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Give Your Ideas Some Legs: The Positive Effect of Walking on Creative Thinking

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Abstract

Four experiments demonstrate that walking boosts creative ideation in real time and shortly after. In Experiment 1, while seated and then when walking on a treadmill, adults completed Guilford's alternate uses (GAU) test of creative divergent thinking and the compound remote associates (CRA) test of convergent thinking. Walking increased 81% of participants' creativity on the GAU, but only increased 23% of participants' scores for the CRA. In Experiment 2, participants completed the GAU when seated and then walking, when walking and then seated, or when seated twice. Again, walking led to higher GAU scores. Moreover, when seated after walking, participants exhibited a residual creative boost. Experiment 3 generalized the prior effects to outdoor walking. Experiment 4 tested the effect of walking on creative analogy generation. Participants sat inside, walked on a treadmill inside, walked outside, or were rolled outside in a wheelchair. Walking outside produced the most novel and highest quality analogies. The effects of outdoor stimulation and walking were separable. Walking opens up the free flow of ideas, and it is a simple and robust solution to the goals of increasing creativity and increasing physical activity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

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... The number of generated uses (known as fluency), the number of conceptual categories the generated uses are from (flexibility), and the rareness of the uses (originality) are commonly employed as indicators of divergent thinking (Runco and Acar, 2012;Reiter-Palmon et al., 2019). Studies conducted in the laboratory have reported that aerobic workout or dance for approximately 20 min (Steinberg et al., 1997), walking on a treadmill for 4 min at a self-selected pace (Oppezzo and Schwartz, 2014) or 44 min at vigorous-intensity (Netz et al., 2007), or cycling on an ergometer for 15 min at roughly light to moderate intensity (Aga et al., 2021) enhanced one or multiple indicators of divergent thinking. Convergent thinking, in contrast, was unaffected or uninvestigated in these studies. ...
... To our knowledge, only two studies have investigated the effect of acute aerobic exercise conducted in natural, real-life settings. One study investigated the effect of walking through a university campus (Oppezzo and Schwartz, 2014), and the other the effect of a 45-min physical education class featuring aerobic games (Román et al., 2018), both of which reported enhanced divergent thinking after the intervention. Neither studies, however, evaluated convergent thinking. ...
... The study was also preregistered on the University hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry (UMIN-CTR). Using data from Oppezzo and Schwartz (Oppezzo and Schwartz, 2014) that reported an effect size of d = 0.70 (Experiment 1, Walking versus Siting within-subjects), we estimated that to detect such an effect size with power = 0.8, alpha = 0.05, two-sided, 19 subjects were necessary. Considering dropout cases, we recruited 22 subjects (12 males, 10 females, including 19 medical undergraduates and three graduate students; age: 21.36 ± 1.33 years). ...
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Recent studies show that even a brief bout of aerobic exercise may enhance creative thinking. However, few studies have investigated the effect of exercise conducted in natural settings. Here, in a crossover randomized controlled trial, we investigated the effect of a common daily activity, stair-climbing, on creative thinking. As experimental intervention, subjects were asked to walk downstairs from the fourth to the first floor and back at their usual pace. As control intervention, they walked the same path but using the elevator instead. Compared to using the elevator, stair-climbing enhanced subsequent divergent but not convergent thinking in that it increased originality on the Alternate Use Test (d = 0.486). Subjects on average generated 61% more original uses after stair-climbing. This is the first study to investigate the effect of stair-climbing on creative thinking. Our findings suggest that stair-climbing may be a useful strategy for enhancing divergent thinking in everyday life.
... Most studies had examined by recruiting young adults: College and university students 4-8 and university staff. 5,7 One study differentiated the effects of exercise on creativity between trained cycling athletes and non-athletes. 9 Few studies have explored the effects of aerobic exercise on the creative thinking processes of children. ...
... 4 Since then, more studies have found positive influence of aerobic exercise on creative thinking processes. [5][6][7][9][10][11] However, few studies have reported negative association between exercise and creativity. 8 ...
... The positive influence of exercise is observed across age-groups, involving both children and young adults. [5][6][7][9][10][11] ...
... In addition, while remote working can increase feelings of loneliness and isolation and negatively affect mental health (Ogbonnaya 2020), walking meetings could counterbalance this by providing occasions of socialisation and collaboration (Clayton et al. 2015) -among both remote and office workers. In addition, walking can enhance creative thinking (Oppezzo andSchwartz 2014, Aspinall et al. 2015), mood (Roe and Aspinall 2011, Bornioli et al. 2018, Ferdman 2019, and even support conflict resolutions by facilitating dialogue and exchange (Webb et al. 2017). The benefits for mood and emotions are especially well-documented for walking in outdoor green spaces (Barton et al. 2009, Roe and Aspinall 2011, Olafsdottir et al. 2020 but there is some evidence that walking in high-quality urban environments contributes to positive affect (Stigsdotter et al. 2017, Bornioli et al. 2018. ...
... Walking while talking also aided creativity, focus, and dialogue (Theme 2): 'when I move, I find it easier to create ideas. My mind is a bit numb, and it is easier to create ideas during activities when I don't have to think much', thus echoing previous ideas (Oppezzo andSchwartz 2014, Fedtke 2021). In addition, walking could also contribute to be more open and flexible to dialogue: 'I noticed that when people are not sitting in the same position, they end up not staying fixated on the same arguments: moving helps you to change topic, dialogue, or even against stickiness of thought' (see Webb et al. 2017). ...
... Incorporating two 1-hour walking meetings per week would contribute more than half of the recommended dose of 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity (WHO 2020). The findings also indicated that walking meetings can aid creativity and dialogue (Oppezzo and Schwartz 2014, Webb et al. 2017, Fedtke 2021) and contribute building relationships and more intimate connections. This could become a new recommended practice for employees, professionals, and students towards goals of health and sustainability. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has revolutionised the way we experience the city, and working from home has become the norm for millions of workers. In parallel, the pandemic has created momentum for active travel modes in cities, including for walking. This essay illustrates the concept of the walking meeting as a potential trend for post-COVID-19 cities, and presents a pilot qualitative study with university workers exploring ideas, experiences, and perceptions related to walking meetings. Results suggest that walking meetings can contribute to physical and psychological health and promote creative thinking and socialisation, thus fighting potential isolation and low motivation of remote working. Quiet, nature, and traffic-free spaces were identified as ideal settings for walking meetings. The practice can contribute to healthy and sustainable post-COVID-19 cities.
... We used two complementary metrics for quantifying the idea generation performances (of both the egos and the alters), based on previous literature. The non-redundant idea count metric quantifies how rare one's ideas are compared to the peers' ideas [27,28], but does not assess the ideas' intrinsic qualities (i.e., even a great idea is not rare/novel if many people submit it). In contrast, the Creativity Quotient metric captures how semantically diverse a person's idea-set is [29,30], but does not attempt to compare the idea-sets socially (i.e., two people having highly diverse, yet identical, idea-sets will achieve identically high scores). ...
... ***P < 0.001. 27 ...
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Recent works suggest that striking a balance between maximizing idea stimulation and minimizing idea redundancy can elevate novel idea generation performances in self-organizing social networks. We explore whether dispersing the visibility of high-performing idea generators can help achieve such a trade-off. We employ popularity signals (follower counts) of participants as an external source of variation in network structures, which we control across four conditions in a randomized setting. We observe that popularity signals influence inspiration-seeking ties, partly by biasing people’s perception of their peers’ novel idea-generation performances. Networks that partially disperse the top ideators’ visibility using this external signal show reduced idea redundancy and elevated idea-generation performances. However, extreme dispersal leads to an inferior performance by narrowing the range of idea stimulation. Our work holds future-of-work implications for elevating idea generation performances of people.
