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Abstract

Objective Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis.Method One hundred sixty two college students completed daily reports for two weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms on Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis.One hundred sixty two college students completed daily reports for two weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptomsthese relationships.ResultsPositive daily social and achievement events were related to greater daily meaning, above and beyond the contributions of daily positive and negative affect. Negative social and achievement events were related to less daily meaning, and negative achievement events covaried with daily meaning above and beyond positive and negative affect. Depression moderated the relationships between positive events and meaning, such that people who reported more depressive symptoms had greater increases in daily meaning in response to positive social and achievement events than individuals who reported fewer symptoms.Conclusion These findings suggest the important role that daily events may play in fluctuations in people's affective experiences and sense of meaning in life.

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... Social interaction, social integration, social support, and quality relationships are negatively associated with cognitive decline, depression, and anxiety (Cacioppo and Hawkley, 2009;Schwarzbach et al., 2014). Studies have also found within-person associations between positive social events and happiness and meaning (Choi et al., 2017;Machell et al., 2015). ...
... The most striking finding from the study is that fluctuations in social interaction have the largest associations with same day distress and well-being. This aligns with previous research that has linked individual differences in, and daily fluctuations in social interaction with various outcomes (Choi et al., 2017;Machell et al., 2015). The present study controlled for various healthy and risky lifestyle behaviors, indicating the consistency of the social interaction associations. ...
... Measurement of mindfulness or other spiritual practices may also require more extensive assessments to capture their effects. Time spent in meaningful social interaction was measured, but not the quality of those interactions, which is an important factor (e.g., Machell et al., 2015). When designing daily diary studies, it is important to consider participant fatigue, which explains this study's emphasis on breadth, rather than depth of measurement. ...
Article
Rationale Many lifestyle behaviors such as diet, exercise, and substance use are related to physical and mental health. Less understood is the day-to-day associations of these behaviors with both psychological distress, well-being, and with each other. Objective This study investigated how a number of common lifestyle behaviors were associated with psychological distress and well-being using a daily diary study with multilevel modeling. Associations among behaviors was analyzed with multilevel mediation and network models. Methods An online participant pool consisting of seventy-six adults (age range: 19–64; mean age: 40.29; 58% female) completed daily diary surveys over 14 days and reported their engagement in lifestyle behaviors, their psychological distress, and their hedonic well-being and eudaimonic well-being. Results Time spent in social interaction was the most consistent within-person correlate of psychological distress and well-being. The association between daily time in nature and well-being was mediated by social interaction and exercise. Network models found within-person associations among the lifestyle behaviors. Conclusion The results indicate that social interaction may be an especially important lifestyle behavior to consider when promoting well-being. Future research should recognize that daily fluctuations in many lifestyle behaviors cluster together.
... If these checks indicated ceiling or floor effects, we checked for outliers in terms of either individuals or items and deleted the according data. -Rueschkamp et al., 2020;Oishi et al., 2007) positive correlation (Machell et al., 2015) negative correlation (Carl et al., 2014) Unpleasant events negative correlation (Rush et al., 2019) negative correlation (Drake et al., 2019;Machell et al., 2015;Rush et al., 2019) positive correlation (Charles et al., 2013;Myin-Germeys et al., 2003) Regulation Pleasant events negative correlation (Burr et al., 2017) negative correlation (Wood et al., 2003) positive correlation (Carl et al., 2014) Unpleasant events positive correlation (Burr et al., 2020) positive correlation (Hay & Diehl, 2011) negative correlation (Silk et al., 2003) The unexplained variance on the affect scale (-3 to +3) is assumed to be around one. Note. ...
... If these checks indicated ceiling or floor effects, we checked for outliers in terms of either individuals or items and deleted the according data. -Rueschkamp et al., 2020;Oishi et al., 2007) positive correlation (Machell et al., 2015) negative correlation (Carl et al., 2014) Unpleasant events negative correlation (Rush et al., 2019) negative correlation (Drake et al., 2019;Machell et al., 2015;Rush et al., 2019) positive correlation (Charles et al., 2013;Myin-Germeys et al., 2003) Regulation Pleasant events negative correlation (Burr et al., 2017) negative correlation (Wood et al., 2003) positive correlation (Carl et al., 2014) Unpleasant events positive correlation (Burr et al., 2020) positive correlation (Hay & Diehl, 2011) negative correlation (Silk et al., 2003) The unexplained variance on the affect scale (-3 to +3) is assumed to be around one. Note. ...
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Affective experience is inherently dynamic and short-term changes in affect are supposed to offer important insights into well-being. Past years have shown a tremendous rise in investigations into the relation between affect dynamics and well-being. The indicators that have been introduced to capture unique dynamical aspects of affect, however, have been criticised for being purely statistical measures without theoretical foundation and were shown to have little added value for explaining well-being over and above mean levels of affect. To address these concerns, we applied our newly developed theory-based MIVA model to data on daily affective experience. The MIVA model allows estimating parameters for anchoring, reactivity, and regulation based on affective states in combination with daily events. Everyday affective experience was measured with a high temporal resolution, multiple indicators of well-being (e.g. life satisfaction, depression) were assessed, and the incremental value of the MIVA model parameters in predicting well-being was determined. The MIVA model parameters reflect essential processes that accounted for observed fluctuations in affective experience. Incremental validity for predicting well-being over and above mean levels of affect, however, was low. Together, our results suggest that research on affect dynamics needs to identify how affect dynamics can be assessed more validly.
... Meaningful leisure activities are a means by which individuals gain something valuable in their lives (Iwasaki 2008). Experiencing meaning in life is beneficial for well-being on both trait level (e.g., Hicks and King 2007;King et al. 2006) and state level (e.g., King et al. 2006;Machell et al. 2015;Thrash et al. 2010). Also, at day level, active search for meaning is related to improvements in well-being (Newman et al. 2018). ...
... It also fosters social support, which is consistently linked to good mental health (e.g., Lakey and Orehek 2011). In addition, several studies highlight the importance of meaning in life for psychological well-being (e.g., Machell et al. 2015;Newman et al. 2018;Thrash et al. 2010). Therefore, these two experiences are an important addition to the list of psychological experiences conducive to recovery from work. ...
Article
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Purpose The study had three aims. We investigated, first, how six recovery experiences (i.e., detachment, relaxation, control, mastery, meaning, and affiliation) during off-job time suggested by the DRAMMA model (Newman et al. in J Happiness Stud 15(3):555–578. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9435-x, 2014) are related to well-being (i.e., vitality, life satisfaction, and work ability). Second, we examined how age related to these outcomes, and third, we investigated whether age moderated the relationships between recovery experiences and well-being outcomes. Methods A sample of 909 Finnish teachers responded to an electronic questionnaire (78% women, average age 51 years). The data were analyzed with moderated hierarchical regression analyses. Results Detachment from work, relaxation, control, and mastery were associated with higher vitality. Detachment, relaxation, meaning, and affiliation were related to higher life satisfaction. Older age was related to lower work ability, but not to vitality or life satisfaction. Older teachers benefited more from control and mastery during off-job time than did younger teachers in terms of vitality, whereas younger teachers benefited more from relaxation in terms of all well-being outcomes. Conclusions Detachment, relaxation, control, mastery, meaning, and affiliation during off-job time were related to higher well-being, supporting the DRAMMA model. Age moderated the relationships between control, mastery, and relaxation and vitality and life satisfaction. The role of aging in recovery from work needs further research.
... Particularly in leisure sciences, searching for and finding meaning are seen as key elements of leisure and quality of life in general (e.g., Iwasaki et al., 2018;Loveday et al., 2018). Meaningful leisure activities help individuals gain a sense of purpose in their lives (e.g., Iwasaki, 2008), which is beneficial for well-being (e.g., Machell et al., 2015;Thrash et al., 2010). Also, on daily level, searching for meaning is related to higher well-being (Newman et al., 2018). ...
... This is in line with the idea of a person-break fit, which is the balance between a person's break-related needs and their actual breaks (Venz et al., 2019), and the findings regarding the well-being benefits of experiencing meaning in life (e.g., Machell et al., 2015;Thrash et al., 2010). Also, to the best of our knowledge, no studies to date have focused on breaks during the working day in the context of the teaching profession, although schoolteachers often have high job demands and stress levels (e.g., Arvidsson et al., 2016;Kyriacou, 2001;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2015;. ...
Article
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The present study focused on within‐workday recovery, which has received less scholarly attention than has recovery outside work. We examined six break recovery experiences (detachment, relaxation, autonomy, mastery, meaning and affiliation) as possible mediators between daily emotional job demands, positive and negative affect both in the afternoon and in the evening. We conducted a one‐work week diary study (N = 107) among Finnish schoolteachers with three daily measurements per workday. Most participants (88%) were women, and the average age was 50 years. The data were analyzed with multilevel path modelling. Regarding daily afternoon affect, both low break detachment and low break meaning mediated the relationship between high daily emotional demands and low afternoon positive affect and high afternoon negative affect. Regarding daily evening affect, only low break meaning mediated the relationship between high daily emotional demands and low evening positive affect. In addition, afternoon positive and negative affect did mediate the relationships between break detachment and meaning and positive and negative evening affect. Our findings offer new insights into the interplay of daily job demands, break recovery experiences and affective well‐being. Despite detachment, meaning, which has received limited research attention as a recovery experience, seems to play an important role in within‐workday recovery. Our study also suggests that successful break recovery can benefit employees’ affective well‐being in the evening. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... In this regard, King et al. (2006) believe that it is the daily frequency of positive emotional states that may give meaning to a day or not. Other authors (Emmons, 2003;McDonald et al., 2012;Machell et al., 2015) relate MOL to the achievement of one's own goals: individuals attach great value to these activities, and their accomplishment gives meaning to one's actions, thus also increasing the sense of self-efficacy and promoting the development and maintenance of wellbeing (cf. Diener, 1984;Emmons, 1986). ...
