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Virtual Reality (VR) is increasingly being used in combination with psycho-physiological measures to improve assessment of distress in mental health research and therapy. However, the analysis and interpretation of multiple physiological measures is time consuming and requires specific skills, which are not available to most clinicians. To address this issue, we designed and developed a Decision Support System (DSS) for automatic classification of stress levels during exposure to VR environments. The DSS integrates different biosensor data (ECG, breathing rate, EEG) and behavioral data (body gestures correlated with stress), following a training process in which self-rated and clinical-rated stress levels are used as ground truth. Detected stress events for each VR session are reported to the therapist as an aggregated value (ranging from 0 to 1) and graphically displayed on a diagram accessible by the therapist through a web-based interface.
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A Decision Support System for Real-Time
Stress Detection During Virtual Reality
Exposure
Andrea GAGGIOLIa,b, Pietro CIPRESSOa, Silvia SERINOa, Giovanni PIOGGIAc,
Gennaro TARTARISCOc, Giovanni BALDUSc, Daniele CORDAc, Marcello FERROd ,
Nicola CARBONAROe, Alessandro TOGNETTIe,f, Danilo DE ROSSIf, Dimitris
GIAKOUMISg, Dimitrios TZOVARASg, Alejandro RIERAh, Giuseppe RIVAa,b
aATN-P Lab., Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy
bDepartment of Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, Italy
cNational Research Council of Italy (CNR), Institute of Clinical Physiology (IFC), Italy
d“Antonio Zampolli” Institute for Computational Linguistics (ILC), Italy
eResearch Center "E.Piaggio", University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, Pisa, Italy
fInformation Engineering Department, University of Pisa, Via Caruso 2, Pisa, Italy
gInformatics and Telematics Institute, Centre for Research and Technology
Hellas (CERTH-ITI), Thermi, Thessaloniki, Greece
hStarlab Barcelona SL, Barcelona, Spain
Abstract. Virtual Reality (VR) is increasingly being used in combination with
psycho-physiological measures to improve assessment of distress in mental health
research and therapy. However, the analysis and interpretation of multiple
physiological measures is time consuming and requires specific skills, which are
not available to most clinicians. To address this issue, we designed and developed
a Decision Support System (DSS) for automatic classification of stress levels
during exposure to VR environments. The DSS integrates different biosensor data
(ECG, breathing rate, EEG) and behavioral data (body gestures correlated with
stress), following a training process in which self-rated and clinical-rated stress
levels are used as ground truth. Detected stress events for each VR session are
reported to the therapist as an aggregated value (ranging from 0 to 1) and
graphically displayed on a diagram accessible by the therapist through a web-
based interface.
Keywords. Psychological Stress, Psychophysiology, Virtual Reality, Decision
Support System, Biosensors.
Introduction
In recent years, there has been growing interest towards the use of Virtual Reality (VR)
in mental health research and practice. In particular, an emerging application of this
approach concerns the assessment and management of psychological stress. At this
purpose, one of the most investigated cognitive-behavioral techniques is the Stress
Inoculation Training (SIT; [1]). SIT is implemented through gradual and repeated
Studies in Health Technology and
Informatics, Volume 196
IOS Press, 2014
© 2014 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved.
doi:10.3233/978-1-61499-375-9-114
114
exposure to events, which have been previously identified as potential stressors. The
key idea underlying this technique is that “inoculating” the stressor in combination
with the acquisition of effective coping skills can prepare the patient to face similar
situations in daily life. VR is thought to further enhance the efficacy this process by
exposing the patient to realistic simulations of typical stressful situations [2].
A key issue in the application of VR in the SIT approach is how to accurately
evaluate the stress response during the exposure to the simulated stressor. The use of
biosensors for monitoring physiological and behavioral correlates of stress has been
proposed as a potential solution to this need [3; 4]. However, the analysis and
interpretation of multiple psychophysiological measures is time-consuming and
requires specific technical skills, which are often not often available to clinicians. In the
following, we present a Decision Support System (DSS) that has been designed to
assist the therapist/researcher in the assessment of stress levels during virtual exposure.