... This more ecological valid estimate of the creative potential (i.e., aggregated creative ideation performance across varying situations in real-life context) may easily be used to replicate findings from laboratories. As the literature is rich in individual traits that have been associated with creativity, such as the personality trait openness (e.g., S. B. Kaufman et al., 2016;McCrae, 1987), schizotypy (e.g., Abu-Akel et al., 2020;Rominger et al., 2017; for meta-analysis, see Acar & Sen, 2013), positive affect (Baas et al., 2008), or physical activity/fitness (Latorre Román et al., 2017;Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014;, just to name some examples, the potential number of approaches are manifold. In order to replicate past laboratory findings with an EMA approach, researchers could combine the creative potential assessed in the field with a neuroscientific method. ...
... For example, ambulatory assessment can easily be applied in intervention studies located in laboratories or everyday life contexts. This would allow a closer look at the effects on creative performance after one or several intervention sessions (e.g., walking, Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014or visuo-coordinative training, Tilp et al., 2020. In light of findings suggesting a cross-sectional link between physical activity, positive affect, and creative potential (e.g., , it would be an interesting first step to conduct an intervention study in the field that asks people to participate in a fitness training program such as an aerobic running program. ...
Article
Creative ideas in daily life show substantial variation in quality. Yet, most studies investigate the creative ideation process in highly controlled laboratory contexts, which challenges the ecological validity of creativity research findings. In this article, we advocate the use of ambulatory assessments of creative ideation to gain deeper insight into the variability of ideation processes (between- and within-subjects) in everyday life. We demonstrate this approach by the example of the ambulatory battery of creativity (ABC), which constitutes a reliable and valid approach to assess divergent thinking ability in the verbal and figural domain in everyday life context. Furthermore, it differentiates between-person and within-person variation of creative ideation performance. The first part of this paper will shortly describe the general approach using ABC as an example. In the second part, we use the 7 C’s heuristic to explore applications and implications of this novel method for creativity research. We focus on four C’s with special relevance for ambulatory assessment: Creator, Creating, Context, and Curricula. To this end, we review the findings of strongly controlled laboratory studies and discuss and illustrate applications of the ambulatory assessment. We conclude that the assessment of creative ideation performance in the field might help move the spotlight of creative ideation research from the laboratory to more naturalistic settings. This would increase the ecological validity of creative ideation research and facilitate fresh or unprecedented perspectives on past and future questions on a person’s creative potential and its moment-to-moment fluctuation.
... B. Konzentrationsschwäche) können einen Grund für Schulleistungsschwierigkeiten darstellen (Heller & Heyse, 1985). Bei einer quantitativen Untersuchung von 154 Grundschullehrkräften zu Verhaltensauffälligkeiten in der Grundschule, schätzen diese "Unkonzentriertheit" als häufigsten Grund für Verhaltensauffälligkeiten bei Schüler/-innen ein (Berg et al., 1998 Jugendlichen auswirkt (Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014). Es zeigte sich, dass es sich bei kreativem Potenzial keineswegs um eine fixe Eigenschaft handelt, die Fähigkeit des kreativen Denkens kann durch Maßnahmen der gezielten Förderung verbessert werden (Friedman & Förster, 2001;Krampen, 1997;Lin, 2011). ...
... Bisherige Untersuchungen fokussierten meist die Frage, inwieweit sich emotionale Körperzustände auf kreatives Denken auswirken . Einen weiteren Untersuchungsfaktor (zu Teilen in Verbindung mit Emotionen) bildet der Einfluss dynamischer Körperbewegungen auf kreatives Denken (Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014). ...
Thesis
Die vorliegende kumulative Dissertation beschäftigt sich mit der Fragestellung, welches Potenzial sich aus der Berücksichtigung von Embodiment-Theorien für die Pädagogik ergeben kann. Embodiment bzw. Embodied Cognition (dt. verkörperte Kognition) beschreibt eine Sammlung interdisziplinärer Ansätze innerhalb der neueren Kognitionswissenschaften, die kognitive Prozesse nicht rein geistig verorten, sondern als ein Zusammenspiel aus Geist, Körper und Umwelt betrachten. Im Rahmen der Einleitung findet zunächst eine kurze Darstellung des Forschungsbedarfs und eine Erläuterung der Untersuchungsgegenstände statt. Um eine theoretische Basis für die vorliegende Arbeit zu schaffen, werden im Anschluss die Grundgedanken von Embodiment-Ansätzen kontrastierend zu klassischen Kognitionstheorien vorgestellt. Nach einer allgemeinen theoretischen Einführung zu Embodiment erfolgt eine Überleitung zum Bereich der Pädagogik und damit eine Untersuchung der Thematik hinsichtlich ihrer Relevanz für Lehr- und Lernprozesse. Vor dem Hintergrund der Fragestellung, ob Embodiment zu einem Paradigmenwechsel in der Pädagogik führen kann, bestand das Ziel der Arbeit zum einen darin, bisherige (aus pädagogischer Sicht relevante) Erkenntnisse zu Embodiment aufzubereiten und basierend darauf, anhand zweier empirischer Untersuchungen, konkrete Effekte von Embodiment zu erfassen und hinsichtlich ihrer Bedeutung für Lehr- und Lernkontexte zu diskutieren. Dieses Ziel wurde schrittweise anhand dreier Publikationen verfolgt, welche den Kern der vorliegenden Dissertation bilden und inhaltlich aufeinander aufbauen. Publikation 1 („Embodiment – Die unterschätzte Rolle des Körpers im Lernprozess: Ein Paradigmenwechsel in der Schulpädagogik?“) umfasst eine Sammlung und Systematisierung ausgewählter Einzelbefunde der Embodiment-Forschung auf Theorieebene, wobei der Fokus auf der Beleuchtung bisheriger Forschung aus schulpädagogischer Perspektive liegt. Publikation 1 schließt mit dem Fazit, dass sich aus der Berücksichtigung von Erkenntnissen zu Embodiment wichtige Optimierungsmöglichkeiten für Lehr- und Lernprozesse ergeben können. Publikation 1 ist außerdem der Ausgangspunkt für Publikationen 2 und 3, zwei in Kapitel 3.2 dargelegte empirische Untersuchungen. In Publikation 2 („I sat, I felt, I performed: Posture Effects on Mood and Cognitive Performance“) erfolgt eine theoretische und empirische Auseinandersetzung mit Effekten von Stimmungen und Körperhaltungen auf Aspekte kognitiver Leistung (Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit und -genauigkeit in einem Aufmerksamkeits- und Konzentrationstest). Hierbei liegt der Fokus auf einer vergleichenden Betrachtung aufrechter und gebeugter Körperhaltungen. Entgegen den meisten bisherigen Untersuchungen bestand der Anspruch unter anderem in einer weitgehend impliziten Manipulation der Körperhaltung. Basierend auf vorangegangener Literatur, galt es die Hypothesen zu testen, dass 1) aufrechte Körperhaltungen mit positiverer Stimmung korrelieren, 2) aufrechte Körperhaltungen zu einer höheren Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit in einem Konzentrationstest führen, 3) gebeugte Körperhaltungen hingegen eine genauere Bearbeitung fördern sowie, dass 4) Effekte von Körperhaltungen auf kognitive Leistung durch Stimmung mediiert werden. Die Teilnehmenden bearbeiteten hierfür einen Konzentrationstest sowie einen Fragebogen zu ihrer Befindlichkeit. Es zeigte sich, dass Personen in der aufrechten Bedingung eine positivere Stimmung empfanden und verglichen mit der gebeugten Bedingung bei dem Konzentrationstest schneller arbeiteten. Effekte auf die Bearbeitungsgenauigkeit ließen sich jedoch in der vorliegenden Stichprobe nicht beobachten. Auch eine Mediation der Effekte von Körperhaltung auf Bearbeitungsgeschwindigkeit durch Stimmung ist in den Daten nicht zu erkennen. Es werden daher mögliche Limitationen und alternative Erklärungen diskutiert. In Publikation 3 („Offene Haltung, offenes Denken? Effekte von Körperhaltungen auf kreative Leistung“) galt es, basierend auf dem Studiendesign von Publikation 2, Effekte aufrechter und gebeugter Körperhaltungen auf kreative Denkprozesse zu untersuchen. Zur Erfassung des kreativen Denkens wurde sich für einen Test zu divergentem Denken entschieden. Die Daten lassen darauf schließen, dass aufrechte Körperhaltungen nicht nur positive Auswirkungen auf die Befindlichkeit zeigen, sondern außerdem auch förderliche Effekte auf die Ideenflüssigkeit und Originalität bei kreativem Denken haben. Auch hier ließ sich jedoch keine Mediation durch Stimmung erkennen, mögliche alternative Hintergründe werden diskutiert. Zusammenfassend wird, basierend auf den Ergebnissen der vorliegenden Dissertation, postuliert, dass Ansätze des Embodiments im Rahmen von Lehr- und Lernprozessen stärkere Berücksichtigung finden sollten.