... Diener, 1984;Emmons, 1986). Machell et al. (2015) investigated how people's everyday events are able to influence their perception of meaning on a daily basis. The researchers asked 162 college students to complete daily reports in which they provided measures of: meaning in life, positive and negative social events and achievements, and positive and negative affects. ...
Article
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This article describes a research project in which a qualitative research was carried out consisting of 24 semi-structured interviews and a subsequent data analysis using the MAXQDA software in order to investigate a particular dimorphic emotional expression: tears of joy (TOJ). The working hypothesis is that TOJ are not only an atypical expression due to a “super joy,” or that they are only an attempt by the organism to self-regulate the excess of joyful emotion through the expression of the opposite emotion (sadness), but that it is an emotional experience in its own right—not entirely overlapping with joy—with a specific adaptive function. Through the interviews, conducted in a cross-cultural context (mainly in India and Japan), we explored the following possibility: what if the adaptive function of crying for joy were to signal, to those experiencing it, the meaning of their life; the most important direction given to their existence? The material collected provided positive support for this interpretation.
... Keywords posttraumatic growth, PTSD, meaning-making, forgiveness, resilience Despite the central focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in international humanitarian aid work, there has been little examination of the role that meaning-making plays in posttraumatic growth (PTG) across culturally defined subgroups or trauma classifications. Meaning-making has been indicated as a significant factor for coping with the effects of life stressors (Krause, 2007), and increasing overall well-being (Machell et al., 2015;Thrash et al., 2010), and thus may play a role in facilitating PTG and resilience. Furthermore, PTG is under-researched in populations that have experienced collective, historical, or generational trauma. ...
... Results also indicated that presence of meaning had a greater effect on forgiveness for participants who experienced natural disasters as compared with humanmade disasters. Presence of meaning in life has been positively connected to overall well-being in terms of life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and vitality (Debats et al., 1993;Hicks et al., 2007;Machell et al., 2015;Thrash et al., 2010). Presence of meaning has also been associated with positive psychological well-being (Brassai, 2012). ...
Article
Trauma is a growing public health concern as global crises increase. Trauma can result in significant adverse psychological outcomes such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Past research indicates that forgiveness may buffer the adverse psychological effects of trauma. We hypothesized that restoring individual and collective sense of meaning promotes forgiveness toward self and others and enables posttraumatic growth (PTG). Established PTG models posit that meaning can be found in surviving a traumatic event. We propose that PTG manifests as forgiveness in the face of both natural and humanmade disasters. Data were collected from individuals ( N = 3,534) in 11 countries from diverse global regions that have experienced collective traumas. Our study examined the predictive nature of meaning in life and PTSD symptoms on forgiveness. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that trauma and meaning significantly predicted forgiveness, with a larger effect for humanmade disasters. Results indicated that presence of meaning, but not search for meaning, plays a role in PTG as measured by the ability to forgive after experiencing trauma, thus demonstrating its possible centrality to the healing process. Interventions and community-based programs that foster meaning-making following trauma may be part of an effective multicultural approach for enhancing community-wide PTG and resilience following disasters.
... Meaning in life may be another individual factor related to time awareness. Research has demonstrated that a sense of meaning increases the probability of entering a state of flow (Gander et al. 2016;Leontiev 2013;Machell et al. 2015;Mackenzie and Baumeister 2014;McGregor and Little 1998;Waterman 2007). According to Csikszentmihalyi (1990), flow is a state of peak enjoyment and concentrative engagement wherein people can hardly feel the passage of time (Larson 2004;Larson and von Eye 2006;Wittmann 2015). ...
... Meaning in life drives goal-directed actions and facilitates entry into the state of flow, in which people do not notice time passing (Gander et al. 2016;Machell et al. 2015). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to systematically investigate the individual-differences factors related to time awareness in everyday life. Three hundred and nine individuals in China, from 14- to 75-year old, were sampled to complete a questionnaire that consists of instruments measuring time awareness, meaning in life, achievement motivation, affective state and perceived remaining lifetime. The results showed that meaning in life positively predicted present passage-of-time judgment but not retrospective passage-of-time judgment. Meaning in life mediated the effects of achievement motivation and affective state on present passage-of-time judgment. Moreover, perceived remaining lifetime played a role in the associations by moderating the effect of achievement motivation on meaning in life. The findings aligned with socioemotional selectivity theory, which explains that people shift from knowledge-related goals to emotion-related goals as the end of life becomes imminent.
... In addition, meaningfulness mediates the relationships among personality variables and subjective well-being indicators such as happiness, life satisfaction, and affect balance (Compton 2000). In contrast, lower levels of meaningfulness appear to be associated with depression, hopelessness, anxiety, psychological stress, rumination, and other psychological symptoms (Glaw et al. 2017) and negative affect (King et al. 2006;Machell et al. 2015). ...
... This research also provides further evidence for the associations among mindfulness, meaningfulness, and beneficial outcomes. This finding was consistent with previous findings connecting meaningfulness and life satisfaction (Steger and Kashdan 2007), happiness (Baumeister et al. 2013), affectivity (Machell et al. 2015) and mental health (Glaw et al. 2017); this work was similarly congruent with research reporting links between mindfulness and happiness (Coo and Salanova 2018), life satisfaction and affect (Bajaj and Pande 2016), and positive states of mind and lower levels of psychological symptoms (Bränström et al. 2011). ...
Article
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Experiencing meaning in life and practicing mindfulness in daily life are desirable features of a healthy and satisfactory life. However, the relationships among meaningfulness, mindfulness, psychological well-being and mental health outcomes remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mindfulness and meaning in life and to analyse how these variables are connected with life satisfaction, happiness, mental health and affect scores, regarded as outcome variables, after controlling for the effects of socio-demographic variables and religious attitudes. The data from a questionnaire survey (N = 1628), including measures of the presence of meaning in life, dispositional mindfulness, life satisfaction, happiness, mental health and affect, were analysed using correlation analyses, multiple regression analyses and structural equation modelling. Mindfulness and meaningfulness were significantly associated with one another. A structural equation model revealed that compared to mindfulness, meaningfulness was more strongly associated with positive well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, happiness and positive affect). Mindfulness, however, had a stronger relationship with negative well-being (i.e., negative affect and mental health issues). Moreover, meaningfulness was found to mediate the relationship between mindfulness and both positive and negative well-being. These findings provide new insights for psychological interventions promoting well-being and enhancing mental health through mindfulness- and meaningfulness-based approaches.
... Keywords posttraumatic growth, PTSD, meaning-making, forgiveness, resilience Despite the central focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in international humanitarian aid work, there has been little examination of the role that meaning-making plays in posttraumatic growth (PTG) across culturally defined subgroups or trauma classifications. Meaning-making has been indicated as a significant factor for coping with the effects of life stressors (Krause, 2007), and increasing overall well-being (Machell et al., 2015;Thrash et al., 2010), and thus may play a role in facilitating PTG and resilience. Furthermore, PTG is under-researched in populations that have experienced collective, historical, or generational trauma. ...
... Results also indicated that presence of meaning had a greater effect on forgiveness for participants who experienced natural disasters as compared with humanmade disasters. Presence of meaning in life has been positively connected to overall well-being in terms of life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and vitality (Debats et al., 1993;Hicks et al., 2007;Machell et al., 2015;Thrash et al., 2010). Presence of meaning has also been associated with positive psychological well-being (Brassai, 2012). ...
Article
Trauma is a growing public health concern as global crises increase. Trauma can result in significant adverse psychological outcomes such as PTSD. Past research indicates that forgiveness may buffer the adverse psychological effects of trauma. We hypothesized that restoring individual and collective sense of meaning promotes forgiveness toward self and others and enables posttraumatic growth (PTG). Established PTG models posit that meaning can be found in surviving a traumatic event. We propose that PTG manifests as forgiveness in the face of both natural and humanmade disasters. Data were collected from individuals (N = 3534) in 11 countries from diverse global regions that have experienced collective traumas. Our study examined the predictive nature of meaning in life and PTSD symptoms on forgiveness. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that trauma and meaning significantly predicted forgiveness, with a larger effect for humanmade disasters. Results indicated that presence of meaning, but not search for meaning, plays a role in PTG as measured by the ability to forgive after experiencing trauma, thus demonstrating its possible centrality to the healing process. Interventions and community-based programs that foster meaning-making following trauma may be part of an effective multicultural approach for enhancing community-wide PTG and resilience following disasters.
... Keywords posttraumatic growth, PTSD, meaning-making, forgiveness, resilience Despite the central focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in international humanitarian aid work, there has been little examination of the role that meaning-making plays in posttraumatic growth (PTG) across culturally defined subgroups or trauma classifications. Meaning-making has been indicated as a significant factor for coping with the effects of life stressors (Krause, 2007), and increasing overall well-being (Machell et al., 2015;Thrash et al., 2010), and thus may play a role in facilitating PTG and resilience. Furthermore, PTG is under-researched in populations that have experienced collective, historical, or generational trauma. ...
... Results also indicated that presence of meaning had a greater effect on forgiveness for participants who experienced natural disasters as compared with humanmade disasters. Presence of meaning in life has been positively connected to overall well-being in terms of life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and vitality (Debats et al., 1993;Hicks et al., 2007;Machell et al., 2015;Thrash et al., 2010). Presence of meaning has also been associated with positive psychological well-being (Brassai, 2012). ...
