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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Petit Verdot Extract and hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions obtained from grape pomace, in addition to identifying active compounds. The PVE and EAF reduced significantly paw edema and neutrophil migration when compared with control groups. The PVE reduced levels of TNF-α and IL1-β in the peritoneal fluid, whereas the EAF did not reduce cytokines significantly. Two hydroxybenzoic acids, two proanthocyanidins, three flavan-3-ol monomers and three anthocyanins were identified in the PVE and EAF by LC-MS/MS. The stilbene trans-resveratrol was identified only in the EAF. The phenolic compounds were quantified using HPLC-DAD analysis, except for the stilbenes, which were not sensible for the detection by the method. Since PVE and EAF showed significantly anti-inflammatory effects and high concentration of phenolic compounds, we concluded that Petit Verdot pomace could be an interesting source of anti-inflammatory bioactives.

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... Thanks to the biological properties of their components (e.g., antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial) [9,11,[20][21][22][23][24][25], grape wastes could be re-used for different applications, for example as additive surrogates or new ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical products [23,26]. That is why research efforts are desirable to achieve isolation, characterization and possibly quantification of molecules present in wine-making by-products, in order to re-use them on a large scale. ...
... Thanks to the biological properties of their components (e.g., antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antibacterial) [9,11,[20][21][22][23][24][25], grape wastes could be re-used for different applications, for example as additive surrogates or new ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical products [23,26]. That is why research efforts are desirable to achieve isolation, characterization and possibly quantification of molecules present in wine-making by-products, in order to re-use them on a large scale. ...
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Both environmental and economic issues are increasingly pushing for the revalorization of agri-food by-products, including those arising from wine industry. Wastes produced from wine-making processes are important sources of biologically active compounds, mainly phenolic acids and flavonoids, which could be re-used for several applications, for example as additive surrogates or new ingredients in foodstuffs and/or pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the development of methods aimed at isolating, characterizing and quantifying molecules present in winery by-products acquires considerable importance in view of their re-utilization on a large scale. In this connection, this study demonstrated that high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) can operate in synergy for the investigation of pomace and seed materials arising from both white and red cultivars of Vitis Vinifera. By virtue of fingerprint profiling, mass spectrometry (MS) interfacing and band comparison method, HPTLC enabled detection and identification of phenolic acids, non-anthocyanic flavonoids and anthocyanins. On the contrary, only anthocyanins could be identified by HPLC-DAD, and their subsequent quantification showed that malvidin-3-O-glucoside (oenin) was the most abundant one. In parallel, HPTLC has allowed to detect and quantify proanthocyanidins (PAC), showing that only catechin was present in the test samples. Both quantitative analytical methods were validated in terms of linearity, detection and quantification limits and precision.
... Norton grape pomace treatment, for example, attenuated inflammation in diet-induced obese mice, as indicated by a 15.5% decrease in the C-protein levels ( Hogan et al., 2010). An antiinflammatory action was also demonstrated for the Petit Verdot grape pomace and the red grape pomace ( Denny et al., 2014;Nishiumi, Mukai, Ichiynagi, & Ashida, 2012). Treatment of mice with a hydroalcoholic extract of Petit Verdot grape pomace was effective in diminishing the carrageenan induced paw edema and the inflammatory cytokine levels in the peritoneal cavity ( Denny et al., 2014). ...
... An antiinflammatory action was also demonstrated for the Petit Verdot grape pomace and the red grape pomace ( Denny et al., 2014;Nishiumi, Mukai, Ichiynagi, & Ashida, 2012). Treatment of mice with a hydroalcoholic extract of Petit Verdot grape pomace was effective in diminishing the carrageenan induced paw edema and the inflammatory cytokine levels in the peritoneal cavity ( Denny et al., 2014). The anti-inflammatory action of the red grapepomace was indicated by the supression of the LPS/GalN-induced activation of the factor nuclear kappa B and expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 proteins ( Nishiumi et al., 2012). ...
Article
Grape pomace is an agro-industrial residue produced worldwide. The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify the main phenolics present in an hydroalcohlic extract of a Merlot grape pomace and to investigate its effect on the oxidative and inflammatory states of adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. Daily doses of 250 mg of the extract per kg body weight were administered during 23 days. Several oxidative stress indicators in arthritic rats were maintained at their normal or closely normal levels in the plasma, liver and brain by the treatment. Additionally, the grape pomace also showed significant anti-inflammatory effects. From the 25 phenolics identified in the grape pomace extract the most abundant ones were catechin and catechin derivatives, which are possibly the most important antioxidant agents. The results suggest a potential applicability of the Merlot grape pomace hydroalcoholic extract in the improvement of the oxidative and inflammatory states in arthritic patients.
... The dietary consumption of polyphenols was shown to be inversely associated with cardio-and cerebrovascular diseases due to the anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties of polyphenols, such as inhibition of peroxyl radical-induced DNA strand breakage, inhibition of platelet aggregation and of the expression of adhesion molecules to the endothelium, and protection of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidative damage [17,18]. ...
... Different clinical trials have revealed the atheroprotection of olive oil polyphenols through decreasing plasma LDL concentrations and LDL atherogenicity and improving HDL function [20,21]. It has also been reported that polyphenols can reduce inflammation by blocking cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 and C-reactive protein that play an important role as inflammatory markers in several diseases [18]. ...
Article
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Polyphenols have an important protective role against a number of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, brain dysfunction, stroke, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide: more people die annually from cardiovascular diseases than from any other cause. The most important behavioural risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excess alcohol intake. The dietary consumption of polyphenols has shown to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality by cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. It is well-known that the protective effects of polyphenols in vivo depend on the grade how they are extracted from food and on their intestinal absorption, metabolism, and biological action with target tissues. The aim of this review was to summarise the relation between polyphenols of different plant sources and stroke in human intervention studies, animal models, and in vitro studies.