... Indeed, several studies have shown that exposure to nature increased creativity 37-41 . Participants can benefit from experiencing exposure to nature prior to subsequent creative tasks 37,38,42 and immersing in an environment with natural elements during tasks 39,43,44 . Meanwhile, wild (real nature) and indoor (pseudo-nature with natural elements) natural environments can induce the effect of exposure to nature, although the effect in an indoor environment was only evident among female participants 39 and is unlikely to induce as large an effect as that from wild natural environments. ...
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In today’s advanced information society, creativity in work is highly valued, and there is growing interest in the kinds of work environments that produce more creative outcomes. Recent researchers have demonstrated that when environmental factors change a worker’s attentional state to a diffused state, the worker has access to more information than usual, which can contribute to creativity. Here, we examined whether manipulating environmental factors (the presence of a cell phone and exposure to natural environment) that could affect such attention states would improve performance on the Remote Associates Task, a measure of creativity. Our results showed that the presence of a cell phone increased creative performance regardless of immersion in natural environment. In contrast, exposure to nature did not facilitate creative performance; instead, feelings of pleasure increased, and frustration decreased. These results suggest that the presence of a cell phone can enhance creativity by influencing workers’ attentional states. The current study provides a meaningful approach to enhancing creativity by modulating attentional states through environmental factors. It also highlights the essential features of environmental factors that can moderate creative abilities.
... " Here, participants described how their capacity to develop novel, surprising, and valuable associations of ideas and (musical) actions can be enhanced by the collaborative and movement-based dimensions of inherent to the course. While this remains to be further investigated, there is already a wealth of research that shows how walking can boost creative ideation (Oppezzo and Schwartz, 2014), and that recognizes the structural link between social interaction and creativity across a range of contexts in music and beyond (see, e.g., Sawyer and De Zutter, 2009;Burnard and Murphy, 2013;Glãveanu, 2014;van der Schyff et al., 2018;Verneert et al., 2021). Again, the multimodal connections between creative, social, and movementbased activities offered in the course are seen to positively shape the participants' learning trajectory, helping participants feel of themselves as more creative, as well as develop meaningful relationships with the group and the instrument itself, despite reasonable initial concerns. ...
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In a newly designed collaborative online music course, four musical novices unknown to each other learned to play the clarinet starting from zero. Over the course of 12 lessons, a special emphasis was placed on creativity, mutual interaction, and bodily movement. Although addressing these dimensions might be particularly challenging in distance learning contexts, a thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with the learners revealed how the teaching approach proposed has generally facilitated learning. Qualitative findings highlight the importance of establishing meaningful relationships with the musical instrument as well as with other students to build musicality, and of the interplay between creativity and control in individual and collective music-making activities. We suggest that remote music tuition with a small group can be a valuable resource to start learning music and that a creative, collaborative, and movement-based approach can contribute to musical growth.
... Trougakos & Hideg, 2009). Examples of such strategies may include going for a walk to clear their mind or to seek inspiration (Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014), incorporating "quiet hours" in a workday to be able to focus (König et al., 2013), or listening to their favorite music while working to promote an energized and driven mindset (Lesiuk, 2005). As such, organizations may aim to complement valuable top-down approaches to promote creativity with the opportunity for a "bottom-up" approach in which individuals take control themselves in creating healthy circumstances for creativity to arise. ...
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Most research on employee creativity has been focused on relatively distal antecedents, e.g., personality or job characteristics, which has resulted in top‐down organizational approaches to promote employee creativity. However, such approaches overlook the self‐regulating potential of employees and may not explain intra‐individual fluctuations in creativity. In the present research, we build on proactive motivation theory to examine how employees may promote their own creativity on a daily basis through the use of proactive vitality management (PVM). To better understand the PVM – creativity link, we zoom in on this process by examining the role of mindfulness as an underlying mechanism. In two daily diary studies, employees from the US (N = 133 persons, n = 521 data points) and the creative industry in Germany (N = 62 persons, n = 232 data points) reported on their use of PVM and states of mindfulness for five consecutive workdays. Additionally, participants completed a daily creativity test (brainstorming task) in Study 1, while supervisors rated participants’ daily creative work performance in Study 2. In both studies, multilevel analyses showed that daily PVM was positively related to creative performance through daily mindfulness, supporting our hypotheses. These replicated findings suggest that individuals may bring themselves in a cognitive, creative state of mind on a daily basis, emphasizing the importance of proactive behavior in the creative process.
... Keywords: Divergent thinking, Creative potential, Bodily movement, Open problem solving While some empirical studies indicated an association between creative ideation performance and acute as well as chronic physical activity [43,44], others did not [45]. To the best of our knowledge, meta-analytic approaches on this topic are very rare [15,46]. ...
Article
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Background Physical activity is a health-relevant lifestyle factor associated with various benefits on physical and mental health. Several meta-analyses indicated effects of acute and chronic physical activities on elementary cognitive functions such as executive control processes, memory, and attention. Meta-analytic evidence on the effects of physical activity on creative idea generation, which involves a conglomerate of these elementary cognitive functions, is largely missing. Objective A twofold approach was used to evaluate (1) if there is an association between habitual physical activity and creative ideation and (2) if physical activity interventions (acute and chronic) enhance creative ideation performance. Methods Multilevel meta-analytic methods were applied to (1) evaluate the cross-sectional association between creative ideation performance and measures of habitual physical activity and (2) the effect of physical activity on creative ideation performance. Indicators of creative ideation (fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration, or composite score), creativity domain (verbal, figural), population (adults, children), gender, study quality, and publication year served as moderator variables for both meta-analyses. Analyses of intervention studies additionally examined the moderator variables study design (between, within), time of measurement (during, after), and implementation of intervention (acute, chronic). Results The applied meta-analytic multilevel analysis indicated a medium effect for cross-sectional studies ( r = 0.22, SE = 0.06, p = 0.002, 95% CI [0.10–0.34]) based on 17 effects sizes from seven studies. The pooled effects of 28 intervention studies, providing 115 effect sizes, indicated a medium effect size of Hedges’ g = 0.47 (SE = 0.09, p < 0.001, 95% CI [0.30–0.65]). Furthermore, a stronger effect was observed for chronic interventions of several days or weeks in comparison with acute interventions of one single bout. Conclusion This study adds important new meta-analytic evidence on the beneficial role of physical activity beyond mental and physical health outcomes: Physical activity has a positive impact on creative ideation, which expands the literature on the role of physical activity in more elementary cognitive functions such as executive control, memory, and attention. Moderator analyses suggested that chronic interventions showed stronger effects than single bouts of physical activity. Rigorously conducted randomized controlled intervention studies and more cross-sectional studies are needed to broaden the evidence in this nascent field of research.
