger H, Van Wassenhoven M, et al. Method for appraising model
validity of randomised controlled trials of homeopathic treatment: multi-rater
concordance study. BMC Med Res Methodol. Apr 17 2012;12(1):49.
149. Olaku O, Zia F, Santana JM, White JD. The National Cancer Institute Best Case
Series Program: a summary of cases of cancer patients treated with unconven-
tional therapies in India. Integr Cancer Ther. 2013;12(5):385-92.
150. Smit E, Oberholzer HM, Pretorius E. A review of immunomodulators with refer-
ence to Canova. Homeopathy. 2009;98(3):169-76.
151. Owen D. Principles and practice of homeopathy: the therapeutic and healing
process. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2007.
152. Danhier F, Feron O, Preat V. To exploit the tumor microenvironment: passive and
active tumor targeting of nanocarriers for anticancer drug delivery. J Control
Release. 2010;148(2):135-46.
153. Fadlalla K, Watson A, Yehualaeshet T, Turner T, Samuel T. Ruta graveolens extract
induces DNA damage pathways and blocks Akt activation to inhibit cancer cell
proliferation and survival. Anticancer Res. 2011;31(1):233-41.
154. Preethi KC, Kuttan G, Kuttan R. Anti-tumour activity of Ruta graveolens extract.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2006;7(3):439-43.
155. Preethi KC, Nair CK, Kuttan R. Clastogenic potential of Ruta graveolens extract
and a homeopathic preparation in mouse bone marrow cells. Asian Pac J Cancer
Prev. 2008;9(4):763-9.
156. Varamini P, Soltani M, Ghaderi A. Cell cycle analysis and cytotoxic potential of
Ruta graveolens against human tumor cell lines. Neoplasma. 2009;56(6):490-3.
157. Preethi K, Ellanghiyil S, Kuttan G, Kuttan R. Induction of apoptosis of tumor
cells by some potentiated homeopathic drugs: implications on mechanism of
action. Integr Cancer Ther. 2012;11(2):172-82.
158. Sukul NC, Bala, SK, Bhattacharyya, B. Prolonged cataleptogenic effects of poten-
tized homoeopathic drugs. Psychopharmacology. 1986;89:338-9.
159. Philip D. Honey mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Spectrochim
Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. Aug 15 2009;73(4):650-3.
160. Gutierrez-Wing C, Velazquez-Salazar JJ, Jose-Yacaman M. Procedures for the syn-
thesis and capping of metal nanoparticles. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;906:3-19.
161. Sur I, Altunbek M, Kahraman M, Culha M. The influence of the surface chemis-
try of silver nanoparticles on cell death. Nanotechnology. Sep 21
162. Badr G, Al-Sadoon MK, El-Toni AM, Daghestani M. Walterinnesia aegyptia
venom combined with silica nanoparticles enhances the functioning of normal
lymphocytes through PI3K/AKT, NFkappaB and ERK signaling. Lipids Health
Dis. 2012;11:27.
163. Simovic S, Ghouchi-Eskandar N, Sinn AM, Losic D, Prestidge CA. Silica materials
in drug delivery applications. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2011;8(3):269-76.
164. Mahony D, Cavallaro AS, Stahr F, Mahony TJ, Qiao SZ, Mitter N. Mesoporous sili-
ca nanoparticles act as a self-adjuvant for ovalbumin model antigen in mice.
Small. 2013 Sep 23;9(18):3138-46.
165. Elamanchili P, Lutsiak CM, Hamdy S, Diwan M, Samuel J. “Pathogen-
mimicking” nanoparticles for vaccine delivery to dendritic cells. J Immunother.
166. Datta S, Biswas SJ, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Comparative efficacy of two microdoses
of a potentized homoeopathic drug, Cadmium Sulphoricum, in reducing genotox-
ic effects produced by cadmium chloride in mice: a time course study. Evid Based
Complement Alternat Med. 2004;1(3):291-300.
167. Bhattacharjee N, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Two homeopathic remedies used intermit-
tently provide additional protective effects against hepatotoxicity induced by
carcinogens in mice. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2012;5(4):166-75.
168. Iavicoli I, Calabrese EJ, Nascarella MA. Exposure to nanoparticles and hormesis.
Dose Response. 2010;8(4):501-17.
