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... With the addition of 3 g/100 g dietary fibre, the overall acceptability scores obtained were the highest (Sabanis et al., 2009). A recent research had been conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of carob flour on the nutritional properties of gluten-free breads (Tsatsaragkou et al., 2014b). Carob germ is obtained after removal of locust bean gum and it is considered as nutritionally rich component that can be used for preparation of GFBs. ...
... The authors suggested that ITFs like other hydrocolloids through their interaction with water result in gel structure that enhance viscosity of batter and toughen the boundaries of expanding cell which in turn resulted in more CO 2 retention and enhanced loaf volume similarly as other hydrocolloids do. RS addition improves bread elasticity and porosity without increasing crumb firmness (Tsatsaragkou et al., 2014a(Tsatsaragkou et al., , 2014b due to significant decrease in cell density. Addition of modified inulin to formulation from gluten-free bread with a desirable structure, textural and sensory parameters, that can be considered as a gluten-free bread enhances. ...
... reported that the use of pregelatinised tapioca starch in rice flour based bread acted as forming agent with positive effect on bread crumb and dough volume. Resistant starch utilization leads to the improvement of nutritional composition of the GF bread, and it also improves the elasticity in baked products (Tsatsaragkou et al., 2014b). Quinoa and amaranth mostly consists of insoluble polysaccharides including homogalacturonans and rhamnogalactouronan linked with arabinose side chain. ...
Gluten-free bread making is a challenging task as the ingredients used could not mimic wheat gluten functionality. Gluten protein complex is considered vital for successful bread making. Commercially available gluten-free breads face both social and scientific challenges in comparison to conventional gluten-containing counterparts in terms of quality and acceptability. Doughs derived from gluten-free flours exhibit poor rheological properties and the resultant breads are characterized by sensory and nutritional defects. Addition of starches, hydrocolloids, proteins, enzymes, and emulsifiers to gluten-free flours are encouraged in order to counter the technological problems by enhancing dough rheological characteristics. Gluten-free bread (GFB) from nutritional point of view, lacks protein, vitamins and minerals and effective ways are required to be explored to enhance the fibre, protein, vitamin and mineral content of GFB while maintaining low glycaemic index. Fortification of GFB with alternate flours such as flours from pulses, gluten-free cereals like millet, rice, sunflour etc., bran or dietary fibre, nuts, pseudocereals or any oil seed is therefore recommended.
... The connection between applied stress and material response to this stress (flow or deformation) is described by rheological properties  (pp. . Investigation of bread dough's rheological properties is vital, considering its complex structure and the significant changes occurring in each technological process when different exposure times to deformation and the deformation intensity are applied [89,90]. ...
... The principle of dynamic oscillatory measurements is based on the subjection of the examined viscoelastic system to sinusoidal oscillatory stress/deformation in a certain time period, and recording the system's response to the applied deformation in the form of sinusoidal stress  (pp.   (pp. 159-213). ...
The evidenced relevance of dietary fibers (DF) as functional ingredients shifted the research focus towards their incorporation into gluten-free (GF) bread, aiming to attain the DF contents required for the manifestation of health benefits. Numerous studies addressing the inclusion of DF from diverse sources rendered useful information regarding the role of DF in GF batter’s rheological properties, as well as the end product’s technological and nutritional qualities. The presented comprehensive review aspires to provide insight into the changes in fiber-enriched GF batter’s fundamental rheological properties, and technological, sensory, and nutritional GF bread quality from the insoluble and soluble DF (IDF and SDF) perspective. Different mechanisms for understanding IDF and SDF action on GF batter and bread were discussed. In general, IDF and SDF can enhance, but also diminish, the properties of GF batter and bread, depending on their addition level and the presence of available water in the GF system. However, it was seen that SDF addition provides a more homogenous GF batter structure, leading to bread with higher volumes and softer crumb, compared to IDF. The sensory properties of fiber-enriched GF breads were acceptable in most cases when the inclusion level was up to 7 g/100 g, regardless of the fiber type, enabling the labeling of the bread as a source of fiber.
... According to Leão, Botelho, Oliveira and Franca (2018), the pequi exocarp + mesocarp flour composition has a high total dietary fiber content corresponding to approximately 45 g 100 g -1 , which contributes to the decrease in gluten content. According to Borges, Pirozi, Chaves, Germani and Paula (2011a), Vilhalva et al. (2011), Föste et al. (2014 and Tsatsaragkou, Gounaropoulos and Mandala (2014), the higher the fiber content present in the composition of flours from different plant sources, the greater the effect on viscoelastic protein formation, due to the high water absorption capacity. Demirkesen, Mert, Sumnu and Sahin (2010) report, in their studies using chestnut flour in gluten-free formulation, that the water absorption process occurs from the interaction between the hydroxyl groups present in the fiber structure with the water used as an ingredient for bread formulation. ...
... According to Borges et al. (2011a), Vilhalva et al. (2011), Föste et al. (2014, Tsatsaragkou et al. (2014) and Stoll, Flôres and Thys (2015) in the case of breads, the presence of fiber may promote volume reduction due to the high absorption capacity of part of the water available for gluten formation and the lower tolerance to the fermentation process. ...
In this work, the effect of wheat flour and water replacement by pequi pulp and flour on the bread development and preparation enriched with this fruit was studied. Two experimental designs were used for two independent variables, the first evaluating the wheat flour partial replacement by pequi husk flour (x1) and pequi pulp flour (x2). The second design evaluated the wheat flour and water partial replacement by pequi husk flour (x1) and pequi pulp (x2), respectively. At the same time, a control test was conducted (without the addition of pequi flour and pulp) for comparison. The evaluated dependent variables of the bread quality characteristics were: dough volume; expansion rate; specific volume and density; texture profile and gluten content. It was possible to verify that only the gluten content was influenced by the replacement of wheat flour by pequi husk flour, whereas, only the specific volume was influenced by the replacement of water by pequi pulp. In general, the best replacement range was obtained with the formulation using between 0.75 to 2.5% pequi husk flour; up to 20% pequi pulp flour and between 5 and 35% of pequi pulp.
... (Korus et al. 2009). Similar good results were found when using rice and carb composite flour with 15% RS2 (Tsatsaragkou et al. 2014). Besides, when evaluating the nutritional aspects of gluten-free bread formulated with commercial maize RS2 or lab-scale-produced maize RS3 (debranched or not), Giuberti et al. (2016) found a marked decrease in the RDS (up to 54% lower) and the eGI (up to 30% reduction), and important increases in the SDS and RS fractions, with a dietary fiber content 2.7 times higher than the control without RS. ...
... Apart from the low-postprandial response to glucose and insulin that resistant starch exerts due to its resistance to α-amylase and glucoamylase digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (thus preventing/controlling diabetes mellitus and obesity), it also offers protection against colorectal cancer and hypocholesterolemic action (Birt et al. 2013;Englyst & Cummings 1986;Topping & Clifton 2001). Technologically, RS plays similar gel-structure-forming, CO 2 -retention properties as hydrocolloids and does not increase crumb firmness but improves elasticity and gel porosity in GF bakery products (Tsatsaragkou et al. 2014;Witczak et al. 2016). Unfortunately, bulk of bananas produced in Nigeria is often lost to postharvest deteriorative processes and up to 30-100% losses have been reported (Ayo-Omogie et al. 2010;Oluwalana et al. 2005). ...
... Apart from the low-postprandial response to glucose and insulin that resistant starch exerts due to its resistance to α-amylase and glucoamylase digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (thus preventing/controlling diabetes mellitus and obesity), it also offers protection against colorectal cancer and hypocholesterolemic action (Birt et al. 2013;Englyst & Cummings 1986;Topping & Clifton 2001). Technologically, RS plays similar gel-structure-forming, CO 2 -retention properties as hydrocolloids and does not increase crumb firmness but improves elasticity and gel porosity in GF bakery products (Tsatsaragkou et al. 2014;Witczak et al. 2016). Unfortunately, bulk of bananas produced in Nigeria is often lost to postharvest deteriorative processes and up to 30-100% losses have been reported (Ayo-Omogie et al. 2010;Oluwalana et al. 2005). ...
Rising incidence of nutritional deficiency and chronic diseases among celiacs continuously drives the food industry to search for novel functional ingredients high in health-promoting constituents such as dietary fibre and protein. This study investigated the impact of unripe banana flour and sesame meal addition as functional ingredients to enhance the dietary fibre, nutritional profile and functional properties of gluten-free sorghum cookies. Gluten-free sorghum cookies were prepared using composite sorghum flours (SF) formulated by alternately replacing SF (30–65%) with unripe Cardaba banana flour (CBF) (30–65%) and sesame meal (SM) (5%). Nutritional composition, mineral molar ratios, dietary fibre and functional properties of the flours and cookies were assessed using standard methods. Physical parameters including diameter, thickness, spread ratio and weights as well as the sensory attributes of the cookies were evaluated. While sesame meal addition significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) influenced protein enhancement, CBF inclusion significantly enhanced ash, insoluble dietary fibre, mineral contents and functional properties of sorghum flours and cookies. The significantly ( p ≤ 0.05) higher values in thickness, diameter and spread ratio composite cookies containing higher CBF [CBC65 (cookie with 65% CBF) had the highest values] may indicate CBF addition enhanced the cookie-making potential of sorghum flour. Similarly, its highest flavor, aftertaste and overall acceptability scores as compared to the control (100% wheat cookie) or other composite cookies may have been influenced by the combined sweetness of banana’s natural flavor and sugars produced during baking. The incorporation of Cardaba banana flour into sorghum cookie formulation may hold interesting potential as a rich source of dietary fibre and other bioactive compounds as well as aiding functional and sensory enhancement of sorghum flour. Defatted sesame seed flour when incorporated into this blend at a ratio not more than 5% may aid in the production of organoleptically acceptable enriched gluten-free sorghum:Cardaba banana:defatted sesame cookies that could offer nutritional and health benefits for both gluten-sensitive and non-gluten-sensitive consumers.
