Article

Influence of Organizational and Project Practices on Design Error Costs

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The organizational and project-related practices adopted by design firms can influence the nature and ability of people to perform their tasks. In recognition of such influences, a structured survey questionnaire was used to determine the key factors contributing to design error costs in 139 Australian construction projects. Using stepwise multiple regressions, the significant organizational and project-related variables influencing design error costs are determined. The analysis revealed that the mean design error costs for the sample projects were 14.2% of the original contract value. Significant organizational and project factors influencing design error included inadequate training for employees and unrealistic design and documentation schedules required by clients. From the findings, key strategies for reducing design errors that are attribut-able to organization and project-related practices are identified. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000415. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Furthermore, wastage of money may vary depending on the volume and complexity of the project. A number of authors have reported a high percentage of design defects during the construction phase initiates from the decisions made at the time of development phases (Alaloul et al., 2016;Love et al., 2014). This phase involves multiple design specialist to constitute a complex design-subsector according to the project requirement. ...
... Rahman and Salim (2013) indicated, there are three primary issues affecting FM practice: deficient budgetary, incompatible management and poor building detailing and design. Presently, for a project success most crucial factor is design defects perceived by both owners and contractors and have a tremendous impact on later expenditures like at post occupancy stage (Love et al., 2014). Wong and Chan (2014) concluded 58% of building defects originated from faulty design. ...
... Wong and Chan (2014) concluded 58% of building defects originated from faulty design. Love et al. (2014) added that these defects can also incur more cost that adds in facility maintenance around 14.2%. Josephson and Hammarlund (1999) investigated many building projects to sort out the origin and causes of building defect and concluded that design is the main source and others client, materials, site management. ...
... This will enable the probability of potential cost increases from contract award to be determined as well as the project's cost contingency. The causal factors contributing to design error emanating from this study are reported elsewhere (Love et al. 2014). ...
... According to Love et al. (2011b), a systemic approach to design error containment and reduction should be applied to construction and engineering projects. Such design error containment and reduction strategies can be applied at the people, organization, and project levels (Love et al. 2014). Training, education, and stress and fatigue management have been identified as pivotal strategies to reduce the incidence of human error. ...
Article
The statistical characteristics of design error rectification costs experienced in 139 Australian construction projects are analyzed. Theoretical probability distributions are fitted to the design error cost data. A generalized Pareto probability function was found to provide the best overall distribution fit for design error costs. The generalized Pareto distribution is used to calculate the probability of design error costs being experienced for the selected sample. A mean design error cost of 14.2% of a project's contract value is reported. A significant difference between mean design error costs and project types was found for civil engineering (23.44%) and fit-out (22.50%) projects. Projects .Australian dollars ðA$Þ101M were found to experience significantly higher mean design error costs (26.18%) than other projects. Being able to determine the likelihood of design error rectification costs from the derived empirical probability distribution will provide an ameliorated assessment of risk before the commencement of construction. Strategies to reduce design error rectification costs are also discussed. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000439. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
... Contrary to the general perception, evidence that can refute the belief in the effectiveness of the drawing-based design review capabilities of experienced practitioners is rare despite the large number of studies on design errors. Previous studies on design errors are conducted mostly in five areas: 1) classification of errors (Atkinson 1998;Burati et al 1992;Ellirtgwood 1987;Lopez et al. 2010); 2) causes (Busby 2001;Ellirtgwood 1987;Lopez et al. 2010;Love et al. 2012a;Mahalingam and Levitt 2007;Melchers 1989;Taylor 2007a;Taylor 2007b); 3) cost and schedule impacts (Han et al. 2013;Hwang et al. 2009;Lee et al. 2012b;Lopez and Love 2012;Love et al. 2012a;Love et al. 2013); 4) case reports (Acharya et al. 2006;Haydl and Nikiel 2000); and 5) error avoidance strategies (Busby 2001;Le May and Deckker 2009;Lee et al. 2003;Love et al. 2012b;Love et al. 2011a;Love et al. 2011b;Palaneeswaran et al. 2013;Sacks et al. 2003;Sweeney 1998). Many of these studies indirectly demonstrate the problems of drawing-based design review through the analysis of the potential impact of design errors on cost and schedule. ...