169. Sugarman J, Tsai S, Santamaria P, Khadra A. Quantifying the importance of
pMHC valency, total pMHC dose and frequency on nanoparticle therapeutic
efficacy. Immunol Cell Biol. 2013;91:350-9.
170. Winnik FM, Maysinger D. Quantum dot cytotoxicity and ways to reduce it. Acc
Chem Res. 2013 Mar 19;46(3):672-80.
171. Van Wijk R, Wiegant FA. Postconditioning hormesis and the homeopathic
Similia principle: molecular aspects. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010;29(7):561-5.
172. Van Wijk R, Wiegant FA. Postconditioning hormesis and the similia principle.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2011;3:1128-38.
173. Wiegant FA, Prins HA, Van Wijk R. Postconditioning hormesis put in perspec-
tive: an overview of experimental and clinical studies. Dose Response.
2011;9(2):209-24. • January 2014 • Volume 3, Number 1
174. McDonnell MD, Abbott D. What is stochastic resonance? Definitions, miscon-
ceptions, debates, and its relevance to biology. PLoS Comput Biol.
175. Torres JL, Ruiz MAG. Stochastic resonance and the homeopathic effect. British
Homoeopathic J. 1996;85(3):134-40.
176. Nascarella MA, Calabrese EJ. A method to evaluate hormesis in nanoparticle
dose-responses. Dose Response. 2012;10(3):344-54.
177. Vaiserman AM. Hormesis, adaptive epigenetic reorganization, and implications
for human health and longevity. Dose Response. 2010;8(1):16-21.
178. Leri F, Zhou Y, Carmichael B, Cummins E, Kreek MJ. Treatment-like steady-state
methadone in rats interferes with incubation of cocaine sensitization and associat-
ed alterations in gene expression. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012;22(2):143-52.
179. Milisav I, Poljsak B, Suput D. Adaptive response, evidence of cross-resistance and
its potential clinical use. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13(9):10771-806.
180. Kagias K, Nehammer C, Pocock R. Neuronal responses to physiological stress.
Front Genet. 2012;3:222.
181. Frank MG, Thompson BM, Watkins LR, Maier SF. Glucocorticoids mediate stress-
induced priming of microglial pro-inflammatory responses. Brain Behav
Immun. 2012;26(2):337-45.
182. Antelman SM, Caggiula AR. Oscillation follows drug sensitization: implications.
Crit Rev Neurobiol. 1996;10(1):101-17.
183. Caggiula AR, Antelman SM, Kucinski BJ, et al. Oscillatory-sensitization model of
repeated drug exposure: cocaine’s effects on shock-induced hypoalgesia. Prog
Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1998 Apr;22(3):511-21.
184. Snow ET, Sykora P, Durham TR, Klein CB. Arsenic, mode of action at biologically
plausible low doses: what are the implications for low dose cancer risk? Toxicol
Appl Pharmacol. 2005;207(2 Suppl):557-64.
185. Calabrese E, Iavicoli I, Calabrese V. Hormesis: Its impact on medicine and health.
Hum Exp Toxicol. 2013;32(2):120-52.
186. Pinamonti G, Marro J, Torres JJ. Stochastic resonance crossovers in complex net-
works. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51170.
187. Demirovic D, Rattan SI. Curcumin induces stress response and hormetically
modulates wound healing ability of human skin fibroblasts undergoing ageing
in vitro. Biogerontology. 2011;12(5):437-444.
188. Demirovic D, Rattan SI. Establishing cellular stress response profiles as biomark-
ers of homeodynamics, health and hormesis. Exp Gerontol. 2013;48(1):94-8.
189. Sandberg WJ, Lag M, Holme JA, et al. Comparison of non-crystalline silica
nanopartilces in IL-1beta release from macrophages. Part Fibre Toxicol.
190. Gong C, Tao G, Yang L, Liu J, Liu Q, Zhuang Z. SiO(2) nanoparticles induce global
genomic hypomethylation in HaCaT cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun.
191. Khripin CY, Pristinski D, Dunphy DR, Brinker CJ, Kaehr B. Protein-directed
assembly of arbitrary three-dimensional nanoporous silica architectures. ACS
Nano. 2011;5(2):1401-9.
192. Aime C, Mosser G, Pembouong G, Bouteiller L, Coradin T. Controlling the nano-
bio interface to build collagen-silica self-assembled networks. Nanoscale. 2012
Nov 21;4(22):7127-34.
