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Abstract

The college years are marked by social changes and behavioral experimentation which may increase risk of suicidal ideation. We propose a novel pathway for the development of suicidal thoughts between two established suicide risk factors, loneliness and drug use, which have not been examined in a nonclinical sample. Data were collected from 207 undergraduate drug-using students at a large southeastern university. As hypothesized, suicidal ideation was positively correlated with both loneliness (r = .40) and drug use (r = .29). After controlling for several demographic variables, social desirability, and anxiety sensitivity, drug use was tested as a potential mediator in the loneliness–suicidal ideation link using a single-mediator model. Results indicated a significant indirect (mediated) effect of loneliness on suicidal ideation via drug use (ab = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02–0.18), suggesting that loneliness may contribute to suicidal ideation through increased drug use among college students. Identification of and intervention with students reporting loneliness and drug use may be a promising suicide prevention strategy on college campuses.

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... [12][13][14][15] Moreover, interpersonal processes have been implicated in suicidal ideation in other samples-as both risk and protective factors. For example, loneliness is associated with suicidal ideation, 16 whereas social support is inversely associated with suicidal ideation. 17 Nonetheless, with rare exceptions, 18,19 studies on correlates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among veterans who have experienced MST have rarely focused on interpersonal outcomes. ...
... As such, efforts to understand factors that are associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among MST survivors may be strengthened by considering both psychiatric variables (e.g., hazardous alcohol use) as well as perceptions and experiences of the social response to trauma (i.e., general disapproval from others). The present study examined general interpersonal processes associated with suicidal ideation in other samples (i.e., loneliness and social support), 16,17 in addition to perceptions of trauma-specific interpersonal processes previously unexamined in relation to suicidal ideation or suicide attempts (i.e., social acknowledgment, general disapproval, and family disapproval). In the present sample, loneliness and social support were associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in unadjusted analyses but were not associated with suicidal ideation or suicide attempts in the adjusted analyses. ...
Article
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Background: Veterans who experience military sexual trauma are at increased risk for experiencing suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide. Yet few studies have attempted to discern factors that relate to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among survivors of military sexual trauma. The present study aimed to identify psychiatric and interpersonal correlates of suicidal ideation (primary aim) and suicide attempt (secondary aim) among survivors of military sexual trauma. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 115 veterans (56 females; mean age = 53.24) who participated in the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study and reported experiencing military sexual trauma. Self-report measures assessed psychological distress, hazardous alcohol use, social support, loneliness, social acknowledgment following one's worst trauma, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Results: Military sexual trauma survivors who reported more severe psychological distress (OR = 2.88), hazardous alcohol use (OR = 1.14), and perceived general disapproval from others (OR = 1.14) were significantly more likely to report experiencing suicidal ideation in the past two weeks. Hazardous alcohol use (OR = 1.19) and perceived general disapproval from others (OR = 1.36) were associated with being more likely to report attempting suicide in adulthood. Conclusions: Addressing alcohol misuse, psychological distress, and perceived general disapproval from others in relation to one's worst traumatic event is recommended when assessing and managing suicide risk among veterans who have experienced military sexual trauma. Findings also contribute to a growing literature highlighting the importance of understanding perceptions of the interpersonal response to trauma. Considering the cross-sectional design, longitudinal research is needed to further elucidate the roles of these constructs in predicting suicidal ideation and suicide attempt following military sexual trauma.
... Having an alcohol use disorder is also associated with intentional self-harm and self-inflicted firearm injury, 18,19 and firearm access increases the lethality of harms from drinking. [18][19][20][21] Among U.S. college students, alcohol use is associated with increased likelihood of suicide proneness, 20 and acute alcohol consumption is associated with greater odds of suicide by firearm among suicide victims. 21 More than one-in-five college students are current marijuana users 9 ; however, findings on the association between cannabis use and firearm risk are mixed. ...
... Having an alcohol use disorder is also associated with intentional self-harm and self-inflicted firearm injury, 18,19 and firearm access increases the lethality of harms from drinking. [18][19][20][21] Among U.S. college students, alcohol use is associated with increased likelihood of suicide proneness, 20 and acute alcohol consumption is associated with greater odds of suicide by firearm among suicide victims. 21 More than one-in-five college students are current marijuana users 9 ; however, findings on the association between cannabis use and firearm risk are mixed. ...
Article
Objective: Examine the proportion of students with rapid firearm access and associations with recent alcohol and marijuana use. Participants: Cross-sectional data from college freshmen (n = 183) in 2020 who participated in the Mason: Health Starts Here study. Methods: Using logistic regression, associations were examined between past 30-day substance use and access to firearms within 15-min. Results: More than 10% of students could rapidly access a firearm, 53% of whom were current binge drinkers, compared to 13% of those who could not rapidly access firearms. Non-Hispanic White students (AOR = 4.1, 95%CI = 1.3,12.7) and past 30-day binge drinkers (AOR = 6.4, 95%CI = 2.1,19.7) had greater odds of having rapid firearm access. Age, sex, and past 30-day marijuana use were not associated with rapid access. Conclusions: A notable proportion of students had rapid firearm access, which was strongly associated with recent binge drinking. Campus prevention programs should consider how their alcohol and firearm policies could be enhanced to prevent violence/self-harm.
... Social isolation can also lead to increased feelings of loneliness (Cacioppo et al., 2011), a dangerous epidemic in the United States (Murthy 2017). Loneliness is similarly associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes, such as depression, suicidality, substance abuse (Lamis et al., 2014), cognitive decline, and overall health and mortality (Hawkley & Cacioppo, 2010). ...
Article
Objective: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States has exacerbated a number of mental health conditions and problems related to prolonged social isolation. While COVID-19 has led to greater loneliness and a lack of social connectedness, little is known about who are the most affected and how they are impacted. Therefore, we performed a Latent Class Analysis using items from two scales - the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Social Connectedness Scale - to characterize different experiences of loneliness and connectedness, examine their relationship with mental health and substance use symptoms, including depression, anxiety, drinking, and drug use. Methods: Data were drawn from an anonymous one-time online survey examining the mental health of 1008 young adults (18-35 years old) during COVID-19. A latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to observe and identify classes based on responses to loneliness and connectedness scale items, and to examine the existence of subgroups among this young adult population. Results: We identified a 4-class model of loneliness and connectedness: (1) Lonely and Disconnected - highest probabilities in items of loneliness and disconnectedness, (2) Moderately Lonely and Disconnected - adaptive levels of some isolation and disconnection during COVID-19, (3) Ambivalent Feelings - displaying negative responses in particular to negatively-worded items while simultaneously affirming positively worded items, and (4) Connected and Not Lonely - lowest probabilities in items of loneliness and disconnectedness. Conclusion: Key findings include (1) the delineation of classes by levels of loneliness and connectedness showcasing differential mental health and substance use symptoms, (2) the utility of item-level evaluation with LCA in determining specific classes of people in need of outreach and intervention, and (3) the promise of social connection to bolster resilience in young adults.
... Through this mechanism, loneliness may contribute to poor control of chronic conditions, including hypertension [12,13] and metabolic problems, such as obesity [14]. In addition, loneliness is linked to multiple behavioral health problems, including anxiety [15], depression [16], substance abuse [1], and suicidal tendency [17]. Over half (56%) of adults in the USA with anxiety have reported loneliness [1]. ...
Article
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Objectives: Loneliness is a biopsychosocial determinant of health and contributes to physical and psychological chronic illnesses, functional decline, and mortality in older adults. This paper presents the results of the first randomized trial of LISTEN, which is a new cognitive behavioral intervention for loneliness, on loneliness, neuroimmunological stress response, psychosocial functioning, quality of life, and measures of physical health. Methods: The effectiveness of LISTEN was evaluated in a sample population comprising 27 lonely, chronically ill, older adults living in Appalachia. Participants were randomized into LISTEN or educational attention control groups. Outcome measures included salivary cortisol and DHEA, interleukin-6, interleukin-2, depressive symptoms, loneliness, perceived social support, functional ability, quality of life, fasting glucose, blood pressure, and body mass index. Results: At 12 weeks after the last intervention session, participants of the LISTEN group reported reduced loneliness (p = 0.03), enhanced overall social support (p = 0.05), and decreased systolic blood pressure (p = 0.02). The attention control group reported decreased functional ability (p = 0.10) and reduced quality of life (p = 0.13). Conclusions: LISTEN can effectively diminish loneliness and decrease the systolic blood pressure in community-dwelling, chronically ill, older adults. Results indicate that this population, if left with untreated loneliness, may experience functional impairment over a period as short as 4 months. Further studies on LISTEN are needed with larger samples, in varied populations, and over longer periods of time to assess the long-term effects of diminishing loneliness in multiple chronic conditions.