... The level of TNF-α was determined using an ELISA microplate reader. The results were expressed in pg/mL [23]. ...
... Foods are an important source of energy, nutrients, vitamins, trace elements and others. As part of their nature, foods are also an interesting source of bioactive chemical constituents (for instance, carotenoids and polyphenols), some of which target inflammation, oxidation and infectious processes [6,8,9,23]. These products are considered as functional foods and may help reduce risk factors of some diseases or promote health benefits by containing phytochemicals in their composition [28,29]. ...
... As sources of natural antioxidants, these materials could be reused as additive substitutes or new ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industries (Denny et al., 2014;Makris et al., 2007). Therefore, scientific foundation for the understanding of efficient methods of extraction, antioxidant activity in different reaction systems, and cytotoxicity assays are important for starting the reuse of these agro-industrial by-products in a large scale. ...
... As presented in Fig. 2C, Petit Verdot pomace was the only that suppressed TNF-a liberation (p < 0.05) at the concentration of 10 lg/mL. Denny et al. (2014) demonstrated that the pomace obtained from Petit Verdot decreased TNF-a release in mice subjected to intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan, which corroborates the in vitro results obtained in this study. ...
... They also can be incorporated into pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. 38 ...
Article
Background: Currently, there is a great interest in cosmetics prepared on natural resources bases and this may restrict the use of synthetic substances. Plants play a relevant role as a source of biologically active natural products with cosmetic and dermatological importance. According to this context, polyphenolic extracts are highlighted because they have proven antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, antimicrobial, and supporting activity in solar photoprotection. Aims: The purpose this study were reviewed at reporting the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds, mainly applied to dermatological therapy, and highlighting the action mechanisms and structure-activity relationship. Methodology: In September 2017, we performed a literature search in PubMed and Scielo for scientific researches, antioxidant studies, and systemic reviews. The search terms we used were "PHYTOCOSMETICS" AND "ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY" OR "PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS" (from 2000). As inclusion criteria were used relevant original articles, scientific research in the area of interest, and crucial reference articles. Exclusion criteria were: duplicate publications, non-relevant articles and not published in English. Results: The potential cosmetic application of phenolic compounds as natural antioxidants has been attributed to the chemical structure of these compounds, which to interfere in different phases of the oxidation mechanism. Conclusion: The use of phenolic extracts emerges as a viable alternative for cosmetic application, ensuring a commitment to sustainability. However, it is of crucial importance to evaluate the toxicity risks of raw materials and finished products.
... The probable constituents responsible for the extract anti-inflammatory properties were the polyphenols, since these compounds previously showed potential anti-inflammatory properties. 26 Thus, in both inflammatory models the extract showed activity similar to the classical anti-inflammatory agents. There are many questions for the snakebite managing: the high incidence in several countries, the unsatisfactory emergency health services, the difficult transportation of antiserum and patients, the difficult antiserum handling, the adverse reactions against the antiserum, a lot of clinical complications and the high mortality rates. ...
Article
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibothropic and anti-inflammatory properties of J. elliptica. Methods: Phytochemical screening and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) assays were performed on J. elliptica hydroalcoholic extract (TE) in order to observe its main constituents. The antibothropic activity of TE was evaluated by the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu), in a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm model (PND). A quantitative histological study was carried out to observe a possible protection of TE against the venom myotoxicity. The anti-inflammatory activity was also evaluated in two models, Bjssu-induced paw edema, and carrageenan-induced neutrophils migration in the peritoneal cavity. Results: TLC analysis revealed several compounds in TE, such as saponins, alkaloids, and phenolic constituents. TE was able to neutralize the blockade and the myotoxicity induced by venom, when it was pre-incubated for 30 min with venom. In addition, it showed anti-inflammatory activity, inducing less neutrophils migration and reducing paw edema. Conclusion: J. elliptica showed both antibothropic and anti-inflammatory properties.
... These compounds act as antimutagenic and antiviral agents; they can also be used to preserve food because of their protective effects against microorganisms (4). As sources of natural antioxidants, these substances could be reused as additive substitutes or new ingredients in the food and pharmaceutical industries (5,6). ...
Article
Background and Objectives: Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite have been traditionally used for inhibition of Clostridium botulinum and also as an agent to stabilize the color of meat products; however, usage of these additives at high levels could lead to toxicity and cancer originating from the formation of nitrosamines. Nowadays, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the nitrite content in meat products is increasing. Thus, we used dry red grape pomace (DRGP) as a natural alternative to sodium nitrite. Materials and Methods: The effect of two levels of DRGP (1 and 2%) on the proximate composition, microbial counts, pH values and residual nitrite level of the samples formulated with two levels of sodium nitrite (30 and 60 mg/kg), as well as the comparison of these sausages with the blank (nitrite-free) and control (full nitrite added) samples on the 1rst, 10th, 20th and 30th days of storage at 3-5 °C were evaluated. Results: The results showed that all chemical compositions were in the ranges reported by other researchers, and nitrite was very effective in preventing the microbial growth. Also about 50 % of the ingoing nitrite could be analyzed in the samples after processing. Moreover, the residual nitrite level declined both during the storage of sausage and after the addition of DRGP. Conclusions: The use of DRGP in combination with nitrite for sausages was more effective in keeping the quality and safety of the refrigerated consumer products as indicated by the lower nitrite levels, microbial count and similar composition as compared to the samples treated with nitrite and without nitrite. Keywords: Dry red grape pomace (DRGP), Sausage, Nitrite, Microbial count
... They are produced in a limited period of the year and their disposal is, in most cases, a problem for wineries since, due to the organic nature, they cannot be directly released in the environment (Spigno et al. 2008). On the other hand, grape marcs, principally composed of seeds and skins, still contain valuable compounds (fibre, phenolic compounds, lipids and sugars) with potential applications in different sectors such as the pharmaceutical, chemical, material, cosmetic and food industries (Arvanitoyannis et al. 2006;Amendola et al. 2010;Basalan et al. 2011;Sri Harsha et al. 2013;Yu & Ahmedna 2013;Denny et al. 2014;Bordiga 2015;Beres et al. 2016;Lingua et al. 2016). ...