193. Tan SJ, Campolongo MJ, Luo D, Cheng W. Building plasmonic nanostructures
with DNA. Nat Nanotechnol. 2011;6(5):268-76.
194. Wang L, Xu L, Kuang H, Xu C, Kotov NA. Dynamic nanoparticle assemblies. Acc
Chem Res. 2012 Nov 20;45(11):1916-26.
195. Wu J, Silvent J, Coradin T, Aime C. Biochemical investigation of the formation of
three-dimensional networks from DNA-grafted large silica particles. Langmuir.
196. Montagnier L, Aissa J, Ferris S, Montagnier J-L, Lavallee C. Electromagnetic sig-
nals are produced by aqueous nanostructures derived from bacterial DNA
sequences. Interdiscip Sci Comput Life Sci. 2009;1:81-90.
197. Relaix S, Leheny RL, Reven L, Sutton M. Memory effect in composites of liquid
crystal and silica aerosil. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2011;84(6-
198. Salonen J, Kaukonen AM, Hirvonen J, Lehto VP. Mesoporous silicon in drug
delivery applications. J Pharm Sci. 2008;97(2):632-53.
199. Kang Z, Liu Y, Lee ST. Small-sized silicon nanoparticles: new nanolights and
nanocatalysts. Nanoscale. 2011;3(3):777-91.
200. Calabrese EJ, Mattson MP. Hormesis provides a generalized quantitative estimate
of biological plasticity. J Cell Commun Signal. 2011;5(1):25-38.
201. Li X, Ding X, Adrian TE. Arsenic trioxide induces apoptosis in pancreatic cancer
cells via changes in cell cycle, caspase activation, and GADD expression.
Pancreas. 2003;27(2):174-9.
202. Ahn RW, Chen F, Chen H, et al. A novel nanoparticulate formulation of arsenic
trioxide with enhanced therapeutic efficacy in a murine model of breast cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16(14):3607-17.
203. Boericke W. Pocket manual of homeopathic Materia Medica. Santa Rosa, CA:
Boericke and Tafel, Inc; 1927.
204. Das D, De A, Dutta S, Biswas R, Boujedaini N, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Potentized
homeopathic drug Arsenicum Album 30C positively modulates protein biomark-
ers and gene expressions in Saccharomyces cerevisae exposed to arsenate. Zhong
Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. Jul 2011;9(7):752-60.
205. Seligmann IC, Lima PD, Cardoso PC, et al. The anticancer homeopathic compos-
ite “Canova Method” is not genotoxic for human lymphocytes in vitro. Genet
Mol Res. 2003;2(2):223-8.
206. Vaiserman AM. Hormesis and epigenetics: is there a link? Ageing Res Rev.
207. Stark M. The sandpile model: optimal stress and hormesis. Dose Response.
208. Karatsoreos IN, McEwen BS. Psychobiological allostasis: resistance, resilience
and vulnerability. Trends Cogn Sci. 2011;15(12):576-84.
209. Juster RP, McEwen BS, Lupien SJ. Allostatic load biomarkers of chronic stress and
impact on health and cognition. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2010;35(1):2-16.
210. Bellavite P, Conforti A, Marzotto M, et al. Testing homeopathy in mouse emo-
tional response models: pooled data analysis of two series of studies. Evid Based
Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:954374.
211. Malarczyk E, Pazdzioch-Czochra M, Graz M, Kochmanska-Rdest J, Jarosz-
Wilkolazka A. Nonlinear changes in the activity of the oxygen-dependent
demethylase system in Rhodococcus erythropolis cells in the presence of low and
very low doses of formaldehyde. Nonlinear Biomed Phys. 2011;5(1):9.
212. Stovbun SV, Kiselev AV, Zanin AM, et al. Effects of physicochemical forms of
phenazepam and Panavir on their action at ultra-low doses. Bull Exp Biol Med.
213. Napierska D, Thomassen LC, Rabolli V, et al. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of
monodisperse silica nanoparticles in human endothelial cells. Small.
214. Cao G, Wang Y. Nanostructures and nanomaterials: synthesis, properties, and
applications, 2nd ed. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co; 2011.
215. Koithan M, Bell IR, Niemeyer K, Pincus D. A complex systems science perspec-
tive for whole systems of CAM research. Forsch Komplementmed.