Presentation
Trauma often results in adverse psychological outcomes and is a significant public health concern as diverse global crises are on the rise. Past research has indicated that forgiveness may buffer the adverse psychological effects of trauma. We hypothesize that restoring an individual and collective sense of meaning and purpose promotes forgiveness toward self and others and enables posttraumatic growth (PTG). PTG as a sign of resilience was conceptualized within the framework of Tedeschi and Calhoun’s (1996) model, which posits that meaning can be found in surviving a traumatic event, which can reframe emotional reactions, and thus change the core life assumptions of the trauma survivor. We propose that meaning-making represents the process of growth, and forgiveness is a sign of that growth.
... The results were consistent in both experiments and it is similar to prior findings (Stillman et al., 2009). Previous studies have found that the experience of stressful life events was associated with meaning in life (Debats et al., 1995;Machell et al., 2015). It may cause people to feel frustrated, and in turn, affect the positive experience of an individual and reduce the meaning in the life of an individual. ...
Article
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Social exclusion has been a major societal concern because it hinders the attainment of needs for belonging and relationship. While we know much about the effects of social exclusion on victims and perpetrators, there is limited insight regarding how different types of rejecters (voluntary vs. forced) might affect important outcomes. The purpose of this study is to bridge this gap and to examine how different types of social exclusion (forced and voluntary) influence meaning in the life of participants. To this end, we conducted two experiments using two social exclusion paradigms: the recall paradigm and the Cyberball game. The results of the two experiments were consistent. Both experiments revealed that (1) the meaning in the life of the victim group and the forced rejecter group (i.e., those who were forced to exclude others) was significantly lower than this of the control group and the voluntary rejecter group (i.e., those choosing to exclude others). There were no significant differences between the victim group and the forced rejecter group, and there were no significant differences between the voluntary rejecter group and the control group. These results reveal that social exclusion not only negatively affects the victims of exclusion but also reduces the meaning in the life of forced rejecters. These findings are specific, and they show that the types of will in exclusion can create differences in the effects of social exclusion on the rejecters.
... The model is shown below, in which i days were nested within j participants, and the dependent variables in level 1 were daily FTF. Predictors in level 1 were group mean centered, and those in level 2 were grand mean centered (Machell et al., 2015). The level 1 model (daily level) was ...
Article
Two studies were conducted to examine the promotional role of meaning in life (MIL) on hope and the underlying mediating mechanism via future temporal focus (FTF). Study 1 was a three-wave longitudinal survey including 418 employees (Mage = 35.68; 54.3% women). Results showed that Time 1 MIL positively predicted Time 3 hope via Time 2 FTF. Study 2 was an intervention study conducted with Chinese undergraduate students (n = 129; Mage = 19.65; 84.5% women) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The intervention involved taking a photograph each day of things that “make you feel your life is meaningful.” MIL and FTF were measured before and after the intervention, and assessed daily during the intervention week. Results of the longitudinal mediation analysis and 2-1-2 multilevel mediation model supported the mediational role of FTF between MIL and hope. Furthermore, results showed that MIL increased significantly in both the intervention (n = 64) and control conditions (n = 65). Hierarchical linear modeling found a significant positive relationship of daily MIL on daily FTF. The present findings supported MIL's future-oriented function on hope via FTF. Nevertheless, special attention should be given to the stress context when conducting MIL interventions to promote MIL and hope.
... They reported that presence of meaning showed the most adaptive psychosocial functioning while search for meaning was associated with maladaptive psychosocial functioning of these people. Machell, Kashdan, Short, and Nezlek, (2014) conducted a study on 162 college students and examined the relationships of daily social and achievement events, and daily positive and negative affect with daily meaning in life. They also assessed the moderating influence of depressive symptoms on these relationships. ...
Article
Studies related to meaning in life and its relation to well-being of individuals' physical and mental health has been investigated in this review. Meaning in life describes about the value of one's life. According to Frankl (1984) meaning in life stands for the natural need for people to find conscious meaning in their lives to live a healthy and well-adapted life and struggle for a sense of significance and purpose in life. Further it has been defined in terms of belief in a purposeful pattern of the universe, which in turn may be defined from religion and spirituality (Yalom, 1980). This paper focuses on the findings of the studies carried out during the last five years (2009-2014) in the field of health and well-being that describe the relationship between meaning in life and health. Studies have identified meaning in life to be an important construct for both general as well as clinical population. It contributes appreciably in the development of life's goal of an individual. Recognition of meaning in life plays a crucial role in the phase of crisis. As a positive psychological construct it also works as a resource for an individual. Meaning in life also predicts health behaviours. Higher meaning in life was associated with less engagement in health risking behaviours and better physical health. Conclusion and suggestions for future research are outlined.
... First, state measures of meaning in life showed a high level of convergent validity with trait measures of meaning in life (Kashdan & Steger, 2007;Steger, Kashdan, & Oishi, 2008), with some people having a more stable meaning in life and some more unstable (Steger & Kashdan, 2013). Second, daily fluctuations of meaning in life was associated with daily life events, including daily religious behavior (Kashdan & Nezlek, 2012), daily positive social and achievement events (Machell, Kashdan, Short, & Nezlek, 2015), daily eudaimonic behaviors (Steger et al., 2008), and routines (Heintzelman & King, 2019), supporting its fluctuations. Therefore, we conclude that measuring meaning in life as an everyday life experience is valid. ...
Article
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Objectives: Prior studies have found that as people age, they value low-arousal positive affect (LAP) to a greater extent and high-arousal positive affect (HAP) to a lower extent. We aimed to investigate whether actually achieving those ideal affects was related to better well-being outcomes, measured in terms of meaning in life. Methods: Using a time sampling design across 14 days (N = 162), we investigated whether the experience of LAP and HAP was related to the experience of meaning in life and how these associations differed across younger and older adults in Hong Kong. Results: Both LAP and HAP contributed to the experience of meaning in life for both younger and older adults. The global effect of LAP on meaning in life was stronger for older than younger adults, whereas the momentary effect of HAP on meaning in life was stronger for younger adults than older adults.
... Recent research has demonstrated that individuals who reported the world was more orderly and explainable tended to report less COVID-19 stress, and greater meaning during the pandemic (Trzebiński et al., 2020), supporting the notion that reports of meaning at this time may be influenced by multiple components beyond one's purposeful direction. As such, although past work has examined daily meaning (e.g., Machell et al., 2015;Newman et al., 2018;Steger & Kashdan, 2013), the current study specifically focussed on whether participants felt purposeful in their daily lives. In so doing, this research provides one of the first efforts to investigate daily purposefulness, which is important given the literature showing that purposeful people may react differently to their daily lives. ...
Article
Objective Sense of purpose has been associated with greater health and well-being, even in daily contexts. However, it is unclear whether effects would hold in daily life during COVID-19, when people may have difficulty seeing a path towards their life goals. Design The current study investigated whether purposefulness predicted daily positive affect, negative affect, and physical symptoms. Participants (n = 831) reported on these variables during the first weeks of the COVID-19 response in North America. Main outcome measures Participants completed daily surveys asking them for daily positive events, stressors, positive affect, negative affect, physical symptoms, and purposefulness. Results Purposefulness at between- and within-person levels predicted less negative affect and physical symptoms, but more positive affect at the daily level. Between-person purposefulness interacted with positive events when predicting negative and positive affect, suggesting that purposeful people may be less reactive to positive events. However, between-person purposefulness also interacted with daily stressors, insofar that stressors predicted greater declines in positive affect for purposeful people. Conclusion Being a purposeful person holds positive implications for daily health and well-being, even during the pandemic context. However, purposefulness may hold some consequences unique to the COVID-19 context, which merit attention in future research.
... Similarly, attending and being involved in 12-step meetings, where positive social exchanges presumably occur, has also been associated with improved long-term abstinence outcomes (e.g., Kelly, Stout, & Slaymaker, 2013). Numerous daily studies have also investigated the relationships of a variety of positive social exchanges with positive affect and health more broadly, documenting the expected positive relationship (e.g., Bernstein, Zawadzki, Juth, Benfield, & Smyth, 2018;Machell, Kashdan, Short, & Nezlek, 2015;Rook, 2001). On the other hand, positive social events and exchanges have also been linked to appetitive motives (e.g., Gable, 2006) and craving-related outcomes such as desire-to-drink (Armeli, Tennen, Affleck, & Kranzler, 2000;Carney, Armeli, Tennen, Affleck, & O'Neil, 2000). ...
Article
Objective: This study captured the interrelationships among craving, negative affect, and positive and negative social exchanges in the daily lives of patients in residential treatment for opioid use disorders (OUDs). Method: Participants were 73 patients (77% male), age 19 to 61 (Mage = 30.10, SDage = 10.13) in residential treatment for OUD. Participants completed a smartphone-based survey 4 times per day for 12 consecutive days that measured positive and negative social exchanges (Test of Negative Social Exchange), negative affect (PA-NA scales), and craving (frequency and intensity). Within-person, day-level associations among daily positive and negative social exchanges, negative affect, and craving were examined using multilevel modeling. Results: Daily negative social exchanges (M = 1.44, SD = 2.27) were much less frequent than positive social exchanges (M = 6.59, SD = 4.00) during residential treatment. Whereas negative social exchanges had a direct association with same-day craving (β = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.16, ΔR2 = 0.01), positive social exchanges related to craving indirectly via moderation of the within-person negative affect-craving link (β = -0.01; 95% CI = -0.01, -0.001, ΔR2 = 0.002). Positive social exchanges decoupled the same-day linkage between negative affect and craving on days when individuals had at least four more positive social exchanges than usual. Conclusions: These results indicate that both negative affect and negative social exchanges are uniquely related to craving on a daily basis, and that extra positive social interactions can reduce the intraindividual coupling of negative affect and craving during residential treatment for OUD. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Even for individuals who cannot clearly state a purpose in life, people generally wake up with an expectation for how their days will unfold, allowing some insight into whether they will accomplish their plans and progress toward their goals. Some studies have asked people to report their daily sense of purpose (Kiang, 2012), or the related construct of meaning (Machell et al., 2015;Newman et al., 2018;Steger & Kashdan, 2013). However, it remains an open question how well these daily reports actually map onto people's expectations for purposefulness in the morning. ...