... In face-to-face meetings, people can shift their position and stretch, but during video communication their mobility is limited to a narrow space. This reduced mobility may undermine cognitive performance [47], further disrupting communicative abilities. ...
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The present pandemic forced our daily interactions to move into the virtual world. People had to adapt to new communication media that afford different ways of interaction. Remote communication decreases the availability and salience of some cues but also may enable and highlight others. Importantly, basic movement dynamics, which are crucial for any interaction as they are responsible for the informational and affective coupling, are affected. It is therefore essential to discover exactly how these dynamics change. In this exploratory study of six interacting dyads we use traditional variability measures and cross recurrence quantification analysis to compare the movement coordination dynamics in quasi-natural dialogues in four situations: (1) remote video-mediated conversations with a self-view mirror image present, (2) remote video-mediated conversations without a self-view, (3) face-to-face conversations with a self-view, and (4) face-to-face conversations without a self-view. We discovered that in remote interactions movements pertaining to communicative gestures were exaggerated, while the stability of interpersonal coordination was greatly decreased. The presence of the self-view image made the gestures less exaggerated, but did not affect the coordination. The dynamical analyses are helpful in understanding the interaction processes and may be useful in explaining phenomena connected with video-mediated communication, such as “Zoom fatigue”.
... Numerous studies show that we tend to perform better intellectually when we are in motion (Oppezzo and Schwartz 2014). Being on your feet, moving around, are positive factors for creativity. ...
... According to the dual pathway to creativity model (DPCM) (De Dreu et al., 2008), creative insights result from two creative processes: cognitive flexibility and cognitive persistence. Research demonstrates that training programs involving mental exercises (role plays and dramas) and, lately, physical activity is found to improve creative ability (Karwowski & Soszynski, 2008;Hao et al., 2017;Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014). Additionally, research discusses the link between creativity and spirituality (Chin et al., 2012). ...
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Ford India operations ended up losing roughly two billion dollars due to lack of demand and sales. The pandemic has placed the company on the back foot, unprecedented failures and affecting the livelihoods of employees. The shutdown of the company’s Indian wing will reduce up to 4,000 factory jobs, with over 2,600 regular employees and around 1,000 contract workers. The shutdown will also affect auxiliary companies that sell minor components and parts to Ford. Data were collected from workers, union leaders, union members, dealers, customers, and management to understand the issues faced by Ford. Indian operations were typically marginal and vulnerable to significant economic shifts; export was a face-saver. The study attempts to present the impact of the closure on the socio-economic conditions of workers.
... Having a portable brainstorming tool that facilitates walking has several advantages over more static approaches. Co-creators have been shown to be better at generating ideas whilst walking when compared to more traditional forms of sitting based idea generation (Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014). ...
Thesis
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Globally, physical activity levels have declined sharply and it has been estimated that up to 42% of individuals within developed countries are classified as being physically inactive. Insufficient physical activity is a substantial health risk and has been associated with negative psychophysiological outcomes including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and depression. Whilst there are many contributors to physical inactivity the workplace has been identified as a particularly significant contributor. Consistently high levels of sedentary behaviour have been documented within many modern workplaces, with employees spending up to 81% of working hours seated in white collar roles. Given that approximately 58% of global workforce will spend one third of their adult life at work, the workplace has been identified as a key domain in which researchers can deliver interventions to promote physical activity. Despite this, evidence for the efficacy of workplace physical activity interventions has been mixed. One potential explanation for this is an underutilisation of participatory approaches during intervention design. Within organisational research, concerns have been expressed regarding a widening gap between research and practice.Whilst interventions may be academically robust they may lack sufficient relevancy to the employees that they are intended to support. To address these issues this thesis adopted a pragmatic, participatory stance and drew upon co-creation methodologies to develop a new workplace physical activity intervention that would meet the needs of employees.
... We also showed that physical activity and experiential learning are essential elements of outdoor therapy for employee burnout, which makes sense as it is known that being physical active outdoors alleviates stress (Hartig et al., 2014) and that rehabilitation entails a process of "learning by experiencing" (Pijpker et al., 2021;Van Dam, 2021). Concerning our observation that physical activity in the outdoors enhances one's capacity to think creatively aligns with earlier experimental studies showing that walking outdoors in nature opens up a free flow of ideas stronger than indoor walking (Oppezzo and Schwartz, 2014;Plambech and Van Den Bosch, 2015). Related to this, our study suggests that experiencing nature enables clients to get closer to their inner feelings and think more positive than being in urban or indoor environments, this has been confirmed by several experimental studies showing that spending time in nature reduces people's focus on negative aspects of one's self (Bratman et al., 2015(Bratman et al., , 2021. ...
Article
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Background Burnout is a major societal issue adversely affecting employees’ health and performance, which over time results in high sick leave costs for organizations. Traditional rehabilitation therapies show suboptimal effects on reducing burnout and the return-to-work process. Based on the health-promoting effects of nature, taking clients outdoors into nature is increasingly being used as a complementary approach to traditional therapies, and evidence of their effectiveness is growing. Theories explaining how the combination of general psychological support and outdoor-specific elements can trigger the rehabilitation process in outdoor therapy are often lacking, however, impeding its systematic research. Aim The study aims to develop an intervention and evaluation model for outdoor therapy to understand and empirically evaluate whether and how such an outdoor intervention may work for rehabilitation after burnout. Methodological Approach We build on the exemplary case of an outdoor intervention for rehabilitation after burnout, developed by outdoor clinical psychologists in Netherlands. We combined the generic context, process, and outcome evaluation model and the burnout recovery model as an overarching deductive frame. We then inductively specified the intervention and evaluation model of outdoor therapy, building on the following qualitative data: semi-structured interviews with outdoor clinical psychologists and former clients; a content analysis of the intervention protocol; and reflective meetings with the intervention developers and health promotion experts. Results We identified six key outdoor intervention elements: (1) physical activity; (2) reconnecting body and mind; (3) nature metaphors; (4) creating relationships; (5) observing natural interactions; and (6) experiential learning. The results further showed that the implementation of these elements may facilitate the rehabilitation process after burnout in which proximal, intermediate, and distal outcomes emerge. Finally, the results suggested that this implementation process depends on the context of the therapist (e.g., number of clients per day), therapy (e.g., privacy issues), and of the clients (e.g., affinity to nature). Conclusion The intervention and evaluation model for outdoor therapy shows how key outdoor intervention elements may contribute to the rehabilitation process after burnout. However, our model needs to be further tested among a larger group of clients to empirically evaluate whether and how outdoor therapy can support rehabilitation.
... Alanyazında yer değiştirmenin ve hareket etmenin toplantılarda bireylerin daha iyi performans sergilemelerine katkı sağladığı açıklanmaktadır (Bailenson, 2021). Oppezzo ve Schwartz (2014), yürüyen insanların oturan insanlardan daha yaratıcı fikirler bulduklarını ifade etmiştir. Müzik ve hareketin aktif olarak kullanıldığı eğitim süreçlerinin, öğrencilerin pasif ve hareketsiz olduğu eğitim süreçlerine göre daha etkili olduğu ve öğrenci başarısı üzerinde daha önemli sonuçlar ortaya koyduğu Ayan ve Kaya (2016) tarafından belirtilmiştir. ...
