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On the coasts of the Black Sea, across the coastline of six countries (today), 32 important medieval and byzantine port-cities have flourished the last decades. Those port-cities facilitated the merchandise shipping from Europe to Central Asia and faraway China, through sea roads and routes followed not only by merchandisers and travelers but also by emperors and pilgrims. This paper constitutes a summarized literature review of the economic history of some of the most important Black Sea port-cities, counting from the 19th century, through 20th century and up to the present. It also seeks to examine the reconstruction and development of those port-cities after the demise of the Ottoman Empire, a number of Wars, political changes and finally through the economic and political transition of the Black Sea area. Additionally, the paper reviews the Black Sea trade routes followed by the merchants of the examined period. We conclude on current comparative advantages of the wider region and the perspectives for socio-economic development.
Procedia Economics and Finance 9 ( 2014 ) 74 – 82
2212-5671 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Kavala Institute of Technology, Department of Accountancy, Greece
doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(14)00009-4
The Economies of Balkan and Eastern Europe Countries in the Changed World (EBEEC 2013)
Black Sea: Old trade routes and current perspectives of
socioeconomic co-operation
Domna Lyratzopouooua, Grigoris Zarotiadisb
aDepartment of Economics, Faculty of Law, Economic and Political Sciencies, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124, Greece
bDepartment of Economics, Faculty of Law, Economic and Political Sciencies, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 54124, Greece
On the coasts of the Black Sea, across the coastline of six countries (today), 32 important medieval and byzantine port-cities have
flourished the last decades. Those port-cities facilitated the merchandise shipping from Europe to Central Asia and faraway
China, through sea roads and routes followed not only by merchandisers and travelers but also by emperors and pilgrims. This
paper constitutes a summarized literature review of the economic history of some of the most important Black Sea port-cities,
counting from the 19th century, through 20th century and up to the present. It also seeks to examine the reconstruction and
development of those port-cities after the demise of the Ottoman Empire, a number of Wars, political changes and finally through
the economic and political transition of the Black Sea area. Additionally, the paper reviews the Black Sea trade routes followed
by the merchants of the examined period. We conclude on current comparative advantages of the wider region and the
perspectives for socio-economic development.
© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Kavala Institute of Technology, Department of Accountancy, Greece.
Keywords: Regional and Urban Development; Black Sea Economic Area;
1. Introduction
The Black Sea and the region surrounds it is characterised rather favored geographically. Connected to the
Mediterranean through the straits, the Black Sea constitutes a convenient route to the west, while it serves as a
crossroads between Europe, Asia and Africa. The majority of the long distance trades overpass the Black Sea, giving
commercial prosperity to the ports around it, due to two main reasons: the stable political regime in the hinterland
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +30 2310 920454;
E-mail address:
Available online at
© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Kavala Institute of Technology, Department of Accountancy, Greece
Domna Lyratzopouoou and Grigoris Zarotiadis / Procedia Economics and Finance 9 ( 2014 ) 74 – 82
that secures the trade routes and the access to a network of overseas transportation Herlichy (1986).
Historically, the fate of the Black Sea region seems to depend, on a great extend, on the outside powers.
Prosperity grew whenever the region was dominated by one of them and a temporary period of peace was imposed
from above. On the other hand, at times when two or more powers fought for their dominance and control of the
region, there exists war, economic and demographic decline Prevelakis (2008).
During the 19th century, parallel to the Ottoman Empire’ decline, the Black Sea region developed
exceptionally, mainly due to the grain export and transports. The grain trade contributed to the fast growth of the
port-cities on the Black Sea ring road which “created the urban zone of the northern and eastern coasts of the Black
Sea” Harlaftis (1996). The Greeks, Jews, Armenians, Albanian and Bulgarians formed the main merchant
community of the region and they could be found in every port-city of the Black Sea coast Jensen and Rosegger
(1968). The main destinations of exported grain (and also spices, cotton, wool, tobacco and coal) were Livorno,
Genoa, Marseilles and England Herlichy (1986). The Balkan Wars (1912-1913), though, with the great movements
of the population, the two World Wars that followed and the Cold War (1945-1989) altered the status of the region
and led to its decline. The end of the Cold War however, and the breakup of the former Soviet Union created
suitable conditions for the re-emergence of the region Salavrakos and Petrochilos (2003).
The construction of the river Danube Black Sea Canal, that began in 1978 and concluded in 1984,
contributed significantly to the growth of the region and especially Romania and the port-city of Constanţa. The
traffic through the river and the industry along it increased substantially. The main product dispatched is oil and its
products Turnock (1986). In the late 20th century, eight of the Black Sea countries experienced the first stages of
their hard economic transition, a fact that influenced the region as a whole and led to its decline, at least in the short-
and medium-run
. The last decade of the century brought stability in the region, political and economic security and
in some cases also economic growth
. Between the years 2000 and 2008 the region was characterised by “high and
sustained growth”, with increasing living standards, and high levels of trade and investment. Following the
deterioration of the international systemic crisis, a worldwide financial failure took place in late 2008. This led most
financial markets to collapse and the growth of the Black Sea region interrupted sharply.