... Ground roasted carob pods constitute natural sweeteners, commonly employed as caffeine-and theobromine-free cacao and coffee surrogates (Bengoechea et al., 2008). Carob pod flour has been evaluated as a functional ingredient for wheat bread (Salinas et al., 2015) and successfully used as a suitable ingredient to produce gluten-free baked products as well (Tsatsaragkou et al., 2014). Despite its interesting properties, nowadays carob is considered a neglected or underutilized crop, which is maintained only in semiarid and marginal soils (Batlle & Tous, 1997). ...
Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) seed germ flour (SGF) is a by-product resulting from the extractionextraction of locust bean gum (E410), which is a texturing and thickening ingredient used for food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. SGF is a protein-rich edible matrix and contains relatively high amounts of apigenin 6,8-C-di- and poly-glycosylated derivatives. In this work, we prepared durum wheat pasta containing 5 and 10 % (w/w) of SGF and carried out inhibition assays against type-2 diabetes relevant carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes, namely porcine pancreatic α-amylase and α-glycosidases from jejunal brush border membranes. Nearly 70-80% of the SGF flavonoids were retained in the pasta after cooking in boiling water. Extracts from cooked pasta fortified with 5 or 10% SGF inhibited either α-amylase by 53% and 74% or α-glycosidases by 62 and 69%, respectively. The release of reducing sugars from starch was delayed in SGF-containing pasta compared to the full-wheat counterpart, as assessed by simulated oral-gastric-duodenal digestion. By effect of starch degradation, the SGF flavonoids were discharged in the water phase of the chyme, supporting a possible inhibitory activity against both duodenal α-amylase and small intestinal α-glycosidases in vivo. SGF is a promising functional ingredient obtained from an industrial by-product for producing cereal-based foods with reduced glycaemic index.
... Since F3 contained the lowest moisture content of other rice bread formulations, the possible reason for moisture loss might be due to the result of baking-related evaporation, drying out during the storage period, and the equilibration of moisture between crust and crumb . Previous studies on the gluten-free bread revealed comparable moisture content to our research: 31.36% to 43.66%  and 31.5% to 39.1% . According to Ayub et al. , the permissible range for the typical moisture content of bread for day-one storage is between 35% and 45%. ...
Current gluten-free food development trends tend to favour pigmented rice flour. Bario Merah Sederhana is a type of red-pigmented rice that is indigenous to Sarawak, Malaysia. This research investigates the nutritional, texture, and sensory properties of gluten-free rice bread produced from a composite of BMS rice flour and potato starch, producing samples referred to as F1 (100:0), F2 (90:10), F3 (80:20), and F4 (70:30). The gluten-free rice bread formulations demonstrated higher ash and crude fibre content and lower carbohydrate content than wheat bread. However, the crude protein content of the bread decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with a decreased amount of rice flour, owing to wheat flour containing greater protein. The crumb of rice bread appeared to be darker due to the red pigment of rice flour; in contrast, the crust was lighter than the control sample, possibly due to a lower Maillard reaction. Among rice bread formulations, F4 demonstrated the lowest hardness in dough and bread, as well as the highest stickiness and springiness in dough and bread, respectively. The wheat bread received the highest rating (p < 0.05) in the sensory test; nonetheless, among the rice breads, F4 was considered to be an acceptable formulation owing to its high score in colour (7.03), flavour (5.73), texture (6.03), and overall acceptability (6.18). BMS has potential in gluten-free rice breads; the formulation of 70% rice flour combined with 30% potato starch was indicated to be acceptable.
... Indeed, Vittadini and Vodovotz (2003) report a decrease in the water content of soy-containing bread when increasing the amounts of soya flour. Tsatsaragkou et al. (2014) reveal that the moisture content of gluten-free model doughs ranges between 31.5 and 39.1%. F10 bread (50:50 rice and mixture flours) yields the highest specific volume values (5.84 ± 0.25, < 0.05). ...
This study aimed to develop nutritious, gluten-free bread with high quality characteristics using a mixture of chickpea, carob and rice flours as substitutes of wheat flour. To optimize the bread formulation, a Box-Behnken experimental design was conducted to evaluate the effect of the corresponding flour blend addition, proofing time and water amount addition on the physicochemical, technological and sensory properties of the obtained formulated bread. The optimized formulation was calculated to contain 70% of mixture flour and 100% of water, with a proofing time of 40 minutes. This formulation produced bread with greater specific volume (3.73±0.37 cm³/g) and less baking loss (22.98±0.94%) than those of control (+) bread (2.93±0.21 cm³/g and 31.65±0.72%, respectively). Findings proved that the mixture flour based on chickpeas, carob and rice represents a good alternative to make gluten-free bread with acceptable baking properties.
... Therefore, they are considered an ideal food for diabetes (Youssef et al., 2013). Carob flour (from carob seeds) is used to manufacture dietetic products and products for celiac patients (gluten-free products) (Tsatsaragkou et al., 2014). ...
Nutraceuticals are defined as foods or part of foods that, due to their nutritional characteristics, provide health benefits, in addition to basic nutrition, whether in the prevention or adjuvant treatment. In Brazil, the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) does not recognise the term “nutraceutical” and use the term “Dietary supplements”, which according to ANVISA are intended to provide nutrients, bioactive substances, enzymes, or probiotics in addition to food. With this positioning, nutraceuticals have stood out because of their impact on the consumer’s healthy ageing. The central objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the vanity on the consumer awareness of nutraceutical products. The data collection was made through a web survey with 214 participants, residents in São Paulo and Campinas, Brazil, aged 18 years or older. The study applied a survey to test the relationship between vanity and consumer awareness. Additionally, observational research was conduct at pharma retail stores to investigate the actual communication strategies adopted for the nutraceutical’s brands in Brazil. The results indicate an incipient use of marketing strategies that value the aspects of well-being and vanity, including packaging or point of sales display. The results promote insightful recommendations for pharma marketers and retailers aiming to enhance the consumer awareness towards nutraceuticals products with the anchorage in well-being and vanity.
... In this study, swelling of the protein (gluten from wheat flour and caroubin from carob flour) were higher in the blended flour containing 6%-12% CF than the other blended samples. This can be the effect of water holding capacity of caroubin described as also gluten-like protein and dietary fibre content of CF (Tsatsaragkou et al. 2014). ...
Keçiboynuzu unu, çeşitli biyoaktif bileşikler, yüksek oranda lif, protein, vitamin ve mineral içerdiğinden fırıncılık ürünleri formülasyonlarında yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Ekşi hamur fermantasyonu, fırıncılık ürünlerinin duyusal, tekstürel ve besinsel özelliklerini geliştirmede iyi bir araç olarak kabul edilmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, keçiboynuzu unu ilave edilmiş Tip I ekşi hamurunun, ekmek yapımında kullanım potansiyelinin araştırılmasıdır. Keçiboynuzu unu ile karıştırılmış unlarda (%0, %2, %4, %6, %8 ve %12) ampirik reolojik ölçümler de yapılmıştır. Keçiboynuzu ununun artmasıyla su absorbsiyonu ve hamur gelişme süresi önemli ölçüde artmıştır (P ≤ 0.05). Numunelerin enerji ve uzayabilirlik değeri kontrol numunesine göre azalmıştır (P ≤ 0.05). Ekşi hamura keçiboynuzu unu ilavesinin artmasıyla ekşi hamurun maya sayısı azalmıştır (P ≤ 0.05). Keçiboynuzu unu ilavesi ile ekşi hamurda, kontrole (%0 keçiboynuzu) göre Laktik asit bakterilerinin gelişiminin teşvik edildiği belirlenmiştir (P ≤ 0.05). Fakat, artan keçiboynuzu ilavesi ile ekşi hamurlar arasında istatistiksel olarak bir fark gözlemlenmemiştir (P>0.05). Ekşi hamur fermentasyonu yolu ile keçiboynuzu unu kullanımı, aynı oranda keçiboynuzu unu içeren ticari mayalı ekmeğe göre ekmeğin kalite özelliklerini artırmıştır. Formülasyondaki en yüksek keçiboynuzu unu konsantrasyonu (%8 ve %12) sertliğin artmasına (P ≤ 0.05) neden olmuştur. Bu durum aynı zamanda ekmeğin spesifik hacmindeki azalma ile ilişkilendirilmiştir. Ticari mayalı ekmeğe, keçiboynuzu unu ilavesi, ekmeklerin parlaklık (L*) değerini azaltmıştır (P ≤ 0.05). Ekşi hamur fermantasyonu, keçiboynuzu unu katkılı ekmeklerin duyusal özelliklerini de geliştirmiştir. Ekşi hamur yapımında düşük seviyede keçiboynuzu unu kullanımı (%2-%6), bu çalışmadaki duyusal parametrelerin hiçbirini olumsuz yönde etkilememiştir.
... Carobs are also suggested to treat diarrhea symptoms, and possess anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-diabetic effects due to their high antioxidants, polyphenols, and high content in fibers (46) rendering them suitable for people with diabetes (45). Carob flour (from carob seeds) is used to manufacture gluten free dietetic products for celiac patients (47). ...
... However, the differences in color values among the cinnamon roll samples may be due to the variation in the percentage of the composite flour for each treatment. Treatments containing a higher level of lupine flour had higher redness values due to the higher protein level that causes the incidence of the Maillard reaction . Moreover, treatments containing a higher amount of resistant starch had lower redness due to a lower content of protein [34,35]. ...