... Contrary to the general perception, evidence that can refute the belief in the effectiveness of the drawing-based design review capabilities of experienced practitioners is rare despite the large number of studies on design errors. Previous studies on design errors are conducted mostly in five areas: 1) classification of errors (Atkinson 1998;Burati et al 1992;Ellirtgwood 1987;Lopez et al. 2010); 2) causes (Busby 2001;Ellirtgwood 1987;Lopez et al. 2010;Love et al. 2012a;Mahalingam and Levitt 2007;Melchers 1989;Taylor 2007a;Taylor 2007b); 3) cost and schedule impacts (Han et al. 2013;Hwang et al. 2009;Lee et al. 2012b;Lopez and Love 2012;Love et al. 2012a;Love et al. 2013); 4) case reports (Acharya et al. 2006;Haydl and Nikiel 2000); and 5) error avoidance strategies (Busby 2001;Le May and Deckker 2009;Lee et al. 2003;Love et al. 2012b;Love et al. 2011a;Love et al. 2011b;Palaneeswaran et al. 2013;Sacks et al. 2003;Sweeney 1998). Many of these studies indirectly demonstrate the problems of drawing-based design review through the analysis of the potential impact of design errors on cost and schedule. ...
... Climate conditions, building location, construction materials, building type and change in usage, building maintenance, faulty design, corruption, and lack of supervision also contribute to defects and failures. 9 Besides, analysis conducted by Love et al. (2014) showed that the average cost of design errors is 14.2% of the original value of the contract. 14 There are many problems that affect the quality of construction projects such as standard reduction, increased cost, projects delay, unskilled workers and less qualified construction technologists. 1 Besides, some physical aspects affect building quality, including design, size, the material used, and the finishing of the houses. ...
... 9 Besides, analysis conducted by Love et al. (2014) showed that the average cost of design errors is 14.2% of the original value of the contract. 14 There are many problems that affect the quality of construction projects such as standard reduction, increased cost, projects delay, unskilled workers and less qualified construction technologists. 1 Besides, some physical aspects affect building quality, including design, size, the material used, and the finishing of the houses. 15 Other factors that worsen construction quality are the poor specification of materials, workmanship, and quality of technical elements and services. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study determines the types of defects often detected in residential buildings based on the criteria set by the Construction Industry Standard (CIS) 7: 2006-Quality Assessment System for Building Construction Work. Twenty-two terraced two-story houses located in Selangor, Malaysia were visually inspected and assessed in terms of building condition, and results were reported based on the Condition Survey Protocol 1 Matrix. Assessment findings were consolidated with those of defective groups based on the criteria of CIS 7: 2006 to determine the defect type, building component, and construction field in which defects often occur. Results show that most of the inspected houses are dilapidated even though they were recently completed. The most severe building defects are detected in the architecture. Furthermore, floors and walls are major contributors to building defects. Mainly as a result of poor workmanship, the most common defects involve finishing, alignment and evenness, and joint and gap. Thus, this study proposes a method to ensure high-quality workmanship.
... Time limitation in the design phase [17][18][19][20][21][22] Poor design [23] Inadequate or incomplete technical plans/specification [5] Poor preparation and approval of drawings [15,17,[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] Material change and approval during the construction phase [15,[17][18][19]22,24,33,34] Owner-related ...
... Time limitation in the design phase [17][18][19][20][21][22] Poor design [23] Inadequate or incomplete technical plans/specification [5] Poor preparation and approval of drawings [15,17,[24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] Material change and approval during the construction phase [15,[17][18][19]22,24,33,34] Owner-related ...
Article
Full-text available
Claims and disputes occur frequently in the construction industry between different contracting parties, mainly the owner, the designer and the contractor. Consequently, valuable time and a significant amount of money are lost. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) construction industry, one of the most vibrant sectors globally, is experiencing a high level of construction disputes and claims. This paper aims to identify and assess the major causes of disputes in the UAE and weigh the effectiveness of the methods used for their avoidance and resolution. The sources of disputes, and their avoidance/resolution methods, were identified through a comprehensive literature review. A survey was then developed and sent to 150 construction professionals. Fifty-four responses were received and analyzed. The results show that the top five sources of disputes in the UAE are variations initiated by the owner, obtaining permit/approval from the municipality and other governmental authorities, material change and approval during the construction phase, the slowness of the owner in decision-making, and the short time available during the design phase. As for the avoidance and the resolution method, the most effective method was found to be negotiation.
... Today, deficiencies considered by both owners and contractors are the most crucial factor for project performance and have a tremendous impact on later expenditure such as post-occupancy. According to a survey report, design flaws are also the major risk in the construction industry in Kuwait, Japan, the United States of America (USA) and Hong Kong [9]. A study by [9] shows that Due to faulty design decisions, maintenance costs can be increased by 14.20 percent. ...