In the following, we review the economic and mainly trade history of four of the portcities on the Black
Sea coast, Constanţa, Odessa, Sevastopol and Trabzon and a reference is made on the trade routes of the times. The
article concludes with the current comparative advantages of the wider region and the perspectives for socio-
economic development. Based on the present literature review, we define also specific, relevant empirical questions
in order to conclude on transnational policy proposals for creative collaboration and common prosperity.
2. Black Sea port-cities
In the current section, on the example of four chosen cities, we review the development through the
centuries and conclude on the importance on one hand of the geopolitical position and of the sociopolitical
occurrences on the other. By choosing Constanţa, Odessa, Sevastopol and Trabzon, we aim to examine the
economic history of three of the main port-cities of the region and consequently to review the development of the
The main drawbacks resulted in the decline of the Black Sea region were “the collapse of the old production and distribution systems, the
unhealthy or missing legal frameworks, the not-running financial sector, the inconsistent structural reforms, the macroeconomic instability with
high levels of inflation and no fiscal control, the establishment of the structures and institutions of the new states” Gavras (2010 :6).
This period of time brought a number of shocks, volatility of energy prices, the Russian financial crisis, the earthquake in Turkey and the crisis
in Kosovo, that in a way influenced the Black Sea region but in another they benefited it Gavras (2010).
76 Domna Lyratzopouoou and Grigoris Zarotiadis / Procedia Economics and Finance 9 ( 2014 ) 74 – 82
north, west and southeast Black Sea coasts.
2.1. Constanţa
The Romanian city of Constanţa, located in the west Black Sea coast, connects the river Danube to the Sea.
Its favorable geographic position increases its trade value and gives the city significant dynamics. The port of
Constanţa was founded in 1896, rather late comparing with other Black Sea ports which date back many centuries,
and was finished in 1909.
From the first years of its foundation, the cargo transported through Constanţa port was of significant
importance and trade increased considerably. During 1836, at the port Constanţa were exported approximately 3,700
tons of cereals, while by 1870 this amount averaged 20,000 tons. Apart from cereals, trade of grain, tobacco, forest
products and petroleum also increased. At that time, at the port of Constanţa served Austrian, French and Russian
ships Jensen and Rosegger (1968).
Till the outburst of the First World War Constanţa was the main centre of oil export for Romania and
played a significant role in the distribution of cereals. In 1916 Constanţa was occupied by the German – Bulgarian
troops and the city was severely damaged. In 1918 the city of Constanţa retrieved its freedom. During the years that
followed, the city met great economic and demographical expansion and many changes occurred in her economic
status as, apart from commerce and shipping, industry and tourism were developing too Kontogeorgis (2007). The
Industrial sector in Constanţa was also flourishing during the mid-20th century, with the food industry being its
leading part. The Second World War prevented the enlargement of the city. The industries where militarized and
trade was affected exceptionally.
After the Romanian Revolution, in 1989, the activity of the port of Constanţa noticed a real increase. Some
years earlier, in 1984, the building of the main part of the Danube-Black Sea Canal, that links the North Sea
(through the RhineMainDanube Canal) to the Black Sea, was completed and the traffic through the river and the
industry along it increased substantially. In order for more trade to be attracted in the country of Romania and more
traffic through its ports, Constanţa obtained in 2002 the “free port status” that promoted its importance Martin
(2002). At the present time, the merchant fleet of Romania uses the port of Constanţa for importing and exporting
goods on the Black Sea and their transportation to the rest of Europe. The port is also used for the construction of
the shipping needs of Romania Banister (2007).
2.2. Odessa
The city of Odessa, as we know it today, was established in the late 18th century to become during the 19th
century the largest city of Ukraine Herlichy (1986) and “one of the leading grain emporiums of Europe” Prousis
(1991). In 1794, under the command of Catherine II, Odessa, as part of the Russian imperial expansion process, was
selected “to serve as a port of war and commerce” Fox (1963). The city, situated between the rivers Dniester and
the Dnepr, provided the required physical characteristics for defense and transportation Fox (1963), while its
location on the Black Sea was ideally not only strategically and politically, but also commercially and culturally
Herlichy (1986).
During the 19th century, the city of Odessa constituted the most important port of the Black Sea region,
with the cereals being the main trading export product between Black Sea region and Europe, particularly Italy.
Russia’s agricultural advantage over the southern provinces of the region made the City, especially due to its
favorable location, an “export point” for wheat commerce. In August 1819 Odessa was declared free for trade for a
Domna Lyratzopouoou and Grigoris Zarotiadis / Procedia Economics and Finance 9 ( 2014 ) 74 – 82
thirty years period, a fact that enhanced the importance of Odessa in the wheat supply of the European markets.