Celiac disease (CD) is an immunological mediated disorder that occurs to genetically
susceptible individuals who suffer from gluten consumption. Therefore, the most effective treatment of CD is a life-long gluten-free diet. This study aimed to produce a nutritious gluten-free cinnamon roll, where resistant starch and lupine flour were used instead of wheat flour, in addition to 10% flaxseed flour and a fixed amount of hydrocolloid (1% xanthan gum). Eight different gluten-free cinnamon roll treatments (T1–T8) were produced with different ratios of resistant starch and lupine flour according to the following percentages (85:5, 80:10, 75:15, 70:20, 65:25, 60:30, 55:35 and 50:40, respectively). The proximate analysis, physical properties, color measurements and sensory evaluation of all cinnamon roll treatments and flours were determined. It was found that lupine and flaxseed flours in all different treatments had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher levels of ash, protein, lipid and crude fiber compared to wheat flour treatment (control treatment). However, carbohydrate levels were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in control treatment compared with treatments 3–8. Gluten-free cinnamon rolls had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic
acid and linolenic acid) than control. Further, there were significant differences in lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) color values between the gluten-free and control treatments. The control cinnamon roll significantly (p ≤ 0.05) had the highest level of lightness and the lowest level of redness. The sensory evaluation obtained by consumer evaluation indicated that control cinnamon rolls significantly (p ≤ 0.05) received the highest score in overall impression, overall flavor, hardness and aftertaste. However, treatment 5 significantly (p ≤ 0.05) received the highest score in all the sensory scores in comparison with other gluten-free treatments. It is possible to develop a quality
gluten-free cinnamon roll with respect to nutritional value manifested in higher levels of protein, fibers, unsaturated acids and prebiotics with acceptable sensory attributes.
... WPC as a protein-rich dairy derivative is used in diverse food processing applications such as gluten-free baking (Tsatsaragkou et al. 2014), meat processing (Abbasi et al. 2019), as salt substitute in soup preparation (Smith et al. 2016) and formulation of soft drinks, (Chavan et al. 2015) but more prominently used as a nutraceutical for muscle development (Krause et al. 2018). It is a derivative of whey, a by-product of the diary industry known to be of potential microbiological hazards and environmental air pollution if improperly disposed. ...
Probiotics have gained increased focus in recent years for the formulation of functional foods. On another note, valorisation of food by-products such as whey which causes serious environmental pollution into whey protein concentrate and associated foods of health benefits has been on the rise. This study was designed with the intent of contriving a novel, synbiotic whey-based product with the innovative employment of cereals (oats and wheat bran) as prebiotics. Lactobacillus plantarum was adopted as probiotic microorganism based on its superlative performance in experimental tests and WPC-70 (70% Whey Protein Concentrate) was taken as substrate. The proteolytic potential of the probiotic strain was analyzed by o-phthaldial-dehyde (OPA) test and found to be 101.5 and 96.8 µg/ml for wheat bran and oat-based products, with subsequent affirmation by SDS-PAGE. Starter culture concentration and fermentation time were optimized on the basis of growth activity, as indicated by viable count and pH. Turmeric juice was incorporated for the improvement of the organoleptic properties and was found to possess no inhibitory effect on the probiotic at that concentration. Refrigerated storage for 25 days fostered a reduction in pH and cell viability (p ≤ 0.05).
... Resistant starch plays a vital role in improving the bread quality and also reduces the energy of food and enhances its digestive functions . Moreover, RS improves the elasticity and porosity of the bread without increasing the crumb firmness (Tsatsaragkou et al., 2014). Korus et al. (2009) documented that the partial replacement of corn starch with tapioca and corn resistant starch preparations at increasing levels resulted in gluten-free doughs with increased elastic behaviour (increase of both storage and loss moduli, and G′ > G″) and rheological properties typical of a week gel (tan δ > 0.1). ...
For successful bread making process gluten has an important role to play. But many of the individuals are susceptible to gluten and are associated with the development of gluten related disorders even on ingestion of small amount of gluten. The increasing incidence of gluten related disorders promotes worldwide interests for development of gluten free bread. However the exclusion of gluten from bread formulation has unfavourable effects on the bread making process and sensory attributes, and raises technological challenges in terms of making good quality bread. Gluten-free bread has poor visual, textural characteristics, low nutritional value, decreased mouth feel and flavour, as well as a shorter shelf-life. The low quality of gluten-free bread still remains a challenge in gluten-free bread making. In response to this, the use of novel alternative flours, functional and nutritional ingredients, processing aids, additives, innovative techniques, and their combinations are being used to improve the quality characteristics of gluten-free bread. This book chapter will present the main problems related to gluten-free bread making technology and to summarise the approaches which can be used to improve the technological, nutritional, and sensory properties of gluten-free bread.
... Pongjaruvat et al. (2014) reported that the use of pregelatinised tapioca starch in rice flour based bread acted as forming agent with positive effect on bread crumb and dough volume. Resistant starch utilization leads to the improvement of nutritional composition of the GF bread, and it also improves the elasticity in baked products (Tsatsaragkou et al., 2014b). Quinoa and amaranth mostly consists of insoluble polysaccharides including homogalacturonans and rhamnogalactouronan linked with arabinose side chain. ...
Use of additives in gluten-free breads is mainly to improve the properties vital to quality bread making as the alternative ingredients used could not mimic wheat gluten functionality. Incorporation of additives in dough, therefore improve the organoleptic properties by imitating some of the functions of wheat gluten. Most commonly used additives are hydrocolloids, enzymes, emulsifiers, dietary fibre, proteins, starch, salts, acids and minerals. These agents, in general help to retain carbon dioxide gas released from yeast fermentation during proving and accomplish binding of starch granules thereby improving dough cohesiveness. Hydrocolloids prevent staling of gluten-free bread and improve its sensory and structural characteristics. Emulsifiers have proven to be beneficial in improving texture and softness of bread crumb and crust and enhancing loaf volume. Dietary fibre enhances color and loaf volume in gluten-free bread. Enzymes increase the functionality of proteins and improve dough handling properties. The gluten-free breads are fortified with vitamins like B and D, and minerals (calcium, iron, zinc and magnesium) in wake of their low nutritional, vitamins and mineral content.
... A aplicação de algumas matérias-primas no processamento pode favorecer significativamente o valor nutricional dos pães sem glúten, entre os ingredientes utilizados em tais produtos, podem-se encontrar farinhas de cereais como milho e arroz (Matos e Rosell, 2013;Bourekoua et al., 2016), de pseudocereais como amaranto e quinoa (Burešová et al., 2017;Turkut et al., 2016). Farinhas de outros vegetais como alfarroba, castanha, bolota (Korus et al., 2015;Tsatsaragkou et al., 2014). Além de farinhas de leguminosas como grão-de-bico e tremoço (Levent e Bilgiçli, 2011;Miñarro et al., 2012). ...
... Samples also presented similar (tapioca RS3) or even lower (maize RS2, or the combination of maize RS2 with tapioca RS3) crumb hardness and slower staling rate (in all cases) than the control without RS. In a different study, Tsatsaragkou, Gounaropoulos, and Mandala (2014) optimized the concentration of maize RS2 in a rice starch-based gluten-free model bread formulation. Then, in a second step, the authors optimized the carob flour concentration for the previously optimized formula. ...
Resistant starches (RS) are those that by localization, physical, or chemical causes, are unavailable for enzymatic attack, thus acting as dietary fiber in our organism. Several beneficial effects of the RS intake have been reported, among them, their ability to modulate glycemia, cholesterolemia, and the homeostasis of gut microbiota, the prevention of colonic cancer and metabolic diseases, the improvement of the immune response, and the contribution to the management of obesity and body weight. RS can be used as an alternative to obtain fiber-enriched foods such as bread, muffins, cakes, and cookies, as well as pasta and noodles, without drastically modifying the sensory and technological aspects that consumers expect from these traditional wheat-based products. They are also a smart alternative to incorporate fiber in gluten-free products. The present review summarizes the main recent advances on the study of the metabolic effects of RS intake, several examples of RS obtained from different sources in the native state, retrograded or chemically modified, and also addresses examples of the employment of different types of RS in the formulation and characterization of more healthful starch-based products.
... Gluten-free bread from rice flour substituted with carob flour and resistant starch (RS) was investigated (K. Tsatsaragkou et al., 2014). Carob flour addition increases the water absorption of the dough. ...
Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is an evergreen tree that belongs to the Leguminosae family and is typical of the Mediterranean basin. It is well known for its valuable locust bean gum obtained from carob seeds. However, the food industry can obtain different carob products from carob fruit after processing. Carob products are good sources of dietary fibre, sugars, and a range of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and D-pinitol.
Scope and approach
Bioactive compounds present in carob fruit and its derived products help control many health problems such as diabetes, heart diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders due to their anti-hyperglycaemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. So, carob products have a great potential to be used as a functional food ingredient.
Key findings and conclusions
This article focuses on carob characteristics and processing, chemical composition, health benefits, and applications in food formulations to explore the potential of carob in developing a wide variety of health-beneficial food products.
... Carob flour (from carob seeds) is used to make dietetic products and products for celiac patients (gluten-free products) . On the other hand, acorns, the fruits of oak, have been used for edible purposes as a staple food for centuries . ...
Research on the development of carob and oak acorn recovery processes is very well developed today. Our research has resulted in the implementation of technologies for transforming carob and oak into various by-products such as; coffee production from carob beans and oak acorns. We have studied the physicochemical characteristics, nutritional, microbiological, biological activity and caffeine analysis of our samples of coffees produced from locust bean and oak acorn. Subsequently, these two coffees were integrated into the production of an organic biscuit in order to develop an innovative product with high added value. The results obtained show us that the sensory analysis has shown that the cookies have satisfactory organoleptic characteristics. The sensory analysis showed that the biscuit with the mixture of the two coffees has the highest percentage of appreciation by the tasting panel. Microbiological analysis showed that the cookies are free from coliforms, yeasts and molds. They contain a low level of total flora. Cookies can therefore be stored for a long time and could be sold as an important bio product for human health.
... La dureté du pain sans gluten contenant de l'amidon de tapioca a diminué par rapport au pain control sans gluten en raison d'une influence positive sur sa température de gélatinisation (Witczak et al., 2015). Il a également agi comme agent élastique dans les produits à base de riz (Tsatsaragkou et al., 2014). Ceci expliquerait l'amélioration de l'élasticité du pain sans gluten type 'khobz eddar' par l'incorporation de l'amidon de tapioca. ...