The specific goal of the DSS is to evaluate the psychological state of each patient by
analyzing previously acquired knowledge, such as patient’s physiological and
behavioral profile, and current sensory data. For each user, the DSS implements a
personal classifier that uses machine-learning techniques. Once trained, the DSS
analyzes the new incoming multi-sensors data acquired from the user and infers his/her
stress levels.
1. System Architecture
The system’s architecture consists of three main components: a) VR platform; b)
biosensors module; c) analysis and decision module.
1.1. VR Platform and Virtual Environments
The VR platform integrating the decision support system is NeuroVR-2 [5]
(http://www.neurovr2.org). A set of virtual environments for stress inoculation was
developed for this VR platform, targeting two highly-stressed professionals: teachers
and nurses. Virtual stressful situations were developed following design guidelines
collected in focus groups and in-depth interviews, which involved representative
samples of these professionals.
1.2. Biosensors Module
As concerns the biosensors module, the system currently supports the following
physiological and behavioral data acquisition platforms:
ECG and breathing (through a custom-designed Personal Biomonitoring
System described elsewhere [6])
EEG, through the platform “Enobio”[8]
Gesture-recognition system based on Microsoft Kinect, which is able to
automatically detect stress-related gestures (through the platform “CBAR”
[9]).
A.Gaggioliet al./ADSSforReal-Time Stress Detection During Virtual Reality Exposure 115
These platforms feature minimally invasive equipment and support wireless
connectivity: two essential requirements for ensuring patient’s comfort during VR
exposure.
1.2.1. Personal Biomonitoring System (PBS)
The PBS uses wireless sensors for ECG, activity monitoring (including posture) and
breathing rate [6]. The system consists of a chest band in which sensor modules and
electrodes are integrated; these components have been designed to ensure minimal
discomfort of the user. Acquired data are pre-processed on a wearable platform with
the purpose of extracting features to be transmitted to the central database; this
approach avoids using large sets of raw data and allows increasing battery life of the
wearable platform, as effect of reduced synchronization and processing times. For the
breathing rate, the sensors – integrated in a flexible band - were selected for accuracy in
chest movement and reduced sensitivity to artifacts. A piezoelectric PVDF transducer
was used to measure mechanical forces associated with chest movements [7].
1.2.2. Electroencephalogram System “Enobio”
Enobio is a wearable, modular and wireless electrophysiology sensor system for
monitoring brain activity (EEG) [8]. In the Enobio platform (Fig. 1), a feature extractor
computes the Fourier Transform and extracts the frequency power of several bands in
real time. In order to identify relevant EEG features for detecting stress in VR, a study
was undertaken [9]. The experimental setup consisted having the subject performing
different tasks designed to induce psychological stress (i.e. exposing the participant to a
fake blood sample). During the execution of these tasks, EEG was recorded with
Biosemi 32 channel. For every single pair of symmetrical EEG channels, alpha
asymmetry and the alpha/beta ratio (for each channel in this case) were extracted.
Alpha asymmetry is related with the valence dimension of emotions [10] while the
beta/alpha ratio is related with the arousal dimension of emotions [11]. Statistical
analysis of data collected from 12 participants showed that both beta-alpha ratio and
alpha asymmetry were correlated to stress levels on each task [9]. An interesting
feature of the Enobio system is its real-time capability. Not only all data processing
steps, but also the fusion stages can be performed in real time, allowing continuous
monitoring of stress levels during VR exposure.