Article
Purposeful living involves planning daily life around personal pursuits. However, it is unclear whether people expect to have more purposeful days than they actually do, and which factors influence discrepancies. A pandemic is a valuable context for examining expectations, as it institutes a less predictable environment. The current studies asked a university (n = 330; Mage = 21.25 years, 77% female) and community (n = 755; Mage = 45.99 years, 89% female) sample to complete seven daily diaries during the first weeks of the COVID-19 response. Each morning, participants reported on how purposeful they expected to be, and each evening, they reported on how purposeful they felt and on daily events. Participants tended to overestimate their daily purposefulness from morning to evening, with students being more discrepant. Higher neuroticism and more stressors (both COVID-related and not) predicted greater discrepancies, while positive events and support provisions were associated with less discrepancy.
... There is literature suggesting that chronically stressed individuals use smartphones as a coping mechanism to relieve depressive symptoms (16). In this sense, smartphone use might serve as an avoidance strategy to avoid negative emotions-even though being ineffective and even having adverse emotional consequences (61). On the other hand, there is research showing that higher levels of technology use go along with psychopathology (7). ...
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Background: As a device with multiple functions, a smartphone become more and more relevant in everyday life. However, this goes along with an increase in reports about smartphone addiction and its unwanted consequences. One of the most important variables in the etiopathogenesis of addictive smartphone use is personality. Objective: This study aimed to investigate predictors of problematic smartphone use. Clinically relevant differences in personality, psychopathology, and social support between students with and without problematic smartphone use were investigated. Method: All currently enrolled students at the Sigmund Freud University in Vienna ( N = 1,836) were surveyed. Response rate was 27.07% ( N = 497, age: M = 19.6, SD = 8.04). The Smartphone Addiction Scale (SPAS), the 10-Item Big Five Inventory (BFI-10), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-18), and a questionnaire on social support (F-SozU-K-14) were used. Results: A total of 75 students (15.1% of the total sample) showed problematic smartphone use. In terms of personality, respondents with problematic smartphone use showed significantly higher values for extraversion and neuroticism compared than non-addicted users. Students with problematic smartphone use showed significantly higher levels in terms of depression and anxiety. Contrary to expectations, individuals with problematic smartphone use showed significantly higher values for perceived social support than with individuals without problematic smartphone use. Discussion: Therapy for problematic smartphone use should be carried out taking into account discussed, important etiological factors, such as personality.
... Moreover, additional within-person analyses showed that preventive health behaviors were positively related to negative affect and risky health behaviors were negatively related to negative affect. 6 Prior research has shown that social relationships and connections are beneficial for a variety of well-being indicators, including perceptions of meaning in life (e.g., Machell et al., 2015;Stillman et al., 2009). This suggests that those who find meaning in life actively engage in behaviors that might be detrimental to their emotional well-being for the sake of long-term health for themselves and others. ...
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Perceiving life as meaningful can buffer against negative experiences, whereas searching for meaning in life is often associated with negative outcomes. We examined how these individual differences, along with religiosity and political orientation, are associated with feelings and health-related behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic ( N = 7,220; U.S. nationally representative sample). Conservatism and religiosity predicted less negative effect; conservatives (but not the highly religious) were less likely to engage in preventive actions such as wearing face masks and social distancing. Controlling for political orientation, religiosity, and demographics, the presence of meaning in life predicted less negative affect and greater healthy preventive actions, whereas searching for meaning predicted greater negative affect and more preventive and risky health behaviors. Thus, the perception that life is meaningful not only predicts an individual’s emotional well-being but is also associated with beneficial actions that can help protect others from the spread of the coronavirus.
... Similar to Machell et al. (2015), we conducted a 14-day diary design to examine the relationships of the study variables on a daily basis. This study was approved by the ethics committee of the first author's university. ...
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Meaning in life (MIL) is crucial in promoting health behaviors; nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the relationship between MIL and health behaviors remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between MIL and eating behaviors (i.e., healthy and emotional eating), and the mediating roles of positive and negative affect. A total of 113 Chinese undergraduate students (83.2% women; mean age = 19.84 years) were recruited to complete 14 consecutive days of assessments on MIL, positive and negative affect, healthy eating, and emotional eating. The proposed multilevel structural equation model showed that the within-person indirect effects of “MIL → positive affect → healthy eating” and “MIL → negative affect → emotional eating” were significant. These findings suggested that on within-person levels, daily MIL is positively associated with same-day healthy eating directly or indirectly via positive affect; daily MIL is negatively associated with same-day emotional eating via negative affect. Therefore, more attention should be paid to increasing daily MIL when designing interventions for health behaviors.
... These results are in line with those of previous studies demonstrating that men are prone to pursue power (Lyons et al., 2005) because they expect to possess more power and more control during social interactions (Diekman et al., 2004). Compared with women, men have a stronger drive to achieve goals (Stroud et al., 2002) that enhance their sense of a meaningful existence (Machell et al., 2015). In the context of our study, when experiencing peer phubbing, men may have had a stronger drive than women did to regain a sense of control and of a meaningful existence through selfie-related attentionseeking behaviors. ...
Article
Q. (2021). Peer phubbing and selfie liking: The roles of attention seeking and gender. Social Behavior and Personality: An international journal, 49(7), e10468 We explored the relationship between being phubbed by one's peers and selfie liking, and examined the mediating effect of attention seeking and the moderating effect of gender in this relationship. An online survey was conducted with 427 university students. The results reveal that peer phubbing was positively related to attention seeking and selfie liking. Further, attention seeking was positively related to selfie liking, and attention seeking mediated the relationship between peer phubbing and selfie liking. The indirect pathways involved gender differences, with a stronger indirect effect for men compared to that for women. Thus, gender moderated the relationship between peer phubbing and attention seeking, as well as the relationship between attention seeking and selfie liking. These findings illustrate that selfie-related behaviors may function as a buffer for being phubbed. Moreover, phubbed individuals are prone to engage in attention-seeking behavior and frequent selfie liking.
... People with higher levels of STML tend to believe that wins and losses in daily life are normal, dialectical, and meaningful. They hold a transcendent view and attitude toward life, and thus pay more attention to other groups, regardless of their interest (Le, 2010;Machell et al., 2015). ...
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Dispositional awe has a positive effect on prosociality. However, it has not been tested whether this disposition appears in online altruism. Using a large sample of 3,080 Chinese undergraduates, this study tested a moderated mediating model that takes self-transcendent meaning in life (STML) as a mediator and subjective socioeconomic status (SSES) as a moderator. As predicted, dispositional awe was positively correlated with online altruism, partly via the indirect effect of STML. SSES moderated both the direct and indirect effects. Specifically, the predictive effects of dispositional awe on both online prosocial behavior and STML were greater for lower rather than higher SSES. This study extends the prosociality of dispositional awe to cyberspace. Other implications are also discussed herein.
... People engaged in a purposeful and meaningful life tend to report positive outcomes in terms of well-being and mental health. The presence of meaning in life appears to be linked to happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect [25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. Moreover, having purposes in life has been found to be negatively connected with various psychopathological problems [34,35], such as depressive symptoms [9,36], suicidal ideation [37,38], anxiety-related responses [39], post-traumatic stress disorder [40], social anxiety [41], and sleep disturbances [42], among other issues. ...
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Mindfulness is connected to positive outcomes related to mental health and well-being. However, the psychological mechanisms that account for these relationships are largely unknown. A multiple-step multiple mediator structural equation modeling (SEM) model was tested with mindfulness as the independent variable; purpose in life and behavioral activation as serial mediators ; and happiness, anxiety, and depression as outcome measures. Data were obtained from 1267 women. Higher mindfulness was associated with higher levels of happiness and lower anxiety and depression symptoms. The association of mindfulness with the outcome variables could be partially accounted for by purpose in life and behavioral activation. The SEM model explained large proportions of variance in happiness (50%), anxiety (34%), and depression (44%) symptoms. Mindfulness is associated with both a sense of purpose in life and engagement in activities, which are also connected with positive outcomes. Moreover, having purposes in life is linked to higher levels of behavioral activation.
... The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) measures the global sense of meaning in life, which is rather stable [54]. It differs from daily meaning which fluctuates and can change day to day [55,56]. It seems, therefore, that with such intervention planned, a better solution would be to measure daily meaning in life as this would more accurately capture possible changes. ...