The traditional bread "khobz eddar" is an important food for the Algerian population, due to the fact that it is a homemade product produced using natural ingredients. Developing this product with gluten-free ingredients for celiac patients is a challenge that deserves to be investigated. The aim of this study was to develop a natural gluten-free product for Algerian celiac patients based on the traditional "khobz eddar" bread flow diagram. Hydro-thermal treatment, starches (tapioca and corn) and hydrocolloїds (agar-agar, carob gum and arabic gum) as well as Moringa leaves and pomegranate seed powder are studied for their improving potential of the physical, sensory and nutritional characteristics of gluten-free "khobz eddar" bread type. The household’s survey in the commune of Constantine allowed to establish the flow diagram of the targeted bread. The response surface methodology optimized gluten-free production based on a rice/Fieldbeans and corn/Fieldbeans formula, improved by a treated rice and treated corn, respectively. The results showed a better volume and hardness of corn-based bread compared to that of rice. On the other hand, the sensory results depicted a better appreciation of rice-based bread than that of corn. The approach through a definitive screening design was used to locate the effect of starch/hydrocolloids interactions on the technological quality of gluten-free bread based on the rice/Fieldbeans formula. The effect of additive interactions has been reported and optimum bread has been technologically and sensorly characterized. The results show that gum arabic has an improving effect on all the quality parameters. Two types of plant ingredients were used to enrich gluten-free bread, pomegranate seed powder and Moringa leaf powder, with different levels (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10% w/w). The technological and sensory quality was evaluated. The assay of total polyphenols and the determination of antioxidant activity by different methods were performed. The results reported optimums with additions of 7.5% of the pomegranate seed powder and 2.5% of the Moringa leaf powder. The results obtained in the different parts of this study are of high interest and deserve to be developed and a complementary work has been done in order to diversify the gluten-free formulation. Combinations between improvers were carried out, three types of formulations were proposed: a first combination of treated rice and different levels of gum arabic (0.5, 1 and 1.5%), a second one with treated rice combined with three levels of the Pomegranate seed powder (2.5, 5 and 7.5%) and a third one between processed rice and three levels of Moringa leaf powder (2.5, 5 and 7.5%). The main results indicate that for all combinations, the specific volume increased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to optimum breads with single improvers and gluten-free control bread. The best results for texture parameters are thus obtained with gluten-free breads made by incorporating improvers in combination. The best combination between improvers is obtained with treated rice and 1.5% of arabic gum, then comes the combination of rice treated with 5% of the seed powder of pomegranates and finally the combination of rice treated with 2.5 % of the powder from Moringa leaves.
There is a constant increase in the attention being paid to food quality and the effects of food on human health among consumers. Vegetable milk is among the foods whose consumption worldwide has increased because, when compared to animal-derived milk, it offers numerous benefits for human health. The aim of this research work was to use vegetable milk to obtain yogurt-like products enriched with different concentrations of carob seed flour, which has a double function: to modify, and thus perfect, the rheological characteristics of vegetable-milk-based yogurt-like samples and to increase their nutritional value. The rheological parameters of the obtained samples were studied both in static and dynamic conditions, confirming that carob seed flour, especially at the highest used concentrations (0.75%; 1%), allows one to obtain products characterized by a good stability and suitable rheological characteristics. The obtained yogurt-like products may also be consumed by celiac subjects, since carob seed flour is a gluten-free flour, and allow celiac consumers to combine a gluten-free diet with a diet free of animal derivatives. Furthermore, the addition of carob flour allows one to obtain a tasty product thanks to the sweet taste of the carob seed flour.
... Carob flour was used for enrichment in different grain-based products. Various studies were carried out on various subjects including gluten-free bread (Tsatsaragkou et al., 2014), wheat bread enriched with lentil or carob flour (Turfani et al., 2017), pasta enriched with carob flour for improving antioxidant properties (Seczyk et al., 2016), soy and banana flour substituted cake where carob flour was substituted with cocoa (Rosa et al., 2015), pasta enriched with carob fiber (Biernacka et al., 2017), the effect of carob flour on gluten-free cakes and cookies ( Roman et al., 2017), and the effect of carob powder on the sensory and physicochemical properties of the muffins (Pawlowska et al., 2018). ...
In the present study, soy flour (SF) and carob flour (CF) were used as a substitute for wheat flour (WF) in 6 different pasta formulations. The effect of SF and CF on the quality properties of the enriched pasta formulations was investigated. With the increase in SF and CF, ash, protein, dietary fiber content of the pasta increased whereas moisture, fat, and carbohydrate contents decreased. With the increase in CF, a significant decrease was observed in the L* (brightness) value and an increase in b* value with an addition of SF. The addition of SF and CF reduced the amount of substance passed to the water, improving the quality of the pasta. According to the results of sensory analysis, the highest values in terms of the overall evaluation were determined in the D (80 WF: 0 SF: 20 CF) and the E (80 WF: 20 SF: 0 CF) samples, and it was determined that up to 20% SF and CF can be recommended. According to the study results, it was thought that SF and CF can be used as functional food additives in different food formulations to improve the functional and nutritional properties of food products. Abstract e-ISSN : 2618-5946
... Yousif & Alghzawi (2000), in roasted carob powder (CF) samples, have reported pH 4.81, 9.03% moisture, and 2.48% ash content. Tsatsaragkou et al. (2014) have reported a 9.35% moisture content in carob flour. Differences in chemical properties can be associated with the roasting temperature and time applied in carob flour (CF) production. ...
In this study, the use of carob flour (CF) was investigated to improve the nutritional, antioxidative, and sensory properties
of the noodles produced by the traditional method. In traditional noodle production, carob flour was used as a substitute to
wheat flour at six different ratios (0% -control: Cmilk, Cwater, 10-40%, CF; w/w). In the noodle samples, L* and b* decreased
whereas a* value increased as the CF substitution ratio increased. Regarding the CF substitution, which was found to be a
natural antioxidant source rich in phenolic compounds added to the noodle formulation, the antioxidant capacity, total phenol
content, and their bioaccessibility values increased. Bioaccessibility of total phenolic content (%) values (22.43-30.07%) of
CF-added noodle samples were significantly higher than those of the control samples (p < 0.05). According to the bioaccessibility
results of antioxidant capacities, FRAP (50.17%) showed the highest value in the 40% CF noodle sample. As a result, the use
of 10% and 20% carob flour in the noodle formulation were determined as the optimum values in terms of sensory properties.
In developing new food formulations with high functional properties, it has been recommended to use carob flour as a functional
... Nu au existat diferențe semnificative în evaluarea senzorială a produsului atunci când crește cantitatea de făină de roșcove. Deci, prin utilizarea făinii de roșcove la fabricarea ciocolatei s-a îmbunătățit valoarea nutritivă și proprietățile funcționale ale produsului finit, ca urmare, făina de roșcove poate fi utilizată cu succes ca înlocuitor al pudrei de cacao în fabricarea produselor din ciocolată (Tsatsaragkou et al., 2014). ...
Lucrarea „Materii prime neconvenționale pentru industria de panificație” prezintă aspecte legate de importanța, compoziția și utilizările la obținerea produselor de panificație și produselor făinoase a unor noi materii prime, altele decât cele deja consacrate: făina de grâu, drojdia de panificație, sarea și apa. În lucrare sunt detaliate materiile prime neconvenționale din rețetele de fabricație ale produselor de panificație și produselor făinoase care au constituit și constituie obiectul cercetărilor specialiștilor din domeniu.
Lucrarea se adresează specialiștilor din industria de panificație, din institutele de cercetare și învățământul de profil, cât și tuturor celor interesați de noi materii prime ce pot fi utilizate la obținerea produselor de panificație, produselor de patiserie-cofetărie, biscuiților și pastelor făinoase.
... Some studies have used locust bean gum, carob germ proteins or seedless carob pods to enhance the physicochemical characteristics of breads or pasta products. 13,14 Nevertheless, there is not much information related to the addition of whole carob fruit ( pod and seed) plus another legume to develop new foods, especially for the development of GF pasta products. Turfani et al. 15 reported the use of carob (up to 12% weight) and lentil (Lens culinaris) (up to 24% weight) in order to enrich wheat bread. ...
Different rice/white bean based gluten-free fettuccine (rice 0-100%, bean 0-100%) fortified with 10% carob fruit were developed. The proximate composition, total and resistant starch, and total, soluble and insoluble dietary fibre content, as well as the cooking and sensorial quality of uncooked and cooked pasta were determined. All novel gluten-free fettuccine forms showed good cooking quality (cooking loss <10%), highlighting those containing carob fruit, with better nutritional and healthy profiles than the commercial gluten-free rice pasta; they were low in fat (10-fold) and high in protein (on average 3.6-fold), resistant starch (16%) and dietary fibres (2.4-fold). The cooking process increased (p<0.05) the protein and total dietary fibres content, but reduced the total and resistant starch. The addition of carob fruit increased the total dietary fibres content improving the functional value of the fettuccine. Considering the sensorial analysis, fettuccine produced with 40% bean and 10% carob would be well accepted by consumers and it can be advised as functional food.
... Water extract of carob powder contains sugars, soluble dietary fibers, water-soluble tannins, flavanol glycosides, and gallic acid . It has a strong antioxidant activity and therefore can use as a functional ingredient in food development . Rtibi et al.  showed that carob pods water extract has an antioxidant, anti-diarrheal, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, hypoglycemic, anti-absorptive of glucose effects, anti-inflammatory and antiulcer effects. ...
... a % for Theobroma cacao variety beans from the Lôh-djiboua region (Divo). These values are roughly equal to those of taro bulb flours (31.8 to 33.2 %) and lower than those of bread flours ranging between 43.1 and 54.8 % [19,20]. Porosities higher than 25 % may be useful in infant food formulation. ...