Figure 1. The wireless EEG system “Enobio”
A.Gaggioliet al./ADSSforReal-Time Stress Detection During Virtual Reality Exposure116
1.2.3. Gesture Recognition System “CBAR”
A further module integrated in the VR platform is the “Camera and accelerometer
based Activity Recognition” (CBAR) system. Its purpose is to monitor in real-time the
subject’s activities through a video and an accelerometer modality, extracting
behavioral features that correlate with stress. The CBAR video modality is based on a
low-cost camera (Kinect), monitoring the subject as shown in Fig. 2(a). From the video
images sequence, Motion History Images (MHIs) [12] are extracted (Fig. 2(b)),
allowing the calculation of parameters related to upper-body activity. The
accelerometer modality is based on two tri-axial accelerometers placed at the subject’s
knees, for monitoring lower body activity. Implementation details of both modalities
can be found in [13]. In the clinical setting, the CBAR extracts in real-time a set of
behavioral features from both modalities and provides them to the VR platform. These
features express qualitative aspects of the subject’s movement, such as the average
upper body activity level and its deviation calculated through the non-black portion
either of all MHIs or only of MHIs that signify “increased activity”, the frequency of
occurrence of specific gestures (e.g. hand on head) and foot trembling. These features
showed significant correlates to psychological stress in the experimental evaluation of
[13], being capable to enhance automatic stress detection that is more typically based
on biosignals monitoring. Therefore, within the Interstress VR platform, the behavioral
features extracted from the CBAR augment the automatic stress monitoring process so
as to increase its effectiveness, whereas, in a more general view, they augment the
platform and the clinician with objective information regarding the patient’s
behavioural correlates of stress.
Figure 2. The Camera and accelerometer –based Activity Recognition CBAR
1.3. Central Database and Decision Module
Biosensor and activity data collected during VR sessions are filtered, pre-processed in
order to extract specific stress-related features and sent to a central database, where
they are linked by means of the timestamp information. The extracted features are
handled by the analysis and decision module (DSS), which allows classifying the
current stress level, after previous knowledge acquired during a training phase. The
DSS application (installed and running on a remote machine in respect to the database),
A.Gaggioliet al./ADSSforReal-Time Stress Detection During Virtual Reality Exposure 117
works at regular intervals, to query the remote database and to download data related to
all users and their VR sessions. In order to enforce the data security, the database is
indirectly accessed by the DSS using the WSDL layer interface exposed by the
INTERSTRESS architecture. The DSS is realized on a knowledge basis, using Fuzzy
Logic (FL), artificial neural network (ANN) and pattern classification algorithms. The
FL rule-based algorithm consists of three steps: fuzzification, inference and
defuzzification (Fig.3). The fuzzification converts the input from continuous values to
linguistic variables through the definition of membership functions. The inference
engine applies a set of fuzzy rules to generate linguistic values as output. In the final,
defuzzification step, the linguistic variables are converted to continuous values (real
outputs of the system) [14]. We developed membership functions and fuzzy rules for
each parameter considered. The fuzzified features extracted from bio- and activity
sensors are used as input by the classifier, a Kohonen's self-organizing ANN based on
unsupervised learning [15].
Figure 3. Architecture of the Decision Support System.
As shown in Fig. 4, data processing in the decision module consists of a training
phase and a test phase. In the training phase, the self-organizing map is trained to adapt
itself to classify the given inputs. The loaded features, along with self- and clinical-
reported stress levels, form the training set. For this purpose, the following
psychological questionnaires are used immediately after virtual exposure: i) Visual
Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A, self-rated by the patient); ii) State Anxiety
Inventory Y1 (STAI-Y1, self-rated); iii) Cognitive Behavioral Checklist (clinical-rated).
In this way, synaptic weights of networks internal connections are modified, with the
help of a learning algorithm, in order to force the output to minimize the error with the
presented example (the stress score obtained from these surveys). In the test phase, the
fuzzified features are given as an input to the network. The ANN, adequately trained, is
able to classify the given input in order to present a consequent output value. The value
obtained (output of ANN), is the inferred stress level. When the decision module infers
a new stress level value, this is uploaded again to the remote database (Fig. 2). Patient’s
A.Gaggioliet al./ADSSforReal-Time Stress Detection During Virtual Reality Exposure118
stress levels based on DSS reports values are then graphically displayed on a diagram,
which is accessible by the therapist through a Web-based interface.
Figure 4. The Decision Support System process, from data acquisition to classification of global stress level.