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In recent years, the issue of the meaning in life has aroused particularly great interest in researchers considering the question of whether and how, using simple interventions, outside the therapeutic office, the sense of meaning in life and well-being can be strengthened. The aim of this study was to explore whether interventions based on reflection on everyday, stressful situations can contribute to fostering the sense of meaning in life and psychological well-being among emerging adults. Additionally, we aimed to explore relationships between the above-mentioned constructs and self-efficacy. The research focuses on emerging adults, who, as statistics show, are the most vulnerable among all adults to various mental problems. A pretest–posttest control group design was used. The study involved 80 emerging adults (56 women and 24 men) who were randomly assigned to the experimental group, which completed specially prepared diaries for a week, or the control group. Participants completed the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, the Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Ryff Scales of Psychological Well-Being twice. In the experimental group, significant differences were noted between pretest and posttest in psychological well-being, especially in the area of relationships with others (Mpretest = 59.3; Mposttest = 65.07; t(39) = −11.40; p = 0.001) and purpose in life (Mpretest = 54.85; Mposttest = 58.21; t(39) = −3.15; p = 0.003), as well as self-efficacy (Mpretest = 28.06; Mposttest = 29.60; t(39) = −2.82; p = 0.007). There were no differences in the level of meaning in life. The analysis carried out showed that self-efficacy mediates the relationship between presence of meaning in life and psychological well-being (the Aroian test: z = 4.48; SE = 0.11; p = 0.0007).
... esim. Hicks & King, 2007;Machell, Kashdan, Short & Nezlek, 2015;Newman, Nezlek & Thrash, 2018;Thrash, Elliot, Maruskin & Cassidy, 2010). Yhteenkuuluvuuden tunteminen toisten ihmisten kanssa vastaa yhteen ihmisen synnynnäisistä psykologisista perustarpeista (Ryan & Deci, 2000). ...
Article
The relationship between recovery experiences and cognitive failures among Finnish teachers The aim of this study was to investigate how recovery experiences during off-job time (i.e., detachment from work, relaxation, control, mastery, meaning, and affiliation) are related to self-reported cognitive failures among Finnish teachers. Cognitive failures in memory, perception and action reflect lapses in cognitive control. In addition, we examined how age, gender, workload and sleep problems are related to cognitive failures. Data were based on a large questionnaire study conducted in May 2017 (N = 909) among Finnish teachers and school principals. The majority of participants (93%) worked in comprehensive schools. Their mean age was 51 years and 78 percent were women. The main statistical analysis strategy was hierarchical regression analysis. The results showed that relaxation and control during off-job time, being younger, being female, as well as having a high workload and sleeping problems were related to reporting more frequent cognitive failures. Of these contributors, sleeping problems were strongest. Our results expand the existing literature by suggesting that especially recovery experiences of relaxation and control during off-job time are related to lower levels of cognitive failures. This knowledge may add to our understanding of the role of recovery in real-life cognitive processes.
... Spending time with close social partners has been shown to be associated with better affective well-being, but contact with weak social ties can also have a positive effect (for summary and meta-analysis, see Liu, Baumeister, et al., 2019). In addition, social events might have differential effects depending on whether they are positive (e.g., going out to eat with a friend or on a date) or negative (e.g., social plans being cancelled) (Machell et al., 2015). It is possible that face-to-face, telephone, and digital interactions differ in these important characteristics and thus have differential effects on well-being and social connectedness. ...
Article
Associations between social relationships and well-being are widely documented across the lifespan, including in older age. Older adults increasingly use digital communication technologies. In the present study, we examine the role of social interactions for older adults’ daily well-being with a focus on three interaction modalities (face-to-face, telephone, and digital). Specifically, we examine (a) whether people who are more socially active than others report higher levels of well-being and (b) how day-to-day fluctuations in the number of social interactions are associated with day-to-day fluctuations of well-being, separately by interaction modality. We use data from 115 participants (age: M = 72 years, SD = 5, range = 65–94; 40% women), who documented their social interactions over 21 days and reported their well-being each evening (including positive affect, negative affect, and loneliness). Taken together, our findings show that frequency of face-to-face interactions is more consistently related to well-being than telephone or digital interactions. At the between-person level, those who report more face-to-face social interactions than others across 21 days report higher levels of positive affect than others. At the within-person level, on days where participants report more face-to-face social interactions than their own average, they report higher positive affect, lower negative affect, and lower loneliness than usual. In addition, a higher number of digital interactions is associated with lower negative affect at the between-person level. In summary, our findings suggest that face-to-face social interactions are uniquely relevant to older adults’ daily well-being. We discuss implications of these findings for future research.
... Because resilience processes and protective factors likely vary based on risk context (Yates & Masten, 2004), it is crucial to establish which resources promote resilience for distinct social groups that experience different levels of vulnerability. Data suggest that both optimism and meaning in life are inversely related to negative affect (Andersson, 1996;Machell et al., 2015) and positively associated with life satisfaction (Bailey et al., 2007), coping (Reed, 2016), and psychological well-being (Zika & Chamberlain, 1992). Past research on protective factors in samples with high levels of financial strain have indicated that meaning-making and optimism can help buffer the negative effects of adversity (Hamby et al., 2018). ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate certain positive characteristics (i.e., social resourcefulness, personal resourcefulness, optimism, and meaning in life) as protective factors for people from lower social class backgrounds. Resilience theory (Yates & Masten, 2004) posits that certain positive characteristics may act as protective factors against vulnerability. We tested this theory with a sample of adults in the United States who completed an online survey. Results partially supported our hypotheses. Subjective social status (SSS) moderated the relations from social resourcefulness and personal resourcefulness to life satisfaction. Specifically, social resourcefulness was a stronger predictor of life satisfaction for individuals with lower SSS compared to higher SSS. These results suggest that social resourcefulness may act as a protective factor for individuals with lower SSS. Results also replicated past findings on the positive relationship between optimism, meaning in life, personal resourcefulness, and subjective well-being. Implications for helping professionals and researchers are discussed.
... Chamberlain and Zika (1988) point out that meaning in life is positively related to life satisfaction and positive affect and negatively to negative affect. Data provided by Ho, Cheung, and Cheung (2010), Machell, Kashdan, Short, and Nezlek (2015) and Krok and Telka (2018) support their results. Similar relationships have been found in the research of the well-being of chronic patients. ...
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The theoretical framework and empirical data suggest that the relationship between meaning in life and well-being might be mediated by self-efficacy. Based on the cogni-tive-affective processing system (CAPS), self-concordance model and empirical data, we assume that self-efficacy might also act as a mediator between meaning in life and subjective well-being in cardiac patients. This study was conducted in cardiology units in Poland. Patients who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were approached by research assistants in the inpatient clinic and outpatient centre in a cardiology unit in Poland. Results of the 176 participants (82 women and 94 men) aged from 45 to 82 years (M = 58.56, SD = 8.25) were included in this study. Meaning in life and self-efficacy were significantly related to the each other and two dimensions of subjective well-being. Using path analysis we confirmed the direct effects of meaning in life on life satisfaction and positive affect and indirect effects of meaning in life on life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect. Self-efficacy was found to be a partial mediator in the relationship between meaning in life with life satisfaction and positive affect. As there was no direct path between meaning in life and negative affect, meaning in life was a full mediator between these factors. The present study shows the complexity of the relationship between purpose-oriented personality trait and chronic patients' well-being. This finding provides a solid foundation for further investigation of the influence of personality traits on patients' functioning and well-being.
... If the effect of writing about successful kin care grows significantly larger in tandem with higher pre-existing kin care motivation, the suggestion is that feelings of accomplishment, as distinguished from raw motivation, influence PIL. A daily experience study showed a unique association of meaning in life and daily accomplishments, above daily affect effects (Machell, Kashdan, Short, & Nezlek, 2015). Satisfaction results from successful job performance (Locke & Latham, 1990). ...
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Purpose in Life (PIL) is often associated with grand achievements and existential beliefs, but recent theory suggests that it might ultimately track gainful pursuit of basic evolved goals. Five studies (N=1,993) investigate the relationships between fundamental social motives and PIL. In Study 1, attribution of a life goal pursuit to disease avoidance, affiliation, or kin care motives correlated with higher PIL. Studies 2 and 3 found correlations of self-protection, disease avoidance, affiliation, mate retention, and kin care motives with PIL after controlling for potential confounds. Study 4 showed that writing about success in the status, mating, and kin care domains increased PIL. Study 5 replicated the effect for mating and kin care, but not for status. Results imply that fundamental motives link to PIL through a sense of progress, rather than raw desire. Overall, this set of studies suggests that pursuit of evolved fundamental goals contributes to a purposeful life.
... A variety of studies established a relationship between greater engagement in meaningful activity and wellbeing, through which activities are deemed 'meaningful' may be pre-determined by the researcher or by study participants. Eakman et al. (2010) use an idiographic approach to assessing meaningful activity and provide evidence that higher engagement in meaningful activity is associated with greater well-being in a variety of populations, such as older adults (Eakman et al., 2010), veterans (Eakman, Kinney, & Reinhardt, 2019), homeless individuals (Marshall et al., 2019), and undergraduate students (Eakman, 2014;Machell, Kashdan, Short, & Nezlek, 2015;Steger & Kashdan, 2013). Greater engagement in meaningful activity is also a predictor of greater well-being in a variety of patients with chronic illnesses, such as individuals with acute myeloid leukemia (Deckert et al., 2018), dementia (Han, Radel, McDowd, & Sabata, 2016), or Alzheimer's disease (Bohn, Kwong See, & Fung, 2018). ...