Starch is a carbohydrate used in various industries such as food, paper, textiles, and pharmaceuticals due to its versatile properties and wide range of applications. Though corn, wheat, and cassava are important sources, corn is the most used source accounting for more than 70% of global production. The industrial demand for starch is expected to grow as the demand for convenience, processed food, and sustainable packaging solutions continue to rise. Using starch as a sustainable and eco-friendly material in various applications is also expected to contribute to its increasing production and consumption. While starch has many beneficial properties and applications, there are also some challenges, such as cost of production, limited availability of raw materials for starch production in certain regions, over-dependency on corn as a major source, functionality in native form, and consumer awareness toward low glycemic food. However, this chapter tries to provide an overview of the current status of starch, its production, and consumption trends.KeywordsStarchStarch sourceStarch utilizationStarch modificationAdditives
Carob flour and its main constituents have been shown to possess nutritional benefits and might be considered as low-cost competitor to other food ingredients in enriched food products.
In this study, we performed a DSC characterization of the thermal properties of carob flour and derived fractions (carob protein fraction and locust bean gum) at various moisture percentages, aiming at understanding their behaviour in more complex matrices. Furthermore, wheat/carob ingredient blends were investigated at different moisture content and components ratios to asses and dissect the interplay between carob and wheat flour macromolecules following their thermal transitions.
The results indicated that only the carob protein fraction is adequate as ingredient for enriched wheat-based baking products since it does not significantly influence the water partition between the starchy and protein phases. Such a prediction was confirmed by technological trials, i.e., by preparing and comparing reference wheat loafs and ones enriched with 5% w/w of carob protein.
Carob (Ceratonia siliqua) is one of Asia and Africa's popular nutritional and medicinal crops. This unique plant has an outstanding functional properties and nutritional profile. Carob has high sugar content, drought resistance and is very economical. Carob fruit consists of pulp and seed that are rich sources of different bioactive components. Carob has wide applications in various industries (food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics) as an anti-oxidant, thickener, stabilizer, lactic acid production and emulsions. The trend of moving towards natural products further highlights the use of carob in different fields due to its excellent nutritional and therapeutic profile. Carob bean gum is widely used in the food industry. The current review has highlighted the nutritional composition, bioactive profile, functional properties, and recent findings on the subject.
This study provides the first insight into the biologically active potential (total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant activity) of Moldavian сarob beans and pod pulp in comparison with carob grown in Algeria, Spain, and Italy. The results showed that the samples of Moldavian carob contain significant amounts (P ≤ 0.05) of biologically active compounds, the content of some of these compounds is far exceeding that of сarob from the above-mentioned regions. Thus, the total content of phenolic compounds in Moldavian carob samples is 1.4 times higher, of flavonoids 1.9 times higher compared to the imported ones. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) antioxidant activity of Moldavian carob samples proved to be about 10–12% higher than the antioxidant activity of samples from other regions. It has been proved that Moldavian carob pod pulp and beans have a high biologically active potential making them possible ingredients for functional food products.
Batter stabilisation presents a great challenge for gluten‐free (GF) bread, as CO2 is released during bread‐making process, resulting in small, dense, and crumbly breads. Apart from starch, protein plays a crucial role in gas cell stabilisation. This study aims to assess the effect of non‐gluten protein from different sources (plant and animal) on GF batter's rheological behavior (pasting properties, rheology, and foam stability) and on bread properties after baking with conventional and ohmic heating method. Hence, this study evaluated the functional properties (protein solubility, hydrophobicity, sulfhydryl groups, foaming and emulsification properties) of selected non‐gluten protein relevant for foam stabilisation. Furthermore, a correlation matrix was established by involving the functional properties of the proteins and their interaction with starch on batter rheology and bread quality. Amongst proteins, egg albumin and potato proteins were reported to perform superior functionality in GF bread; in particular, potato protein generated breads with the highest volume for both baking methods, which was potential to replace egg albumin. According to the correlation matrix, protein solubility was required in foaming and emulsification behavior to improve GF bread properties.
Among the species cultivated since ancient times and neglected for many decades, the carob (Ceratonia siliqua) is enjoying renewed interest owing to the valuable applications of its derivatives—principally of locust bean gum (LBG), used as a food stabilizer, thickening agent, and emulsifier (E410). It is also used for pharmaceutical, medical, nutraceutical, and functional purposes. This chapter aims to review and highlight the beneficial aspects of carob fruit and its potential for use as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in the food industry, opening new perspectives for this sustainable crop. Furthermore, the chapter carried out the case study of LGB Sicilia Srl, which aims to underline the opportunities to improve and optimize the production chain of sustainable natural resources, such as the carob, increasingly requested by the global agro-industrial market.
Resistant starches (RS), which are considered as one of the dietary fibers, could exert widely beneficial impacts, reduce fat accumulation, show significant effects on regulating blood glucose metabolism and insulin levels, and have protective effects on the gut. Five types of RS have different responses to chronic disease by modulating gut microbiota. Short-chain fatty acids are the linkage between gut microbiota and RS, and RS could improve the metabolism of gut microbiota as well as increase the abundance of beneficial microbes in the gut. The composition of gut microbiota is associated with RS properties, which is reflected by the changes of butyrate-producing bacteria primarily influenced by consumption of RS with various fine structures and types of crystallinities. RS with different fine structures and properties is consumed to varying degrees by gut microbiota, which can be applied to produce functional foods for gut health in future.
Ceratonia siliqua L. is a typical Mediterranean tree species that has also been introduced to the temperate regions of Central America, Australia, and Africa. The carob fruit consists of the pulp and the seed (endosperm and germ), each one of which is used in a great variety of bakery products and beverages, as animal feed, food additives, syrups, ice creams, dietetic products, and for the photographic emulsion. For instance, the carob pulp is used to make carob syrup and molasses through the recovery of sugars, whereas the seed is used to produce Locust Bean Gum (LBG), which is used as a growth medium, and as a thickener, chemically known as E410. Currently, there is a strong interest in carob re-cultivation due to the tree’s ability to withstand drought and adapt to climate change, further to its medical and food exploitation potential. In 2016 and 2017, the global carob production exceeded 170,000 tons, with the highest volumes of carob production coming from Spain, Portugal, and Italy, followed by Morocco, Turkey, Greece, Cyprus, Lebanon, and Algeria. Carob fruit harvesting and processing does not produce significant amounts of agricultural and industrial waste. Agricultural waste mainly includes traps for rodents, plastic packaging waste, and field residues such as stems and leaves. On the other hand, industrial processing from carob mills and the food industry produces waste such as solid residual parts and plant biomass (e.g., leaves), which can be composted or used as animal feed. In carob factories, during the roasting and milling processes, air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM) and biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released. Carobs and their waste have been studied by various research groups as a source of phenolic compounds and carbohydrates, as an alternate source for the production of biofuels (e.g., biohydrogen and bioethanol), in food packaging applications, in wastewater treatment, as well as a soil organic amendment. Overall, carob and carob waste have promising applications as raw material for further investigation and utilization.Keywords
Locust Bean GumE410Volatile organic compoundsFunctional food
A rising demand for gluten-free foods is triggered by growing cases of celiac disease, but also by a trend towards removing all potentially allergenic proteins in a diet. It’s a known fact that gluten elimination impacts the product structure and texture significantly. It is difficult to alter a gluten-free product recipe that would offer a product comparable to conventional food. One of the key components of the gluten-free product is the starch of a specific botanical origin. Additionally, their properties may be changed by compatible shape and texture-forming ingredients or additives, including multiple texturizing aids. The function of starch is often significant in these structures, as its proper choice and Treatment may have a direct impact on the finished products. An evaluation of the literature identifies starch as a key component in gluten-free food items. This starch structure shows variations between different forms of this biopolymer and their effect on the characteristics of the goods.
Celiac disease is the most commonly reported human chronic gastrointestinal disease. The unique effectual therapy for victims with celiac disease is to pursue a diet free of gluten strictly. Currently, the rising occurrence of celiac diseases encourages global attentiveness for diverse favored gluten-free products. Therefore, the increasing requirement for high-quality gluten-free bread from natural compounds is increasing the want for novel approaches in gluten-free bread-making. Nevertheless, baking devoid of gluten, the chief component for bread texture, quality, and structure, is a great confront for every confectioner and cereal researchers. Various methods have been used to comprehend and develop a gluten-free bread system by monitoring various starch properties, flour sources, additives, and the use of technology or synergistic effect of these elements. Few works intended to evaluate or progress gluten-free bread technical or dietary attributes, whereas others aimed at manifold objectives. Some studies applied food science elements to develop the sensory property of gluten-free bread, mutually with nutritional aspects. Henceforth, the important focus of this book chapter is to confer the new approaches for gluten-free bread improvements in the past few years, including sourdough, the role of hydrocolloids, innovative techniques, and nutritional enhancement.
The increasing demand for gluten free products has favored the design of numerous gluten free bakery products such as gluten free bread which is intended to mimic the quality parameters of gluten bread from wheat. Bread is one of most important bakery product acceptable and consumed by wide population of the world. The bread from wheat source is most commonly used by end use consumers with good in nutritional profile. People suffering from celiac disease restrict its consumption and needs alternative source for wheat bread such as gluten free bread. The gluten free bread from non-gluten source sources such as rice, pulses, pseudocereals, etc. were used in development of gluten free breads. However the nutritional profile of gluten free bread is inferior as compared to standard due to low in protein, fiber and vitamins and minerals and high in fat content as compared commercial white bread. So enrichment of gluten-free bread with nutrition dense components is of utmost important step to meet its nutritional compositions. The nutritional quality is one of acceptable characters of the bread which are highly demanded by the end use consumers. Most of these characters of the gluten free bread are not highly meet up to the demand of the consumers and more research needs to be done to make gluten free bread fully acceptable by the celiac people.
Gluten free products do not resemble their gluten counterparts owing to lack of continuous three-dimensional protein-starch matrix that influences dough rheology and overall bread quality. It has become a prerequisite to adopt several approaches for altering gluten network structure and in turn ensure the quality acceptance by people consuming gluten free products. An ample range of functional ingredients and processing methods have being adopted to imitate gluten viscoelastic properties and consequently the overall final quality of gluten free product.