Article
Skin powders and aqueous alcohol extracts were obtained from waste marcs from different grape varieties (Barbera, Nebbiolo, Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Moscato and Müller-Thurgau). Both skins and extracts were analysed for the content of chemical contaminants: ochratoxin A (OTA), biogenic amines (BIAs), pesticides and metals. OTA was detected in low concentrations in Barbera, Moscato and Nebbiolo skins, but only in Barbera and Moscato extracts. Cadaverine, putrescine, ethanolamine and ethylamine were found in extracts at very low levels, while potential allergenic amines, tyramine and histamine, were never detected. Different pesticides were present in both skins and extracts. Pb and Cd were found in trace only in the powders, and K, Ca and Mg were the most abundant elements in both skin powders and extracts. Concentrations of the different contaminants were related to fibre content or total phenolics content of powders and extracts, respectively, in order to evaluate their use in the food sector.
... As is well-known, grapes contain large amounts of natural compounds. The previous studies have found that grapes may exerted various beneficial effects on human health, especially for potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects (Lee, Torosyan, & Silverman, 2017;Denny et al., 2014). The grape supplementation ameliorated dietinduced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance (Seo et al., 2015), down-regulated the mRNA expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ in jejunum tissues (Bibi, Kang, Yang, & Zhu, 2016), decreased blood pressure (Pons, Margalef, Bravo, Arola-Arnal, & Muguerza, 2016), and exerted anti-aging effects (Jiao, Wei, Chen, Chen, & Zhang, 2017). ...
Article
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and there is no effective treatment to delay disease progression. Our study was to examine potential protection mechanisms by administering 2% grape powder or 2% grape powder modified by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) diets to APP/PS1 mice for 24 weeks. The grape supplementation altered APP processing by increasing ADAM10 expression and reducing BACE1 and PS1 expression in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, which therefore improved cognitive deficits in mice. The levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were remarkably decreased in serum and hippocampus by grape supplementation. Furthermore, there was a significant enhancement of SOD activities and reduction of MDA levels in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice treated with grape supplementation. Our findings indicated that grape supplementation could be an effective approach for AD intervention, which might be associated with altering APP processing, inhibiting inflammation responses, and enhancing antioxidant capacity.
... Further, RSV can reduce hyperlipidemia by regulating the hepatic expression of lipolysis and lipogenesis enzymes [75] and increasing the hormonal level of adiponectin which regulates lipid metabolism [76]. Moreover, the antioxidant properties of RSV can increase the expression of LDL receptors that decrease the blood LDL levels, protect LDL from oxidation [77], and increase the level of HDL. ...
Article
Fenitrothion (FNT), a commonly used organophosphate, can cause oxidative damage and apoptosis on various organs. However, the underlying mechanisms for FNT-induced cardiotoxicity did not formally report. Here, we have evaluated the possible ameliorative roles of resveratrol (RSV) against FNT-induced cardiac apoptosis in male rats through the sirtuin1 (SIRT1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (c-JNK)/p53 pathway concerning pro-oxidant and inflammatory cytokines. Forty-eight male rats were equally grouped into control, RSV (20 mg/kg), 5-FNT (5 mg/kg), 10-FNT (10 mg/kg), 20-FNT (20 mg/kg), 5-FNT-RSV, 10-FNT-RSV, and 20-FNT-RSV where all doses administrated by gavage for four weeks. The present findings demonstrated that RSV markedly diminished the level of hyperlipidemia and elevation in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total creatine kinase (CK-T), and troponin T (TnT) levels following FNT intoxication. Furthermore, RSV significantly reduced FNT-induced cardiac oxidative injury by reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) level and improving the levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and acetylcholinesterase (AchE). Also, the levels of interleukin-1β (IL1β,), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were significantly attenuated in the co-treated groups. Moreover, RSV alleviated the histopathological changes promoted by FNT and repaired the transcript levels of SIRT1, c-JNK, and caspase-9/3 along with p53 immunoreactivity. In silico study revealed that the free binding energies of RSV complexes with protein and DNA sequences of SIRT1 were lower than docked complexes of FNT. Therefore, RSV reserved myocardial injury-induced apoptosis following exposure to FNT by modulating the SIRT1/c-JNK/p53 pathway through cellular redox status and inflammatory response improvements.
... Among the by-products, the pomace and seeds of different types of grapes have attracted attention for their anti-inflammatory potential and phenolic composition. Denny et al. [209] detected the presence of proanthocyanidins, flavan-3-ol monomers and anthocyanins in the pomace of Petit verdot grapes. The authors further reported that administration of the extract and fractions from Petit verdot grape pomace reduced inflammation by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in mice. ...
... Among the by-products, the pomace and seeds of different types of grapes have attracted attention for their anti-inflammatory potential and phenolic composition. Denny et al. [209] detected the presence of proanthocyanidins, flavan-3-ol monomers and anthocyanins in the pomace of Petit verdot grapes. The authors further reported that administration of the extract and fractions from Petit verdot grape pomace reduced inflammation by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in mice. ...
Article
Full-text available
Plant foods, their products and processing by-products are well recognized as important sources of phenolic compounds. Recent studies in this field have demonstrated that food processing by-products are often richer sources of bioactive compounds as compared with their original feedstock. However, their final application as a source of nutraceuticals and bioactives requires addressing certain hurdles and challenges. This review discusses recent knowledge advances in the use of plant food processing by-products as sources of phenolic compounds with special attention to the role of genetics on the distribution and biosynthesis of plant phenolics, as well as their profiling and screening, potential health benefits, and safety issues. The potentialities in health improvement from food phenolics in animal models and in humans is well substantiated, however, considering the emerging market of plant food by-products as potential sources of phenolic bioactives, more research in humans is deemed necessary.