During 1815-1824 approximately 709,371 chetverts of wheat were annually exported from the ports of
Odessa, when the total wheat exports of Russia did not exceed 2,115,000 chetverts. Since 1866 and until 1868 wheat
exports amounted 57% of Russia’s total grain exports, while 78% was shipped from the Black Sea and Azov Sea,
when more than 50% having been embarked at Odessa. From 1806 to 1815 ships departure from Odessa averaged
30,000 tons, mainly grain, annually, while during the period 1815-1826 125,000 tons. The Greek War and the
Russo-Turkish war hindered foreign trade at Odessa, though after the signature of peace trade recovered.
Indicatively, in 1829 239 vessels, of approximately 51,670 tons in total, denatured from Odessa. Austrian ships
ranked first, accounting for more than 40% of trade of Odessa. Russian ships ranked second followed by Ionian
vessels, while British ships did not play importuned role during that time period. Since 1830 and for almost a decade
exports, mainly of wheat, other grains, linseed, tallow and wool, from the port of Odessa reached approximately
200,000 tons annually, while the imports at Odessa, mainly of wine, dried fruit, olive oil, precious metals and raw
cotton were 20,000,000 paper rubles annually. Finally, during the decade 1842-1852 Odessa emerged to “the
principal wheat exporting centre of Russia”, after the establishment of free trade in grains by many western
countries Puryear (1934).
Commercial success in Odessa and trade through its port owes a lot to foreign merchants. The foreign
salesmen from Armenia, Moldova, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Slovenia, Italy, French, a few from Germany, Denmark
and England, were given incentives, such as taxes and services exemptions, in order to promote their commercial
activity in the city Herlichy (1986) and Prousis (1991). The Greek traders’
role in the grain export activities of
Odessa was rather important and along with the Jews and Italians contributed significantly to “the grain export
business of Odessa” Herlichy (1986)
. Apart from trade, the Greeks, Jews and Italians worked also as restaurant and
hotel managers, while some of them served as mayors, officers in the municipal government, or consuls of for
foreign states and generally they enchanted the economic development of the city Herlichy (1986).
However, the uncertainty derived from the Greek War and the Russo-Turkish war resulted in the trade of
Odessa which was notably retarded. The Peace of Adrianople, signed in 1829, repealed the Turkish transit
restrictions through the Straits and Odessa trade regained its importance Puryear (1934). By the end of the 19th
century, though, the grain exports’ pace in the south-east parts of the region quickened and Odessa lost its relative
supremacy Louri and Pepelasis Minoglou (1997).
From late 19th century and thereafter, the city of Odessa was gradually developed into “a strong
international industrial centre” Erkut and Baypinar (2007) and during the Soviet period its port served the naval
forces. In the 20th century, the oil trade increased remarkably and the port of Odessa turned into an oil port. As
Ukrainian grain exports over the Black Sea continued declining, Odessa port concentrated on oil and petroleum
products, which after their arrival, they were carried by rail and entered the region through the Odessa port Fox
Demetrios Spyridonovich Inglezes, was an example of a prosperous Greek merchant whose activity influenced the commercial and urban life of
the city exceptionally Prousis (1991). Other examples of Greek traders were the Ralli brothers, the families of Marazli, Rodocannachi,
Papudov, Mavrokkordato and Zarifi Herlichy (1986).
Odessa was a populous and multiethnic city. Characteristic of that is the fact that fifty languages different from Russian were spoken in Odessa
Herlichy (1977:56). Greek was the language heard most often, as the Greek population of the city was numerous Herlichy (1986:126), while
Italian was the lingua franca of Odessa Herlichy (1973:187).
78 Domna Lyratzopouoou and Grigoris Zarotiadis / Procedia Economics and Finance 9 ( 2014 ) 74 – 82
2.3. Trabzon
The city of Trabzon, situated on the Black Sea coast of northeast Turkey, has a special international trade
role throughout history. As a port on the Ancient Silk road then and as a gateway to Russia, Ukraine, Georgia,
Azerbaijan and Asia nowadays, Trabzon constitutes “a junction of the routes that link central Asia and India over
Persia to Mediterranean, leading to Europe through the straits and Aegean Sea, and to Eastern Europe and Russia
by crossing the Black Sea directly” Aydemir and Aydemir (2007).
According to Turk and Aydemir (2010) the strategic location of Trabzon and the fact that it retailed
commercial relations with Asia and Europe made the city and its port an important exchange centre for goods. Since
2000 BC, when the beginning of its history is dated, Trapezounta experienced great diversity. In the 13th - 14th
centuries it constituted a considerable trade centre, especially after the closure of the Egypt Syria route to
Europeans, a fact that established Trabzon as the only link of the times between Europe and Eastern Asia. During
15th - 18th centuries, the Ottoman Emperor closed gradually the Black Sea to foreign traders and used the City as one
of his service centers, facilitating the economic, social and military life of the era Aydemir and Aydemir (2007). The
international transportation is no longer transacted through Trabzon Istanbul route, but through Erzurum Tokat
Bursa. This matter of fact decreased the importance of the port of Trabzon and the Black Sea trade on the whole.