Article
Engagement in personally meaningful activities is associated with greater well-being. However, most studies use cross-sectional or recall methods, and the researchers pre-determine which activities are ‘meaningful.’ This study examined an idiographic measure of meaningful activity participation in relation to well-being. Participants (N = 160; M age = 43.3 years; 77% female) rated the meaningfulness of 46 daily activities at baseline and reported their activities on eight random days over the next 4 weeks. Half the participants also completed measures of meaning salience and mood on the same days. All participants reported on psychological well-being at baseline and 4-week follow-up. Meaningful activity participation was positively associated with meaning salience and positive mood. Average engagement in meaningful activities over 8 days was positively associated with subjective vitality, life satisfaction, and purpose in life at follow-up. An idiographic measure of meaningful activity participation may further be understanding of the relationship between meaningful activity participation and well-being. Abbreviations: ACT - Acceptance and Commitment Therapy; LET - Life Engagement Test; MALM - Meaningful Activity and Life Meaning; MAPA - Meaningful Activities Participation Assessment; PANAS - Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; PHQ-8 - Patient Health Questionnaire-8; SDT - Self-determination Theory; SVS - Subjective Vitality Scale; SWLS - Satisfaction with Life Scale; TOMS - Thoughts of Meaning Scale
... In recent years, evidence in favour of this possibility has also accumulated from studies that ask people about their experience, activities, and sense that life is meaningful, on a regular basis. Individuals appear to feel more meaning in their lives on days when they experience positive events or affect, and less meaning when they experience negative events or affect (King et al., 2006;Machell, Kashdan, Short, & Nezlek, 2015;Tov & Lee, 2016). ...
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What makes an experience meaningful? Diverse lines of research have provided contrasting evidence; that either positive or negative events are found particularly meaningful. In this paper, we propose that the extremity of an event, rather than its valence per se, may drive meaning, and test multiple mechanisms that might explain this effect. Across three studies (including one that was pre-registered), we show for the first time a quadratic relationship between event valence and meaningfulness, such that both extremely painful and extremely pleasant events are more meaningful than milder events. Furthermore, we show that this effect is partly mediated by shared features of extreme events; their emotional intensity and tendency to induce contemplation. While extreme positive and extreme negative events differ in many important ways, this research shows that they share key characteristics (including their extremity) that lead people to find them more meaningful.
Article
Objectives People who find meaning in life can endure ‘any’ pain. However, there were no tools to investigate elderly individuals’ sources of meaning in life in China. This study aimed to develop the Sources of Meaning in Life Scale for the Elderly (SMSE), and examine the validation and reliability in Chinese elderly. Methods A 43-item pool of SMSE was formed by combining the preliminary interview and literature review. A cross-sectional survey of 627 elderly people was then conducted in two community health service centers, two hospitals, and two nursing homes in Guangzhou by the convenience sampling method. Test–retest reliability was assessed with 24 elderly persons. Results Six dimensions, containing family (four items), social support (four items), value (seven items), life security (four items), personal development (four items), and leisure activity (five items) explained 62.16% of the variance in total. Confirmatory factor analysis model fitting indices were χ² = 694.652, df = 330, χ²/df = 2.105, SRMR = 0.0695, GFI = 0.853, IFI = 0.905, TLI = 0.889, CFI = 0.903, and RMSEA = 0.062. The Cronbach’s alpha value of the scale was 0.924, while that of each dimension was between 0.727 and 0.870. The inter-class correlation (ICC) of the scale was 0.856. Conclusion The SMSE has good reliability and validity that can be used to evaluate the sources of meaning and meaning in life for the elderly.
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Affective experience is inherently dynamic and short-term changes in affect are supposed to offer important insights into well-being. Past years have shown a tremendous rise in investigations into the relation between affect dynamics and well-being. The indicators of affect dynamic that have been introduced to capture unique dynamical aspects of affect, however, have lately been criticized for being purely statistical measures without a theoretical foundation and were shown to have little added value to explain well-being over and above mean levels of affective experience. To address these concerns, we will apply our newly developed theoretically-based model of intraindividual variability in affect (MIVA) to data on daily affective experience, which allows us to estimate parameters for anchoring, reactivity, and regulation on the basis of affective states in combination with daily events. Everyday affective experience will be measured with a high temporal resolution and multiple indicators of well-being (e.g., life satisfaction, psychological well-being, depression) will be assessed. We will investigate the incremental value of our MIVA parameters in predicting well-being over and above the mean level and variance of affective states.
Article
Leader identity theory posits that, in addition to being positional, leadership is also a malleable state of mind. This means that even employees holding positions of authority within their organization may be nudged to identify more strongly with their leader role on some days versus others. The leadership literature, however, is silent about predictors that may prime leader identity day-to-day. We draw from leader identity theory and research on expressive writing to propose that leader identity can be activated daily via positive leader self-reflection (e.g., reflecting and writing about qualities that make one a good leader) in ways that are beneficial for the leader both at work and at home. We tested our theoretical expectations in two field experiments. In the first study, as expected, we find that leaders reported higher activated leader identity and more goal progress on intervention (vs. control) days. In turn, activated leader identity and goal progress enhanced leader well-being measured in the evening at home. Surprisingly, and contrary to expectations, the well-being enhancing effects of positive leader self-reflection were weaker for leaders who were higher (vs. lower) in identity fusion with their followers. In the second study, we demonstrate the malleable nature of leader identity by showing not only that positive leader self-reflection activates leader identity, but also that negative leader self-reflection diminishes its activation.
Article
Many people expect their work to provide meaning to their lives, yet the specific organizational factors that can promote meaning in life are not clearly delineated. Drawing on the basic science of meaning in life, in this paper we propose that work entails a host of experiences that foster meaning in life. We begin by defining meaning in life, noting its placement within the broader well-being literature and dispelling common myths about its rarity in people’s lives. After highlighting the myriad benefits of meaning for individuals and organizations, we describe several established sources of meaning in life and their relevance to work. We then examine how work orientations and social demographic factors influence the propensity to seek meaning through work. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions that can better illuminate the predictors and functions of meaningfulness at work.
Article
Despite the prevalence of both chronic and transient loneliness and the detrimental consequences associated with them, as a negatively-valenced response to social exclusion, loneliness has received surprisingly little attention in the marketing literature. Based on research showing that lonely people often lack meaning in their life, we propose that ritualistic behavior that involves consumer products may reduce loneliness by increasing meaning in life. Specifically, a series of studies finds that engaging in even minimal, unfamiliar rituals reduces loneliness among lonely consumers. Support for the important role of meaningfulness comes from results showing that the effect of rituals on loneliness is mediated by meaning in life via perceived product meaningfulness, and that ritualistic behavior no longer impacts loneliness when the experience of meaningfulness can be derived incidentally.
Article
The desire for a meaningful life is ubiquitous, yet the ordinary concept of a meaningful life is poorly understood. Across six experiments (total N = 2,539), we investigated whether third-person attributions of meaning depend on the psychological states an agent experiences (feelings of interest, engagement, and fulfillment), or on the objective conditions of their life (e.g., their effects on others). Studies 1a–b found that laypeople think subjective and objective factors contribute independently to the meaningfulness of a person’s life. Studies 2a–b found that positive mental states are thought to make a life more meaningful, even if derived from senseless activities (e.g., hand-copying the dictionary). Studies 3a–b found that agents engaged in morally bad activities are not thought to have meaningful lives, even if they feel fulfilled. In short, both an agents’ subjective mental states and objective impact on the world affect how meaningful their lives appear.
Article
Background A sense of meaningfulness is an important initial indicator of the successful treatment of addiction, and supports the larger recovery process. Most studies address meaningfulness as a static trait, and do not assess the extent to which meaningfulness might vary within an individual, or how it may vary in response to daily life events such as social experiences. Methods Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to: 1) examine the amount of within-person variability in meaningfulness among patients in residential treatment for prescription opioid use disorder; 2) determine whether that variability was related to positive or negative social experiences on a daily basis; and 3) assess whether those day-to-day relationships were related to relapse at four months post-treatment. Participants (N=73, 77% male, Mage=30.10, Range=19-61) completed smartphone-based assessments four times per day for 12 days. Associations among social experiences, meaningfulness, and relapse were examined using multilevel modeling. Results Between-person variability accounted for 52% (95% CI = 0.35, 0.67) of variance in end-of-day meaningfulness. End-of-day meaningfulness was higher on days when participants reported more positive social experiences (β = 1.17, SE = 0.33, p < .05, ΔR² = 0.041). On average, participants who relapsed within four months post-residential treatment exhibited greater within-day reactivity to negative social experiences (β = -1.89, SE = 0.88, p < .05, ΔR² = 0.024) during treatment than participants who remained abstinent. Conclusion Individual differences in maintaining meaningfulness day by day when faced with negative social experiences may contribute to the risk of relapse in the early months following residential treatment.
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Existential nihilism is on the rise in modern societies, but no previous work has investigated the social psychology of seeing no meaning in life. In the current research, five studies (N = 1,634) show that targets' existential nihilist beliefs elicit a range of negative stereotypes about personality traits, commonly valued social traits, and targets' ability to perform basic adaptive social tasks. Results demonstrate that these negative stereotypes are mediated by belief that the target is depressed more than the belief the target is non-religious or that the target does not plan for the future. Unlike atheists, who are seen as competent, no positive stereotypes emerged for nihilists, suggesting both future research and interventions aimed at updating false beliefs about nihilists.
Article
This paper aims to determine the precise meaning of the word “meaning” in the context of the sense of meaning and to explain the characteristics of meaning and meaning in life. Using ordinary language analysis and phenomenology, this paper defines meaning as the possibility of something to realize its goal: the effectiveness of a thing in realizing the goal. Thus, this paper aims to establish a Meaning Effectiveness Model (MEM), which regards meaning as a function of goal and effectiveness to explain the meaning phenomena, including degree, frequency, stability, adaptive functions, and emerging conditions of meaning. Within the framework of MEM, meaning in life is divided into meaning within life and the meaning of life itself, which have different characteristics. The relationship between the model and existing meaning theories is also discussed.