... The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and CXCL2/ MIP-2 were determined using an ELISA microplate reader according to the protocols supplied by the manufacturers (R&D Systems, Inc). The results were expressed in pg/mL (Denny et al., 2014). ...
Article
This study determined the anti-inflammatory activity, mechanisms of action, and polyphenolic profile of Eugenia leitonii seed extract. The total phenolic content of the hydroethanolic extract from E. leitonii seeds (ESEL) was measured, and its phenolic compounds were identified by LC-MS/MS. The ESEL was submitted to in vitro (RAW264.7) and in vivo assays on neutrophil migration; expression of P-selectin and ICAM-1; release of TNF-α, IL-1β, and CXCL2/MIP-2; NF-κB activation, and carrageenan-induced paw edema. ESEL yielded total phenolic content of 158.74 ± 3.5mg GAE/g, with the presence of flavonols, anthocyanins and ellagitannins. ESEL significantly reduced neutrophil migration; decreased the expression of P-selectin and ICAM-1; decreased the release of TNF-α and CXCL2/MIP-2, as well as NF-kB activation and paw edema in mice. Thus, this extract showed to be a promising source of bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory potential by inhibiting neutrophil migration through a decrease in the release of TNF-α and CXCL2/MIP-2 (NF-κB pathway) in macrophages.
... polyphenols, carotenoids, and fiber) and health-promoting properties (e.g. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesogenic, antitumorigenic, and probiotic activities) of many native plants remain unknown and they are rarely included in modern diets, especially in urban areas [2][3][4]. ...
Article
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Brazilian native fruits are unmatched in their variety, but a poorly explored resource for the development of food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic composition as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of leaves, seeds, and pulp of four Brazilian native fruits (Eugenia leitonii, Eugenia involucrata, Eugenia brasiliensis, and Eugenia myrcianthes). GC-MS analyses of the ethanolic extracts showed the presence of epicatechin and gallic acid as the major compounds in these fruits. Antioxidant activity was measured using synthetic DPPH free-radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching assay, and reactive oxygen species (ROO·, O2·-, and HOCl). The fruit extracts also exhibited antioxidant effect against biologically relevant radicals such as peroxyl, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. In general, the pulps were the fruit fractions that exhibited the lowest antioxidant activities, whereas the leaves showed the highest ones. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in an in vivo model using the carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration assay, which evaluates the inflammatory response in the acute phase. The pulp, seeds, and leaves of these fruits reduced the neutrophil influx by 40% to 64%. Based on these results, we suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of these native fruits is related to the modulation of neutrophil migration, through the inhibition of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules, as well as to the antioxidant action of their ethanolic extracts in scavenging the free-radicals released by neutrophils. Therefore, these native fruits can be useful to produce food additives and functional foods.
... RGP had a high amount of TAC ranging from 0.22 to 3.15 g cyaniding-3-glucoside equivalents/kg (DWB), with the Petit Verdot sample having the highest TAC (13.9 g cyaniding-3-glucoside/kg of polyphenol extract powder), which was consistent with the results from a previous study (10.1 g TAC per kg of Petit Verdot polyphenol extract powder) [26]. This high TAC found in Petit Verdot could be attributed to the variation between grape cultivars and species. ...
Article
Full-text available
To better evaluate potential uses for grape pomace (GP) waste, a comprehensive chemical composition analysis of GP in Virginia was conducted. Eight commercial white and red pomace samples (cv. Viognier, Vidal Blanc, Niagara, Petit Manseng, Petit Verdot, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, and Chambourcin) obtained from different wineries in Virginia, USA were used. For extractives, GPs contained 2.89%-4.66% titratable acids, 4.32%-6.60% ash, 4.62%-12.5% lipids with linoleic acid being the predominant (59.0%-70.9%) fatty acid, 10.4-64.8 g total phenolic content (gallic acid equivalents)/kg GP, 2.09-53.3 g glucose/kg GP, 3.79-52.9 g fructose/kg GP, and trace sucrose. As for non-extractives, GPs contained 25.2%-44.5% lignin, 8.04%-12.7% glucan, 4.42%-7.05% xylan, and trace amounts of galactan, arabinan, and mannan (less than 3% in total). Potential usages of these components were further examined to provide information on better valorization of GP. Considering the valuable extractives (e.g., polyphenols and oil) and non-extractives (e.g., lignin), designing a biorefinery process aiming at fully recover and/or utilize these components is of future significance.
... 139 In this regard, some heavily researched PC such as resveratrol, tannins or luteolin show evidence of reducing symptomatic inflammation in vivo. [151][152][153] 5.1.3. Cardioprotection. ...
Article
Planet globalization, population growth and its consequent need to produce large amounts of food, or individual economic benefits prioritization over the environment health, are factors that that have contributed to the development, in some cases, of a linear-producing modern agriculture. In contrast to traditional and local agriculture, which was based on circular sustainability models, modern agriculture currently produces tons of waste that are accumulated in landfills, creating controversial consequences, instead of being reintroduced into the production chain with a novel purpose. However, these residues from agriculture are rich in bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds -secondary metabolites that are found naturally in plants- which show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and anticancer capacities, among others. Although there are several suitable extractive techniques for isolating these beneficial compounds from agricultural by-products, their industrial application remains without real application at industrial scale. The recovering of functional phenolic compounds can be achieved, obtaining products that can be reinserted in economy as new raw material. The re-utilization of these compounds not only counts on numerous potential applications, such as food and feed additives, functional foods, nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, etc., but also represents a favourable measure for the environment, while results in the obtaining of value-added products. This review summarizes all these aspects that lead to phenolic compounds recovery from agricultural wastes generated in agro-food industries, and their potential applications within a circular and sustainable bioeconomy.