... First, studies on loneliness over the past 30 years have indicated that it is a reliable correlate and predictor of a wide range of negative psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety, and stress; see Heinrich & Gullone, 2006, for a review). Second, and relatedly, studies in college student populations have shown that loneliness is a reliable predictor of other serious types of self-destructive behaviors, including suicidal behaviors (e.g., Chang et al., 2015;Hirsch, Chang, & Jeglic, 2012;Lamis, Ballard, & Patel, 2014;Muyan & Chang, 2015;Stravynski & Boyer, 2001). Finally, because females, compared with males, place greater value on pursuing and maintaining close interdependent relationships (Cross & Madson, 1997;Stewart & McDermott, 2004), the chronic perception of being alone or disconnected from others may, therefore, represent a particularly distressful experience for females. ...
Article
The present study examined sexual assault victimization and loneliness as predictors of self-harm behaviors in a sample of 224 female college students. Results from conducting regression analysis indicated that both sexual assault victimization and loneliness were unique and significant predictors of self-harm behaviors. This pattern remained even after controlling for concomitant suicidal behaviors. Interestingly, in a post hoc analysis predicting suicidal behaviors, it was found that loneliness, but not sexual assault victimization, was the only unique and significant predictor after controlling for self-harm behaviors. Some implications of the present findings for understanding self-harm behaviors in female college students and the importance of controlling for suicidal behaviors in studies of self-harm behaviors (and vice versa) are discussed.
... Por ejemplo, las variables sociales (funcionamiento familiar, ajuste escolar y victimización escolar) y personales influyen en la aparición de IS, lo que indica asociaciones entre variables personales como alimentación, tendencias depresivas, victimización escolar, comportamientos antisociales, baja autoestima y autoeficacia, y los actos suicidas. Además, la cohesión o unión familiar están estrechamente relacionadas con la IS de los adolescentes, es decir, en familias desunidas o con baja cohesión hay mayor IS, lo que representa un mayor riesgo suicida (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19); variables como el uso de drogas ilegales y aislamiento han tenido también evidencia reciente (20,21). Se puede afirmar, por tanto, que la IS está precedida por variables psicosociales, familiares y personales, y puede dar lugar a comportamientos autolesivos que constituyen alto riesgo suicida (22)(23)(24). ...
Article
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Objetivo: establecer la relación entre ideación suicida, desesperanza, tríada cognitiva negativa y depresión, como evidencia del modelo cognitivo del riesgo suicida. Método: estudio empírico-analítico con diseño descriptivo, correlacional y comparativo. Las variables fueron medidas con los inventarios BDI-II, PANSI e ITC y la escala BHS. La muestra final estuvo constituida por 90 personas de ambos sexos, con una media de edad de 24,2 años (DT = 8,65 años) pertenecientes a diversos niveles socioeconómicos, con estudios universitarios, principalmente. Resultados: se encontraron correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre ideación suicida, desesperanza, depresión y la tríada cognitiva negativa. Las diferencias fueron significativas entre los grupos depresivos y no depresivos, con grandes efectos para las tres variables cognitivas. Interpretación y conclusiones: estos resultados constituyen nueva evidencia del modelo cognitivo planteado acerca de la relación entre las variables depresión, tríada cognitiva negativa, ideación suicida y desesperanza, tal como se ha propuesto en distintas revisiones sobre cognición negativa y suicidio. Se analizaron las limitaciones del estudio en cuanto el reducido tamaño muestral y las diferencias entre sexos para depresión ante estresores específicos, y las variaciones por grupos de edades en el riesgo suicida de los jóvenes.
... Indeed, according to Joiner's (2005) interpersonal theory of suicide, social disconnectedness represents a critical factor involved in the development of suicidal risk. Consistent with this view, findings from studies on loneliness have also implicated it as a reliable predictor of suicidal risk in college student populations (e.g., Hirsch, Chang, & Jeglic, 2012;Lamis, Ballard, & Patel, 2014;Weber, Metha, & Nelsen, 1997). For example, in a recent study, Chang, Muyan, and Hirsch (2015) found that loneliness was significantly associated with greater depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in college students. ...
Article
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This study examined loneliness and future orientation as predictors of suicidal risk, namely, depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, in a sample of 228 college students (54 males and 174 females). Results of regression analyses indicated that loneliness was a significant predictor of both indices of suicidal risk. The inclusion of future orientation was found to significantly augment the prediction model of both depressive symptoms and suicide ideation, even after accounting for loneliness. Noteworthy, beyond loneliness and future orientation, the Loneliness × Future Orientation interaction term was found to further augment both prediction models of suicidal risk. Consistent with the notion that future orientation is an important buffer of suicidal risk, among lonely students, those with high future orientation, compared to low future orientation, were found to report significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. Some implications of the present findings for studying both risk and protective factors associated with suicidal risk in young adults are discussed.
... Alcohol use has been associated with increased suicide proneness in college students, 18,45 and illicit drug use and misuse of prescription drugs is positively correlated with suicidal ideation. 13,46,47 Associations between a diagnosis of ADHD and increased risk of substance use disorders is welldocumented 44 and evidence is mounting that college students with ADHD display increased risk for problematic substance use. 48,49 In addition, given high rates of comorbid psychopathology in this population 50 and struggles with the transition to college, 51 it is possible college students with ADHD may use drugs and alcohol to cope. ...
Article
Objective: The present study evaluated the prevalence of past suicidal ideation (SI), plan, and attempt in college students with ADHD (N = 102) compared to a matched control (N = 102). Predictors of SI, plan, and attempts, were examined. Participants: Study participants were first year college students at a large Southeastern university who completed measures during August or September of 2014 or January of 2015. Methods: Measures were completed by first year students via an online survey. Results: Prevalence rates for SI and related behaviors were higher among the ADHD group than the matched control, with suicide attempts rates four times higher in the ADHD group (13.7% vs. 2.9%). Results showed that ADHD predicted rates of SI and suicide attempt accounting for depression and key demographic variables. Conclusions: Findings have implications for suicide risk assessments conducted with college students with ADHD.
... 21 Sometimes loneliness leads to sui- cidal ideation through the use of drug. 22 • 'Voodoo death' : Walter Cannon published a paper with this term as its title in 1942 to describe the kind of sudden death caused by an emotional shock. 23 The specifi c case he studied was extreme fear among some aboriginal natives of nat- ural phenomena. ...
... Je mange davantage lorsque je suis seul ? Jamais ; Parfois ; Souvent ; Toujours » La question de la solitude, et plus particulièrement de l'évitement de la solitude(409), semble aujourd'hui être de plus en plus mise en avant comme influençant la mise en place ou la sévérité des addictions notamment comportementales, telles que réseaux sociaux/téléphone portable(410)(411)(412), mais également aux substances(413,414). L'effet de la solitude a aussi été retrouvé pour d'autres addictions comme le jeu pathologique(415). ...
Thesis
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Food addiction (FA) is an old concept, but still subject to controversy. It affects 18 to 24% of obese people. In this thesis, we are interested in overlaps between food behavior regulation, addiction and FA, in order to better understand the mechanisms linked to food intake disinhibition. Our work leads to several results: 1) A review of the literature has shown the existence of close interaction between eating behavior regulation levels and how FA could be an example of their disturbance. 2) A cohort study demonstrated the existence of common clinical features between addiction and FA and a probable addiction transfer from nicotine to food. 3) From an experimental point of view, we have shown that there are disturbances of P300 and N200 ERP, in obesity and food disinhibition, close to those observed in addictions. 4) Finally, our results suggest the potential role of ghrelin as a marker for eating disorders increased risk. This work opens experimental perspectives, with the suggestion of more relevant control groups; clinical perspectives, with the creation of a screening tool; therapeutics perspectives, with the establishment of a therapeutic trial by tDCS.
... semble aujourd'hui être de plus en plus mise en avant comme influençant la mise en place ou la sévérité des addictions notamment comportementales, telles que réseaux sociaux/téléphone portable(410)(411)(412), mais également aux substances(413,414). L'effet de la solitude a aussi été retrouvé pour d'autres addictions comme le jeu pathologique(415). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Food addiction (FA) is an old concept, but still subject to controversy. It affects 18 to 24% of obese people. In this thesis, we are interested in overlaps between food behavior regulation, addiction and FA, in order to better understand the mechanisms linked to food intake disinhibition. Our work leads to several results: 1) A review of the literature has shown the existence of close interaction between eating behavior regulation levels and how FA could be an example of their disturbance. 2) A cohort study demonstrated the existence of common clinical features between addiction and FA and a probable addiction transfer from nicotine to food. 3) From an experimental point of view, we have shown that there are disturbances of P300 and N200 ERP, in obesity and food disinhibition, close to those observed in addictions. 4) Finally, our results suggest the potential role of ghrelin as a marker for eating disorders increased risk. This work opens experimental perspectives, with the suggestion of more relevant control groups; clinical perspectives, with the creation of a screening tool; therapeutics perspectives, with the establishment of a therapeutic trial by tDCS.