The objective of the present work was the formulation, optimization and quality evaluation of gluten free biscuits at different water levels, based on a rice and carob flour mixture enriched with dried apple pomace, prepared with and without microwave blanching (MB). MB contributed to partial conversion of insoluble dietary fiber to soluble. Increasing of dried apple pomace proportion in the mixture resulted in higher sensory aroma and hardness and higher brightness (L*) and red hue (a*). On the other hand, the increase of water level caused a rapid increase in biscuits moisture and a drastic reduction of sensory hardness and crispness, and of mechanical fracture force and spread factor. Sensory hardness and crispness were positively correlated with mechanical fracture force and spread factor (W/T). Three biscuit formulations with % levels (A:C:W) of apple pomace (A), carob flour (C) and water (W) were found to score highest (34:16:50, 32.5:32.5:35, 49:16:35).
There are various tests that can be used for evaluation of the quality of gluten-free doughs and breads. All such tests are related to certain parameters that determine the quality of these products. Chemical composition, color, texture, pasting, gelatinization, rheological and morphological properties are the major attributes determining the quality of the gluten-free breads. There is a great correlation between many of these parameters, for example, the visco-elastic properties of gluten-free doughs are closely related with their pasting and gelatinization properties. Therefore, rheological analysis also gives the information about the visco-elastic nature of gluten-free dough. Color directly influences the consumer acceptance of the finished product. Texture analysis gives the information about the degree of staling of gluten-free breads. A higher hardness generally indicates a higher staling of gluten-free breads. Sensory evaluation entails the consumer acceptance of the breads developed with gluten-free formulations.
Carob flour is increasingly popular in innovative functional foods. Its main producers are Mediterranean countries, facing health and nutrition challenges, and difficulties in tackling climate change. This study aims at formulating innovative sustainable bakery products of high nutritional value while pleasing the consumer and addressing regional challenges. Hence, carob flour was obtained by grinding sun-dried carob pods, thus reducing the environmental impact, and preserving carob’s high nutraceutical value. Different bread formulations resulted from the blend of wheat flour with carob pulp (5, 10, 20, and 30%) and/or seed powder (5 and 10%), with no added fats, additives, or processing aids. New products were evaluated for their textural, chromatic, nutritional, aromatic, and hedonic properties. Carob is rich in aroma, antioxidants, and prebiotic fibers, and does not contain gluten, so when combined with wheat, the proportion of gluten in bread is reduced. Carob is also rich in minerals (4.16% and 2.00% ash, respectively in seed and pulp), and breadmaking seems to generate lesser furane derivatives than in white bread. In short, carob is typically Mediterranean and is a valuable local resource in the formulation of sustainable foods with high nutritional value, low carbon footprint, safe, healthy, tasty, and affordable, all at once.
The effect of replacing commonly used hydrocolloids (i.e. xanthan (XTH), guar gum (GG), hydroxymethylcellulose (HPMC)) with psyllium on crumb texture, distribution of water populations and staling kinetics in gluten-free (GF) bread based on a blend of buckwheat and carob flour was studied. The addition of psyllium in GF formulation yielded bread with the softest and most resilient crumb. Psyllium was an effective anti-staling agent which significantly decreased the crumb hardening rate. The GF breads with psyllium and the hydrocolloids showed similar distribution of water populations, though psyllium tended to slightly increase their binding strength to the matrix. In the buckwheat/carob-based GF system, crumb firmness development was directly correlated to the amount of easily removable water population and inversely to the peak temperatures of strongly bound water which indicate higher bonding strength to the matrix. The results implied that psyllium and the tested hydrocolloids (i.e. XTH, GG, HPMC) can be interchangeably used to effectively control crumb texture and its evolution during storage of buckwheat/carob GF bread.
Recent studies suggest that the beneficial properties provided by sourdough fermentation may be translated to the development of new GF products that could improve their technological and nutritional properties. The main objective of this manuscript is to review the current evidence regarding the elaboration of GF baked goods, and to present the latest knowledge about the so-called sourdough biotechnology. A bibliographic search of articles published in the last 12 years has been carried out. It is common to use additives, such as hydrocolloids, proteins, enzymes, and emulsifiers, to technologically improve GF products. Sourdough is a mixture of flour and water fermented by an ecosystem of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts that provide technological and nutritional improvements to the bakery products. LAB-synthesized biopolymers can mimic gluten molecules. Sourdough biotechnology is an ecological and cost-effective technology with great potential in the field of GF products. Further research is necessary to optimize the process and select species of microorganisms robust enough to be competitive in any circumstance.
Food intolerances are food‐related diseases largely spread throughout modern society. As general practice, the management of food intolerances involves elimination diets, total abstinance and elimination of the intolerance vector‐food. The alteration of the local immune system existing in the small intestine has a positive correlation with celiac disease (CD) development. Food scientists' response to the increasing needs for gluten‐free products is to create genetic‐modified wheat varieties with gluten‐free characteristics; to biotechnologically modify gluten by complete proteolysis during dough fermentation, in order to create gluten/gliadin‐free products; to technologically modify food formula by gluten cereals substitution with pseudo‐cereals (buckwheat, rice, tapioca, sago, pea, sorghum), and/or legumes (peas, potatoes, beans, lentils, lupines); to produce functional gluten‐free foods based on gluten/gliadin removal and replacement with dietary powders (starch, polenta, flours of sorghum, soya, buckwheat, etc.); and the processing of pre‐fermented or cooked paste (rice, buckwheat, peas), corn flakes, expended cereals, sauces/milks (soya), tofu, oilseeds (line, sunflower, pumpkin).
Lactose intolerance is a food‐related disease caused by the incapacity of the human body to metabolize and assimilate one food component, lactose, because the enterocytes from the intestinal epithelium has a lactase (β‐galactosidase) production/secretion deficiency. The processing solutions for manufacturing reduced/lactose‐free milk are generally microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis systems. The foods tailored for specific intolerances should be compliant with the international regulations regarding the maximum content of the intolerance triggering‐compound (food additive, a chemical component, or a contaminant).
The impact of roasting temperatures (100, 120, 150 and 180° for 25 min) on the bioactive compounds, sensory and physicochemical properties of carob pods powder as well as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content (PAHs) were studied. The study also investigated whether roasting the dried carob pods (PO) or dried carob powder (CPW) is better used in the food industry. Increasing roasting temperatures resulted in several changes in the chemical composition of carob pods powder, as evidenced by significantly lower water content, protein, fat, total sugar and pH values. This increase also was accompanied by a significant increase in ash, fibers, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins contents. Raw carob powder and roasted powder at 180°C showed the least acceptable organoleptic properties while roasting powders at 120 and 150°C showed the best results in terms of taste, color, odor, texture, and overall acceptability. PAHs ranged from 3.37 to 22.59 µg/kg, and carcinogenic PAHs ranged from 1.38 to 10.16 µg/kg of roasted carob powder. The difference among the detected levels in different roasting degrees was significant (P ≤ 0.5). Carob powder roasted at 180°C had a total PAHs content higher than other samples roasted at lower temperatures. Roasting at higher temperatures was not acceptable and not applicable due to the occurred partial carbonization and undesired sensorial characteristics formation.
In this study, the rheological properties of gluten-free doughs from rice flour containing different amounts of carob flour were investigated. Water added changed in response to the carob amount. Dynamic oscillatory and creep tests were performed in order to gain knowledge on the rheological behaviour of doughs, which is essential for the control of the bread-making procedure and the production of high-quality bread. Simple power law mathematical models were developed in order to evaluate the effect of carob and water added in dough rheological behaviour. Creep data evaluation demonstrates that an increase in water content decreased the resistance of dough to deformation and, therefore, dough strength, whereas carob flour increased the elastic character and structure strength of the dough. This was also found in dynamic oscillatory tests. Increased amounts of carob flour led to an increase in bread dough elastic character since fibre addition elastifies and strengthens the dough structure. Moreover, doughs exhibited a solid-like viscoelastic character, with the storage modulus (G′) predominant over the loss modulus (G″). Dough rheological properties have an important effect on baking characteristics. Rheological experiments and applied mathematical models can provide us with good knowledge of rheological behaviour and dough viscoelasticity prediction. Therefore, dough samples containing carob-to-water ratios of 10:110 and 15:130 can be considered to possess a balance between the viscous and elastic properties compared to the other samples.
The proportions of cornstarch, cassava starch, and rice flour were optimized for production of gluten-free bread (with 0% and 0.5% soy flour) to maximize specific volume (Y1,Y1′), crumb-grain score (Y2,Y2′), and bread score (Y3,Y3′). A central composite design involving cornstarch/cassava starch ratio (X1) and rice flour/cassava starch ratio (X2) was used, and 2nd-order models for Y1 and Y1′ were employed to generate response surfaces. The maxima of response surfaces for crumb-grain score and bread score indicate that optimal gluten-free bread can be prepared from 74.2% cornstarch, 17.2% rice flour, and 8.6% cassava starch. Addition of soy flour at the 0.5% level also improved bread texture.
In the present study new formulations for gluten-free bread based on mixtures of rice (RF) and buckwheat flour (light buckwheat flour (LBF) or wholegrain flour (WBF)), in the proportions of 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30 were made. The gluten-free breads were investigated for their total phenolic content, rutin and quercetin contents, antioxidant activity (AOA) by β-carotene bleaching method, reducing power, scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and chelating activity on Fe2+. The increased amount of LBF or WBF in the dough formulation resulted in the final products with higher antioxidant properties. Baking treatment expressed different influences on antioxidative properties of the final gluten-free product in terms of raw materials, applied recipe and antioxidative capacity in comparison to calculated values based on raw materials. Final gluten-free products were characterized by lower total phenolic and rutin contents, lower antioxidative and reducing activity and on the other hand higher DPPH and chelating activity as well as quercetin content in comparison to calculated values. Bread containing wholegrain buckwheat flour expressed in most of the cases higher values of measured antioxidative parameters than bread prepared with light buckwheat flour and thus contributes to their additional functional property.
The potential physiological benefits of resistant starch, along with its functional properties, provide a means to increase total; dietary fibre in the diet through popular foods. In applications studies described bere, resistant starch increased the TDF content of various foods from 3% to 8%, while enhancing textural and sensory characteristics. By formulating foods with resistant starch, product developers and nutritionists can encourage consumers to increase their fibre intake with a variety of palatable, high qualitV foods that are healthy as well.