... Agro-food industry waste treatment often involves the extraction and purification of natural compounds that can be employed in functional foods, nutraceuticals, bio-fuels, cosmetics, drugs, and other bio-products [14,15]. The management of winery and grape-juice residues is related to the high content of organic matter as well as the large amount generated over a short period of the year, with the consequent environmental problems of biological and chemical oxygen demand [16]. ...
Article
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Nowadays, approximately 1 billion kg/y of grape stalks, with a remarkable polyphenols content, are produced worldwide. In this paper, the extraction process intensification of polyphenols in water was achieved under ultrasound-assisted recovery, focusing on kinetics and scaling-up factors. Immersion and cup-horn systems were exploited as acoustic cavitation sources, and the total phenolic content (TPC) was chosen to assess the process efficiency. The kinetics were evaluated by Peleg’s hyperbolic model, and the effect of both the initial feedstock granulometry and ultrasound size-reduction were determined. The results were compared with conventional extraction methods (data analysis by ANOVA). The best polyphenols yield was obtained after 45 min of sonication, giving between 29.71 and 31.89 mg/g (gallic acid equivalents over the dry matter). The extracts were characterized using HPLC-DAD, UPLC-ESI-MS/MS, DPPH• assay (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), TEAC assay (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity), and proanthocyanidin content determination. The flow-mode extraction procedure of grape stalks (2 kg) was carried out in a 15 L reactor. A semi-industrial decanter unit and a bag-filter were the keys units of the downstream operations. The resulting particle-free solution underwent nanofiltration on a membrane pilot skid, providing a final polyphenols-enriched stream concentrated up to 355.91%, as shown by the antioxidant activity and TPC.
... The extracts inhibited the activation of NF-κB by LPS/GalN stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo anti-inflammatory properties were also observed for Merlot and Petit Verdot red grape pomace [27,28]. ...
Article
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Diabetes pathogenesis encompasses oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin malfunctioning and partial or total insulin secretion impairment, which leads to a constant hyperglycemia. Polyphenols are known to possess bioactive properties, being Tannat grape skin a natural and sustainable source of these compounds. The present study aimed to find out the bioaccessibility of health-promoting molecules composing a multifunctional extract from Tannat grape skin obtained under hydro-alcoholic-acid conditions. The identification of phenolic compounds in the samples was performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Subsequently, the samples were in vitro digested mimicking the human oral gastrointestinal conditions and the bioactivity of the digest (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and modulation of glucose metabolism) was assessed. Effect on glucose metabolism was estimated by measuring carbohydrases activity and the functionality of glucose transporters of small intestine cells in presence and absence of the digested extract. Flavonoids, phenolic acids and phenolic alcohols were the major phenol compounds detected in the extract. The bioaccessible compounds protected the intestinal cells and macrophages against the induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). In addition, glucose transporters were inhibited by the digested extract. In conclusion, the bioaccessible compounds of the extract, including phenols, modulated key biochemical events involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes such as oxidative stress, inflammation and glucose absorption. The extract was effective under prevention with co-administration conditions supporting its potential for either reducing the risk or treating this disease.
... Os compostos fenólicos não são considerados nutrientes, mas muitos relatos na literatura revelaram seus potenciais benefícios (AVERILLA et al., 2019a;BALEA et al., 2018a;BERES et al., 2017;BRENES et al., 2016;BUCIĆ-KOJIĆ et al., 2020;CALEJA et al., 2017;CHEN et al., 2018;CORRÊA et al., 2017;DENNY et al., 2014). Considerando a função adversa das proteases na saúde da pele, diversas pesquisas tem explorado a capacidade dos polifenóis derivados do bagaço de uva na inibição da colagenase e elastase (YADAV et al., 2015;WITTENAUER et al., 2015). ...
... The winemaking industry produces large quantities of waste materials, and, at present, only minimal amounts of this waste are up-graded or recycled [2]. Nevertheless, in recent years, interest has been increasing in the possible use of vinification by-products for the production of high-value-added natural compounds [3][4][5][6]. ...
Article
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Thinning is a common viticulture practice in warm climates, and it is applied to increase the quality of the harvest. Thinning clusters are usually discarded, and they are considered another oenological industry waste. To valorize this by-product, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of three red varieties (Tempranillo, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Syrah), thinned at three different times between veraison and harvest, were studied: the first at the beginning of the veraison stage, in a low ripening stage; the second in an intermediate ripening stage; and, finally, the third sampling in the highest ripening stage. These by-products showed high values of total phenolic contents (10.66–11.75 mg gallic acid equivalent/g), which is of the same order as or even higher than that found in grape pomace. In thinned grape were identified 24 phenolic compounds, being the flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin) of particular interest, with mean contents ranging from 105.1 to 516.4 mg/kg of thinned grape. Antioxidant activity similar to that of the vintage grape was found. It is concluded that thinned grape is a good source of phenolic compounds. Its content does not depend mainly on the grape variety; however, it has been possible to establish differences based on the maturity stage of the thinning grapes: the intermediate ripeness stage, with a Brix degree in the range of 15–16 for this area, would be the optimum collection time for cluster thinning. In this intermediate ripeness stage, thinning grapes present a higher antioxidant activity and there is also appreciable anthocyanin content, which is not found for the lowest ripeness stage, since these samples present an intermediate composition in all the families of determined phenolic compounds: anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, cinnamic acids, and benzoic acids. It is important to note that the experiments in this study have been carried out with whole tinned grapes, without separating the skin or the seeds.