Article
Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether meaning in life predicts survival in people living with HIV (PLWH) over 17 years. This study also examined whether interviewer- and transcript-rated meaning predict survival equivalently. A third purpose of the study was to investigate whether meaning in life adds to the prediction of survival over positive emotional expression. Methods: A diverse sample of people with HIV (n = 177) completed an interview on stress and coping at baseline and were followed for survival up to 17 years. Meaning was measured by interviewer rating of 4 items (meaningful purpose, unfinished business, finding new meaning, meaningful activities). Transcript-rated meaning was assessed by two independent raters. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine whether meaning predicted survival over 17 years. Results: Meaning in life predicted significantly greater survival adjusting for biomedical and sociodemographic variables whether assessed by interviewer or by transcript raters. Hazard ratios suggest that the effect is moderate to large (2.66 to 3.45 for top vs bottom third; 2.05 to 2.49 for top vs. bottom half). Significance was maintained after adjusting for positive emotion. Conclusions: Meaning assessed by interview (both by interviewer- and transcript-rating) predicted greater survival over 17 years in PLWH, and did so above positive emotion. This adds to a literature that is primarily based on self-report questionnaires. Meaning may have beneficial effects for both psychological and physical health in PLWH.
Article
The experience of positive events is associated with increased positive affect, which can beneficially impact the physical and mental health outcomes of adolescents. Despite an increase in important life events during adolescence, little research has examined the influence of positive events on affect in this population. This study used Ecological Momentary Assessment to investigate individual differences in the effects of daily positive events on momentary positive and negative affect and event-specific positive affect among 136 adolescents ( M age = 13.03 years). Results indicated that interpersonal and independent events elicited greater event-specific positive affect than non-interpersonal and dependent events. Dependent interpersonal events were associated with the greatest positive affect compared to other combinations of event types. Gender did not moderate these effects. These findings may address the gap in the literature regarding the types of daily positive events that elicit the most positive affect in adolescents, and in turn, may enhance well-being.
Article
We argue that proactive work behavior’s future orientation allows individuals to establish a connection with the future, and thus to experience their work as meaningful. We further expect that this effect is enhanced when individuals are faced with an unpredictability of the future in their core job. We tested our hypotheses in three independent studies with employees. We first established the effect of PWB on work meaningfulness in a scenario‐based experiment (n=140). A second experiment (n=116) replicated this and also demonstrated that the effect was not driven by the benefits of proactive work behavior to others. A daily diary study (n=107, k=391) showed that day‐level proactive work behavior was positively associated with daily work meaningfulness, and that this effect was again independent from having benefitted others. The results also confirmed that this relationship was stronger when an individual’s job was characterized by unpredictability of the future. Our findings highlight the active role employees play for the experience of work as meaningful and suggests that encouraging proactive work behavior may be one avenue to promote work meaningfulness.
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Background and aims Parents’ well-being may be challenged by the neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) of their children. This study explored general self-efficacy (personal resource) and normalization (coping strategy) and their possible association with mothers' well-being (satisfaction with life/SWL, positive affect, and presence of meaning in life/P-MIL). Method Data were obtained from 127 Israeli mothers, ages 23-63, of children (M = 12.08, SD = 3.39) with NDs (autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, cerebral palsy). All participants completed online self-report questionnaires. Results After controlling for the effects of group, mother’s age, and child’s gender, bivariate associations showed that general self-efficacy was positively correlated with SWL (r =.46, p <.001), positive affect (r =.43, p <.001), and P-MIL (r =.37, p <.001). The study’s mediation model was partly supported: General self-efficacy was related to normalization, which was related to SWL and positive affect, but not to P-MIL. Conclusions and implications This study contributes to the empirical knowledge on well-being in mothers raising children with NDs. Findings revealed that mothers’ general self-efficacy alongside their strategy to adopt normalcy substantially contributed to their well-being. Hence, psychosocial services should strengthen general self-efficacy in this cohort and support their normalization efforts.
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This study aims to examine the effect of acceptance and commitment therapy-based psychoeducation program on university students’ meaning of life levels. Solomon Four Groups Model was used in the study. Within the context of this model, two experimental groups and two control groups, each including 9 members, were formed. Experimental groups received acceptance and commitment therapy-based psychoeducation program for 8 sessions while control groups received no specific treatment. In accordance with Solomon Four Groups Experimental Model, one experimental and one control group took a pretest. However, the remaining groups did not attend such a test. All groups took a post test. Observation was applied on all of the groups two months after the end of the sessions. Statistical analyses revealed that search of meaning levels of the experimental groups decreased significantly while their presence of meaning levels increased significantly. It was concluded that the psychoeducation program developed based on the therapy resulted in an increase in presence of meaning, and a decrease in the level of search of meaning. In brief, the findings were discussed in the light of the relevant literature and suggestions based on the results of the research were presented. (PDF) The Effect of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-Based Psychoeducation Program on University Students’ Meaning of Life Levels. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/351232831_The_Effect_of_Acceptance_and_Commitment_Therapy-Based_Psychoeducation_Program_on_University_Students'_Meaning_of_Life_Levels [accessed Sep 13 2021].
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The present study examined affect- and self-based explanatory models of relationships between daily events and daily wellbeing. Twice a week for up to 10 weeks, participants described the events that occurred each day and provided measures of their daily affect, self-esteem, and depressogenic thinking. Participants also provided trait-level measures of affect, depression, and self-esteem. Measures of daily well-being representing each model covaried jointly and independently with daily negative and positive events. Positive events buffered the effects of negative events on daily self-esteem and daily depressogenic thinking, whereas there was no buffering effect for daily affect. More depressed people were more reactive to positive events, and those higher in trait PA were less reactive to negative events. Buffering effects for self-esteem were more pronounced for those with lower trait self-esteem, and buffering effects for daily depressogenic adjustment were more pronounced for those with higher trait negative affect. The results suggest that affect- and self-based models provide complementary perspectives on relationships between psychological well-being and daily events.
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Psychological theories prioritize developing enduring sources of meaning in life. As such, unstable meaning should be detrimental to well-being. Two daily experience sampling studies were conducted to test this hypothesis. Across the studies, people with greater instability of daily meaning reported lower daily levels of meaning in life, and lower global levels of life satisfaction, positive affect, social connectedness and relationship satisfaction, along with higher global levels of negative affect and depression. In addition, instability of meaning interacted with average daily levels of meaning to account for significant variance in meaning in life scores. Relative to people with more stable meaning, people with unstable meaning tended to score near the middle of the distribution of well-being, whether they reported high or low levels of daily meaning. Results are discussed with an eye toward a better understanding of meaning in life and developing interventions to stabilize and maximize well-being.
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The human experience of meaning in life is widely viewed as a cornerstone of well-being and a central human motivation. Self-reports of meaning in life relate to a host of important functional outcomes. Psychologists have portrayed meaning in life as simultaneously chronically lacking in human life as well as playing an important role in survival. Examining the growing literature on meaning in life, we address the question, "How meaningful is life, in general?" We review possible answers from various psychological sources, some of which anticipate that meaning in life should be low, and others high. Summaries of epidemiological data and research using two self-report measures of meaning in life suggest that life is pretty meaningful. Diverse samples rate themselves significantly above the midpoint on self-reports of meaning in life. We suggest that if meaning in life plays a role in adaptation, it must be commonplace, as our analysis suggests.
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Three studies examined the meaning ascribed to events varying in intensity and valence and how meaning detection and construction relate to the experience of meaning in life events. In Study 1, participants were more likely to expect meaning to emerge from major life events particularly if they are negative, while trivial events were expected to be meaningful if they were positive. Study 2 showed that constructed meaning was more likely to occur in response to negative events while detected meaning was more likely to be associated with positive events. Study 3 showed that this ‘match’ between valence and meaning strategy predicted enhanced experience of meaning in those events. These studies suggest that the more subtle experience of meaning detection may provide a way to understand the meaning that emerges from positive events and experiences.