During the times of the Ottoman Empire, Trabzon provided products for Istanbul. The majority of food,
linen goods and minerals coming from eastern Black Sea, Anatolia and Middle East to Istanbul and Rumelia were
transported via its port. The city also served the military needs of the Empire, with the transfer expenses covered by
the duty income from the port of Trabzon. Finally, it supported the social services, as the masques maintained
functioned under the auspice of the port Aydemir and Aydemir (2007).
In early 19th century, Russia followed by Britain, France, Sardinia, Denmark and Spain provided trading
privileges in the Black Sea. This fact contributed to the revival of the Trabzon-Tabriz (Iran) route and the
improvement of the Trabzon-Erzurum (Turkey) route, strengthening in that way the trade with Persia. Around 1870
trade between Europe and Persia via the route Trabzon-Erzurum averaged £2,400,000, while fifteen years later that
amount falls to £1,092,617. The Trabzon-Tabriz route, in 1850’-1860’ accounted for almost two-fifths of total trade
of Iran, whilst this amount decreased to less than the one-tenth by 1900’ (Issawi 1970).
The steam navigation, with the carriage of passengers and goods between Trabzon and Istanbul, was
established, while roads and railways were improved (Issawi 1970). Aydemir and Aydemir (2007) point out that
during the 19th century and early 20th century the overall trade volume was increasing, with considerable fluctuation
though, and the economic and social life of Trabzon was flourishing. Since the arrival of a steamer chartered by
British businessmen in 1836, the shipping traffic in the Trabzon port increased. In 1852 four Turkish, one Austrian
and one British steamship, weighting 500 tons each, were calling at the port, while by 1890 ten lines served at
Trabzon, carrying mainly grain. In 1900 entered the port 487 steamships, weighting 522,000 tons in total, and 6,600
sailing ships, 26,000 tons in total.
Since the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the city of Trabzon lost its leading position. The Persian
trade transacted from that time on, via Batumi and Basra-Beirut routes and no longer via Trabzon. During the
second half of the 20th century, Iran and Turkey agreed to disrupt rail freight transport between the two countries, as
the trade share of Iran in Trabzon was insignificant with no expectations for recovery. The Turkish government
announced in 2004 a “Strategy of Trade Improvement among Neighbor Countries”, in order to encourage trade
transportation between Turkey and Persian and middle Asian countries via rail, aiming to reduce the freight costs.
This strategy constituted a hindrance to the flourish of Trabzon trade.
Domna Lyratzopouoou and Grigoris Zarotiadis / Procedia Economics and Finance 9 ( 2014 ) 74 – 82
2.4. Sevastopol
Sevastopol, the city of “Russian Glory” Plokhy (2000), was established in 1783 in order to serve as a
trading port and a naval base and bastion of the south Russian empire. Catherine the Great created the new city on
the site of the ruins of the ancient Greek city Chersonesus, on the Black Sea coast of Crimea, and for many years
Sevastopol was a great trading center attracting the interest of Greek, Tatar, eastern Slav and other merchants.
However, Sevastopol since its establishment served mainly as the base of the Black Sea Fleet Qualls (2003).
Two wars, the Crimean War and the Second World War, marked the history of the city. On both cases the
city was completely damaged and its population was either killed or abandoned the city. The two wars left
Sevastopol in ruins and forced its people to evacuate their homes after strong defense, and so they created the “myth
of Sevastopol”. That myth and the history of the city contributed to its rabid re-population and reconstruction after
her liberation in May 1944 Qualls (2003).
In the second half of the 19th century, in 1853 more specifically, Russia started a campaign against the
Turks in Moldavia and Wallachia. However, none of the west European powers wanted Russia to take control over
the Balkans or the Black Sea straits and thus Britain and France gave support to the Ottoman Empire and the war
moved to the Russian territory. After the allies invading the Crimea and surrounding Sevastopol, the main base of
the Black Sea fleet, the battle ended and the city surrendered. As already mentioned the city was completely
destroyed but due to donations and private initiative Sevastopol was rapidly reconstructed Plokhy (2000).
During the first decades of the 20th century, Sevastopol developed and regained its multi-ethnic character.