... Since not all the phenolic compounds present in grapes are transferred into wine during the maceration-fermentation process, grape pomace is considered an important source of phenolic compounds (Beres et al., 2017). Studies have proposed the use of this by-product to obtain phenolic compounds due to their antioxidant attributes (Lingua et al., 2016), antimicrobial (Oliveira et al., 2013), anticancer and anti-inflammation activity properties among others (Denny et al., 2014). ...
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Red wines and their grape pomaces are important sources of phenolic compounds. Inhibition of platelet aggregation is one of the mechanisms proposed for cardioprotective effect of phenolic compounds from wine and grape pomace; however, phenolic content is affected by region, variety and winemaking process. In the present study, antiplatelet effect of red wines and grape pomaces was related to its phenolic content (determined by spectrophotometric techniques) and profile (determined using HPLC-MS/MS). in vitro Anti-platelet aggregation was determined using human platelets. Results showed that Zinfandel wine and Cabernet Sauvignon grape pomace presented the highest phenolic content. Phenolic profiles presented differences in the presence of flavonoids and oligomeric tannins. Results from platelet aggregation showed that Merlot and Petit Verdot wines and Petit Verdot grape pomace sample presented the highest antiaggregant effect. These results indicate that antiplatelet effect could be related to phenolic profile than phenolic content in wines and grape pomaces. Cardioprotective effect of red wines and grape pomace could be related to specific compounds such as monomeric and polymeric flavan-3-ols.
... The crushing and pressing stages of the grapes do not cause changes in the chemical composition, which occur during fermentation in the preparation of red wines (Beres et al., 2017). Moreover, fermentation does not alter the content of bioactive compounds in grape pomace, as these are maintained in both the red and white vinification processes (Denny et al., 2014). ...
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Background Grape pomace, the main winemaking by-product of the wine chain generated after the pressing of grapes in the production of white wine and/or after the fermentation stage in red winemaking. Grape pomace is rich in phenolic compounds, which possess several physiological effects, directly linked to their pharmacological, technological, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Here we address the most relevant techniques to extract and conserve phenolic compounds and reuse grape pomace.Scope and approachSpecifically, in this review we discuss the importance of the extractive technologies applied to grape pomace that make up the principles of green chemistry such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), pulsed electric field (PEF), and ohmic heating (OH) for food industry as they are environmental-friendly processes more ecologic, economic and innovative. These techniques show benefits like reduction at the extraction time, number of unit operations, energy consumption, environmental impacts, economical costs, quantity of solvent and waste production, aiming to guarantee safe and quality extracts and/or products. Summed to the green extraction methods the microencapsulation technologies spray drying, spray cooling, lyophilization, extrusion, and coacervation can be applied to the obtained extracts to improve their shelf life, giving a wider and more sustainable use of them.Key findings and conclusionsTherefore, here we address the importance of reusing and valuing grape pomace, as well as describing extractive technologies that make up the principles of green chemistry and show a wide range of alternatives for preserving these compounds, sensitive to heat, light and oxygen through microencapsulation techniques.
... Merlot grape pomace treatment of adjuvant-induced arthritic rats showed to delay the development of the paw edema as well as diminishing the infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) in the femoro-tibial joint cavities of the legs (Gonçalves et al. 2017). An ethanolic extract from Petit Verdot red grape pomace was found to reduce paw edema and neutrophil migration when compared with control groups as well as reducing TNF-α and IL1-β levels in the peritoneal fluid, representing an interesting source of anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds (Denny et al. 2014). Red wine grape pomace has been reported for preventing the increase of TNF-α and IL-10 levels in a murine model of lethal ischemic heart disease (atherogenic diet-fed SR-B1 KO/ ApoER61h/h mice), which is an inflammatory condition, after 7 days of 20% of grape pomace flour intake (Rivera et al. 2019). ...
Chapter
The reduction of the environmental impact represents an important challenge for the winemaking industry. Red grape by-products are composed of several health-promoting components such as polyphenols and dietary fiber, which may be employed as sustainable food ingredients. Although the bioactive properties of red grape pomace, one of the most abundant byproducts of the winemaking industry worldwide, have been extensively documented by in vitro studies, there is a lack of information on the bioaccessibility, bioavailability and food applications that will subsequently affect the contribution of grape byproduct bioactive compounds to these properties. Therefore, the present chapter aimed to present some of the latest grape byproducts in vitro bioactive properties, as well as novel and updated knowledge related to its bioaccessibility, bioavailability and food applications.
... Epidemiological studies demonstrate that moderate wine drinkers show lower mortality rates than non-drinkers (O'Keefe, Bhatti, Bajwa, DiNicolantonio, & Lavie, 2014) and potential protective effects of grape derived polyphenols against certain types of cancer, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease have also been reported (Shahidi & Ambigaipalan, 2015). Polyphenols are potent antioxidants and have been shown to have antiinflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties, such as inhibition of peroxyl radical-induced DNA strand breakage, protection of low density lipoprotein from oxidative damage, and inhibition of platelet aggregation and of the expression of adhesion molecules and of monocytes/macrophages adhesion to the endothelium (de Camargo, Regitano-d'Arce, Biasoto, & Shahidi, 2014;Denny et al., 2014;Dohadwala & Vita, 2009). Moreover, recent work has also suggested that these compounds act as inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase and lipase activity (de Camargo, Regitano-d'Arce, Biasoto, & Shahidi, 2016). ...