... The most negative influence on the sense of community came from feelings of loneliness. Other studies acknowledge that loneliness can have a negative impact on college students' satisfaction in everything from a lower positive response to flu vaccines (Pressman, et al 2005) to suicidal ideation (Lamis, Ballard, & Patel, 2014). Ishitani (2016) found while academic integration is important in persistence from the first to second year, the importance of academic integration does not hold true for continued persistence, perhaps suggesting the importance of social integration. ...
Article
Based on Boyer’s (1990) principles of community, the purpose of this study was to examine how students’ perceived sense of campus community contributed to explaining their satisfaction with school life. Participants were randomly selected from a student email address list obtained by the Office of Assessment at a mid-size university in the Midwest and were sent an electronic mail message inviting them to participate in the study by completing an on-line questionnaire. Three hundred and thirty students answered a 25-item sense of campus community scale developed by Cheng (2004), who had adopted some questions from Janosik’s (1991) Campus Community Scale and the Brief Multidimensional Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale (Zullig et al., 2005). Multiple regression used six factors from the sense of campus community scale (Teaching and Learning, Residential Experience, Diversity and Acceptance, History and Tradition, Loneliness and Stress, and Socialization Across Backgrounds) to predict satisfaction with school life. The overall regression equation was significant (F=38.20, p<.001) and the linear combination of predictor variables explained 45.6% of the variance in students’ satisfaction with their school life. The article also discusses implications of these findings for student affairs practitioners and suggestions for future research in the context of the limitations of the study.
... Teo et al. (2018) found that the ASR scale for loneliness predicted SI among U.S. Veterans receiving primary care. Other studies, many using the UCLA Loneliness Scale, have also found associations between loneliness and SI (for examples see Lamis et al. 2014 andYang andClum 1994). There are few studies that look explicitly at the relationship between SI and perceived rejection (measured separately from related concepts such as loneliness or TB). ...
Article
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Various measures of social support have been associated with suicidal ideation (SI). However, a brief, consistent, multidimensional approach to social support assessment has not been established. We assessed the NIH Toolbox Adult Social Relationship (ASR) scales and their associations with the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSI). Five ASR scales (emotional support, instrumental support, friendship, loneliness, perceived rejection) were used to predict BSI scores among psychiatric inpatients at baseline (N = 79) and at 3-months follow-up (N = 63). Mean BSI scores were 22.2 (SD 8.6) at baseline and 5.7 (SD 6.7) at follow-up. The ASR scales had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.93–0.96). Emotional support was associated with SI at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Instrumental support, loneliness and perceived rejection were associated with SI at baseline. Friendship was not associated with SI at either time-point. The ASR scales appear promising in differentiating aspects of social support most relevant to SI.
... There is a growing awareness of the isolation inherent in addiction (Lamis, Ballard, & Patel, 2014;Rapier, McKernan, & Stauffer, 2019;Segrin, McNelis, & Pavlich, 2018). As those who serve this population, we understand how such isolation is detrimental to the health and wellbeing of the individual. ...
Article
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The impact that the systemic invisibility of indigenous people in the national narrative has on addiction and the recovery process cannot be overstated. An exploration of the nature of how this invisibility has evolved and is currently maintained may facilitate a deeper understanding of the issues. Understanding the importance of indigenous storytelling and identity can help us more effectively meet those working toward recovery. Anchoring such work, inalienability of indigenous identity and the wisdom of indigenous storytelling will be examined as it relates to a recovery process.
... Even before imposed COVID-19 social restrictions, loneliness had been gaining attention as a public health crisis. Distinct from objective social isolation and solitude, loneliness is the feeling of lacking needed social connections (Hawkley and Cacioppo 2010), and has been associated with depression, suicidality, substance abuse (Lamis, Ballard, and Patel 2014), and cognitive decline, as well as overall health and mortality (Hawkley and Cacioppo 2010). Despite their widespread use of social platforms, young adults comprise the group with highest prevalence of loneliness (Cigna International 2018; Hawkley and Cacioppo 2010;Murthy 2017), drawing attention to the need for preventive interventions and an active repositioning of the nation's social trajectory in order to mitigate increasing social disconnection. ...
Article
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As COVID-19 converges with loneliness and addiction epidemics in the US, both public health and mental health experts forecast dramatic increases in substance use and mental health conditions. This cross-sectional study evaluated relationships of loneliness with depression, anxiety, alcohol use, and drug use during COVID-19, and assessed perceived increases in these symptoms in young adults. Between April 22 and May 11, 2020, 1,008 participants ages 18–35 were recruited through social media to a one-time, online anonymous survey. Symptomatology was assessed using six scales. Perceived changes since COVID-19 were evaluated using 5-point Likert scales. Forty-nine percent of respondents reported loneliness scores above 50; 80% reported significant depressive symptoms; 61% reported moderate to severe anxiety; 30% disclosed harmful levels of drinking. While only 22% of the population reported using drugs, 38% reported severe drug use. Loneliness was associated with higher levels of mental health symptomatology. Participants reported significant increases across mental health and substance use symptoms since COVID-19. While direct impacts of COVID-19 could only be calculated with pre-pandemic assessments of these symptoms, estimates indicate elevated psychosocial symptomatology and suggest that symptoms could have worsened since the pandemic. Findings underscore the importance of prevention and intervention to address these public health problems.
... Loneliness has been associated with mental illness like mood disorders and substance use disorders. 52 A study conducted by Horigian et al 53 found that young adults in the United States reported elevated levels of loneliness, depression, anxiety, alcohol and drug use during COVID-19. Telehealth has been effectively utilised to provide psychological support while minimising the risk of COVID-19 transmission through physical contact. ...
Article
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This review examines the impact of COVID-19 on the substance-abuse landscape and climate with particular attention on Singapore's. Substance-abuse has received the least attention during the COVID-19 outbreak and this pandemic has further sheared the problem's visibility and the provision of care for this population of sufferers. The authors examine the current literature to look at the access and utility of street drugs due to border closure, the influence of the pandemic on prevailing drug behaviours as well as the effect of social distancing on drug-users. Two case studies are described. The paper serves to illuminate the ever-present problem of substance-abuse even during a viral pandemic and to remind the local government and healthcare system to continue efforts in caring for this group of patients.
... Therefore, loneliness usually leads to an increase in feelings of animosity, pessimism, pressure, and low selfesteem among older adults, exacerbating the deterioration of their mental health (Cacioppo et al., 2006;Hawkley & Cacioppo, 2010;Shevlin et al., 2015). Numerous studies confirm that loneliness predicts negative psychological outcomes, such as anxiety, depression, phobia, and suicide ideation (Heinrich & Gullone, 2006;Lamis et al., 2014;Shevlin et al., 2015). For instance, a study on Australian older adults with an average age of 59.07 years showed that high levels of loneliness are associated with low levels of life satisfaction (Mellor et al., 2008). ...
Article
Elder mistreatment is a risk factor in the life satisfaction of older adults, yet understanding of its underlying mechanisms remains limited. This study investigates the mediating role of emotional closeness and loneliness in the association between elder mistreatment and life satisfaction. A sample of 8,717 Chinese older adults is obtained from the 2018 China Longitudinal Aging Social Survey. Results reveal that emotional mistreatment has a negative effect on the life satisfaction of older adults. Moreover, emotional mistreatment is associated with a low level of emotional closeness and a high degree of loneliness, which further decreases life satisfaction. However, emotional closeness with children did not significantly mediate the association between physical mistreatment and life satisfaction. This study advances the comprehension of the influencing path on how elder mistreatment affects the life satisfaction of older adults. Implications for policy and intervention programs are discussed.
... For lonely university students, the use of PAS masks negative emotions, acting as an ineffective mechanism to cope and find relief for the depressed mood. The habit of using PAS allows students to get closer to specific social groups, reducing social inhibition as they interact with their colleagues (7,10,31) . ...
Article
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Objectives: to analyze the factors associated with suicidal ideation in students from healthcare graduation courses. Methods: quantitative, cross-sectional study, with 251 students from the courses of radiology, speech-language therapy, medicine, nutrition, health service management, and nursing, from a federal higher education institution in the Southeast of Brazil. Data were collected from August to October 2019, using an electronic questionnaire. Results: the prevalence of suicidal ideation among participants was 26.33%. In the final logistic regression model, only depressive symptoms were associated with suicidal ideation. Having symptoms of depression increased the chances of suicidal ideation 2.6 times. Conclusion: the high prevalence of suicidal ideation and its associated factors constitutes a situational diagnosis that demands the elaboration of public and institutional policies, focused on the promotion and attention to the mental health of the students.