2012;19(Suppl 1):7-14.
216. Antaris AL, Robinson JT, Yaghi OK, et al. Ultra-low doses of chirality sorted (6,5)
carbon nanotubes for simultaneous tumor imaging and photothermal therapy.
ACS Nano. 2013;7(4):3644-52.
217. Foo J, Michor F. Evolution of resistance to targeted anticancer therapies during
continuous and pulsed administration strategies. PLoS Comput Biol. Nov
218. Gary-Bobo M, Vaillant O, Maynadier M, et al. Targeting multiplicity: the key fac-
tor for anticancer nanoparticles. Curr Med Chem. 2013;20(15):1946-55.
219. Sun J, Luo C, Wang Y, He Z. The holistic 3M modality of drug delivery nanosys-
tems for cancer therapy. Nanoscale. 2013;5(3):845-59.
220. Smith SB, Dampier W, Tozeren A, Brown JR, Magid-Slav M. Identification of
common biological pathways and drug targets across multiple respiratory virus-
es based on human host gene expression analysis. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33174.
221. Ribas A, Tumeh PC. Cancer therapy: tumours switch to resist. Nature.
222. Sell S. Cellular origin of cancer: dedifferentiation or stem cell maturation arrest?
Environ Health Perspect. 1993;101 Suppl 5:15-26.
223. Vijayakar P. Genetic Materia Medica. Tri-miasmatic Materia Medica. Mumbai,
India: Preeti Vijayakar; 2011.
224. Bell NC, Minelli C, Tompkins J, Stevens MM, Shard AG. Emerging techniques for
submicrometer particle sizing applied to stober silica. Langmuir.
225. Gercel-Taylor C, Atay S, Tullis RH, Kesimer M, Taylor DD. Nanoparticle analysis
of circulating cell-derived vesicles in ovarian cancer patients. Anal Biochem.
226. Pyrgiotakis G, Bhowmick TK, Finton K, et al. Cell (A549)-particle (Jasada
Bhasma) interactions using Raman spectroscopy. Biopolymers.
227. Rao M, Roy R, Bell IR. Characterization of the structure of ultra dilute sols with
remarkable biological properties. Mater Lett. 2008;62:1487-90.
228. Dragovic RA, Gardiner C, Brooks AS, et al. Sizing and phenotyping of cellular
vesicles using nanoparticle tracking analysis. Nanomedicine. 2011;7(6):780-8.
229. Soo CY, Song Y, Zheng Y, et al. Nanoparticle tracking analysis monitors
microvesicle and exosome secretion from immune cells. Immunology.
230. Zhang Y, Yang M, Portney NG, et al. Zeta potential: a surface electrical charac-
teristic to probe the interaction of nanoparticles with normal and cancer
human breast epithelial cells. Biomed Microdevices. Apr 2008;10(2):321-328.
231. Banerji P, Campbell DR. Cancer patients treated with the Banerji Protocols
utilising homoeopathic medicine: a Best Case Series Program of the National
Cancer Institute USA. Oncol Rep. Jul 2008;20(1):69-74.
232. Magnani P, Conforti A, Zanolin E, Marzotto M, Bellavite P. Dose-effect study of
Gelsemium sempervirens in high dilutions on anxiety-related responses in mice.
Psychopharmacology (Berl). Jul 2010;210(4):533-545.
233. Philip D. Green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus rosa
sinensis. Physica E Low Dimens Sys Nanostruct. 2010;42:1417-24.
... The solubility may be improved, because the nanoscale alteration raises the surface area to volume ratio [70]. Small molecules are assembled into a nanoscale structure using a manufacturing process (such as organic synthesis and self-assembly on proteins) [71]. Chemical conjugation with other substances was done to enhance chrysin's functions. ...
Full-text available
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and lung cancer are expected to represent the most common cancer types worldwide until 2030. Under typical conditions, mitochondria provide the bulk of the energy needed to sustain cell life. For that inhibition of mitochondrial complex ΙΙ (CΙΙ) and ubiquinone oxidoreductase with natural treatments may represent a promising cancer treatment option. A naturally occurring flavonoid with biological anti-cancer effects is chyrsin. Due to their improved bioavailability, penetrative power, and efficacy, chitosan–chrysin nano-formulations (CCNPs) are being used in medicine with increasing frequency. Chitosan (cs) is also regarded as a highly versatile and adaptable polymer. The cationic properties of Cs, together with its biodegradability, high adsorption capacity, biocompatibility, effect on permeability, ability to form films, and adhesive properties, are advantages. In addition, Cs is thought to be both safe and economical. CCNPs may indeed be therapeutic candidates in the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and lung cancer by blocking succinate ubiquinone oxidoreductase.