In this study, gluten free breads (GFBs) made from rice and carob flour in different proportions were investigated. Water added changed in response to the carob amount. Structural and textural parameters of the samples such as porosity, crumb grain characteristics, firmness and relative elasticity of crumb, were measured. Simple mathematical models were developed to correlate the measured properties with carob flour and water content. The simplest and most convenient mathematical model developed was a power model, indicating that water influence on GFBs characteristics was more pronounced than that of carob flour. Carob flour addition enhanced the protein, fiber and minerals amount of the produced samples, and improved their functional properties as well, when water amount used was adequate. GFBs with a ratio of carob flour/water 10/110, 15/130 and 15/140 presented higher quality, in terms of dough proofing, porosity, crumb firmness and viscoelasticity.
The aim of this study was to check the possibility of enriching gluten-free dough mixes with concentrates or isolates of protein with different origins and to evaluate their impact on the structure, properties and aging of the obtained loaves. The studies involved the use of albumin, collagen, as well as pea, lupine and soy protein. Analysis of the rheological properties of the dough with the addition of test proteins showed a significant effect on their viscoelastic properties. Applied ingredients exerted different effects on specific volume of the loaves. Soy protein and collagen reduced it, while lupine and albumin resulted in a significant increase in the value of this parameter. Bread with pea protein was the most acceptable among analyzed samples, while the least sensory acceptance was observed in the case of the product with soy protein. Addition of test proteins significantly modified color and textural properties of bread crumb. Most of the protein preparations significantly decreased hardness and chewiness of the crumb compared to the control sample. A decrease in crumb hardness and a drop in enthalpy of retrograded amylopectin observed after the addition of applied protein preparations clearly indicate that such additions could effectively retard staling of starch based bread.
The rheological properties of two varieties of rice with Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) added as gluten substitute were studied using a farinograph and a rheometer and compared with wheat dough to find its suitability for making rice bread. The water absorption and dough development time data were obtained from the farinogram. The tests conducted in the rheometer were oscillation measurements (frequency sweep from 0.1 to 20 Hz at 1% strain), shear measurement (shearing from 0.1 to 5 s−1) and creep tests with an instant loading of 50 Pa for 60 S. Baking tests were conducted with all the dough samples and the loaf volume and moisture loss of bread were measured. The farinogram showed that rice flour supplemented with HPMC reached a consistency of 500 BU at a later time than that of standard wheat dough. The rheological measurements from the oscillation tests and creep tests showed that the rice dough with 1.5% and 3.0% HPMC had similar rheological properties to that of wheat flour dough and was suitable for making rice bread. The long grain rice sample produced a rice bread with better crumb texture.
The objective of this work was to study the characteristics of four gluten-free bread formulations and the possibility of substituting soya protein with other legume proteins. Four bread recipes were elaborated with chickpea flour, pea isolate, carob germ flour or soya flour. Carob germ flour batter structure was thicker compared with the other batters, probably due to the different protein behaviour and the residual gums present in carob germ flour. However, carob germ flour bread obtained the lowest specific volume values (2.51 cm3/g), while chickpea bread obtained the highest (3.26 cm3/g). Chickpea bread also showed the softest crumb. Confocal scanning-laser microscopy results showed a more compact microstructure in carob germ flour bread compared with soya and chickpea formulations. Chickpea bread exhibited the best physico-chemical characteristics and, in general, good sensory behaviour, indicating that it could be a promising alternative to soya protein.
Summary Resistant starch (RS) refers to the portion of starch and starch products that resist digestion as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract. RS is an extremely broad and diverse range of materials and a number of different types exist (RS1–4). At present, these are mostly defined according to physical and chemical characteristics. RS may be categorised as a type of dietary fibre, as defined by the American Association of Cereal Chemists and the Food Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. RS is measured in part by the methodology recommended by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists for measuring dietary fibre. Dietary intakes of RS in westernised countries are likely to be low. However, accurate comparative assessments of dietary intakes between countries, and subsequent epidemiological analysis, are absent due to the lack of consensus over of an agreed, repeatable and simple in vitro method for analysing the RS content of foods. At present, the recognised method is that of McCleary & Monaghan (2002). RS appears to confer considerable benefits to human colonic health, but has a smaller impact on lipid and glucose metabolism. Comparisons between studies are hampered by differences in study design, poor experimental design and differences in the source, type and dose of RS in the ingredients or diets used. It is likely that RS mediates some or all of its effects through the action of short chain fatty acids but interest is increasing regarding its prebiotic potential. There is also increasing interest in using RS to lower the energy value and available carbohydrate content of foods. RS can also be used to enhance the fibre content of foods and is under investigation regarding its potential to accelerate the onset of satiation and to lower the glycaemic response. Due to the difficulties in agreeing on a universal definition and method of analysis for dietary fibre, RS may be included within the term ‘fibre’ on the nutrition labels in some countries but not in others. Pressure to agree a legal definition and universal method of analysis is likely to increase due to the potential of RS to enhance colonic health, and to act as a vehicle to increase the total dietary fibre content of foodstuffs, particularly those which are low in energy and/or in total carbohydrate content.
The replacement of gluten presents a major technological challenge, as it is an essential structure-building protein, which is necessary for formulating high quality cereal-based goods. Rising demands for gluten free products parallels the apparent or real increase in coeliac disease, or other allergic reactions/intolerances to gluten. This paper reviews the current prevalence of coeliac disease, and recent advances in the preparation of gluten-free products, using starches, hydrocolloids, gums and novel ingredients and processes.
a b s t r a c t The study focused on partial replacement in gluten-free breads of corn starch with tapioca and corn resistant starch preparations. The use of resistant starch resulted in the increase of storage and loss moduli of the dough, and the lowering of loss tangent, which indicates its more elastic character. The incorporation of resistant starch reduced creep and recovery compliance and elevated zero shear viscosity. Modified doughs displayed higher starch gelatinization temperatures and lower viscosities that were proportional to the share of RS. It was found that the loaves baked with the share of resistant starch had less hard crumb than bread without RS addition. The crumb hardness diminished with the increasing amount of applied RS preparation. The addition of resistant starch raised total dietary fibre, by up to 89%, as compared to control (bread without RS addition). The most pronounced change was observed for insoluble dietary fibre (increase 137%), while only slight increase was found for its soluble fraction (18%).
The concept of resistant starch (RS) has evoked new interest in the bioavailability of starch and in its use as a source of dietary fiber, particularly in adults. RS is now considered to provide functional properties and find applications in a variety of foods. Types of RS, factors influencing their formation, consequence of such formation, their methods of preparation, their methods of estimation, and health benefits have been briefly discussed in this review.
Adding soy ingredients to baked products influences textural and sensorial properties. The changes in physical properties of bread modified with soy flour during 7-d storage at ambient temperature were investigated using thermoanalytical techniques (differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis). An increase in loaf density, moisture content, and FW content, and a decrease in amylopectin recrystallization were observed with increased addition of soy flour. Addition of soy shifted the main thermal transition (0 °C, mainly due to ice melting) to slightly lower temperatures (both in differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis analysis) and decreased its temperature range (increased homogeneity). These observations suggest a role for soy in modulating bread staling.
The interest in the use of resistant starch (RS) for the development of new bakery products has significantly increased due
to its ascribed physiological effects with proven health benefits. The objective of the present work was to analyse the effects
of the wheat flour substitution by modified pea starch with high level of RS (PeaP) on breadmaking performance. The effects
of PeaP on wheat dough functionality were evaluated by mixing/overmixing properties, texture profile analysis, viscometric
profile and thermal properties. Bread quality was evaluated by physico-chemical parameters, crumb texture profile, digital
image analysis, nutritional parameters and sensory evaluation. Flour substitution by PeaP up to 20% allowed keeping mechanical,
extensional and viscometric parameters without significant hindering of dough machinability. Overdose of modified pea starch
(30%) negatively affects dough mixing and overmixing behaviour. As a functional/prebiotic fibre, PeaP addition up to 10–20%
of flour replacement entitles the formulation of wheat bread allowing a significant increase in the RS level (from 0.70 to
5.10%), delay/decrease in amylopectin retrogradation, with acceptable changes in bread quality up to 10–20% of flour replacement.
KeywordsWheat flour-Pea starch-Resistant starch-Breadmaking performance
The effect of hydrocolloids on dough rheology and bread quality parameters in gluten-free formulations based on rice flour, corn starch, and sodium caseinate (control) was studied; the hydrocolloids added at 1% and 2% w/w (rice flour basis) were pectin, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), agarose, xanthan and oat β-glucan. The study on rheological behavior of the doughs containing hydrocolloids, performed by farinography and rheometry, showed that xanthan had the most pronounced effect on viscoelastic properties yielding strengthened doughs; addition of xanthan to the gluten-free formulation resulted in a farinograph curve typical of wheat flour doughs. Moreover, among the preparations supplemented with hydrocolloids the elasticity and resistance to deformation of dough, as determined by oscillatory and creep measurements, followed the order of xanthan > CMC > pectin > agarose > β-glucan. The type and extent of influence on bread quality was also dependent on the specific hydrocolloid used and its supplementation level. Generally, the volume of breads increased with addition of hydrocolloids except for xanthan; with increasing level of hydrocolloids from 1% to 2% the loaf volume decreased except for pectin. Empirical methods were used for evaluation of porosity and elasticity of the crumb; high values of porosity were found for breads supplemented with CMC and β-glucans at 1% concentration, and pectin at 2%, whereas high crumb elasticity was exhibited by CMC, pectin and xanthan at 2%. An increase in lightness (L value) of crust was observed with the addition of β-glucan at 1%, whereas the whiteness of crumb was improved with inclusion of xanthan. Sensory evaluation by a consumer panel gave the highest score for overall acceptability to the gluten-free formulation supplemented with 2% CMC. In most cases, addition of hydrocolloids did not affect significantly the water activity (aw) values of crumb. During storage of breads a reduction in aw and an increase in firmness of crumb (compression tests) were observed. Compared to the control formulations, crumb firmness was not alter significantly with addition of pectin, CMC and agarose (at 1–2%), and of β-glucan (at 1%); instead, addition of xanthan (1–2%) as well as β-glucan (2%) resulted in crumb hardening.