Article
Suicide rates among young adults have increased in recent years. Prescription opioid misuse is not only associated with depression onset but misuse has also been reported as means to manage existing depressive symptoms. College students are at increased risk for psychological distress compared to other populations. The current cross-sectional study aimed to fill a literature gap by examining a relationship between prescription opioid misuse and 3 dimensions of suicidality among a large sample of college students (n = 889). Binomial logistic regression examined relationships between prescription opioid misuse and suicidality while adjusting for the effect of important demographic and substance use covariates. Among this sample 38.8% reported suicidal ideation, 11.6% reported making a plan to kill themselves, and 7.8% reported at least one suicide attempt in the past 12 months. Past year prescription opioid misuse was common (21.6% of participants) and significantly associated with each dimension of suicidality. Though the relationships were attenuated, past year prescription opioid misuse remained significantly associated with suicidal ideation, planning, and attempts following covariate adjustment. At a local level, University health promotion specialists should give particular consideration to individuals exhibiting prescription opioid misuse as this may serve as an indicator of underlying psychological distress and possible suicidality.
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This study's objective was to investigate the mediating role of depression in the relationship between loneliness and older adults' quality of life. Promoting the quality of life in individuals is one of the main issues that is consistently emphasized by the World Health Organization. The importance of this issue doubles, especially in older ages. Many elders face new challenges in this period and do not have access to their supportive resources as correctly as the past. Service providers for older people usually concentrate on providing physical facilities for them; however, psychological factors, with the same proportion, might affect the promotion or subsidence of older adults' quality of life. Two hundred and sixty-three participants (M = 68.99 years, SD = 7; 43% females) completed self-reported measures of loneliness, depressive symptoms, and quality of life. We used Structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze data. Older adults people who had a higher sense of loneliness and depression reported lower quality of life. The results also showed that depression had a partial mediator role in the relationship between loneliness and life quality. With the expansion of previous studies that showed a significant relationship between loneliness, depression, and quality of life, this study revealed that loneliness in the older adults directly and indirectly (through the incidence of depressive symptoms) lowered the quality of life.
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Recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has been found to have a negative impact on both physical wellbeing and mental health. Increased risk perception of contracting the virus has been associated with adverse psychological outcomes and reduced life satisfaction. However, susceptibility to psychological distress is influenced by personality-related characteristics. This study focuses on fortitude as a potential protective factor. The aim of this study is to investigate the parallel and serial mediating roles of fortitude, loneliness, and depression in the relationship between risk perception and life satisfaction. The participants were young adults ( N = 337) who have completed five self-report questionnaires: University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Fortitude Questionnaire, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and COVID-19 Risk Perception Scale. Descriptive statistics were generated, and structural equation modelling was used to examine the parallel and serial mediating roles of loneliness, depression, and fortitude. Positive associations were found between risk perception and loneliness and depression, and fortitude was found to mediate the relationship between risk perception and life satisfaction, between loneliness and life satisfaction, and between depression and life satisfaction. The overall serial mediation was also found to be significant, thereby supporting the hypothesis that those who perceive themselves to be at a risk of contracting COVID-19 have higher loneliness scores, which in turn is associated with higher depression scores. These findings confirm that fortitude is a salient protective factor and suggest that improving the perception of the ability to manage the risk of infection can enhance psychological wellbeing.
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Loneliness is a universal human experience recognized since the dawn of human history, yet it is unique for every individual. Loneliness is a complex set of feelings encompassing reactions to unfulfilled intimate and social needs and is a crucial marker of social relationship deficits. Thus, loneliness is a significant health issue. Is loneliness described in the Bible? What are the social consequences of loneliness? Is loneliness related to any diseases? How can we cope with this dimension? The Biblical texts were examined and verses in which loneliness is described were studied from a contemporary viewpoint.
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Due to multiple minority stressors, persons who are Hispanic and lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) can experience an increased risk of injury and death, including suicide. We examined trends and correlates of deaths by suicide among LGB Hispanic individuals using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System from 2012 to 2016 (N = 1,132). A multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression model examined time-series trends associated with suicide between LGB and heterosexual individuals, controlling for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Over time, increases in suicide were larger among LGB Hispanic individuals. Increased odds associated with suicide were also attributed to women, individuals with a higher education level, those who experienced mental health problems, those with alcohol-related problems, and individuals with a history of mental illness. LGB Hispanic individuals continue to see an increased risk for suicidality. Health intervention and policy efforts should focus on the multiple minority stressors experienced by this population.
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The study of suicide and suicidal behaviors provides the necessary datasets for the understanding of these multifaceted and complex phenomena. Suicidal behavior and rates differ across countries, populations, and cultures. Psychiatric illness (such as depression, personality disorder, alcohol/drug dependence, and schizophrenia), suicidal ideation, chronic physical illness, social isolation, hopelessness, and easy access to lethal methods of suicide are some of the well-identified risk factors for suicide. An international snapshot of suicide, with particular reference to risk factors, is given along with a brief discussion on the best practices in suicide prevention.
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This study was conducted to provide normative data on the Beck Depression Inventory - Second Edition (BDI-II) in college students. Data were obtained from 15,233 college students drawn from 17 universities in the United States, weighted to match the gender and race/ethnicity of enrollment in degree-granting institutions. Descriptive statistics, point prevalence of individuals exceeding cutoff scores, and mean differences by gender and race/ethnicity were provided. Because the distribution of BDI-II scores was not normal, percentile ranks for raw scores were provided for the total sample and separately by gender and race/ethnicity for the total sample and by race/ethnicity for men and women. Normative data were used to calculate the Reliable Change Index on the BDI-II for college students. Because the distribution of BDI-II scores demonstrated significant skewness and non-normal kurtosis, percentile ranks are important to consider in interpreting scores on the measure, in addition to descriptive statistics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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The present study sought to examine for how loneliness and sexual assault are involved in predicting suicidal risk (viz., hopelessness & suicide probability) in a sample of 334 college students. Specifically, we were interested in examining whether sexual assault may play an additive as well as interactive role in the prediction of suicidal risk above and beyond loneliness. Results from regression analyses indicated that both loneliness and sexual assault were important and unique predictors of suicidal risk in students. Moreover, consistent with expectations, we found support for a Loneliness × Sexual Assault interaction in predicting both hopelessness and suicide probability. Inspection of the interactions indicated that the highest levels of suicidal risk were present for lonely students who had experienced some form of sexual assault. Some important implications of the present findings are discussed.
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Previous studies of different methods of testing mediation models have consistently found two anomalous results. The first result is elevated Type I error rates for the bias-corrected and accelerated bias-corrected bootstrap tests not found in nonresampling tests or in resampling tests that did not include a bias correction. This is of special concern as the bias-corrected bootstrap is often recommended and used due to its higher statistical power compared with other tests. The second result is statistical power reaching an asymptote far below 1.0 and in some conditions even declining slightly as the size of the relationship between X and M, a, increased. Two computer simulations were conducted to examine these findings in greater detail. Results from the first simulation found that the increased Type I error rates for the bias-corrected and accelerated bias-corrected bootstrap are a function of an interaction between the size of the individual paths making up the mediated effect and the sample size, such that elevated Type I error rates occur when the sample size is small and the effect size of the nonzero path is medium or larger. Results from the second simulation found that stagnation and decreases in statistical power as a function of the effect size of the a path occurred primarily when the path between M and Y, b, was small. Two empirical mediation examples are provided using data from a steroid prevention and health promotion program aimed at high school football players (Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids; Goldberg et al., 1996), one to illustrate a possible Type I error for the bias-corrected bootstrap test and a second to illustrate a loss in power related to the size of a. Implications of these findings are discussed.
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Objective: Substance use is associated with suicidal ideation, planning and attempts among adolescents, but it is unclear how this association varies across different types and number of substances. This study examined the association between patterns of substance use and suicidality among a nationally representative sample of high school students in the United States during the last decade. Method: Data from the 2001 to 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey including 73,183 high school students were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses examined the association between lifetime use of ten common substances of abuse (alcohol, cocaine, ecstasy, hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, marijuana, methamphetamines, steroids, and tobacco) and four measures of suicidality over the last year (suicidal ideation, suicide plan, suicide attempt, and severe suicide attempt requiring medical attention), controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic variables, interpersonal violence, sexual intercourse, and symptoms of depression and eating disorder). Results: Among the ten substances, univariate analysis demonstrates that adolescents reporting a history of heroin use have the strongest association with suicidal ideation, suicide plan, suicide attempts and severe suicide attempts in the last year (odds ratio = 5.0, 5.9, 12.0, and 23.6 compared to non-users), followed by users of methamphetamines (OR = 4.3-13.1) and steroids (OR = 3.7-11.8). Cocaine, ecstasy, hallucinogens and inhalants had a moderate association with suicidality (OR = 3.1-10.8). Users of marijuana, alcohol and tobacco also had an increased odds ratio of suicidality (OR = 1.9-5.2). The association between each of ten substances and the four measures of suicidality remained significant with multivariate analysis controlling for multiple confounders (p < 0.05), except for the association between alcohol use and severe suicide attempts. The seven illicit substances had a stronger association with severe suicide attempts as compared to all other confounding risk factors except depression. The number of substances used had a graded relationship to suicidality. Conclusions: Substance abuse is a strong risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among American high school students, with the strength of this relationship dramatically increasing with particular illicit drugs and a higher number of substances. The findings reinforce the importance of routine screening for substance abuse in the assessment of adolescent suicide risk.