... According to a survey report, design flaws are also the major risk in the construction industry in Kuwait, Japan, the United States of America (USA) and Hong Kong [9]. A study by [9] shows that Due to faulty design decisions, maintenance costs can be increased by 14.20 percent. [10] also revealed that the cost of maintenance is 83 percent or 4-5 times higher than the cost of construction. ...
Article
Full-text available
A major role of cost model is to ensure that the resource being handled is maintainable, functional and secure. The last decade has shown that attention to the idea of cost model added value to accomplish this management. In the context of cost model research and practice, the purpose of this paper is to identify, compare and describe the different cost models and investigate their value parameters. A systematic literature review of various publications has been followed in order to categorize the different theoretical models and to analyze the key quality parameters in the cost model. The established eight theoretical models were described in the sense of cost and the variant research projects and structures have taken into account very diverse parameters. In cost models, this analysis organizes 11-various quality parameters into four relevant headings: individuals, system and material, economy and social. Among all value parameters, cost reduction and customer satisfaction, followed by efficiency, are the most prioritized value parameters. This paper results provide a sound basis and realistic interpretation of future research to harmonize the definition of cost model added value as it is based solely on literature review.
... These difficulties can lead to between 80% and 90% of the failures occurring in civil engineering projects [5]. They can also incur more cost that adds a project's value around 14.2% [6][7][8]. Design errors are a serious threat to construction projects [5,[9][10][11]. Besides, the use of technology is limited in construction development in Cambodia because of inadequate human resources and limited education system. ...
Article
Full-text available
Design errors are unavoidable in any construction projects and can negatively affect cost, schedule and safety performance. The different types of design drawings may have various levels of design errors due to many factors such as unclear overview of the designs, lack of coordination process, and human mistakes. Civil engineers, both designers and contractors, have limited understanding of the importance of design errors that occur in construction phases. This paper attempts to evaluate the impact level of groups of design errors in structural and other building components and also the impact level of their cases which occur in building construction projects in Cambodia. Respondents were asked to provide the impact score for design errors based on the five-point Likert scale, ranked from 1-negligible to 5-disastrous. The average impact score was determined in order to rank the impact of design errors. As a result, design errors in structural and mechanical works are found as the first group to be focused due to its impact, followed by design errors in structural and plumbing works. The top three cases under the group of design errors in structural and mechanical works are those in reinforced concrete walls and lift systems, footing and lift systems, and slab and HVAC systems. These results are significant for engineers to be aware of the possible high impact of design errors, and also to determine which group of design errors should be considered first. Further studies should look at the combination of such occurrence and impact of design errors in order to efficiently identify the most critical and significant design errors in terms of not only their impact, but also their occurrence in building construction projects.
... These difficulties can lead to between 80% and 90% of the failures occurring in civil engineering projects [5]. They can also incur more cost that adds a project's value around 14.2% [6][7][8]. Design errors are a serious threat to construction projects [5,[9][10][11]. Besides, the use of technology is limited in construction development in Cambodia because of inadequate human resources and limited education system. ...
... Specifically, an EPC project designer should have capabilities in clearly understanding the intentions of client/consulting engineer, obtaining sufficient data for design input, meeting technical criteria, selecting financially viable design options, and effectively incorporating the needs of procurement and construction into design processes [25,59,60]. Incompetent design capability may lead to inappropriate design planning, design errors or defects, design rework, poor constructability, high construction cost, and even failing to reach project functional objectives [61][62][63][64]. Partnering among project participants can help enhance designers' capability to solve the above design-related problems. ...
Article
Full-text available
Hydropower, as a renewable energy resource, has become an important way to fit for Chinese long-term energy policy of energy transformation. Engineering–procurement–construction (EPC) has been increasingly adopted for improving hydropower project delivery efficiency in the utilization of water resources and generation of clean energy, where design plays a critical role in project success. Existing studies advocate the need to use partnering for better solutions to designs in EPC hydropower projects. However, there is a lack of a theoretical framework to systematically address design-related issues considering different participants’ interactions. This study coherently examined the causal relationships among partnering, design management, design capability, and EPC hydropower project performance by establishing and validating a conceptual model, with the support of data collected from a large-scale EPC hydropower project. Path analysis reveals that partnering can directly promote design management and design capability and exert an effect on design capability through enhancing design management, thereby achieving better hydropower project outcomes. This study’s contribution lies in that it theoretically builds the links between intra- and inter-organizational design-related activities by systematically mapping EPC hydropower project performance on partnering, design management, and design capability. These findings also suggest broad practical strategies for participants to optimally integrate their complementary resources into designs to achieve superior hydropower project performance.