... Their results suggest that in addition to general stimulation of the immune system, homeopathic medicines also have tumor-specific action. 16,17 Such action, indeed, has been described in experimental studies since the early 2000s. However, to the best of Keywords ► experimental oncology ► high dilutions ► methodological analysis ...
Background Complementary and alternative medicine, including homeopathy, is widely used to improve well-being among cancer patients and reduce adverse effects of conventional treatment. In contrast, there are few studies on the use of homeopathic medicines to treat the disease itself. Yet, evidence of possible effectiveness of homeopathic high dilutions in experimental cancer models has been published during the past 20 years. Aim The aim of the study was to perform a systematic review of fundamental research studies on homeopathic high dilutions in cancer. Methods Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline, we conducted a literature search in the database PubMed for original publications, from 2000 to 2018 and in English, on in vitro and in vivo experimental cancer models testing homeopathic high dilutions. Results Twenty-three articles met the inclusion criteria—14 in vitro, eight in vivo, and one in vitro plus in vivo experimental models. Most studies were from India. Research prominently focused on cytotoxic effects involving apoptotic mechanisms. Intrinsic aspects of homeopathy should be considered in experimental designs to emphasize the specificity of such effects. Conclusion Fundamental research of homeopathy in cancer is still at an early stage and has mainly been performed by a few groups of investigators. The results point to an interference of well-selected homeopathic medicines with cell cycle and apoptotic mechanisms in cancer cells. However, these findings still need independent reproduction.
... Homeopathic preparations contained in the Banerji protocol (eg, Calcarea phosphorica; breast cancer tissue derived from a carcinogenic tumor in homeopathic preparation) overlap with the agents already studied in non-homeopathic exosomal cancer vaccination studies. Nanoforms are also found, for example, in these plant extracts: Phytolacca, Gelsemium, Hydrastis, Thuja and Ruta [14]. ...
Full-text available
Homeopathy utilizes the body's own resources and homeopathic preparations, for example, strengthen the immune system. A strong immune system plays a very important role in the treatment of cancer. Therefore, homeopathy is widely used in the treatment of cancer and there is plenty of clinical research evidence. Cancer is treated differently in established medicine compared to homeopathic methods. Both methods are needed to complement each other. For example, after cancer surgery and radiotherapy, the treatment can preferably continue utilizing homeopathic methods, since cytostatic drugs can lead to a patient poorly recovering from cancer surgery or cancer radiation due to an immune system not working properly. Homeopathic methods offer a gentle and effective solution for those who are recovering from cancer.
... Such complexes are known to have biological activity, especially in the non-specific activation of the immune system, such as macrophagic activity. [13][14][15][16] In a recent study, 17 however, Dalboni et al were unable to provide evidence for the participation of larger microscopic particles of silica on macrophage activity in-vitro. ...
... The implication is that using the homeopathic simillimum medicine as a personalized hormetin will modulate the interrelationships and interactions of endogenous biological signaling networks to initiate disease recovery, a hypothesis supported by studies of certain homeopathic medicines in animal or cellular models for cancer. [189][190][191][192][193] If the system is already diseased in some way, it is at or close to its physiological limits (cf. time-dependent sensitization and oscillation). ...