However, the outburst of the Second World War and after two years of German occupation the city was once more
in ruins and of its 110,000 residents, among them the Jewish and Tatar population, survived only 3,000. After the
city’s liberation in May 1944 the population left and the German prisoners, along with the Navy, the most powerful
institution in the city, tried hard to regain Sevastopol’s history Qualls (2003). Nowadays, the city of Sevastopol is
under the administration of the Ukrainian government and its port remains the main base of the Black Sea Fleet
Unlike the ports of Constanţa, Odessa and Trabzon analysed above, the port of Sevastopol was not a great
trade port. Instead, its geographic location and navigation conditions contributed for the port to be selected as a
naval point. The Black Sea Fleet used it as its base and constituted the main economic pool of the city through the
centuries. On the contrary, the major role in the trade and transportation in the region became obvious through the
analysis of the history of first three cities on the Black Sea coast. Moreover, one can easily confirm the second
hypotheses, namely that various socio-political turbulences, wars, political changes and economic challenges led to
forcible, sometimes even impetuous reconstructions and adverse effects in socioeconomic development. Two of
them, Constanţa and Odessa managed to maximize their advantages and retain their status and importance till
nowadays, while Trabzon lost its leading position.
3. Current comparative advantages of the wider region and the perspectives for socio-economic development
In the on-going crisis, the Black Sea region enjoys a number of characteristics that increase its comparative
advantage. Its proximity to the European markets and Russia and the fact that it connects Central Asia and Middle
According to the agreement signed in May 1997, the Soviet Black Sea Fleet was initially divided between Russia and Ukraine. Eventually,
Russia took over control of 82% of the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet’ assets, although the agreement recognises the sovereignty of Ukraine over
the city and its port. The agreement expires in 2017 with renewal perspectives.
80 Domna Lyratzopouoou and Grigoris Zarotiadis / Procedia Economics and Finance 9 ( 2014 ) 74 – 82
East with the rest of the world, make its geographical location a precious characteristic. In a way, it could function
as a bridge connecting the economically “weary” Western Europe with the dynamic regions in the east and
contributing to the enhancement of creative collaborations in production and transportation.
The favorable business environment and the well educated and skilled, though low cost, labor force
constitutes an initiative for foreign entrepreneurs. Furthermore, most of the countries of the Black Sea region had to
deal with an especially critical socioeconomic situation during the 1990s. The experience they gained helped them
to be more flexible and undergo the current crisis less severely than the rest of the world Audin and Triantaphyllou
(2010), at least for the moment, as the persistence of the systemic crisis may lead to political turbulences in this part
of the world.
Apart from the advantages above that improve the status of the area, there are challenges that the Black Sea
countries have to deal with. Those challenges may be of different intensity for each country, as they differ in size,
economic structure and development level, though in any case they constitute an important issue. Political
antagonisms and instabilities can be extremely dangerous in the area, both, because of the world-wide unsteadiness
but also the historic load.
Moreover, it is exactly the advantages of the area that, in case of an unfavorable political incident, may be
transformed into an instability trap. For instance, the importance of the Black Sea area as an energy supply route has
grown significantly. The pipeline routes for oil and gas from the Caspian basin and Russia to the West cross the
region, a fact that creates various relationships between the producers (Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan,
Kazakhstan) and between the consumers (the countries of the EU, Turkey, other countries). The key in that case is
the balance that should be kept between the different interests of the different parties in order for “successful
cooperation models” to be developed.
The decisions of the external players have a great impact on the Black Sea area and along with the current
economic crisis, the diverging national economies and the competing interests make the security of the regional
cooperation and stability a great issue. Prosperity and increasing living standards seem hard to be retained, while the
economic and financial crisis, the weak domestic structures and continuous rivalry among the countries make
difficult political reforms necessary. Finally, the steps made for the region building have been impressive. Though,
no progress has been made towards the establishment of democratic institutions, while their proper functioning
meets hindrances Audin and Triantaphyllou (2010).
Conclusively, the area has a contradictory, twofold character: long-lasting, traditional socioeconomic and
ethnic / cultural bounds along with a historical load of conflicts; strength and opportunities, which at the same time
can be the root of conflicts. Transnational / cross-regional co-operation between the local communities and the states
of the area, as well as business-networking, is the key to utilise the existing comparative advantages and to
counteract the existing risks.
4. Concluding remarks
The Black Sea region has a contradictory, twofold character, as the historical socioeconomic and ethnic /
cultural bounds, which form the region’s character and create opportunities, are at the same time a cause for
conflicts. The ports on the Black Sea coast played and continue to play an important role in the formation of the
region’s character and its economic, social, cultural and tourist relations with the rest of the world. The four cases
examined above are four characteristic examples of the the north, west and southeast Black Sea port cities.
Odessa, Constanţa, Sevastopol and Trabzon own their enhancement to trade and transport through the Black Sea,
but also the Black Sea trade was facilitated through them. Their role on the Black Sea trade routes, apart from the
Domna Lyratzopouoou and Grigoris Zarotiadis / Procedia Economics and Finance 9 ( 2014 ) 74 – 82
transportation of merchants, soldiers, artists, travelers and goods, also promoted ideas, ethics and culture and
pervaded the form of the whole region.