2. Conclusions and Discussion
Here, we have described a decision support system that assists the therapist in
analyzing and interpreting patient’s stress levels during VR exposure. The DSS is
based on multi-parametric measures physiological and behavioral measures collected
from different wireless biosensor modules. This strategy allows a closed-loop approach
actually missing in current strategies to the evaluation and treatment of psychological
stress [16]: a) the assessment is conducted continuously throughout the virtual
experiences: it enables tracking of the individual’s psycho-physiological status over
time in the context of a realistic stressful situation; b) the information provided by the
DSS is constantly used by the therapist to improve both the appraisal and the coping
skills of the patient. To test and validate the system, we have recently started a
controlled clinical trial, approved by the US ClinicalTrial.gov database (Management
and Treatment of Stress-related Disorders - INTERSTRESS NCT01683617).
3. Acknowledgments
This work was supported by the European funded project ‘‘Interstress-Interreality in
the management and treatment of stress-related disorders’’, FP7-247685.
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... The time sequence of psychological stress was studied through evoked potentials in an effectively designed stress-stimulation model [6]. In the perspective of objective identification and differentiation of stress from other settings by EEG-related approaches, many computational techniques have been applied, such as support vector machine [7,8], K-nearest neighbors (KNN) [9,10], artificial neural networks (ANNs) [11,12] and random forest [13]. ...
... EEG signals have abundant features about the brain dynamics. Analysis in the frequency domain of EEG signals splits the data in various frequency bands, e.g., delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8)(9)(10)(11)(12), beta (12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30) and gamma (30-40 Hz). These frequency bands describe many cognitive behaviors. ...
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In this work we describe the performance evaluation of a system for stress detection. The analysed data is acquired by following an experimental protocol designed to induce cognitive stress to the subjects. The experimental set-up included the recording of electroencephalography (EEG) and facial (corrugator and zygomatic) electromyography (EMG). In a preliminary analysis we are able to correlate EEG features (alpha asymmetry and alpha/beta ratio using only 3 channels) with the stress level of the subjects statistically (by using averages over subjects) but also on a subject-to-subject basis by using computational intelligence techniques reaching classification rates up to 79% when classifying 3 minutes takes. On a second step, we apply fusion techniques to the overall multi-modal feature set fusing the formerly mentioned EEG features with EMG energy. We show that the results improve significantly providing a more robust stress index every second. Given the achieved performance the system described in this work can be successfully applied for stress therapy when combined with virtual reality.
Conference Paper
Stress is an increasingly recognized phenomenon that has negative effects on growing numbers of people. Stress assessment is a complex issue, but different studies have shown that monitoring user psychophysiological parameter during daily life can be greatly helpful in stress evaluation. In this study a wearable biosensor platform able to collect physiological and behavioral parameters is reported. The developed wearable platform, in terms of hardware and processing algorithms, is described. Moreover the use of this wearable biosensor platform in combination with advanced simulation technologies, such as virtual reality offer interesting opportunities for innovative personal health-care solutions to stress. A recently founded European project, "INTERSTRESS - Interreality in the management and treatment of stress-related disorders," will take into account these relevant aspects.
Conference Paper
There is a close correlation between stress and health risk factors such as poor immune function and cardio- vascular problems. Various researches showed that long-term exposure to stress and its related diseases are responsible of dramatic increase of mortality in the Western Countries. In this context, the European Collaborative Project INTERSTRESS is aimed at designing and developing advanced simulation and sensing technologies for the assessment and treatment of psychological stress, based on mobile biosensors. In this paper a wearable system able to implement the acquisition and the real-time elaboration of the ECG signal for stress management purposes will be described. A novel and robust algorithm for QRS complex detection has been developed. Robust QRS detection is fundamental to evaluate Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability that are relevant parameters used as quantitative marker related to mental stress. In comparison to existing solutions the realized algorithm presents many advantages: an adaptive optimal filtering technique that avoids the use of thresholds and empirical rules for R peaks detection, low computational cost for real time elaboration and good tollerance with noisy ECG signal. Keywords-kalman filter, QRS detection, Heart Rate, ECG signal.