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Objective: This study examined the prospective relationship of substance use and mental health problems with risk of discontinuous enrollment in college. Methods: Participants were 1,145 students at a large public university who were interviewed annually for four years beginning at college entry in 2004 (year 1). Discontinuous enrollment was defined as a gap in enrollment of one or more semesters during the first two years (early discontinuity) or the second two years (late discontinuity) versus continuous enrollment throughout all four years. Explanatory variables measured in year 1 were scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory, childhood conduct problems, cannabis use, number of illicit drugs used, and alcohol consumption. In years 3 and 4, participants reported lifetime history of clinically diagnosed attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and anxiety, including age at diagnosis. Multinomial logistic regression models were developed to evaluate the association between the independent variables and discontinuous enrollment while holding constant background characteristics. Results: Higher BDI scores predicted early discontinuity but not late discontinuity, whereas cannabis and alcohol use predicted only late discontinuity. Receiving a depression diagnosis during college was associated with both early and late discontinuity. Self-reported precollege diagnoses were not related to discontinuous enrollment once background characteristics were taken into account. Conclusions: Students who experience depressive symptoms or seek treatment for depression during college might be at risk of interruptions in their college enrollment. Cannabis use and heavy drinking appear to add to this risk. Students entering college with preexisting psychiatric diagnoses are not necessarily at risk of enrollment interruptions.
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Suicidal behavior and alcohol use are major public health concerns in the United States; however the association between these behaviors has received relatively little empirical attention. The relative lack of research in this area may be due in part to the absence of theory explaining the alcohol use-suicidality link in the general adult population. The present article expands upon Conner, McCloskey, and Duberstein's (2008) model of suicide in individuals with alcoholism and proposes a theoretical framework that can be used to explain why a range of adult alcohol users may engage in suicidal behaviors. Guided by this model, we review and evaluate the evidence on the associations among several constructs that may contribute to suicidal behaviors in adult alcohol consumers. The current framework should inform future research and facilitate further empirical analyses on the interactive effects among risk factors that may contribute to suicidal behaviors. Once the nature of these associations is better understood among alcohol using adults, more effective suicide prevention programs may be designed and implemented.
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The Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) is one of the most widely used measures of the construct of anxiety sensitivity. Until the recent introduction of a hierarchical model of the ASI by S. O. Lilienfeld, S. M. Turner, and R. G. Jacob (1993), the factor structure of the ASI was the subject of debate, with some researchers advocating a unidimensional structure and others proposing multidimensional structures. In the present study, involving 432 outpatients seeking treatment at an anxiety disorders clinic and 32 participants with no mental disorder, the authors tested a hierarchical factor model. The results supported a hierarchical factor structure consisting of 3 lower order factors and 1 higher order factor. It is estimated that the higher order, general factor accounts for 60% of the variance in ASI total scores. The implications of these findings for the conceptualization and assessment of anxiety sensitivity are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Developed from 608 undergraduates' responses to the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, (MCSDS) 3 short forms of 11, 12, and 13 items. The psychometric characteristics of these forms and 3 other short forms developed by R. Strahan and K. C. Gerbasi (see record 1973-28133-001) were investigated. Internal consistency reliability, item factor loadings, short form with MCSDS total scale correlations, and correlations between MCSDS short forms and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale were conducted. Results indicate that the 13-item short form can be used as a viable substitute for the regular 33-item MCSDS. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Here is the reference for this chapter. MacKinnon, D. P., Cheong, J., Pirlott, A. G. (2012) In Cooper, H., Camic, P. M., Long, D. L., Panter, A. T., Rindskopf, D., Sher, K. J. (Eds.) (2012). APA handbook of research methods in psychology, Vol 2: Research designs: Quantitative, qualitative, neuropsychological, and biological., (pp. 313-331). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
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The psychometric properties of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT), an 11-item self-report questionnaire developed to screen individuals for drug problems, are evaluated. The measure, developed in Sweden and evaluated there with individuals with severe drug problems, has not been evaluated with less severe substance abusers or with clinical populations in the United States. Participants included 35 drug abusers in an outpatient substance abuse treatment program, 79 drug abusers in a residential substance abuse treatment program, and 39 alcohol abusers from both treatment settings who did not report a drug abuse problem. The DUDIT was found to be a psychometrically sound drug abuse screening measure with high convergent validity (r=.85) when compared with the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10), and to have a Cronbach's alpha of .94. In addition, a single component accounted for 64.91% of total variance, and the DUDIT had sensitivity and specificity scores of .90 and .85, respectively, when using the optimal cut-off score of 8. Additionally, the DUDIT showed good discriminant validity as it significantly differentiated drug from alcohol abusers. These findings support the DUDIT as a reliable and valid drug abuse screening instrument that measures a unidimensional construct. Further research is warranted with additional clinical populations.
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Anxiety along with anxiety-related risk factors has been increasingly implicated in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. One such risk factor, anxiety sensitivity (AS), refers to fear of anxiety-related sensations. Subfactors of AS, notably physical and cognitive concerns, seem to be relevant to acquired capability, a risk factor for death by suicide from Joiner's (2005) Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide. This study examined the effect of Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) total score and subfactor scores on suicidal ideation and suicide attempt history in a very large, moderately severe outpatient sample (N = 1,378). Analyses were consistent with our a priori predictions about ASI cognitive concern and suicidal ideation. In contrast, ASI physical concerns did not predict previous suicide attempt as well as ASI cognitive or social concerns. However, ASI physical concerns did moderate the relationship between ASI social concerns and previous suicide attempt. These findings suggest that suicide potential may be related to cognitive risk factors for anxiety.
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The statistical analysis of mediation effects has become an indispensable tool for helping scientists investigate processes thought to be causal. Yet, in spite of many recent advances in the estimation and testing of mediation effects, little attention has been given to methods for communicating effect size and the practical importance of those effect sizes. Our goals in this article are to (a) outline some general desiderata for effect size measures, (b) describe current methods of expressing effect size and practical importance for mediation, (c) use the desiderata to evaluate these methods, and (d) develop new methods to communicate effect size in the context of mediation analysis. The first new effect size index we describe is a residual-based index that quantifies the amount of variance explained in both the mediator and the outcome. The second new effect size index quantifies the indirect effect as the proportion of the maximum possible indirect effect that could have been obtained, given the scales of the variables involved. We supplement our discussion by offering easy-to-use R tools for the numerical and visual communication of effect size for mediation effects.
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Disrupted social connectedness is associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors among individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs). The current study sought to further characterize this relationship by examining several indices of social connectedness--(a) living alone, (b) perceived social support, (c) interpersonal conflict, and (d) belongingness. Participants (n = 814) were recruited from 4 residential substance-use treatment programs and completed self-report measures of social connectedness as well as whether they had ever thought about or attempted suicide. Multivariate results indicated that interpersonal conflict and belongingness were significant predictors of a history of suicidal ideation, and that belongingness, perceived social support, and living alone were significant predictors of suicide attempt. These results indicate the most consistent support for the relationship between suicidality and thwarted belongingness, and also support the clinical utility of assessing whether individuals live alone.
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The paper presents the first known longitudinal study of the relationship between loneliness, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation in adolescence, in a stratified sample of high school students (Time 1 N = 1009; 57 % female; Time 2 N = 541; 60 % female). Cross-lagged structural equation modeling indicated that depressive symptoms led to more loneliness across time, whereas loneliness did not predict higher levels of depressive symptoms across time. Loneliness was found to be a correlate of depressive symptoms at the cross-sectional level, independent of gender, other demographic factors, multiple psychosocial variables, and social desirability. Loneliness did not predict suicide ideation over time or at the cross-sectional level, when controlling for depressive symptoms. Gender did not predict loneliness, depressive symptoms or suicide ideation across time. Future longitudinal studies of the relationship between loneliness, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation in adolescence should use more extensive designs.
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We present evidence from a 5-year longitudinal study for the prospective associations between loneliness and depressive symptoms in a population-based, ethnically diverse sample of 229 men and women who were 50-68 years old at study onset. Cross-lagged panel models were used in which the criterion variables were loneliness and depressive symptoms, considered simultaneously. We used variations on this model to evaluate the possible effects of gender, ethnicity, education, physical functioning, medications, social network size, neuroticism, stressful life events, perceived stress, and social support on the observed associations between loneliness and depressive symptoms. Cross-lagged analyses indicated that loneliness predicted subsequent changes in depressive symptomatology, but not vice versa, and that this temporal association was not attributable to demographic variables, objective social isolation, dispositional negativity, stress, or social support. The importance of distinguishing between loneliness and depressive symptoms and the implications for loneliness and depressive symptomatology in older adults are discussed.