Throughout history the Black Sea functions as crossroads and a great variety of commodities have travelled
through it into Europe, Central Asia and Middle East. The port-cities located on the Black Sea coast developed and
reconstructed through a number of Wars, political changes and the economic and political transition of the Black
Sea area. The area’s stability and prosperity have been threatened due to various facts and the geopolitical issues
arisen were many. New opportunities appear, though, and the region enjoys a number of advantages comparatively
to the rest of the world. The tools for dealing with the challenges of energy security, regional cooperation, the
economic crisis, region building and sustainable development do exist. What lacks is the proper political
environment and support.
What is important for the Black Sea region is the “image”. In the present exists no “regional image”. The
Black Sea area is never presented as a whole, but as “different territories belonging to different countries. To that
venture could help the academics, the journalists the cultural institutions, and once an “international community” is
created peace and stability would dominate inside the region and the interest of outside world would be attracted
Prevelakis (2008).
It seems that the communities of the Black Sea region have things in common; however their economies
are drifting apart. In order for the region to be a dynamic entity creative collaboration among the countries is
required and common prosperity should be promoted. The areas of collaboration in which countries may be
interested in are the ones that they have a comparative advantage or the ones they wish to develop Gavras (2010).
Those areas include energy, transport, finance, telecommunications and environment. Gains among the region’s
economies are essential in order for trade inside the Black Sea region to be promoted. Measures such as activities to
facilitate trade, elimination of dual taxation, agreements for investments could work as gains between the
economies. Furthermore the appropriate staff and officials and the dialogue regarding each countries interests,
priorities and needs should be identified.
Last but not least, the existence of cross-national institutions that promote the goal of regionalism,
cooperation and common prosperity in the area
provides an era for scheduling and realising the needed policies.
Yet, due to cases of overlapping agendas and the lack of collaborations among them with multiplicative benefits,
there is a necessity for co-ordinating the activities of those institutions.
Above all, there is a need for a vision, a new “Charta” Woodhouse (1995). A noble cause, likewise to the
masterpiece of Rigas Velestinlis, that will move the revolutionary potential of our time, regionally or even globally.
Today, in the time where the “suspended step” of monetary unification in the European Union and the asymmetrical
financial integration worldwide generate severe imbalances, there is a cry for democratization and socio-political
integration too. Even if this mean that we should return to regional socioeconomic and political associations, on the
basis of existing cultural, economic and historical bonds, like those around the Black Sea.
Economic and political organizations such as BSEC, GUAM, the CDC and the Black Sea Forum, programmes initiated by the EU such us the
TRACECA (the Transport Corridor Europe-Caucausus-Asia), the DABLAS (the Danube Black Sea Task Force), the INOGATE (the Interstate
Oil and Gas Transportation to Europe) and the wider Black Sea policies such as the European Neighbourhood Policy, the Black Sea Synergy and
the Eastern Partneship Audin and Triantaphyllou (2010)
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... The Black Sea region and its surrounding territories have served as a crossroad between Europe, Asia, and Africa. The ports around it owed their prosperity to commercial connections, as they developed secure trade routes to a network of overseas locations (Lyratzopouoou & Zarotiadis, 2014). One major change to the region is the Danube-Black Sea Canal, completed in 1984, which made a link to the North Sea (through the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal) and the traffic through the river and the industry along it has increased substantially since then. ...
... The Black Sea is vulnerable due to intense transportation of oil products and its semi-enclosed nature. Pipelines and tankers for oil and gas from the Caspian basin and Russia to the West cross the region (Lyratzopouoou & Zarotiadis, 2014). CleanSeaNet, a satellite-based pan-European oil spill and vessel monitoring service has been available since 2007 from the European Maritime Safety Agency. ...
... The Black Sea has attracted the attention of researchers owing to its complex bathymetry, complicated orography, and variety of different climatic conditions (Islek et al., 2020a). In addition, the basin acts as a commercial connector between the ports of Europe, Asia, and Africa across the coastlines of six countries and it connects to the Mediterranean through the straits (Lyratzopouoou and Zarotiadis, 2014). Therefore, this study focused on the entire Black Sea, which spans longitudes of 26 • -42 • E and latitudes of 40 • -47 • N, as shown in Fig. 1. ...
In this study, a long-term comparative assessment of the potential of wave power in the Black Sea was conducted using the calibrated and validated SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) model forced by two well-known wind fields. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (NCEP/CFSR) wind fields were used, covering data from 1979 to 2018. In general, the wave power potential based on the results of the CFSR wind field was found to be slightly higher than that obtained with the ERA-Interim wind field. The greatest discrepancy between the results of the ERA-Interim and CFSR wind fields was observed in the northeastern Black Sea. The spatial distributions of the wave power were also evaluated on a seasonal scale using wave parameters obtained from the calibrated SWAN model. The wave climate obtained from both long-term and seasonal assessments indicates that the western Black Sea, especially the southwestern Black Sea, is characterized by higher wave power potential and lower variability, while the eastern Black Sea has lower wave power potential and higher variability. Stable and powerful long-term wave conditions in the southwestern Black Sea can indicate that this region is a suitable location for wave farms. In contrast, the effect of the long-term variability on wave power is greatest in the eastern Black Sea owing to the highly variable wave conditions in this region.