Diabetes mellitus is a common problem in developed countries. An improved postprandial hyperglycemic peak is one of the main therapeutic targets in diabetic patients. The Wistar rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were divided into cornstarch (control) and Japonica rice groups, which were fed 640 g starch/kg diets for 4 weeks. The area (means ± SD) under the glucose curve of cornstarch was 173.8 ± 6.9 and Japonica rice diet was 154.3 ± 8.7 mmol × min/L, and the area (means ± SD) under the insulin curve of cornstarch was 12.9 ± 0.1 and Japonica rice diet was 12.0 ± 0.6 nmol × min/L. The glycosylated hemoglobin levels, serum fructosamine and cholesterol concentrations in diabetic rats fed the Japonica rice diet were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05). The decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased superoxide dismutase activity and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter in plasma were also found in rat fed the Japonica rice diet compared to the control. These results suggested that the diet containing high-resistance-starch Japonica rice might reduce glycosylated hemoglobin levels, serum cholesterol concentrations and raised the antioxidant status in the blood.
Modified starches have been investigated and developed for more than a century and have various applications in food, paper and textile industries. Recently, chemically modified starches such as esterified, etherified and/or cross-linked starches have been widely used for various prepared foods such as snack foods, breads and cakes to improve their quality. In breadmaking, starch is a major component and plays an important role in texture and quality of dough and bread. Therefore, modified starches, which were developed to decrease undesirable properties of native starches, also affect the properties of dough and quality of bread. The modified starches could be used to substitute up to 20% for wheat flour without deterioration of bread quality. However, vital gluten is also needed to blend with the substituted modified starches to improve loaf volume of bread. Generally, the substituted flours gelatinized more quickly and had higher peak viscosity than the wheat flour alone. The dough made from the substituted flours exhibit weaker and less stability than that made from the wheat flour. The breads substituted with hydroxypropylated starch were less firm and retained softness during storage longer than those with other modified starches or wheat flour alone. The acetylated starch also improved the firmness of bread crumb during storage, whereas cross-linked starches made the bread crumb harder because the chemical cross-linking retained the granular structure of starch in the gluten network resulting in increase in the firmness of bread crumb. However, cross-linked waxy starches retarded the firmness of bread crumb despite its high degree of cross-linking. Thus, the different kinds of chemically modified starches played the different roles in the texture and quality of doughs and breads. We propose that a suitable amount of modified starches should be useful for breadmaking to improve the functionality and quality of breads.
Gluten free breads often have poor crust and crumb characteristics and the current study was conducted to help alleviate this problem. A commercial wheat starch (Codex Alimentarius) gluten free flour was supplemented with seven dairy powders (0%, 3%, 6%, 9% inclusion rates based on flour weight). Initially a fixed water level was used (trial 1) and the resulting batters were proofed and baked. The breads were tested 24 h after baking. Powder addition reduced loaf volume by circa 6% (P<0.001). Increasing the inclusion levels of the powders decreased loaf volume (P<0.001) with a decrease of 8% for the highest level. Powder addition generally decreased the crumb L*/b* (white/yellow) ratio. Crust L* values were significantly reduced. All of the powders increased crumb hardness (P<0.001) with the exception of demineralised whey powder. Ten and 20% additional water (trial 2) was added to the formulation and the resulting breads had higher volume, and a much softer crust and crumb texture. Sensory analysis revealed a preference for breads containing skim milk replacer, sodium caseinate and milk protein isolate.
Breads containing fibers or hydrocolloids were frozen stored as dough (DBs) or semi-baked samples (SBs). Their microstructure (e.g. pore characteristics) was evaluated by image analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sensory characteristics of “fresh” (one-day stored at ambient conditions) and of semi-baked breads (fully baked the day of observations) were determined by a descriptive analysis. Both composition and storage influenced the mean pore area. However, differences among samples were more evident by determining pore roundness and pore size distribution. Frozen storage favored the appearance of large pores in all samples, especially in the control samples (samples without any enrichment). Control DBs presented a 40% increase in the number of large pores in comparison to the respective number of pores of fresh samples. A decrease in pore roundness was correlated to a structural damage during storage. Pore roundness was correlated to organoleptic attributes such as aroma, adhesiveness and pore size.
The relationship between bread-crumb cellular structure and many aspects of quality in a loaf of white bread justifies investigations of how the structure arises during processing of the dough. Following a brief overview of the development of bread cellular structure in the dough, three parts of the literature pertaining to crumb appearance (visual texture) and bread quality are reviewed, with emphasis on the mechanical properties (physical texture) of the crumb. The importance of an objective segmentation of the two macroscopic phases (crumb cells and cell walls solids) is emphasised in digital image analysis studies of bread-crumb structure. A review of studies where mechanical properties have been measured in fundamental units has sections on the mechanical properties of the composite structure and on recent analyses of the mechanical properties of the solid phase. Finally, models which have been used to relate structure to mechanical properties will be reviewed with emphasis on the work of Gibson and Ashby [Gibson, L.J., & Ashby, M.F., 1988. Cellular solids: structure & properties. Oxford: Pergamon Press; Gibson, L.J., & Ashby, M.F., 1997. Cellular solids: structure and properties (2nd ed.). Cambridge: University Press]. It is shown that experimental values of Young's modulus of bread crumb reside within the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. Compared with the rule of mixtures, these bounds represent a good (52%) improvement in the ability to predict values for bread crumb moduli (crumb firmness). Using information provided by digital image analysis, Gibson and Ashby's relationships between structure (relative density) and mechanical properties can be modified to incorporate dough processing effects such as dough strain hardening and the effect of gas cell coalescence.
It has been reported that caroubin, a protein mixture obtained from carob seeds, has rheological properties similar to those of gluten. Comparative studies of the effects of hydration and temperature on caroubin and gluten were carried out with the aid of NMR, FTIR, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry techniques. The results show that caroubin has a more ordered structure than gluten and that hydration has little effect on its secondary structure when compared to gluten. Caroubin is more easily accessible to water than gluten, suggesting that caroubin is more hydrophilic in nature. On hydration, caroubin, like gluten, forms fibrillar structures and sheets.
Dietary fiber represents a broad class of undigested carbohydrate components. The components vary in chemical and physical nature and in their physiological outcomes. Resistant starch is starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine and that may be fermented in the large intestine. The purpose of this study was to estimate consumption of resistant starch by the US population and to identify key sources of dietary resistant starch.
A database of resistant starch concentrations in foods was developed from the publicly available literature. These concentrations were linked to foods reported in 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and estimates of resistant starch intakes were generated.
The study population included 18,305 nonbreastfeeding individuals in the United States.
The dietary intake of resistant starch was determined for 10 US subpopulations defined by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Three estimates of resistant starch intake were made for each person based on the minimum, mean, and maximum concentrations of resistant starch in the foods consumed.
Americans aged 1 year and older were estimated to consume approximately 4.9 g resistant starch per day based on mean resistant starch concentrations (range 2.8 to 7.9 g resistant starch per day). Breads, cooked cereals/pastas, and vegetables (other than legumes) contributed 21%, 19%, and 19% of total resistant starch intake, respectively, and were top sources of resistant starch.
Findings from this study suggest that the estimated intake of resistant starch by Americans is approximately 3 to 8 g per person per day. These estimates of resistant starch intake provide a valuable reference for researchers and food and nutrition professionals and will allow for more accurate estimates of total intakes of carbohydrate compounds that escape digestion in the small intestine.
Resistant starch a review Influence of breadmaking on antioxidant capacity of gluten free breads based on rice and buckwheat flours Optimization of gluten free bread prepared from corn starch, rice flour and cassava starch
M G Sajilata
R S Singhai
P R M Kulkarni
J M Sanz-Penella
Sajilata, M. G., Singhai, R. S., & Kulkarni, P. R. (2006). Resistant starch a review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Technology, 5, 1e17. Saka c, M., Torbica, A., Sedej, I., & HadnaCev, M. (2011). Influence of breadmaking on antioxidant capacity of gluten free breads based on rice and buckwheat flours. Food Research International, 44, 2806e2813. Sanchez, H. D., Osella, C. A., & De La Torre, M. A. (2002). Optimization of gluten free bread prepared from corn starch, rice flour and cassava starch. Journal of Food Science, 67, 416e419. Sanz-Penella, J. M., Wronkowska, M., Soral-Smietana, M., Collar, C., & Haros, M. (2010). Impact of the addition of resistant starch from modified pea starch on dough and bread performance. European Food Research and Technology, 231, 499e508.
Effect of carob flour addition on the rheological properties of gluten-free breads Changes in the physicochemical properties of wheat-and soy-containing breads during storage as studied by thermal ana-lyses
Tsatsaragkou, K., Yiannopoulos, S., Kontogiorgi, A., Poulli, E., Krokida, M., & Mandala, I. (2014). Effect of carob flour addition on the rheological properties of gluten-free breads. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 7, 868e876. Vittadini, E., & Vodovotz, Y. (2003). Changes in the physicochemical properties of wheat-and soy-containing breads during storage as studied by thermal ana-lyses. Journal of Food Science, 68, 2022e2027.
Method 935.36 moisture content determination
AOAC Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
(1990). Method 935.36 moisture content determination.
International Approved Methods -AACC Method
American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC). (2000). International Approved
Methods -AACC Method 74-09.01, Measurement of Bread Firmness by Universal
Resistant starch a review
M G Sajilata
R S Singhai
P R Kulkarni
Sajilata, M. G., Singhai, R. S., & Kulkarni, P. R. (2006). Resistant starch a review.
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Technology, 5, 1e17.
Functionality of resistant starch in food applications
Effect of legume flours on baking characteristics of gluten-free bread