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Although theoretical and empirical work on topics related to meaning and meaning making proliferate, careful evaluation and integration of this area have not been carried out. Toward this end, this article has 3 goals: (a) to elaborate the critical dimensions of meaning as it relates to stressful life events and conditions, (b) to extend the transactional model of stress and coping to include these dimensions, and (c) to provide a framework for understanding current research and directions for future research within this extended model. First, the authors present a framework for understanding diverse conceptual and operational definitions of meaning by distinguishing 2 levels of meaning, termed global meaning and situational meaning. Second, the authors use this framework to review and synthesize the literature on the functions of meaning in the coping process and propose a definition of meaning making that highlights the critical role of reappraisal. The authors specify the roles of attributions throughout the coping process and discuss implications for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This chapter presents theory and experimental research on causes of passionate conviction, which throughout history has fueled some of the most inspiring but also some of the most horrible of human pursuits. Why do people adhere to their convictions so tenaciously? People's convictions (especially other peoples') can seem bizarre, whether they be about a sports team, personality research methods, national pride, or religious zeal. Most matters of opinion have extremists on both sides, avidly maintaining their positions even when confronted with diametrically opposing claims. What motivates black and white conviction in the face of usually gray social reality? This chapter proposes that conviction is appealing and prevalent because it alleviates distress about what to do, restores single-mindedness, and liberates action. The chapter begins with a review of neuropsychological and cultural factors that incline Western individuals toward passionate conviction. After exploring the central role of conviction in Western philosophy and religion, it reviews research showing that some people react to experimentally induced uncertainties with compensatory conviction about unrelated concerns. Experimental results that illuminate the psychological appeal of conviction are then reviewed. Conviction confers a kind of cognitive myopia that helps distress-inducing uncertainties fade from awareness. The chapter concludes with two experiments showing that uncertainty also causes alcohol consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Meaning in life has been identified as a potential mediator of the link between religiousness and psychological health. The authors tested this hypothesis in 2 studies, using multiple methods and measures of religiousness and well-being. In the studies, meaning in life mediated the relation between religiousness and life satisfaction (Study 1A), as well as self-esteem and optimism (Study 1B). In addition, using an experience sampling method, the authors found that meaning in life also mediated the relation between daily religious behaviors and well-being (Study 2). The authors discuss these findings and suggest that meaning in life may be an effective conduit through which counselors and clients can discuss "ultimate" matters, even when they do not share similar perspectives on religion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Both sport and academic work play large roles in school life, yet there is little comparative evidence on the nature or generality of achievement motivation across these domains. In this study, beliefs about the causes of success in school and sport of 207 high school students were found to be related in a logical fashion to their personal goals. The ego-involved goal of superiority was associated with the belief that success requires high ability, whereas task orientation (the goal of gaining knowledge) was associated with beliefs that success requires interest, effort, and collaboration with peers. These goal-belief dimensions, or theories about success, cut across sport and schoolwork. However, little cross-domain generality was found for perceptions of ability and intrinsic satisfaction. Intrinsic satisfaction in sport primarily related to perceived ability in that setting. Task orientation, not perceived ability, was the major predictor of satisfaction in schoolwork. Both sport and schoolwork loom large in the lives of U.S. adolescents. Yet, in studies of achievement motivation, these domains are normally examined separately. We explored the possibility that the pattern of associations among measures of achievement-related individual differences would differ for sport and school and that some dimensions might be general, cutting across sport and school, whereas others might not. To frame these questions, we first review past work concerning dimensions of achievement motivation in the classroom. Sec-ond, we consider differences in these dimensions and their interrelationships that might occur in the domain of sport. Third, we address the issue of the generality of individual differences across sport and the classroom. Theories of Success in the Classroom
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Two experiments were conducted to examine the moderating effects of depression and trait self-esteem on reactions to social exclusion. Participants received information indicating that they had been included in or excluded from a laboratory group and that their inclusion or exclusion was based either on the other group members' preferences or on a random procedure. Participants who scored high in depression (Experiment 1) and low in self-esteem (Experiment 2) responded more strongly (and logically) to the experimental manipulations than participants low in depression and high in self-esteem. The results suggested that depression and low self-esteem place people at risk for dysphoria and self-devaluation following interpersonal rejection.
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For 21 days, 123 participants provided measures of their daily depressogenic adjustment, including Beck’s cognitive triad, causal uncertainty, control over the environment, self-esteem, and anxiety, and they described the positive and negative events that occurred. Daily adjustment negatively covaried with the number of negative events occurring each day and, except as measured by anxiety, positively covaried with positive events. The covariance between negative events and adjustment was stronger than the covariance between positive events and adjustment. Participants also provided measures of depressive symptoms. For the self-esteem and cognitive triad measures, adjustment covaried more strongly with negative and positive events for the depressed than they did for the nondepressed.
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Multilevel modeling is a technique that has numerous potential applications for social and personality psychology. To help realize this potential, this article provides an introduction to multilevel modeling with an emphasis on some of its applications in social and personality psychology. This introduction includes a description of multilevel modeling, a rationale for this technique, and a discussion of applications of multilevel modeling in social and personality psychological research. Some of the subtleties of setting up multilevel analyses and interpreting results are presented, and software options are discussed.
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The literature on subjective well-being (SWB), including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect, is reviewed in three areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Psychometric data on single-item and multi-item subjective well-being scales are presented, and the measures are compared. Measuring various components of subjective well-being is discussed. In terms of causal influences, research findings on the demographic correlates of SWB are evaluated, as well as the findings on other influences such as health, social contact, activity, and personality. A number of theoretical approaches to happiness are presented and discussed: telic theories, associationistic models, activity theories, judgment approaches, and top-down versus bottom-up conceptions.
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Attempts to predict depression from a strictly cognitive perspective have met with limited success. A goal-orientation model is proposed that integrates motivational and cognitive factors in attempting to explain and predict depression. The model proposes that people differ in their goal orientation, with some people being more validation seeking (VS) and others being more growth seeking (GS). The model predicts that compared with GS persons, VS persons will show greater anxiety in anticipation of a stressful event and greater self-esteem loss, task disengagement, and depression after a negative event. A goal-orientation measure was developed (Study 1), and the predictive validity of the model was tested (Studies 2-5). Findings suggest that the explanatory and predictive power of the cognitive theories can be enhanced, and the arsenal of the cognitive therapist enlarged, by integrating motivational and cognitive approaches to depression.
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Nothing is so insufferable to man as to be completely at rest, without passions, without business, without diversion, without effort. Then he feels his nothingness, his forlornness, his insufficiency, his weakness, his emptiness. (Pascal, The Pensees, 1660/1950, p. 57). As far as we know humans are the only meaning-seeking species on the planet. Meaning-making is an activity that is distinctly human, a function of how the human brain is organized. The many ways in which humans conceptualize, create, and search for meaning has become a recent focus of behavioral science research on quality of life and subjective well-being. This chapter will review the recent literature on meaning-making in the context of personal goals and life purpose. My intention will be to document how meaningful living, expressed as the pursuit of personally significant goals, contributes to positive experience and to a positive life. THE CENTRALITY OF GOALS IN HUMAN FUNCTIONING Since the mid-1980s, considerable progress has been made in under-standing how goals contribute to long-term levels of well-being. Goals have been identified as key integrative and analytic units in the study of human Preparation of this chapter was supported by a grant from the John Templeton Foundation. I would like to express my gratitude to Corey Lee Keyes and Jon Haidt for the helpful comments on an earlier draft of this chapter.
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The perception of meaning in life, or existential meaning, is an individual differences variable requiring improved construct specification and longitudinal analysis. The authors conceptualize of existential meaning as consisting of personal, spiritual, and implicit sub-constructs, respectively, experiencing one's life as having purpose and coherence, experiencing a transcendent presence in which one participates, and manifesting normatively valued attitudes/behavior. Latent cross-lagged panel analysis modeling meaning's longitudinal relations with depressive symptoms in a sample of 395 undergraduates indicated that baseline levels of meaning predicted changes in depressive symptoms over a two-month duration. Additionally, women were found to score higher than men on two of three measures of meaning. Study results have ramifications for how we conceive of and measure existential meaning, as well as how we conceptualize and address psychological distress. The authors conclude with a discussion of social factors requiring further investigation that may influence the experience of meaning in life.
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We conceptualized affective reactivity to daily interpersonal stressors as an index of interpersonal sensitivity and evaluated it as a vulnerability factor for depression. College students completed an initial measure of depression (Time 1). Then, at the end of each day for two weeks, they completed a checklist of daily stressors and measures of state affect. Two months later (Time 2), students completed the depression measure again as well as a questionnaire that assessed life events for the intervening two months. We conducted regression analyses to predict Time 1-Time 2 changes in depressive symptoms. Our major predictions were positive main effects for Time 1 affective reactivity to daily interpersonal stressors and Time 2 negative interpersonal events, and a significant effect for the reactivity × Time 2 events interaction. Significant results were obtained for the two main effects, but not for the interaction. The results suggest that affective reactivity to daily interpersonal stressors is a predictor of depressive symptoms and demonstrate the heuristic value of a daily process design to study the antecedents of psychopathology.
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This study investigates, combining qualitative and quantitative research methods, the sources of meaning in life of young adult patients and nonpatients. In addition to the exploratory concerns, the current investigation tested the following three predictions: (a) Relationships are the most frequent sources of meaning in life; (b) patients are less committed to their personal meanings than nonpatients; and (c) participants’ degrees of meaning in life, as operationalized with their scores on the Life Regard Index (LRI), are related to the degree of their commitment to their personal meanings. Findings from both the phenomenal and statistical analyses strongly support the predictions and generally confirm the clinical relevance of the meaning in life construct. Notably, the interpersonal dimension appears a critically relevant domain in the established differential effects in both nonpatients-patients and females-males comparisons. Implications for clinical practice and suggestions for future research are offered.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews the literature since 1967 on subjective well-being (SWB [including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect]) in 3 areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Most measures of SWB correlate moderately with each other and have adequate temporal reliability and internal consistency; the global concept of happiness is being replaced with more specific and well-defined concepts, and measuring instruments are being developed with theoretical advances; multi-item scales are promising but need adequate testing. SWB is probably determined by a large number of factors that can be conceptualized at several levels of analysis, and it may be unrealistic to hope that a few variables will be of overwhelming importance. Several psychological theories related to happiness have been proposed; they include telic, pleasure and pain, activity, top–down vs bottom–up, associanistic, and judgment theories. It is suggested that there is a great need to more closely connect theory and research. (7 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Meaning in life is widely considered a cornerstone of human functioning, but relatively little is known about the factors that influence judgments of meaning in life. Four studies examined positive affect (PA) and social relatedness as sources of information for meaning in life judgments. Study 1 (N = 150) showed that relatedness need satisfaction (RNS) and PA each shared strong independent links to meaning in life. In Study 2 (N = 63), loneliness moderated the effects of a positive mood induction on meaning in life ratings. In Study 3 (N = 65), priming positive social relationships reduced the contribution of PA to subsequent judgments of meaning in life. In Study 4 (N = 95), relationship primes decreased reliance on PA and increased reliance on RNS compared to dessert primes. Results are discussed in terms of the value of integrating judgment processes in studies of meaning in life.