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The pandemic process, which has been announced all over the world due to COVID-19 and has been going on for about two year, has profoundly affected the lives of individuals, causing changes in many areas of life. Especially in the field of education, face-to-face education was suspended, and distance education was started, and the distance education process became widespread and became the new normal of life brought by the pandemic process. In this new normal, individuals have started to spend a large part of their daily life online in front of technological devices. It has been determined that individuals who carry out all kinds of activities through online platforms use the Zoom application most frequently and Zoom is an important component of the lives of individuals. The fact that individuals spend most of the day on Zoom for different reasons has led to the emergence of physical, cognitive and psychological problems. All the problems experienced as a result of excessive, unconscious and uncontrolled use of Zoom are expressed as Zoom fatigue in the literature. In this study, the concept of Zoom fatigue, which is seen as the new problem of the digital age, is discussed within the framework of the literature. In particular, the emergence of the concept of Zoom fatigue, the way it is defined, its basic causes, its biological and neuropsychological explanation, its effects on individuals and what should be done to reduce these effects are examined in detail. It is believed that this study, which is thought to be a current and original subject, will make significant contributions particularly to the national literature.
... Yet its benefits in absolute terms to individuals, community, and society can be immense. Studies suggest that walking boosts creativity (Feinberg 2016;Oppezzo and Schwartz 2014;Overall 2019), enhances spatial attention and memory performance (Labonté-LeMoyne et al. 2015;Salas, Minakata and Kelemen 2011), and prevents cognitive decline in the elderly (Ahlskog et al. 2011;Kirk-Sanchez and McGough 2014), in addition to a number of other psychological benefits (Johansson, Hartig and Staats 2011). Indeed, Gros points to the fact that many of our most prolific and creative writers, philosophers, and social thinkers-Rousseau, Kant, Rimbaud, Robert Louis Stevenson, Nietzsche, and Gandhi-were ardent lifelong walkers. ...
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The need to reverse the harmful economic, social and environmental effects of car-dependent cities has intensified as evidence of its costs on health, communities, local economies, and climate change goals becomes more apparent. Part solution must be a focus on reducing the need for private car use and increasing instances of active and sustainable transportation such as walking. Walkability is the measure of how walking-friendly an area is for individuals and includes concerns such as the built environment and connectivity to key amenities and additional transport options. This study presents an autoethnography of walking in Galway. By “experiencing” the author’s walk to work, it points to the lack of concern for the crucial features of walkability that would make this an attractive option for many in the city. The aim is to better inform community actors and policymakers on how to enhance urban design and planning with respect to walkability.
... Indeed, several studies have shown that exposure to nature increased creativity 37-41 . Participants can benefit from experiencing exposure to nature prior to subsequent creative tasks 37,38,42 and immersing in an environment with natural elements during tasks 39,43,44 . Meanwhile, wild (real nature) and indoor (pseudo-nature with natural elements) natural environments can induce the effect of exposure to nature, although the effect in an indoor environment was only evident among female participants 39 and is unlikely to induce as large an effect as that from wild natural environments. ...
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In today’s advanced information society, creativity in work is highly valued, and there is growing interest in the kinds of work environments that produce more creative outcomes. Recent researchers have demonstrated that when environmental factors change a worker’s attentional state to a diffused state, the worker has access to more information than usual, which can contribute to creativity. Here, we examined whether manipulating environmental factors (the presence of a cell phone and exposure to natural environment) that could affect such attention states would improve performance on the Remote Associates Task, a measure of creativity. Our results showed that the presence of a cell phone increased creative performance regardless of immersion in natural environment. In contrast, exposure to nature did not facilitate creative performance; instead, feelings of pleasure increased, and frustration decreased. These results suggest that the presence of a cell phone can enhance creativity by influencing workers’ attentional states. The current study provides a meaningful approach to enhancing creativity by modulating attentional states through environmental factors. It also highlights the essential features of environmental factors that can moderate creative abilities.
... The most prominent definition of creativity (first brought up by Stein et al. [75]) requires creative output to be both useful and novel. Thus, the creative process is "the production of appropriate novelty" [62]. Webster, on the other hand, described creativity as a process alternating between divergent ("brainstorming") and convergent (single goal focused) thinking [84] and in the musical context as "engagement of the mind in the active, structured process of thinking in sound for the purpose of producing some product that is new for the creator" [84]. ...
... In terms of organizational outcomes, studies have shown several beneficial effects of the presence of animals, namely in promoting creativity (Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014), reducing stress, and increasing satisfaction. For example, Barker et al. (2012) observed self-reported stress patterns throughout the working day in a company that allows the presence of pets, concluding that employees who had their dogs present had generally lower levels of stress, showed satisfaction in the favorable work conditions, and scored high levels in the subcategories of communication, benefits, rewards, promotion and salary. ...
Article
Several studies have shown the positive effects of the presence of animals on humans at work, especially pets. It is increasingly common to find workplaces all over the world that provide this benefit, allowing employees to work with their pet beside them. These workplaces are called “pet friendly.” These practices, in addition to the direct effects on employees, affect the company’s image, showing positive effects in reducing absenteeism and increasing productivity. It is also expected that they impact the company’s perception of social responsibility, and that this influences the attitudes of its employees. In view of this growing reality and its possible impact with regard to organizational behavior, this study aims to observe the effect that the presence of pets in the workplace has on the perception of the social responsibility of organizations and on the organizational commitment (OC) of employees. To this end, 177 participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions according to a unifactorial design. All participants received a descriptive scenario of practices adopted by an organization to improve employee performance and business success. The scenario varied according to the inclusion of animals versus noninclusion. The results show the positive effect of the presence of animals both in the perception of social responsibility and in employees’ OC. This study leads us to conclude that animals are important in people’s lives and as such have a positive impact on organizational life.
... A meta-analytic study showed that an acute, intermediate-intensity exercise improves the performance of working memory tasks probably because of the increased arousal level 36 . Additionally, it has been reported that even a low-intensity exercise and walking can improve cognitive functions during and after the exercise 38,39 . ...
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The effects of physical exercise on cognitive tasks have been investigated. However, it is unclear how different exercise intensities affect the neural activity. In this study, we investigated the neural activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by varying the exercise intensity while participants performed a dual task (DT). Twenty healthy young adults performed serial subtraction while driving a cycle ergometer. Exercise intensity was set to one of three levels: low, moderate, or high intensity. We did not find any significant change in PFC activity during DT under either the control (no exercise) or low-intensity conditions. In contrast, we observed a significant increase in PFC activity during DT under moderate- and high-intensity conditions. In addition, we observed complex hemodynamics after DT. PFC activity decreased from baseline after DT under the control condition, while it increased under the low-intensity condition. PFC activity remained higher than the baseline level after DT under the moderate-intensity condition but returned to baseline under the high-intensity condition. The results suggest that moderate-intensity exercise with a cognitive load effectively increases PFC activity, and low-intensity exercise may increase PFC activity when combined with a cognitive load.
... Another echoed the sentiment, saying that when they were struggling with a research idea, 'or a bit of writer's block or whatever the case may be, or something's just become really frustrating, I usually feel like if I get up and go outside and go for a walk, even if it's raining or cold or windy […] that fresh air and stretching your legs and walking around -it just seems to clear your mind.' Walking opens up the free flow of ideas, increasing our creativity. 17 Walking also gives us time to connect with nature, something that many of those spoken to commented on in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Office for National Statistics' 2021 study examining the impact of lockdown on usage of public green spaces and links between nature and wellbeing, argued that nature had become a source of solace for many. ...