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Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among college students in the U.S. and is preventable. Approximately 1100 college students die by suicide each year. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of one-time and persistent suicide ideation, plans, and attempts reported during college. Data were gathered prospectively over four years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1253 first-year college students at one large mid-Atlantic university. Risk factors were measured in Year 1. An estimated 12%(wt) of individuals experienced suicide ideation at some point during college, and of those individuals, 25% had more than one episode of ideation (persistent ideation; 2.6%(wt) of the overall sample). Ten individuals had a plan or attempt during college (0.9%(wt) of the sample). Risk factors for persistent suicide ideation included low social support, childhood or adolescent exposure to domestic violence, maternal depression, and high self-reported depressive symptoms. Persistent ideators differed from one-time ideators only by higher levels of depression (p=.027). Persistent ideators were no more likely than one-time ideators to have made a suicide plan or attempt during college (8% vs. 9%, respectively). Although the sample size is large, only a small percentage of participants had persistent ideation, suicide plans or attempts during college. These results have implications for programs aimed at identifying college students at risk for suicide. The accurate identification of college students at risk for suicide is an important step toward suicide prevention.
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The goal of this study was to develop a multi-dimensional model that might explain suicide ideation among college students. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 1,249 first-year college students. An estimated 6%(wt) of first-year students at this university had current suicide ideation. Depressive symptoms, low social support, affective dysregulation, and father-child conflict were each independently associated with suicide ideation. Only 40%(wt) of individuals with suicide ideation were classified as depressed according to standard criteria. In the group who reported low levels of depressive symptoms, low social support and affective dysregulation were important predictors of suicide ideation. Alcohol use disorder was also independently associated with suicide ideation, while parental conflict was not. Results highlight potential targets for early intervention among college students.
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Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university. Incoming first-year students were screened during the unique window between high school and college in order to oversample drug users for longitudinal follow-up. Intensive recruitment strategies yielded a 95% cumulative response rate in annual interviews and semiannual surveys. The authors report preliminary results on exposure opportunity, lifetime prevalence, initiation, continuation, and cessation of substance use for alcohol, tobacco, and 10 illicit and prescription drugs during the first 2 years of college. Findings suggest that although some substance use represents a continuation of patterns initiated in high school, exposure opportunity and initiation of substance use frequently occur in college. Implications for prevention and early intervention are discussed.
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In this article I evaluated the psychometric properties of the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3). Using data from prior studies of college students, nurses, teachers, and the elderly, analyses of the reliability, validity, and factor structure of this new version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale were conducted. Results indicated that the measure was highly reliable, both in terms of internal consistency (coefficient alpha ranging from .89 to .94) and test-retest reliability over a 1-year period (r = .73). Convergent validity for the scale was indicated by significant correlations with other measures of loneliness. Construct validity was supported by significant relations with measures of the adequacy of the individual's interpersonal relationships, and by correlations between loneliness and measures of health and well-being. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a model incorporating a global bipolar loneliness factor along with two method factor reflecting direction of item wording provided a very good fit to the data across samples. Implications of these results for future measurement research on loneliness are discussed.
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Emerging adulthood is proposed as a new conception of development for the period from the late teens through the twenties, with a focus on ages 18-25. A theoretical background is presented. Then evidence is provided to support the idea that emerging adulthood is a distinct period demographically, subjectively, and in terms of identity explorations. How emerging adulthood differs from adolescence and young adulthood is explained. Finally, a cultural context for the idea of emerging adulthood is outlined, and it is specified that emerging adulthood exists only in cultures that allow young people a prolonged period of independent role exploration during the late teens and twenties.
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This paper describes the statistical similarities among mediation, confounding, and suppression. Each is quantified by measuring the change in the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable after adding a third variable to the analysis. Mediation and confounding are identical statistically and can be distinguished only on conceptual grounds. Methods to determine the confidence intervals for confounding and suppression effects are proposed based on methods developed for mediated effects. Although the statistical estimation of effects and standard errors is the same, there are important conceptual differences among the three types of effects.
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This study uses a functional perspective to examine the reasons young people cite for using psychoactive substances. The study sample comprised 364 young poly-drug users recruited using snowball-sampling methods. Data on life-time and recent frequency and intensity of use for alcohol, cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, LSD and cocaine are presented. A majority of the participants had used at least one of these six drugs to fulfil 11 of 18 measured substance use functions. The most popular functions for use were using to: relax (96.7%), become intoxicated (96.4%), keep awake at night while socializing (95.9%), enhance an activity (88.5%) and alleviate depressed mood (86.8%). Substance use functions were found to differ by age and gender. Recognition of the functions fulfilled by substance use should help health educators and prevention strategists to make health messages about drugs more relevant and appropriate to general and specific audiences. Targeting substances that are perceived to fulfil similar functions and addressing issues concerning the substitution of one substance for another may also strengthen education and prevention efforts.
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Developed, on the basis of responses from 608 undergraduate students to the 33-item Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, three short forms of 11, 12, and 13 items. The psychometric characteristics of these three forms and three other short forms developed by Strahan and Gerbasi (1972) were investigated and comparisons made. Results, in the form of internal consistency reliability, item factor loadings, short form with Marlowe-Crowne total scale correlations, and correlations between Marlowe-Crowne short forms and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale, indicate that psychometrically sound short forms can be constructed. Comparisons made between the short forms examined in this investigation suggest the 13-item form as a viable substitute for the regular 33-item Marlowe-Crowne scale.
• Substance use has been identified as a significant risk factor in nonfatal and fatal suicides during adolescence. A • prehensive questionnaire on patterns of alcohol and other drug use, early childhood and nuclear family psychological and behavioral history, and previous suicidal attempts was completed by 298 (88%) of 340 outpatient adolescent substance abusers in three geographic regions east of the Mississippi River. An abbreviated Beck Depression Inventory was included to ascertain current symptoms of depressed mood. Adolescents admitting to a previous suicide attempt (30%) were compared with two age- and sex-matched samples. Substance abusers were three times as likely as a normative population of non—drug-using ageand sex-matched peers to make a suicide attempt. Thirty-three percent of attempts reported occurred prior to high school. Both the wish to hurt oneself and actual suicide attempts were found to increase significantly after the initiation of substance use. Forty percent used drugs within 8 hours before the suicide attempt, and 23% of attempters reported that their families continued to have a firearm with ammunition in the home following the suicide attempt. Adolescent substance abusers who had attempted suicide were significantly more likely than a matched group of nonattempters in the same drug treatment facility to: (1) complain of usually feeling "blue" or sad (depressed affect) during early childhood, (2) identify important childhood behavioral problems, (3) identify long-standing self-perceived impaired self-concept, and (4) identify serious parental problems, such as chronic depression or alcoholism. Self-perceived chronic loneliness in childhood appears to be a singularly important initiator of adolescent drug use and subsequent suicide attempts among drug abusers.(AJDC. 1990;144:310-314)
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Although previous surveys have indicated high rates of illicit and prescription drug misuse among college students, few have assessed negative consequences, personal concerns, or interest in interventions for drug use. In a survey of 262 college students who self-reported lifetime use of an illicit drug, 69% reported at least one negative consequence over the course of their lifetime and 63% in the past year. Many also reported being moderately concerned (28%) about their drug or medication misuse and moderately interested in some form of intervention (76%). The frequency of marijuana use and medication misuse in the past month was related to increased negative consequences and personal concerns even when controlling for the frequency of past month alcohol use. There were relatively few differences as a function of gender or year in college.
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The continued attachment to parents and peers in adults has been examined in two ways: the individual difference approach, examining characteristic attachment styles across relationships, and the general intensity approach, examining the salience of emotional and behavioral reactions to a particular separation. The present study examines the intensity of attachment to parents at the transition to college. This voluntary separation from parents was expected to elicit heightened attachment for college students, especially residential students, which would decrease over time. In addition, it was expected that high levels of parental attachment at the beginning of college would predispose students to later depression. Results indicate that parental attachment decreases during the first semester of college only for residential students. In addition, maternal attachment is significantly higher for females than for males. Finally, high levels of parental attachment in males at the beginning of college were predictive of high levels of depressed mood at the end of the first semester, while no relationship was found for females.
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Using latent class growth analysis, we were interested in investigating how experiences of loneliness emerge in distinct developmental patterns over the course of middle childhood and adolescence (NICHD Study of Early Child Care, N = 832). Second, we examined the role of demographic, mental health, and behavioral variables in association with these discrete patterns of loneliness. Loneliness was measured at 3 time points: age 9, age 11, and age 15. Results indicated five discrete trajectories of loneliness from middle childhood to adolescence. Most children exhibited a stable and low level of loneliness over time. The remaining children were split among moderate increasing, high increasing, decreasing, and chronic loneliness groups. Ethnicity, income, age 7 social skills, age 7 depression, and age 7 aggression were associated with trajectory membership. In addition, the loneliness trajectories predicted self-reports of social skills deficits, depression, aggression, and suicidal ideation at age 15.