... Indeed, human errors occur for various reasons, thus by different actions are needed to prevent or avoid different sorts of error experiences in construction projects. Love et al. [7] found out that design errors and subsequent rework that occurred on site for a specified project was attributable to inadequate knowledge of junior staff in their office. Indeed, such inadequacies may result in a lack of knowledge regarding the performance of building materials available, and in other words may inhibit their decision making. ...
... According to (Pícha et al., 2015;Wang, Tang, Qi, Shen, & Huang, 2016), design affect the performance of the project in terms of cost, quality and schedule. It is further supported that design management is critical for construction firms involved as EPC contractors (Love, Lopez, Kim, & Kim, 2014). This is due to the reason that in EPC contract, owners are prone to minimize the capital cost of the project by setting about with incomplete detailed design (Mohammad Moazzami, Dehghan, Jergeas, & Ruwanpura, 2015). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) Contract is a project delivery method in the oil and gas industry. However, the complexity of EPC projects inevitably leads to issues of project management, risk and technical to occur. Therefore, oil and gas players demand a course of action in minimizing the issues arise in EPC projects. Digitalization in the oil and gas industry indeed offers benefits in the upstream value chain of exploration, development, and production, which EPC projects take place. Oil and gas companies had been focusing too much on digitizing technical work until the non-technical aspect has been abandoned. Therefore, this study presents and discusses the issues in EPC contract and how attributes in cloud computing may help in minimizing the issues of EPC contract specifically in the Malaysian oil and gas industry. This is a descriptive study and the methodology used is essentially based on the review of the literature in relation to EPC contract and the findings of a pilot study in relation to EPC contract and cloud computing. The analysis revealed that the characteristics of cloud computing in relation to the adoption of EPC contract helps in empowering collaboration among stakeholders, allow oil and gas companies work highly automated, improve the performance of upstream oil and gas industry, improve speed and minimize the financial risks, delayed in schedule as well as improving the quality of the project.
... This situation often leads to misunderstandings between stakeholders, construction errors and does not provide a holistic vision of the current situation, that hinders informed decision-making. A lack of information or faulty information on construction sites also increases the likelihood of errors, which can lead to a reduction of building quality [17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The information and communication technologies (ICTs) utilization ratio in the construction industry is relatively low. This industry is characterized by low productivity, time and cost overruns in projectsdue to inefficient management processes, poor communication and low process automation. To improve construction performance, a BIM-based (BIM - (Building Information Modelling) and augmented reality (AR) application (referred to as the AR4C: Augmented Reality for Construction) is proposed, which integrates a location-based management system (LBMS). The application provides context-specific information on construction projects and tasks, as well as key performance indicators on the progress and performance of construction tasks. The construction projects are superimposed onto the real world, while a site manager is walking through the construction site. This paper describes the most important methods and technologies, which are needed to develop the AR4C application. In particular, the data exchange between BIM software and the Unity environment is discussed, as well as the integration of LBMS into BIM software and the AR4C application. Finally, the implemented and planned functionalities are argued. The AR4C application prototype was tested in a laboratory environment and produced positive feedback. Since the application addresses construction sites, a validation in semi-real scenarios with end users is recommended.
Article
The fragmented nature of the construction industry makes the management of a project a challenge mission. The interfaces between activities require attention to ensure a smooth performance. Interface risks affecting project constraints arise due to many internal and external causes. The main objective of this study is to identity, prioritize, eliminate, and alleviate interface risks. The data was collected from 155 respondents to a questionnaire; which was checked for reliability and validity using Cronbach alpha coefficient and EFA, respectively. ANOVA test was used to show if significant differences exist between the groups of respondents. According to the results of the risks-assessment matrix, the most two severe causes of interface risks are: awarding the contract to the lowest bidder regardless of the quality, and change in the owner's requirements. The study recommends that construction parties should develop a comprehensive strategy in establishing a sustainable interface-risks management. This study serves as another tool that can help construction professionals and researchers in dealing with similar interface risks. Also—beside findings from other studies—construction agencies such as FIDIC can modify their conditions accordingly when dealing with such risks.