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Peperomia serpens (Piperaceae), popularly known as "carrapatinho", is an epiphyte herbaceous liana grown wild on different host trees in the Amazon rainforest. Its leaves are largely used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat inflammation, pain and asthma. This study investigated the effects of essential oil of Peperomia serpens (EOPs) in standard rodent models of pain and inflammation. The antinociceptive activity was evaluated using chemical (acetic acid and formalin) and thermal (hot plate) models of nociception in mice whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw edema tests in rats croton oil-induced ear edema, as well as cell migration, rolling and adhesion induced by carrageenan in mice. Additionally, phytochemical analysis of the EOPs has been also performed. Chemical composition of the EOPs was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-four compounds, representing 89.6% of total oil, were identified. (E)-Nerolidol (38.0%), ledol (27.1%), α-humulene (11.5%), (E)-caryophyllene (4.0%) and α-eudesmol (2.7%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. Oral pretreatment with EOPs (62.5-500 mg/kg) significantly reduced the writhing number evoked by acetic acid injection, with an ED(50) value of 188.8 mg/kg that was used thereafter in all tests. EOPs had no significant effect on hot plate test but reduced the licking time in both phases of the formalin test, an effect that was not significantly altered by naloxone (0.4 mg/kg, s.c.). EOPs inhibited the edema formation induced by carrageenan and dextran in rats. In mice, EOPs inhibited the edema formation by croton oil as well as the leukocyte and neutrophil migration, the rolling and the adhesion of leukocytes. These data show for the first time that EOPs has a significant and peripheral antinociceptive effect that seems unrelated to interaction with the opioid system. EOPs also displays a significant anti-inflammatory effect in acute inflammation models. This effect seems to be related to components which inhibit the production of several inflammatory mediators. These results support the widespread use of Peperomia serpens in popular medicine to treat inflammation and pain.
Article
In pigs and other monogastric animal, the weaning phase is commonly accompanied by an increased susceptibility to gut disorders such as diarrhoea owing to the induction of an inflammatory process in the intestine during weaning. Given the unfavourable effects of intestinal inflammation on feed consumption, digestive capacity of the intestine and growth of animals, controlling intestinal inflammation is a reasonable approach for the maintenance of performance characteristics of livestock animals. Therefore, this study aimed to study the anti-inflammatory potential of a commercial polyphenol-rich grape seed (GS) and grape marc (GM) meal-based feed additive in a well-established in vitro intestinal epithelium model (polarized Caco-2 cells). The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by studying the effect of an ethanolic extract obtained from the GS and GM meal-based feed additive (GSGME) on the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB, which is considered to play a key role in the induction of weaning-associated intestinal inflammation. The highest non-cytotoxic concentrations of the ethanolic GSGME dose dependently reduced TNFα-induced NF-κB transactivation and decreased TNFα-induced mRNA levels of the NF-κB target genes IL-1β, IL-8, MCP-1 and CXCL1 in Caco-2 intestinal cells (p < 0.05). No effect of the ethanolic GSGME was observed on the cytoprotective Nrf2 pathway in Caco-2 cells as evidenced by an unaltered Nrf2 transactivation and unchanged mRNA levels of Nrf2 target genes, such as GPX-2, NQO1, CYP1A1 and UGT1A1. In conclusion, this study shows that an ethanolic GSGME exerts anti-inflammatory effects in intestinal cells under in vitro conditions. Thus, polyphenol-rich GSGM meal-based feed additives may be useful for the inhibition or prevention of inflammatory processes in the intestine of livestock animals, in particular during states with inappropriate NF-κB activation in the intestinal tissue, such as the weaning phase. Future studies are warranted to prove the in vivo anti-inflammatory potential of GSGM meal-based feed additives.
Article
Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses sustained for a long period of time cause many diseases. A proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of chronic and auto-immune diseases. The present review, supplemented by hitherto unpublished data of the authors and their coworkers, shows that the intake of polyphenols contained in natural sources, such as hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, oleuropein (olives), naringin and hesperidin (Citrus fruits), resveratrol, procyanidins or oligomeric procyanidin (grapes or grape seed extracts), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (green tea) and quercetin (grapes, green tea) etc., are able to modulate chronic inflammatory diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and affect the formation and interaction of advanced glycation end products with their respective receptors. Furthermore, potent activities of fermented grape marc, prepared as a fine lyophilized powder from fresh skin and seeds of a Japanese grape strain (Koshu) and then fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum, are described. Finally, the bioavailability of representative polyphenols will be discussed.
Article
Vitis vinifera, known as the grapevine, is native to southern Europe and Western Asia. Grape seed and skin contain several active components including flavonoids, polyphenols, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, procyanidines, and the stilbene derivative resveratrol. Grape seed extract in particular has been reported to possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic effects such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities, as well as having cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective effects. Thus, the present review attempts to give a short overview on the pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical studies of grape and its active components.
Article
The intrapleural injection of carrageenan in the rat, after a delay of 90 min, resulted in the accumulation of 100 to 300 million neutrophils in the pleural cavity, a 6-fold increase in the numbers of circulating neutrophils and the mobilization of large numbers of neutrophils from bone marrow. Thymidine labeling of bone marrow cells showed that neutrophils underwent a period of maturation (2--3 days) before release into the circulation and accumulation in the pleural cavity. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the accumulation of white cells and fluid. Indomethacin, the most potent of the drugs tested, was equally effective whether given 30 min before or 90 min after carrageenan. This drug had no significant effect on the production or number of white cells in bone marrow, spleen or thymus. In contrast, methotrexate suppressed the inflammatory reaction only after prolonged treatment had produced almost complete depletion of cells in bone marrow and dexamethasone could be given in doses that largely depleted thymus and spleen of their white cells but which had little effect on neutrophil accumulation. It is concluded that neutrophils were mobilized from stores of mature cells in bone marrow and that indomethacin suppressed mobilization of these cells without impairing normal white cell homeostasis.
Article
It has been demonstrated that wine and other products derived from the grape have a high antioxidant capability; as a possible consequence of this, they may have potential benefits for health. The byproducts of the winemaking process represent a source of antioxidant compounds that has been relatively unexploited to date, but that is now the subject of increasing industrial interest. This article describes an approach to the study of the antioxidant activity of grape marcs, stalks, and dregs of both white and red varieties. This activity is compared with the measurements of their content of total polyphenols and of individual polyphenolic compounds, identified and quantified by HPLC. From the results we have been able to establish a positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and the total polyphenolic content of samples, but not with specific compounds.