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Drug use during the college years is a significant public health concern. The primary goal of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of prevention and treatment studies of college student drug use in order to guide college prevention efforts and to inform and stimulate new research in this area. First, established risk factors for drug use were reviewed. High levels of personality traits including, impulsivity, sensation-seeking, negative emotionality, emotional dysregulation, and personality disorder symptoms increase risk for drug use. Drug use has also been linked to overestimating normative levels of drug use and experiencing negative life events, and specific motives for drug use are linked to more problematic patterns. There have been very few studies examining prevention and treatment, but parent-based and in-person brief motivational interventions appear to be promising. Longitudinal studies of the development and course of drug use among college students, as well as clinical trials to evaluate novel theoretically-based intervention and prevention programs that take into account established risk factors for drug abuse are needed.
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The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the evaluation of alcohol and other drug use by what has been called direct measures, that is, scales that include obvious or explicit items on consumption, indirect measures, composed of camouflaged or nonobvious items on consumption, and the social desirability construct. The following use and/or addiction scales were given to a sample of 506 university students of both sexes: the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Addiction Acknowledgment Scale (AAS), CAGE Alcohol Questionnaire, Addiction Potential Scale (APS), MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale-Revised (MAC-R), and a self-report on alcohol and other drug use designed for this study. The relationships between these scales and the social desirability construct, measured with the Edwards Social Desirability Scale (DS) and the Paulhus Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) were also explored. Although the results do not allow us to arrive at a conclusion as to which scales are the most valid for evaluating the use of alcohol and other drugs, the data do show adequate convergent validity. The correlations found among the use and social desirability scales employed were negative and statistically significant.
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Loneliness is a prevailing experience particularly familiar to adolescents and young adults. It is a subjective experience, influenced by one’s personality, life experiences, and situational variables. The present study examined the influence of drug cessation on the experience of loneliness. Drug abusers during their stay in detox centers were compared to drug abusers who were in a methadone maintenance program, and those two groups were again compared to a group of adults in the general population who are nonusers of drugs. A total of 304 participants from all three groups volunteered to answer a 30-item yes/no questionnaire, reflecting on their experience of loneliness and what it meant to them. The factors which compose the multidimensional loneliness experience are emotional distress, social inadequacy and alienation, growth and discovery, interpersonal isolation, and self-alienation. Results revealed significant differences between the scores of the three groups, however only the detox and the general population samples had significantly different subscale scores.
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It is almost banal to say that the topic of suicide is a complicated one. Suicidal phenomena are enormously complex. A dozen individuals can end their lives by shooting bullets through their heads and arrive at that seemingly same unit-of-behavior by means of very different routes, pathways, and histories. In order to understand suicide one, ideally, has to be a personologist; to understand suicide one must understand human behavior and mentation and the multiple reasons (e.g., biological, socio-cultural, interpersonal, cognitive, affective, and unconscious) that lie behind or accompany a suicidal event. This chapter examines the following topics: approaches to suicide, the commonalities of suicide from a psychological perspective, the cubic model of suicide, treatment implications, and public policy and suicide. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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What if being lonely were a bigger problem than we ever suspected? Based on John T. Cacioppo's pioneering research, Loneliness explores the effects of this all-too-human experience, providing a fundamentally new view of the importance of social connection and how it can rescue us from painful isolation. His sophisticated studies relying on brain imaging, analysis of blood pressure, immune response, stress hormones, behavior, and even gene expression show that human beings are simply far more intertwined and interdependent—physiologically as well as psychologically—than our cultural assumptions have ever allowed us to acknowledge. Bringing urgency to the message, Cacioppo's findings also show that prolonged loneliness can be as harmful to your health as smoking or obesity. On the flip side, they demonstrate the therapeutic power of social connection and point the way toward making that healing balm available to everyone. Cacioppo has worked with science writer William Patrick to trace the evolution of these tandem forces, showing how, for our primitive ancestors, survival depended not on greater brawn but on greater commitments to and from one another. Serving as a prompt to repair frayed social bonds, the pain of loneliness engendered a fear response so powerfully disruptive that even now, millions of years later, a persistent sense of rejection or isolation can impair DNA transcription in our immune cells. This disruption also impairs thinking, will power, and perseverance, as well as our ability to read social signals and exercise social skills. It also limits our ability to internally regulate our emotions—all of which can combine to trap us in self-defeating behaviors that reinforce the very isolation and rejection that we dread. Loneliness shows each of us how to overcome this feedback loop of defensive behaviors to achieve better health and greater happiness. For society, the potential payoff is the greater prosperity and social cohesion that follows from increased social trust. Ultimately, Loneliness demonstrates the irrationality of our culture's intense focus on competition and individualism at the expense of family and community. It makes the case that the unit of one is actually an inadequate measure, even when it comes to the health and well-being of the individual. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The objective of this investigation was to examine suicidal ideation and depression in undergraduate college students who participated in the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention-sponsored College Screening Project at Emory University. The principal measure of depressive symptoms was the nine-item depression module from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Additional questions were focused on current suicidal ideation, past suicide attempts, and episodes of deliberate self-harm and on symptoms of anxiety and distress. Seven hundred and twenty-nine students participated over a 3-school-year interval (2002–2005). Most notably, 11.1% of the students endorsed current (past 4 weeks) suicidal ideation and 16.5% had a lifetime suicide attempt or self-injurious episode. Students with current suicidal ideation had significantly higher depression symptom severity than those without suicidal ideation (t = −9.34, df = 706, P<.0001, d = 1.9), and 28.5% of the students with PHQ-9 scores of 15 or higher reported suicidal ideation compared to 5.7% of those with lower scores (χ2 = 56.29, df = 1, P<.0001, two-tailed). Suicidal ideation was prominently associated with symptoms of desperation (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.5–4.6, P<.001). The vast majority of students with moderately severe to severe depression (85%) or current suicidal ideation (84%) were not receiving any psychiatric treatment at the time of assessment. These results suggest that there is a strong relationship between severity of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in college students, and that suicidal feelings and actions are relatively common in this group. This underscores the need to provide effective mental health outreach and treatment services to this vulnerable population. As this analysis was based on data collected at a single institution, the results may not be representative of all college students or young adults. Depression and Anxiety 0:1–7, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in college students and is often associated with depression. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of suicidal ideation (SI) on college campuses and to identify its correlates. On-campus depression screening sessions were conducted at 3 universities (n = 898; 55% female; mean age 20.07 ± 1.85 years). Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; mean ± SD of total score = 6.27 ± 6.31) and other measures. Eighty-four students endorsed a '1' on the BDI suicidality item, suggesting thoughts of suicide. Results showed that students with greater depression severity, higher levels of hopelessness, and poorer quality of life were more likely to endorse SI. Factors associated with SI highlighted in this study may aid in the identification of college students at risk for suicide.
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Identifying elevated suicide ideation in college students is a critical step in preventing suicide attempts and deaths by suicide on college campuses. Although suicide ideation may be most prominent in students with severe depression, this should not suggest that only students with severe depression experience significant risk factors for suicide. The purpose of these 3 studies was to explore the relation between suicide ideation and severity of depressive symptoms in college students. In each study a sample of college students were recruited for participation. Participants completed self-report assessments of depressive symptoms and suicide ideation. The results of these studies suggest that although the greatest elevation in suicide ideation occurs at the highest depressive symptoms, significant suicide ideation is also experienced by college students with mild and moderate depressive symptoms. The implications of these findings for the assessment of suicide ideation are discussed.
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The objective of this study is to document the prevalence of social isolation from close friends and religious group members and to test the association of having infrequently contacted close friends and members of religious groups with the current DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. We conducted a secondary data analysis based on a cross-sectional, population-based study conducted in 2004-2005 that consists of a nationally representative sample of 34,653 American community-dwelling adults aged 18 years and older. Mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV version. Due to missing values for social network characteristics, we focused on 33,368 subjects in this study. We found that many Americans lacked frequently contacted close friends (10.1%; 95% CI, 9.6%-10.6%) or religious group members (58.7%; 95% CI, 57.5%-59.9%) in their social network. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, lifetime diagnosis of the disorder in question, and social isolation in terms of 10 other social ties, we found that the absence of close friends was associated (P < .01) with an increased risk of major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder; the absence of frequently contacted religious group members in a network was positively related (P < .01) to alcohol abuse and dependence, drug abuse, and nicotine dependence. These results suggest that social isolation is common in the United States and is associated with a higher risk of mental health problems. Results provide valuable information for prevention and treatment.