Article
The Interdisciplinary Walks project was funded by the Leicester Institute for Advanced Studies (LIAS) between May and July 2022. It set out to encourage staff members to think outside their own disciplinary silos whilst getting familiar with University of Leicester surroundings, from the main and north campus to the School of Business at Brookfield, and the Space Park. Consultations with 29 members of staff asking about their interdisciplinary research and favourite walks were conducted via Zoom and recorded for use on the WordPress site . Intended outputs from the Interdisciplinary Walks project included an A5 map booklet (with a print run of c.500 copies) drawn by illustrator Amy McKay, web content including edited audio recordings of consultations and accompanying transcripts, and six visualisations of the audio clips created by visual storytelling agency Nifty Fox Creative. This working paper provides an overview of the project as it progressed, with the final sections reflecting upon the benefits and challenges of interdisciplinary research and the value of walking and thinking as viewed by academic researchers. The consultations recognised the importance of access to parks and green spaces, and identified four key walking behaviours: walking alone, together, to disconnect, and to focus. The project concludes that by understanding individual preferences in how we walk, researchers can harness the potential of walking as a tool to improve mind, body, and research.
... We also showed that physical activity and experiential learning are essential elements of outdoor therapy for employee burnout, which makes sense as it is known that being physically active outdoors alleviates stress and that rehabilitation entails a process of 'learning by experiencing' (Pijpker et al., 2021;Van Dam, 2021). Our observation that physical activity in the outdoors enhances one's capacity to think creatively aligns with earlier experimental studies showing that walking outdoors in nature opens up a free flow of ideas stronger than indoor walking (Plambech & Van Den Bosch, 2015;Oppezzo et al., 2014). Related to this, our study suggests that experiencing nature enables clients to get closer to their inner feelings and think more positive than being in urban or indoor environments; this has been confirmed by several experimental studies showing that spending time in nature reduces people's focus on negative aspects of one's self (Bratman et al., 2015;Bratman et al., 2021). ...
... • Physical movement and creativity have been positively associated, by, for example Rominger et al. (2020). Oppezzo and Schwartz (2014) had earlier tied walking (inside or outside, on a treadmill or not) to boosts in creative performance while walking and shortly after doing so; "Walking opens up the free flow of ideas, and it is a simple and robust solution to the goals of increasing creativity and increasing physical activity." Muralo and Handel's 2022 findings echo those of Oppezzo and Schwartz. ...
... • Physical movement and creativity have been positively associated, by, for example Rominger et al. (2020). Oppezzo and Schwartz (2014) had earlier tied walking (inside or outside, on a treadmill or not) to boosts in creative performance while walking and shortly after doing so; "Walking opens up the free flow of ideas, and it is a simple and robust solution to the goals of increasing creativity and increasing physical activity." Muralo and Handel's 2022 findings echo those of Oppezzo and Schwartz. ...
... Ученые доказали, что ходьба активизирует нейронную активность мозга, создает новые связи между различными отделами мозга, расширяет масштаб визуального внимания, что позволяет находить новые идеи и решения для одной проблемы, то есть, активирует дивергентное мышление [20, c. 1-2, 11; 10, c. [8][9]. Кроме того, ходьба улучшает настроение [21]. Некоторые исследователи замечают, что существует непосредственная связь между моторной функцией и когнитивной функцией. ...
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В качестве преамбулы отметим, что идея данных тезисов родилась в циркумамбуляциях на северно-западной окраине города Харькова, в лесополосе Сортировки, за несколько дней до полномасштабной российско-украинской войны. Автор этих строк повторял метафорически, или может даже буквально, прогулки Григория Сковороды по Харьковщине, задаваясь вопросом о том, чем были для философа такие прогулки [17]. Однако для того, чтобы вполне оценить его вклад в философию ходьбы, необходимо рассказать о главных моментах философии ходьбы.
... Scientists have proven that walking activates the neural activity of the brain, creates new connections between different parts of the brain, expands the scope of visual attention, which allows finding new ideas and solutions for a single problem, that is, it activates divergent thinking [20, c. 1-2, 11; 10, c. 8-9]. In addition, walking improves mood [21]. Some researchers suggest that there is a direct link between motor function and cognitive function. ...
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As a preamble, it should be noted that the idea for these theses was born in the circumambulations on the northwestern outskirts of Kharkiv, in the forest belt of the Sortirovka, a few days before the full-scale Russian-Ukrainian war. The author of these lines metaphorically, or maybe even literally retraced the steps, traversed by Hryhorii Skovoroda in the Kharkiv region, and wondered what such walks meant for the philosopher [17]. However, to properly appreciate his contribution to the philosophy of walking, it is necessary to talk about the main aspects of the philosophy of walking.
... There are a number of studies showing that locomotion and other movements cause better performance in meetings. For example, people who are walking, even when it is indoors, come up with more creative ideas than people who are sitting (Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014). Dozens of studies by Goldin-Meadow (2003 book for a review). ...
... Walking, as a mode of travel, can significantly reduce the likelihood of obesity [9,10] and provide spiritual and psychological gains. According to Oppezzo and Schwartz [11], walking can substantially enhance creativity, and there is also evidence that memory and concentration skills are improved during and after walking [12]. In some studies exploring accurate and correlates better with human physical activity than using Euclidean distance as the data source. ...
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Due to the generally poor planning of new university campuses in China today, students living in these places normally do not walk as often as they should, and with studies showing the significant impact of walking on physical health and productivity, there is an urgent need to improve university walkability. Walkability is a valuable tool for assessing the level of support for walking in a region, and there are few studies on walkability on university campuses. In this paper, we used a network distance-based Walk Score to evaluate and analyze the walkability of the Zijingang east campus, Zhejiang University. We improved some of the parameters of the Walk Score based on the actual travel characteristics of the students, formed a new calculation method based on a geographic information system (GIS) applicable to the university campus, and evaluated the applicability of this method. The results show that the new method can reflect the actual walking experience and provide a helpful design reference for designers. We also found that optimizing the distribution of facilities is very effective using the feature of the attenuation function.
... At the same time, through the indepth combination of machine learning [109] and other technologies, the customisation and parameterisation of data diagnosis and treatment are realised, and the integration of autonomous learning and people is better realised [77]. The combination of virtual reality and augmented reality technology [110] enables a real scene to stimulate the brain and significantly stimulate motor function [111]. Using visual interaction and virtual reality technology is necessary [112]. ...
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As a wearable and intelligent system, a lower limb exoskeleton rehabilitation robot can provide auxiliary rehabilitation training for patients with lower limb walking impairment/loss and address the existing problem of insufficient medical resources. One of the main elements of such a human—robot coupling system is a control system to ensure human—robot coordination. This review aims to summarise the development of human—robot coordination control and the associated research achievements and provide insight into the research challenges in promoting innovative design in such control systems. The patients’ functional disorders and clinical rehabilitation needs regarding lower limbs are analysed in detail, forming the basis for the human—robot coordination of lower limb rehabilitation robots. Then, human—robot coordination is discussed in terms of three aspects: modelling, perception and control. Based on the reviewed research, the demand for robotic rehabilitation, modelling for human—robot coupling systems with new structures and assessment methods with different etiologies based on multi-mode sensors are discussed in detail, suggesting development directions of human—robot coordination and providing a reference for relevant research.
Chapter
How will learning “look” in the future? Everyone learns–and we do so in a creative and emotional way. However, learners’ creativity and emotions are often not explicitly included in the design process when exploring how technology can be used to provide new learning opportunities, which could result in shallow learning. One way to support such learning with technology could be playfulness. The current paper reports on some of our ongoing experiences in recent years using a playful design perspective to develop three educational Artificial Intelligence (AI) prototypes. Tackling applications intended to facilitate freedom, ease, and engagement in learning, the prototypes comprise an intelligent tutoring system, an automatic display tool, and a hand-waving detector. In closing, some lessons learned are shared to inform subsequent designs.KeywordsEducational AIAI prototypingComputational creativityArtificial emotionsPlayful learningEdTech
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the mediating role of recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment and relaxation) in the relation between physical activity and creativity, operationalized through divergent thinking using a randomized controlled trial experiment with 155 graduate business management students. The treatment group performed 20-min of either dance or Hatha yoga, while the control group performed a sedentary case-study task. The originality component of divergent thinking was measured before and after the interventions, and the recovery experience after the intervention. The results show that dance significantly improves originality vis-à-vis case-study. Psychological detachment mediates this relationship. Implications of results on ego-depletion theory and the concept of recovery experience are discussed.