Article
A method is presented for measuring the edema induced by injection of 0.05 ml of 1% solution of carrageenin, an extract of Chondrus, into the plantar tissues of the hind paw of the rat. Peak edema develops within the first 3 to 4 hours, and is inhibited by pretreatment of the animals by single oral doses of antiinflammatory agents, steroid or non-steroid. Log dose responses to drugs are linear and parallel, and yield potency ratios with relatively narrow confidence limits. The potency ratios obtained for aspirin, phenylbutazone and hydrocortisone are fairly close to the ratios of their respective daily doses in the treatment of rheumatic disease. A potent antihistaminic-antiserotonin compound, cyproheptadine, is without effect on carrageenin-induced edema.
Article
Attachment of leukocytes to the vascular endothelium and the subsequent migration of cells into the vessel wall are early events in atherogenesis. This process requires the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules. Since tea catechins are reputed to promote antiatherogenic activities, we investigated the effects of various tea catechins-i.e., epicatechin (EC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)-on cytokine-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin) in HUVECs by ELISA. EGCG and to a lesser extent ECG prevented the induction of VCAM-1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner after stimulation with TNF-alpha, whereas EC and EGC were without effect. EGCG also inhibited the IL-1beta-induced induction of VCAM-1 expression. Inhibition of cytokine-induced VCAM-1 expression was manifested already on the transcriptional level. Furthermore, EGCG reduced the TNF-alpha-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. EGCG did not influence TNF-alpha-stimulated NF-kappaB activation.
Article
Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) is the main catechin, which is derived from Camellia sinensis plant. Vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAMs) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) mediate the binding of inflammatory cells onto the vascular wall-promoting the early phase of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism(s) by which EGCG inhibits angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced elevation of the membrane associated VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Ang II induced a 40% increase of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in the plasma membrane. EGCG (10 to 50 microM) inhibited the effect of Ang II in a concentration-dependent manner. In parallel, the Ang II-induced elevation of the mRNA expressions of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in HUVEC were completely inhibited by 50 microM EGCG. Since mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) families are involved in vascular inflammation in response to stressful stimuli, we investigated the effects of EGCG on the MAPK signal transduction pathway stimulated by Ang II. EGCG (30 to 50 microM) completely inhibited the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) 1/2 and p38 MAPK. PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2 inhibited the Ang II-induced increase of VCAM-1 but not of ICAM-1 in the plasma membranes. In contrast, SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK inhibited both the Ang II-induced enrichment of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. From these results, it may be concluded that EGCG inhibits the Ang II-induced elevation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 in the HUVEC plasma membranes via inhibition of the p38 MAPK and the ERK1/2 signalling pathways resulting in an inhibition of the VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 transcription.
Article
The ability of muscadine grape skin, seed, or combined skin and seed extracts to inhibit mouse ear inflammation, edema, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration was tested following topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Ethanolic extracts of skins, seeds, or a combination of these from purple (Ison) cultivars were applied to both ears of female Swiss mice 30 minutes after TPA (2 microg per ear) administration. Control mice were treated with indomethacin or 50% ethanol vehicle 30 minutes after TPA. Ear thickness was measured before TPA and at 4 and 24 hours post-TPA administration to assess ear edema. Ear punch biopsies were collected at 24 hours and weighed as a second marker of edema. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) (EC 1.11.1.7) activity was measured in each ear punch biopsy as an index of neutrophil infiltration. Extracts of muscadine skin, seed, and combination treatments significantly reduced ear edema, ear biopsy weight, and MPO activity compared to TPA vehicle control. There was no significant difference in anti-inflammatory activity of the skin and seed extracts. However, an additive effect was observed with the combination treatment that was statistically similar to the anti-inflammatory activity of indomethacin treatment. It can be concluded that muscadine skin, seed, and combination skin/seed extracts exhibit significant topical anti-inflammatory properties.
Article
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of procyanidin intake on the level of inflammatory mediators in rats fed a hyperlipidic diet, which are a model of low-grade inflammation as they show an altered cytokine production. Male Zucker Fa/fa rats were randomly grouped to receive a low-fat (LF) diet, a high-fat (HF) diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with procyanidins from grape seed (HFPE) (3.45 mg/kg feed) for 19 weeks and were then euthanized. We determined biochemical parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6 levels in plasma. Adipose tissue depots and body weight were also determined. We assessed CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha and adiponectin gene expression in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT). As expected, rats fed the HF diet show an enhanced production of CRP. Our results demonstrate that the HFPE diet decreases rat plasma CRP levels but not IL-6 levels. The decrease in plasma CRP in HFPE rats is related to a down-regulation of CRP mRNA expression in the liver and mesenteric WAT. We have also shown a decrease in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the mesenteric WAT. In contrast, adiponectin mRNA is increased in this tissue due to the procyanidin treatment. As previously reported, CRP plasma levels correlate positively with its expression in the mesenteric WAT, suggesting that procyanidin extract (PE) modulates CRP at the synthesis level. CRP plasma levels also correlate positively with body weight. As expected, body weight is associated with the adiposity index. Also, TNF-alpha expression and IL-6 expression have a strong positive correlation. In contrast, the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin correlates negatively with the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the mesenteric WAT. These results suggest a beneficial effect of PE on low-grade inflammatory diseases, which may be associated with the inhibition of the proinflammatory molecules CRP, IL-6 and TNF-alpha and the enhanced production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin. These findings provide a strong impetus to explore the effects of dietary polyphenols in reducing obesity-related adipokine dysregulation to manage cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors.
The world's grape production
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Karlsson, P. (2013). The world's grape production 2000-2012.
/www.bkwine.com/features/ winemaking-viticulture/global-grape-production
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