Background: Evidence indicates that homeopathic medicines are complex self-organizing nano-scale systems that generate unique low-intensity electromagnetic signals and/or quantum coherence domains. In Part 1, we reviewed relevant concepts from complex adaptive systems science on living systems for the nature of homeopathic healing. Aim: In Part 2, we discuss the complex-system nature of homeopathic medicines. The aim is to relate the evidence on the nature and properties of homeopathic medicines to the complex systems model for homeopathic healing. Methods and results: The work is a narrative review, with complexity model development for the nature of homeopathic medicines. Studies suggest that homeopathic manufacturing generates nano-structures of source material, silica and silicon quantum dots if succussed in glassware or including botanical source materials; or carbon quantum dots if succussed in plastic or including any organic source materials, as well as solute-induced water nano-structures carrying medicine-specific information. On contact with physiological fluids (e.g., blood plasma), there is evidence that nano-structures additionally adsorb individualized patterns of the recipient's own proteins on to their surfaces to create a unique protein corona coat (shell). Thus, the simillimum may generate a personalized biological identity upon administration. Consequently, a medicine can serve as an individually salient, self-similar information carrier, whose protein corona constituent pattern reflects the individual's current internal state of health/disease. Homeopathic medicine complexity emerges from interactions of the component parts from source, silica from glassware or carbon from plastic containers, solvents (lactose, water, ethanol), adsorbed biomolecule layers from plant or animal sources, and adsorbed biomolecules of the recipient. Low doses of these complex medicines can act as biological signaling agents to initiate hormesis via a network-wide pattern of adaptive responses by the recipient complex adaptive system, rather than as conventional pharmaceutical drugs. Biological mediators of adaptive responses include inter-connected network elements of the cell danger/damage defense system: for example, gene expression, reactive oxygen species, heat shock proteins, cytokines, macrophages, T-cells, and associated brain-immune system mediator pathways. Conclusions: Every homeopathic medicine is a complex nano-scale system involving multiple inter-connected, interacting components, and emergent properties. Simillimum individualization derives from formation of a unique personalized protein corona shell adsorbed to the reactive surface of the homeopathic nano-structures on contact with the recipient's body fluids. Low doses of such complex nano-structures initiate the adaptive processes of hormesis to mobilize endogenous healing of a disease state. The capacity for self-organization and self-similarity in complex systems is the key to future research on the nature of homeopathic medicines and systemic healing during individualized homeopathic treatment.
... The implication is that advanced treatment strategies, such as homeopathic simillimum medicine dosing, will also modulate the inter-relationships and interactions of endogenous biological signaling networks and gene expression, a hypothesis supported by studies of certain homeopathic medicines in animal or cellular models for cancer. 44,51,[77][78][79] If the system is already diseased in some way, it is at or close to its physiological limits (cf., TDS and oscillation). 61,62,80,81 The body will potentially exhibit transient aggravation up to its physiological limits and then reverse its direction of change back from disease toward a healthier degree of complexity, following the arrival of a low-dose, hormetic salient stimulus to do so. ...
Background: The concepts of complex systems science enhance the understanding of how people develop and recover from disease. Living systems (human beings, animals, and plants) are self-organizing complex adaptive systems (CAS): that is, interconnected networks. CAS maintain life by initiating and carrying out non-linear dynamical changes to optimize survival fitness and function in the context of an ever-changing environment. Aims: In Part 1 of this two-part paper, we relate concepts from complex systems science to homeopathic healing. The systemic changes of homeopathic healing involve adaptive patterns of responses to salient signals (similia) for reversing disease patterns and generating emergent multi-symptom healing over time. Methods and results: This narrative review relates homeopathic clinical practice theory to complex systems and network research. Homeopathic medicines communicate individually salient environmental information to the organism, with effects that are multi-system and indirect. The body's defense mechanisms recognize the self-similar information that the correctly chosen simillimum medicine at low dose conveys as a weak external/internal environmental stressor or danger signal (hormetin) to mobilize neural and cellular defenses. The body networks then use endogenous cell to cell signaling and amplify the small magnitude signal information. The results are disproportionately large: that is, non-linear, adaptive, modifications across the inter-connected self-organized biological networks/sub-systems of the body. CAS amplification mechanisms for small or weak signals include stochastic resonance, time-dependent sensitization, and hormesis. Conclusions: The body as a complex system has the capacity for self-organization, emergence and self-similarity over global (overall health and wellbeing) and local (organ) levels of organization. These features are key for future research on the systemic healing that evolves over time during individualized homeopathic treatment.
... Such complexes are known to have biological activity, especially in the non-specific activation of the immune system, such as macrophagic activity. [13][14][15][16] In a recent study, 17 however, Dalboni et al were unable to provide evidence for the participation of larger microscopic particles of silica on macrophage activity in-vitro. ...