... Karadeniz, petrol ürünlerinin yoğun olarak taşınması ve yarı kapalı olan yapısı nedeniyle kirliliğe karşı savunmasız bir denizdir. Hazar Denizi ve Rusya'dan, batıya petrol ve gazın taşınması için boru hatları ve tankerler bu bölgeden geçmektedir (Lyratzopouoou ve Zarotiadis, 2014). ...
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... Although the Black Sea is an enclosed basin, this region is very dynamic, being well-known for its shipping activities. Most of the long-distance routes pass through this area, providing in this way connection to the most important harbors from Europe, Asia, and Africa [1]. Furthermore, during the recent years, it was also noticed that this environment seems to be characterized by wind and wave resources that are capable of supporting the development of renewable marine projects, particularly in the western part of the sea [2][3][4]. ...
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The aim of the present work is to assess the wind and wave climate in the Black Sea while considering various data sources. A special attention is given to the areas with higher navigation traffic. Thus, the results are analyzed for the sites located close to the main harbors and also along the major trading routes. The wind conditions were evaluated considering two different data sets, the reanalysis data provided by NCEP-CFSR (U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) and the hindcast results given by a Regional Climate Model (RCM) that were retrieved from EURO-CORDEX (European Domain-Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment). For the waves, there were considered the results coming from simulations with the SWAN (Simulating Wave Nearshore) model, forced with the above-mentioned two different wind fields. Based on these results, it can be mentioned that the offshore sites seem to show the best correlation between the two datasets for both wind and waves. As regards the nearshore sites, there is a good agreement between the average values of the wind data that are provided by the different datasets, except for the points located in the southern part of the Black Sea. The same trends noticed for the average values remain also valid for the extreme values. Finally, it can be concluded that the results obtained in this study are useful for the evaluation of the wind and wave climate in the Black Sea. Also, they give a more comprehensive picture on how well the wind field provided by the Regional Climate Model, and the wave model forced with this wind, can represent the features of a complex marine environment as the Black Sea is.
It is a common knowledge that the Mediterranean Sea as well as the Black Sea have served as the theater of global shipping even from the dawn of humanity. As it is well established, shipping poses as the cornerstone not only for the global economy but also for sustainability. Albeit we tend to primarily focus on the financial impact of shipping, we should bear in mind that its effects spill over to many more domains. Shipping in the regions of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea has served as a catalyst toward social, cultural, and political evolution. However, what is the environmental footprint of shipping, and could green shipping, combined with a solid regulatory framework, be an efficient solution? The present work involves a historical note scrutinizing the history of shipping in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, while it explores the environmental externalities as well as the legal framework regulating this very interesting domain of human practice.
En el presente trabajo se pretende realizar un análisis sobre el pasaje de Heródoto (Hdt. iv, 23-28, 1) con el objetivo de lograr concretar la metodología empleada por el autor griego, las fases de construcción narrativa y el valor histórico y etnográfico del mismo. Para la consecución de dicho objetivo, el trabajo se encuentra estructurado en: una breve introducción historiográfica sobre Heródoto, un análisis estratificado y detallado del pasaje referido para, finalmente, aportar unas breves conclusiones.
Fosil yakıtların çevre ve ekonomi üzerindeki olumsuz etkisi, toplumu yenilenebilir yakıt alternatifleri bulmaya yöneltmektedir. Yenilenebilir yakıtlar, biyoyakıtlar (örn., biyoetanol) gibi yenilenebilir kaynaklardan üretilen yakıtlardır. Bu, doğal gaz, petrol ve nükleer enerji gibi yenilenemeyen yakıtların tersidir. Bu kitap bölümü, biyoyakıtlar hakkında bazı bilgiler vermekte ve gerçekleri sentezlemektedir. Başlangıç olarak, biyoyakıtların üretiminden bahsedilmektedir. Daha sonra biyoyakıtların çevresel ve ekonomik yararları anlatılmakta ve son olarak da biyoyakıtın benzine olan üstünlüğü, kullanılabilirliği ile çevre ve ekonomi üzerindeki etkileri karşılaştırarak kanıtlanmaya çalışılmıştır.
Technical Report
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The Report provides a set of eight recommendations each of which contains the seeds of more detailed proposals and frameworks aimed at ensuring that the Black Sea region becomes one of peace, security, stability, sustainable development, innovation, and prosperity by harnessing the potential of its peoples. The Report also clearly suggests that focussing on regional cooperation and development without addressing the resolution of the various conflicts will not make the region sustainable.