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Sports and exercise have been related to acute and chronic changes in brain health and function. Regular exercise has been used as a non-pharmacological approach for protecting brain health while improving some brain functions. With benefits observed in young and old individuals and healthy and clinical populations, sports and exercise seem to play an important role in contributing to brain health and function. Despite some evidence regarding the contributions of sports and exercise to brain health and function, there is an increasing number of original research papers and systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis that may help professionals to identify which types of sport and exercise are suitable for specific improvements and the adequate duration of carrying out such activities. Additionally, there is space for further analysis of the contribution of sports and exercise to both the improvement of efficiency in work and to the mitigation of the effects of specific neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the Special Issue “Brain Function and Health, Sports, and Exercise”welcomed contributions from different areas of knowledge that may assist in improving our understand ing of the relationships between sports and exercise and brain health and function. Original studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis on the following main topics were received: (i) role of exercise in neurodegenerative diseases; (ii) role of sport and exercise in cognitive performance; (iii) role of sport and exercise in brain health; (iv) effects of different sport and exercise modes on brain function and health; and (v) dose–response relationships between exercise and brain health and function. Filipe Manuel Clemente and Ana Filipa Silva (Editors)
Chapter
List of works referred to in Armstrong & Green (2022) The Scientific Method
Article
In response to the increasing uncertainty and rapid change around them, firms are looking to implement new management methods to become more flexible and less hierarchical. One of the most popular of these methods is agile, which aims for reactiveness, collaboration, decentralized decision-making, and increased autonomy. However, agile was designed to work best with teams where members are co-located, whereas during the COVID-19 pandemic and likely in the post-COVID world, many employees are working remotely from home at least part of the time. We explore how to adapt agile to remote work, drawing from an in-depth case study of OP Financial Group, the largest bank in Finland. We highlight five problems and solutions to implementing agile in a remote setting and discuss the situations and types of teams in which the different aspects of remote agile are likely to work and not work. Our findings provide guidance for companies looking to become agile in “the new normal.”
Article
This experiment was designed to accommodate the diversified verbal, mathematical, and spatial skills of young adults, which have not yet to be collectively evaluated in research projects focused on acute exercise and creativity among college students. While emerging research suggests that acute moderate-intensity exercise may influence human creativity, creativity during and after exercise has not been experimentally investigated. Such differences are plausible, as previous work demonstrates that memory can be differentially influenced based on whether the memory task occurs during or after exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute moderate‐intensity treadmill walking, for 15 min, on verbal, mathematical, and spatial insight creativity performance while considering the timing of the exercise and creativity tasks. Among a sample of 20 undergraduate students, all completed three randomized laboratory visits in this within-subjects design: control condition, insight problem-solving following exercise, and insight problem-solving during exercise. They also completed six insight creativity tasks (two verbal, two mathematical, and two spatial tasks) per visit, with the order of task-presentation randomized and counterbalanced across the three visits. Average insight creativity scores were similar across the three exercise manipulations: That is, verbal insight [F(2, 18) = 0.689, P = 0.51], mathematical insight [F(2, 18) = 0.033, P = 0.97], and spatial insight [F(2, 18) = 1.0, P = 0.38] performance were not statistically significant across the three visits. Thus, moderate-intensity acute exercise may not appreciably influence verbal, mathematical or spatial insight creativity.
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This paper explores the nature of reflection that qualified physiotherapists use in their day-to-day practice. This is an area in which there is a dearth of research. With a grounded theory approach purposive sampling was used to recruit seven qualified physiotherapists for photo-elicitation interviews exploring whether they did reflect and if so, what their reflection was like. The findings were that they did reflect but that it occurred outside of working hours. Four conceptual categories were identified: Personal Concept, Personal Process, Time and Head-Space. Practitioners had their own ideas of what reflection was, own ways of reflecting and personal strategies for making the head space to reflect in. Typically, they used thinking modes of reflection, with occasional dialogical modes; written reflection was rare. Of novel significance was the use of strategies to complete reflection to their satisfaction, most frequently walking but also preparing vegetables, driving and showering, typically outside of work hours. The use of such cognitively non-demanding, routinised activities to aid reflection has not been widely explored in the literature on reflection and may suggest a need to rethink approaches to support the teaching of reflection which would have high validity for its place in the real world of practice.
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As plataformas de videoconferência estão se popularizando cada vez mais entre os estudantes e trabalhadores, alterando consideravelmente as dinâmicas dos negócios, de ensino e aprendizagem. Posto desta forma, este estudo procura avaliar pontos positivos e negativos quanto ao uso destas plataformas, sobretudo em relação à adoção destes sistemas para o oferecimento de aulas on-line. Para isso, busca estudos teóricos que justifiquem a tendência de crescimento desta modalidade de ensino, procurando compreender aspectos como foco, desgaste e interação no uso de tais tecnologias. A fim de observar estas características na prática, o estudo apresenta um levantamento quantitativo, em que 100 estudantes do Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Análise e Desenvolvimento de Sistemas da Fatec Taquaritinga são questionados quanto às suas experiências em aulas remotas. O que se pode verificar, a partir deste estudo, é que, embora existam vários aspectos positivos em relação à adoção de tais plataformas, a jornada diária de aulas, muitas vezes somada à carga de trabalho on-line, apresenta altos níveis de fadiga ou desgaste para muitos estudantes, sem contar que a interação e participação on-line não fluem tão naturalmente quanto em aulas presenciais, o que pode pôr a estudantes e professores certas dificuldades ao processo de ensino e aprendizagem. Há, neste sentido, um vasto caminho a ser explorado, a fim de tornar as aulas on-line mais produtivas e menos desgastantes.
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La promoción de hábitos de vida saludables y del bienestar integral de la ciudadanía constituye un objetivo sólidamente compartido por las instituciones universitarias en el ejercicio de su responsabilidad social. La Universidad de Burgos (UBu), miembro de la Red Española de Universidades Promotoras de la Salud (REUPS), contribuye, con fuerza incremental al ODS 3 - Salud y Bienestar de la Agenda 2030, dirigido a garantizar una vida sana, y promover el bienestar para todos y todas con independencia de la edad. De acuerdo con el Informe de Responsabilidad Social de la Universidad de Burgos 2021 y las líneas de acción del Aula Campus Saludable de la UBu, este objetivo, extensible a las entidades sanitarias locales, regionales, estatales y globales, se articula en el diseño, ejecución y evaluación de proyectos y programas intencionalmente orientados. En el ejercicio de su responsabilidad en la transferencia del conocimiento e innovación, la presente guía ofrece, de forma pionera, un amplio y selecto conjunto de buenas prácticas para la promoción de hábitos saludables en el contexto universitario iberoamericano, reflejo de la intensa actividad desarrollada en los países participantes en su redacción.
