Silicon-Containing GABA Derivatives, Silagaba Compounds, as Orally Effective Agents for Treating Neuropathic Pain without Central-Nervous-System-Related Side Effects
ACS Chemical Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 4.36). 04/2014; 5(7). DOI: 10.1021/cn500053d
Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition resulting from neuronal damage. Pregabalin, the (S)-isomer of 3-isobutyl-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is widely used to treat neuropathic pain, despite the occurrence of central nervous system (CNS)-related side effects such as dizziness and somnolence. Here we describe the pharmacology of novel GABA derivatives containing silicon-carbon bonds, silagaba compounds. Silagaba131, 132 and 161 showed pregabalin-like analgesic activities in animal models of neuropathic pain, but in contrast to pregabalin, they did not impair neuromuscular coordination in rotarod tests. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that brain exposure to silagaba compounds was lower than that to pregabalin. Surprisingly, despite their potent analgesic action in vivo, silagaba compounds showed only weak binding to α2-δ protein. These compounds may be useful to study mechanisms of neuropathic pain. Our results also indicate that silagaba132 and 161 are candidates for orally effective treatment of neuropathic pain without CNS-related side effects.
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ABSTRACT: Pregabalin, (S)-3-isobutyl-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), is a widely used adjuvant therapy for patients with neuropathic pain, which is defined as chronic pain caused by lesions or diseases of the somatosensory nervous system. However, dizziness and somnolence (sleepiness) are common dose-limiting side effects, probably due to excessive sedative effects on higher centers of the central nervous system (CNS) which are involved in the anticonvulsant and analgesic actions of pregabalin. We speculated that transdermal delivery would minimize centrally mediated side effects. To test this idea, we evaluated the analgesic effects of pregabalin delivered through the transdermal route in animal models of neuropathic pain. Transdermally administered pregabalin increased the pain thresholds in response to mechanical stimuli in a partial sciatic nerve ligation model in rats and a spinal nerve ligation model in mice, and surprisingly also in normal animals. It is noteworthy that simple transdermal application of an aqueous solution of pregabalin is effective. This could be a useful treatment option to avoid or minimize the CNS-mediated side effects of orally administered pregabalin.
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