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Cite as: Aydın Türk, Y., & Aydemir, Ş. (2010). Transformation in Retailing Behaviour, Patterns and Spatial Settings: The Case of The City of Trabzon. European Planning Studies, 18 (4), 653-664. doi:10.1080/09654311003593770 ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the spatial distribution and transformation of retailing and services in the city of Trabzon, which is historically a monocentric city and which has been in a process of changing into a polycentric form following the population and spatial growths of the city and the development of its trade and commerce. A questionnaire survey was conducted by Aydin in 2001 in 26 neighbourhoods of the city to quantify the distribution of central functions among them in order to understand the transformation in time, and comparisons were made with the findings of earlier studies made by Aydemir (1978, Doğu Karadeniz Bölgesi Trabzon Alt Bölgesi (TBAB) Kentsel Etki Alanlarının Saptanması İçin Yöntem: Etkileşim Esası (İstanbul: İTÜ, Mimarlık Fakültesi)) and Trabzon Analytical Study (1968, İller Bankası, Ankara, Güzel Sanatlar Matbaası A.Ş.) to show the transformations in terms of quality, quantity and spatial dispersion. However, the transformation is ongoing since 2000 in the form of first shopping markets then shopping centres and the large shopping malls. The main findings of the paper are the changes in the number and quality in retail shopping, increasing specialization in central functions and spatial dispersion towards sub-centres which are not planned according to the current development plan. Therefore, there is a need for a planned development of these sub-centres and shopping centres in order to prevent a misuse of scarce land, which will be needed for further use in the future.
Following a series of necessary but wrenching economic transformations, the Black Sea region enjoyed a lengthy period of growth that ceased suddenly with the 2008 global financial crisis. While the worst is over for most, the countries face a number of immediate challenges such as managing the current downturn, effecting reforms to improve competitiveness and return to sustained growth, managing relations with the highly influential European Union, and facing longer term challenges such as poor demographic trends and emerging environmental issues. Regional cooperation remains underdeveloped and represents an area of untapped potential to help achieve economic objectives.
Greek merchant settlement of the northern coast of the Black Sea extends back to classical and Byzantine times. After the founding of Odessa in 1794, Greek and other foreign merchants played a major role in transforming this provincial backwater into one of the leading grain emporiums of Europe, a cosmopolitan city of ethnic diversity and cultural vitality. Dēmētrios Spyridonovich Inglezēs (1773-1844) is a concrete example of the prosperous Greek trader who assimilated to his new environment and engaged in numerous civic endeavors promoting the commercial and urban growth of Odessa during its formative decades. He also retained a sense of Greek identity and participated in the Russian philhellenic movement during the Greek revolt of the 1820s. The experience of this prominent merchant typified that of other successful Greek traders in Odessa and contributes to recent scholarship on that city's Greek community and on the broader theme of historical connections and contacts between Russia and the Greek east in the post-Byzantine era.
Ever since the dissolution of the USSR the fate of the Black Sea fleet and its main base, the port and city of Sevastopol, remains at the centre of Russian-Ukrainian relations. The current dispute between the two largest of the former Soviet republics is deeply rooted in history, as the Russian side often uses historical arguments in its attempts to claim the Russian Federation's jurisdiction over the Crimea in general and the city of Sevastopol in particular. In doing so the Russian politicians often make use of highly developed historical mythology that presents Sevastopol as a symbol of Russian national glory and portrays Ukrainian jurisdiction over the city as a historical misunderstanding. This article discusses the development of Sevastopol mythology in Imperial and Soviet Russia from the times of the Crimean War till the dissolution of the USSR. It does so by placing Sevastopol mythology in the broader context of the development of Russian national identity and follows the changes in the functioning of the myth through more than a century. The article examines the atmosphere in which the myth of Sevastopol as a city of Russian glory was formed and how it managed to survive the dramatic changes that occurred in the former Russian Empire after the Revolution. It also discusses the ways in which the old imperial myth was transformed in order to meet the requirements of Soviet ideology and, within the last decade, of the ideological and political goals pursued by the new Russian state.
This paper presents a Briton's view of transport in Romania. It covers a brief description of the transport infrastructure of Romania followed by a more detailed description of the function and organization of Romania's passenger and goods transport systems. Comparisons are made between the British and Romanian approaches to transport. These comparisons have a wider significance since the two government systems are representative of the Western and Eastern European approaches to problem solving.
By exploring the reconstruction of the city of Sevastopol after the Second World War and the memorialisation that accompanied this process, this article seeks to examine the identities embedded into this process, particularly the relationship between local and Soviet identities.
The fate of populations living around the Black Sea is related to the crossroads situation, to political fragmentation and to the struggle of outside powers for zones of influence. Those elements have been combined in different ways; times of stability and prosperity have been succeeded by periods of war and destruction and vice versa. After the stability of the Cold War, geopolitical problems are threatening again this region; however, new opportunities appear as well. The BSEC can contribute to progress by reinforcing networks, by promoting globalized strategies and by developing an image of the Black Sea Region as a geo‐cultural and geo‐economic entity.