Article
To examine relationships between suicidal ideation, self-harm, and suicide attempts, including the timing of the phenomena. The British National Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (NPMS) 2000, a randomised cross-sectional survey of the British population (n=8,580), included detailed questions about suicidal phenomena. Suicidal phenomena were common in the survey population: a fifth had experienced tedium vitae, and nearly one in six had had death wishes or considered suicide. 4.4% of the study population had attempted suicide at some time. The relationships between individual elements of suicidality, though not absolute, were strong. The relationships tended to be hierarchical. The results suggested that suicidal thinking represents a strong indicator of vulnerability to suicidal acts, less so to self-harm. Although suicidal phenomena were more common in women, the relationship of the different elements were not affected by gender. Studies in non clinical populations allow full appreciation of the nature and burden of suicidality. The topic of suicide is sensitive, so there may have been under-reporting, although the level of missing data was around 0.1%. Nevertheless, the sample was large and closely representative of the whole British populace. Suicidality is common in the British population. The strong relationships between elements of suicidality are clinically important.
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This meta-analysis examines the relationship between various Internet uses and measures of psychological well-being, including depression, loneliness, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Forty studies represent a total sample of 21,258 participants and yield a data of 43 independent correlations. The mean correlation was -0.0504 for the fixed-effects model and r = -0.0385 for the random-effects model, indicating a small detrimental effect of Internet use on psychological well-being. According to the random-effects model, the effect of all moderators, including type of Internet use, indicator of well-being, quality of Internet use measure, and participant age and gender were insignificant. Since these moderators failed to explain the variation in the relationship between Internet use and psychological well-being, future investigations should consider the possible sources of these differences.
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Suicidal behavior is a major problem worldwide and, at the same time, has received relatively little empirical attention. This relative lack of empirical attention may be due in part to a relative absence of theory development regarding suicidal behavior. The current article presents the interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior. We propose that the most dangerous form of suicidal desire is caused by the simultaneous presence of two interpersonal constructs-thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness (and hopelessness about these states)-and further that the capability to engage in suicidal behavior is separate from the desire to engage in suicidal behavior. According to the theory, the capability for suicidal behavior emerges, via habituation and opponent processes, in response to repeated exposure to physically painful and/or fear-inducing experiences. In the current article, the theory's hypotheses are more precisely delineated than in previous presentations (Joiner, 2005), with the aim of inviting scientific inquiry and potential falsification of the theory's hypotheses.
Article
There are limited prospective data on suicide attempts (SA) during the months following treatment for substance use disorders (SUD), a period of high risk. In an analysis of the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study, a longitudinal naturalistic multisite study of treated SUDs, variables associated with SA in the 12 months following SUD treatment were examined. Participants included 2,966 patients with one or more SUDs. By 12 months, 77 (2.6%) subjects had attempted suicide. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables associated with SA. Variables collected at baseline that were associated with SA included lifetime histories of SA, suicidal ideation (SI), depression, cocaine as primary substance of use, outpatient methadone treatment, and short-term inpatient treatment. Male sex, older age, and minority race or ethnicity were associated with lower likelihood of SA. After controlling for baseline predictors, variables assessed at 12 months associated with SA included SI during follow-up and daily or more use of cocaine. The data contribute to a small but growing literature of prospective studies of SA among treated SUDs, and suggest that SUDs with cocaine use disorders in particular should be a focus of prevention efforts.
Article
This study investigates the relationship between cannabis use and later depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a cohort of young Norwegians. Data were gathered through the Young in Norway longitudinal study, in which a population-based sample of 2033 Norwegians were followed up over a 13-year period, from their early teens to their late twenties. Data were gathered on: (a) exposure to cannabis use; and (b) depression, suicide ideation and suicide attempts. In addition, information about possible confounding factors was included. In early adolescence, no associations with later depression or suicidal behaviours were observed. In the sample's twenties, we observed highly significant associations with suicide ideation and suicide attempts. When adjusting for confounders, the OR was 2.9 (95% CI 1.3-6.1) for later suicide attempts in the group who had used cannabis 11+ times during the past 12 months. The findings suggest that exposure to cannabis by itself does not lead to depression but that it may be associated with later suicidal thoughts and attempts.
Article
Substance use has been identified as a significant risk factor in nonfatal and fatal suicides during adolescence. A comprehensive questionnaire on patterns of alcohol and other drug use, early childhood and nuclear family psychological and behavioral history, and previous suicidal attempts was completed by 298 (88%) of 340 outpatient adolescent substance abusers in three geographic regions east of the Mississippi River. An abbreviated Beck Depression Inventory was included to ascertain current symptoms of depressed mood. Adolescents admitting to a previous suicide attempt (30%) were compared with two age- and sex-matched samples. Substance abusers were three times as likely as a normative population of non-drug-using age- and sex-matched peers to make a suicide attempt. Thirty-three percent of attempts reported occurred prior to high school. Both the wish to hurt oneself and actual suicide attempts were found to increase significantly after the initiation of substance use. Forty percent used drugs within 8 hours before the suicide attempt, and 23% of attempters reported that their families continued to have a firearm with ammunition in the home following the suicide attempt. Adolescent substance abusers who had attempted suicide were significantly more likely than a matched group of nonattempters in the same drug treatment facility to: (1) complain of usually feeling "blue" or sad (depressed affect) during early childhood, (2) identify important childhood behavioral problems, (3) identify long-standing self-perceived impaired self-concept, and (4) identify serious parental problems, such as chronic depression or alcoholism. Self-perceived chronic loneliness in childhood appears to be a singularly important initiator of adolescent drug use and subsequent suicide attempts among drug abusers.
Article
A distinction is proposed between anxiety (frequency of symptom occurrence) and anxiety sensitivity (beliefs that anxiety experiences have negative implications). In Study 1, a newly-constructed Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) was shown to have sound psychometric properties for each of two samples of college students. The important finding was that people who tend to endorse one negative implication for anxiety also tend to endorse other negative implications. In Study 2, the ASI was found to be especially associated with agoraphobia and generally associated with anxiety disorders. In Study 3, the ASI explained variance on the Fear Survey Schedule—II that was not explained by either the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale or a reliable Anxiety Frequency Checklist. In predicting the development of fears, and possibly other anxiety disorders, it may be more important to know what the person thinks will happen as a result of becoming anxious than how often the person actually experiences anxiety. Implications are discussed for competing views of the ‘fear of fear’.
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The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been developed from a six-country WHO collaborative project as a screening instrument for hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. It is a 10-item questionnaire which covers the domains of alcohol consumption, drinking behaviour, and alcohol-related problems. Questions were selected from a 150-item assessment schedule (which was administered to 1888 persons attending representative primary health care facilities) on the basis of their representativeness for these conceptual domains and their perceived usefulness for intervention. Responses to each question are scored from 0 to 4, giving a maximum possible score of 40. Among those diagnosed as having hazardous or harmful alcohol use, 92% had an AUDIT score of 8 or more, and 94% of those with non-hazardous consumption had a score of less than 8. AUDIT provides a simple method of early detection of hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary health care settings and is the first instrument of its type to be derived on the basis of a cross-national study.
Article
This study analyzed data from the 1995 National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) to assess the prevalence of suicidal ideation among college students in the United States and to examine the association between suicidal ideation and substance use in this population. The NCHRBS used a mail questionnaire to assess health-risk behaviors in a nationally representative sample of undergraduate students. During the 12 months preceding the survey, 10% of the students had seriously considered attempting suicide. When controlling for demographic characteristics, the analysis showed that students who had considered suicide were at increased odds of using tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs. These results suggest that colleges and universities should establish suicide prevention programs that also address the related problem of substance use.
Article
Suicide, the endpoint of a continuum that begins with suicide ideation, is the third leading cause of death among the US college-aged population. The first and second leading causes of death among this age group, unintentional injury and homicide, may also be linked to suicide ideation. We used data from the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to examine the association between suicide ideation and injury-related behaviors among 18- to 24-year-old college students. Students who reported suicide ideation were significantly more likely than students who did not report considering suicide to carry a weapon, engage in a physical fight, boat or swim after drinking alcohol, ride with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, drive after drinking alcohol, and rarely or never used seat belts. Given this clustering of injury-related risk behaviors, college prevention programs should aim to reduce risks for injuries comprehensively, rather than addressing each risk behavior separately.
Article
Over the years, researchers have developed various short versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (D. P. Crowne & D. Marlowe, 1960). The authors used confirmatory factor analyses (J. L. Arbuckle, 1997) as well as item and scale analyses to evaluate the adequacy of the full version and various short versions. Overall, the results from 232 Canadian undergraduates showed (a) that all the short versions in the present study are a significant improvement in fit over the 33-item full scale and (b) that W. M. Reynolds's (1982) Forms A and B are the best fitting short versions. No gender differences were found for the full scale or any of the short versions. The results show that the full scale could be improved psychometrically and that the psychometrically sound short versions should be available because they require less administration time than the full scale.