Introduction The mechanism by which highly diluted and agitated solutions have their effect is still unknown, but the development in recent years of new methods identifying changes in water and solute dipole moments is providing insights into potential modes of action. Objective The objective of the current study was to compare the biological effects of Antimonium crudum (AC) previously obtained by our group and already described in the literature with now measurable physico-chemical effects on solvatochromic dyes. Methods Different dilutions of AC and succussed water have been characterized with respect to their effect on the visible spectra of the solvatochromic dyes methylene violet (MV), a pyridinium phenolate (ET33), and a dimethylamino naphthalenone (BDN) compared with in-vitro action against Leishmania amazonensis-infected macrophages. Results Dye responses varied according to the dye used and the level of AC dilution and results were found to corroborate previously published in-vivo and in-vitro effects of AC. In addition, a very significant enhancement in the absorbance increase of MV was seen using the supernatant from AC 200cH-treated cells (15%; p < 0.0001) over that seen with AC 200cH itself (4%; p = 0.034), suggesting the amplification of ultra-high dilution effects by biological systems. Furthermore, supernatants from AC-treated cells increased the range of dilutions of AC that were capable of producing effects on the spectra of MV. The effect of AC dilutions on dye ET33 was eliminated by a weak electric current passed through potency solutions. Conclusion The data confirm a correspondence between the biological effects of dilutions of AC in-vitro and physico-chemical effects on solvatochromic dyes as measured by changes in their visible spectra. Results also indicate high dilutions of AC are sensitive to exposure to electric currents and biological systems.
The continuous rise in cancer incidence places a massive burden on the health sector to increase efforts in the fight against cancer. As a holistic complementary medicine modality, homeopathy has the potential to assist in the supportive and palliative treatment of cancer patients. Recent empirical studies demonstrate the presence of silica and original source nanoparticles in ultra-high dilutions of several homeopathic medicines. Recent studies have also demonstrated the efficacy of phototherapy in inducing the ablation of cancer cells through laser-activated nanoparticle photosensitizers. A new hypothetical research model is presented herein, in an attempt to investigate and compare the phototherapeutic effects of homeopathic source nanoparticles with photosensitizing nanoparticle agents that have previously been tested.
Background Arnica montana containing helenalin as its principal active constituent, is the most widely used plant to treat various ailments. Recent studies indicate that Arnica and helenalin provides significant health benefits, including anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, immunomodulatory and most important, anticancer properties. Objective The objective of the present revie w is to overview the recent patents of Arnica and its principal constituent helenalin, including new methods of isolation, and their use in the prevention of cancer and other ailments. Methods Current prose and patents emphasizing the anticancer potential of helenalin and Arnica, incorporated as anti-inflammary agent in anticancer preparations have been identified and reviewed with particular emphasis on their scientific impact and novelty. Results Helenalin has shown its anticancer potential to treat multiple types of tumors, both in vitro and in vivo. It has also portrayed synergistic effects when given in combination with other anticancer drugs or natural compounds. New purification/isolation techniques are also developing with novel helenalin formulations and its synthetic derivatives have been developed to increase its solubility and bioavailability. Conclusion The promising anticancer potential of helenalin in various preclinical studies may open new avenues for therapeutic interventions in different tumors. Thus clinical trials validating its tumor suppressing and chemopreventive activities particularly in conjunction with standard therapies, are immediately required.
Résumé La critique de l’homéopathie repose sur l’absence théorique de l’ingrédient de départ dans les dilutions ultramoléculaires au-delà de 12 CH (limite d’Avogadro), et corrélativement sur l’absence de mécanisme d’action biologique. Or, la préparation spécifique par dilution/dynamisation implique des processus d’interaction itératifs avec l’atmosphère (nanobulles), les parois des contenants (silice et autres éléments chimiques), et avec la micropipette de prélèvement (adsorption). La RMN a montré depuis 2003 des nanostructures (NS) dans les dilutions ultramoléculaires, confirmées plus récemment par diverses techniques (filtration, diffusion laser, diffraction RX, microscopie électronique). Ces nanostructures/nanoparticules (NS/NPs) persistent et même s’accroissent avec la hauteur de dilution, et sont différenciables selon la substance de départ, à condition d’avoir été dynamisées. Plusieurs études montrent la présence inattendue de matériel dans les hautes dilutions, et souvent même la rémanence du matériel initial au-delà de 12 CH. Ces NS/NPs ne sont pas observées à basse dilution. La gamme 2-4 CH correspond à la transition entre l’état « moléculaire » et « nanoparticulaire » du principe actif qui pourrait expliquer les inversions d’effets observés en biologie. Compte tenu des propriétés particulières de biodisponibilité et réactivité des NPs, l’hypothèse des hautes dilutions agissant comme nanomédecine peut raisonnablement être avancée.