Article
The study explored the impact of experimentally induced state self-objectification on creative potential in visual domain in mid-adolescence. The experiment was conducted in a group of 140 adolescents at the age of 14–16: 70 boys (Mage = 15.21; SD = .81) and 70 girls (Mage = 14.99; SD = 0.83), randomly allocated to two groups: experimental and control. The state self-objectification was obtained by means of a magnifying mirror, and measured by the State Self-Objectification Questionnaire. In both groups the Test for Creative Thinking – Drawing Production was administered twice (in A and B versions, randomly selected). Statistical analyses were performed with a mixed model ANOVA (2 drawings x 2 groups x 2 sexes). Results showed that mid-adolescent girls are susceptible to state self-objectification to a greater extent than the boys, and the experimentally induced state self-objectification has an impact on creative potential in the visual domain in the groups of adolescent boys and girls.
Thesis
Forschungsfrage: Im Zentrum der Forschungsbemühungen steht die Lehrerpersönlichkeit, welche durch die Selbstwirksamkeit als Eigenschaft beschrieben werden soll. Methodik: Als Methode wird die qualitative Analyse der Hermeneutik verwendet. Dabei werden Begriffe und Modelle zur Lehrerpersönlichkeit und Selbstwirksamkeit erläutert und in ihrer Bedeutung für das pädagogische Handeln erschlossen. Ergebnis: Selbstwirksamkeit ist eine unbedingt notwendige persönliche Ressource, die regulierend auf kognitive, emotionale, motivationale und selektive Prozesse einwirkt und Entwicklungsprozesse unterstützt. Dennoch sind der Selbstwirksamkeit Grenzen gesetzt, so dass diese nicht als hinreichend für die Beschreibung der gesamten Lehrerpersönlichkeit angesehen werden kann. Wie die zunehmende Beanspruchung auf die Lehrerpersönlichkeit wirkt, wird durch die Belastungsforschung dargelegt. Abgesehen von begrifflichen Kontroversen ist die berufliche Selbstwirksamkeit entscheidend für die Bewältigung schwieriger Situationen. Auch in der Lehrerbildung wird die Bedeutung der Lehrerselbstwirksamkeit hervorgehoben. Neben Einflussmöglichkeiten im schulischen Rahmen stehen Ansatzpunkte im Mittelpunkt, die bei der Lehrerpersönlichkeit ansetzen und durch sie aktiv unterstützt werden können. Zudem wird versucht, aus dem Erkenntnisgewinn Konsequenzen für die Rekrutierung und Ausbildung der Lehramtsstudenten abzuleiten und bildungspolitische Ansprüche zu formulieren, da ein gewisses Maß an Selbstwirksamkeit zu den Mindestvoraussetzungen für den beruflichen Erfolgt gehört.
Chapter
This chapter explores ways for us to enhance our ability to design through cognitive enhancement. It discusses the effectiveness of a variety of methods, from various types of incubation and mind practices through more active means of mind-altering substances and technological interventions.KeywordsCognitive enhancementIncubationSleepDreamsImaginationMeditationHypnosisFoodDrinkDrugsNeurofeedbackTranscranial stimulationBrainwave entrainment
Article
School physical activity breaks are currently being proposed as a way to improve students’ learning. However, there is no clear evidence of the effects of active school breaks on academic-related cognitive outcomes. The present systematic review with meta-analysis scrutinized and synthesized the literature related to the effects of active breaks on students’ attention. On January 12th, 2021, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science were searched for published interventions with counterbalanced cross-over or parallel-groups designs with a control group, including school-based active breaks, objective attentional outcomes, and healthy students of any age. Studies’ results were qualitatively synthesized, and meta-analyses were performed if at least three study groups provided pre-post data for the same measure. Results showed some positive acute and chronic effects of active breaks on attentional outcomes (i.e., accuracy, concentration, inhibition, and sustained attention), especially on selective attention. However, most of the results were not significant. The small number of included studies and their heterogeneous design are the primary limitations of the present study. Although the results do not clearly point out the positive effects of active breaks, they do not compromise students’ attention. The key roles of intensity and the leader of the active break are discussed.
Book
This shortform book defines and situates the role of Public Relations as a creative industry and discusses the trends and issues that the sector is facing within the wider context of the Creative Industries. Traversing and distilling both industry and scholarly research, the author will call on perspectives from a range of areas, including creativity, psychology, advertising, and marketing. Creativity and innovation are crucial elements in times of profound transformation such as those being experienced nowadays by the PR industry. The ability to generate new ideas is a competitive advantage of organizations. Nevertheless, although traditionally the focus has been on individual creativity, this book highlights the importance of organizational creativity in PR, becoming a result of team-work and social interaction. This book will be a valuable resource for researchers and scholars looking at how creativity is an important asset in Public Relations. It will also be useful for students of Corporate Communication and Public Relations studies, for both undergraduate and postgraduate programs and PR practitioners who want to increase their creativity, learning from creative techniques and case studies.
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A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is not just about physical health; It disrupts daily life on a global scale by changing individual and social attitudes and behaviors. In these conditions, video conferencing applications are becoming mainstream worldwide for the continuation of work, social life and education. Video conferences have helped us to remotely connect study rooms, class-rooms, but after attending one or 2 virtual meetings, listening to an online webinar or two, and per-haps speaking, people begin to express feeling exhausted and nervous. Thus, a new term emerged, also named after a popular application, resulting from the excessive use of video conferencing plat-forms: 'Zoom Fatigue'. Zoom fatigue is defined as feeling tired after a meeting over a video confer-encing tool. Fatigue appears to be different and specific from normal work fatigue. Mechanisms spe-cific to existing video conferencing applications that can cause Zoom Fatigue are suggested. The first mechanism mentions mirror anxiety, which can be triggered by self-gaze in video conferences. The second mechanism is the feeling of being trapped by the need to stay within the camera's field of view. The other mechanism has to do with the increased cognitive load of managing nonverbal be-haviors in this new communication environment. COVID-19 is increasing the long-anticipated trend of remote work. Even as social distancing recommendations are eased and face-to-face meetings be-come safe again, video conferencing apps seem to have the potential to continue to increase produc-tivity and save energy.
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Empirical studies of creativity have focused on the importance of divergent thinking, which supports generating novel solutions to loosely defined problems. The present study examined creativity and frontal cortical activity in an externally-validated group of creative individuals (trained musicians) and demographically matched control participants, using behavioral tasks and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Experiment 1 examined convergent and divergent thinking with respect to intelligence and personality. Experiment 2 investigated frontal oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes during divergent thinking with NIRS. Results of Experiment 1 indicated enhanced creativity in musicians who also showed increased verbal ability and schizotypal personality but their enhanced divergent thinking remained robust after co-varying out these two factors. In Experiment 2, NIRS showed greater bilateral frontal activity in musicians during divergent thinking compared with nonmusicians. Overall, these results suggest that creative individuals are characterized by enhanced divergent thinking, which is supported by increased frontal cortical activity.
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We have developed and tested 144 compound remote associate problems. Across eight experiments, 289 participants were given four time limits (2 sec, 7 sec, 15 sec, or 30 sec) for solving each problem. This paper provides a brief overview of the problems and normative data regarding the percentage of participants solving, and mean time-to-solution for, each problem at each time limit. These normative data can be used in selecting problems on the basis of difficulty or mean time necessary for reaching a solution.
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Analogy is often linked with scientific discovery. In this paper I lay out a theory of analogical processing and apply it to the work of Johannes Kepler. Kepler is striking not only for the magnitude of his discoveries but because of the articulateness with which he laid out his reasoning processes, including his frequent and extended use of analogies. I discuss four analogical subprocesses - highlighting common structure, projecting inferences, re-representing relations, and noticing alignable differences - by which analogy brings about newideas and show how they apply in Kepler’s work. I focus particularly on a central extended analogy in which he used the phenomenon of the light from the sun, which travels to the planets and illuminates them, as a base domain for a new ontological entity (a precursor of gravity) - the vis motrix, that causes the planets to move.
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