Full-text available
Cellular microvesicles and nanovesicles (exosomes) are involved in many disease processes and have major potential as biomarkers. However, developments in this area are constrained by limitations in the technology available for their measurement. Here we report on the use of fluorescence nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) to rapidly size and phenotype cellular vesicles. In this system vesicles are visualized by light scattering using a light microscope. A video is taken, and the NTA software tracks the brownian motion of individual vesicles and calculates their size and total concentration. Using human placental vesicles and plasma, we have demonstrated that NTA can measure cellular vesicles as small as ≈ 50 nm and is far more sensitive than conventional flow cytometry (lower limit ≈ 300 nm). By combining NTA with fluorescence measurement we have demonstrated that vesicles can be labeled with specific antibody-conjugated quantum dots, allowing their phenotype to be determined. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: The authors of this study utilized fluorescence nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) to rapidly size and phenotype cellular vesicles, demonstrating that NTA is far more sensitive than conventional flow cytometry.
Full-text available
This review is written with the goal of informing public health concerns related to nanoscience, while raising awareness of nanomaterials toxicity among scientists and manufacturers handling them. We show that humans have always been exposed to nanoparticles and dust from natural sources and human activities, the recent development of industry and combustion-based engine transportation profoundly increasing anthropogenic nanoparticulate pollution. The key to understanding the toxicity of nanoparticles is that their minute size, smaller than cells and cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate these basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. Among diseases associated with nanoparticles are asthma, bronchitis, lung cancer, neurodegenerative diseases (such as Parkinson`s and Alzheimer`s diseases), Crohn`s disease, colon cancer. Nanoparticles that enter the circulatory system are related to occurrence of arteriosclerosis, and blood clots, arrhythmia, heart diseases, and ultimately cardiac death. We show that possible adverse effects of nanoparticles on human health depend on individual factors such as genetics and existing disease, as well as exposure, and nanoparticle chemistry, size, shape, and agglomeration state. The faster we will understand their causes and mechanisms, the more likely we are to find cures for diseases associated with nanoparticle exposure. We foresee a future with better-informed, and hopefully more cautious manipulation of engineered nanomaterials, as well as the development of laws and policies for safely managing all aspects of nanomaterial manufacturing, industrial and commercial use, and recycling.
This volume includes the full Health Technology Assessment (HTA) report on effectiveness, appropriateness, safety and costs of homoeopathy in health care. The report was commissioned by the Swiss health authorities to inform decision-making on the further inclusion of homoeopathy in the list of services covered by statutory health insurance. Other studies carried out as part of the Swiss Complementary Medicine Evaluation Programme (PEK) caused a massive stir due to their schematic and exclusively quantitative (negative-)outcomes for homoeopathy. The present report, in contrast, offers a differentiated evaluation of the practice of homoeopathy in health care. It confirms homoeopathy as a valuable addition to the conventional medical landscape – a status it has been holding for a long time in practical health care.
This comprehensive, modern textbook on the principles and practice of homeopathy provides a detailed, practical and thorough basis for the understanding and the application of homeopathy. Drawing on the experience and knowledge of a wealth of international contributors, the book offers the foundations for the safe and broadest practice of modern homeopathy. The book is divided into 6 sections that take the understanding of homeopathy from basic principles through treatment of acute, chronic illnesses; the first prescription; the difficult case; and incurable cases.
Nanomaterials, with their unique size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have shown promising advantages as drug and gene delivery vehicles, ultra-sensitive intracellular detectors and novel therapeutic drugs. Nanopharmaceutics is one of the disciplines that will benefit the most from this technology. Nanotechnology will have a revolutionary impact on cancer diagnosis and therapy due to the exceptional characteristics of nanopharmaceutics. This book provides an overview of some tools, methods, and materials of nanotechnology that offer potential applications in pharmaceutics, followed by a series of examples showing applications that are already in development. It may very well inspire researchers to develop a new generation of pharmaceutics with inventive non-traditional approach and employ nanoscale science for the benefit of the patient. © 2013 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.