Article
Full-text available
Facilities management (FM) has a significant growth since last two decades as a new and exciting profession that embraces many essential parts of the built environment. Emphasis on early involvement of FM in the design stage to deliver of an efficient building; which is easy and cost-effective to maintain for the occupants. Present days, maintainability turn into foremost concern and unprecedented challenges for the project team as building projects are getting much more complex and difficult. However, lack of considering FM at early design phase has become a potential issue to increase the operation and maintenance budget, premature aging and dilapidation. Thus, this paper explores the consideration of direct involvement of FM knowledge and experience in early design is found useful for the improvement of cost effectiveness in long term perspective, and subsequently the aim of this paper to investigate the impact of design issues towards easily-maintainable building projects at post-occupancy stage and providing the actual avenues to integrate FM in design development process. Therefore, a critical analysis of the literature has been carried out to identify the potential errors of design at post occupancy stage. The paper critically analyses the current approach of building design; and explore the contributions of FM knowledge during the design phase. Based on the study of literature, it has been established that majority of the maintenance issues at using stage is design originated problems; mainly architectural, structural, mechanical, HVAC, and plumbing and sanitary. The involvement of the FM knowledge and experience at design process will contribute to reduce major repairs and alterations in the lifespan of the building. Keyword-Facilities Management, Cost Parameters, Effectiveness, Design Process I. INTRODUCTION A holistic view of the topic facilities management (FM) has gradually developed as a new career over the past 15-20 years everywhere in the global and evolved into construction discipline since late 1980s [1]. It seems at reaching higher facility that is straightforward to run, maintain and manage. This new topic attempt to represent an elevated attention of the significance of the building operation and maintenance. This is a vital part inside FM however the scope has emerged as broader and includes use of buildings in both the short and long term. FM is observed on the pre-operations level to peer how early involvement can create effective operations, reduce maintenance cost, end customers pleasure whilst also presenting higher facility that is good-looking and end user friendly. "FM at the design stage will add value to the facility by ensuring less "rework", emphasising value for money, efficient control of the team work". As a result, FM decisions in the early design stages of building projects are very important for enjoying long life better services in cost effective way. Numerous studies have attempted to explain that the early involvement of FM all through the design development and review stages on building project offers for avoiding the re-occurrence of design errors than also reduce the maintainability cost of building projects at post occupancy stage [2], [3]. Traditionally, design process is separated from construction, operation, maintenance, and facility services provision. Those detachment of design from the post design procedures create a number problem, for example, lack of constructability, operability, maintainability and serviceability, for designed facilities. In the most recent two decades, it is obvious that there been an expanding integration of design and construction in the developed country, like as U.K. construction industry [1]. Generally, there would two approaches about "integrating" design and construction, one is "design-build delivery method" [4], and another "early contractor involvement" in the process of design [5]. "Design-build practices" decrease constructability issues [6]. On the other study [7], "early contractor
Article
Purpose Design documents’ deficiencies (DDDs) are a major issue that plagues the construction industry in many countries. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the major causes of DDDs in a fast expanding economy, where errors can translate to an adverse impact on the economy. This paper aims to identify and assess the causes of DDDs for large construction projects from the consultants’ perspective. Design/methodology/approach In total, 20 causes of DDDs were shortlisted through an extensive literature survey. In total, 37 consultants based in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia participated in the study. The respondents were requested to provide their opinion with respect to the relative importance of the identified causes. The result of their responses was then used to rank the causes. Findings Based on their significance indices, the most significant causes of DDDs were “assigning design tasks to designers who lack work experience,” “team members’ communication skills,” “the level and quality of the design professional’s education,” “cross-disciplinary coordination,” “effective design team,” and “lack of knowledge transfer mechanism.” Practical implications Recommendations were provided to mitigate the issues of DDDs. It is envisioned that through a better understanding of the major causes of DDDs, design firms will be better positioned to recognize DDDs’ causes and establish appropriate measures for reducing their occurrence. The findings of this paper are beneficial to all project stakeholders, including design firms, clients, contractors, and end users. Originality/value This paper contributes to the literature by providing an assessment of the various causes of DDDs in the context of a rapidly expanding economy, where any inefficiency can lead to massive losses to the economy.
Article
Design–construction interface problems impede the successful delivery of construction projects within the specified time, cost and quality. The objective of this paper is to assess the design–construction interface problems in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) construction industry. Twenty-two problems were identified through literature review. A questionnaire survey was then developed and distributed to construction professionals. Thirty-nine responses were collected from consultants, contractors and construction professionals in government authorities. The weighted average of the responses was calculated. The results reveal that the most significant interface problems in the UAE include lack of coordination inside the design firm, lack of specialist construction manager, poorly written contract, lack of project management as individual professional service and time limitation in the design phase. Moreover, the paper analysed the responses according to company role. Most of these problems are caused by the lack of coordination and communication among the main contracting parties. Recommendations are made to enhance the coordination and management of construction projects that lead to reduction in the design–construction interface problems.
Article
Full-text available
The engineering-procurement-construction (EPC) approach has been increasingly adopted in competitive international markets, in which design management is critical to project performances. Existing studies have embraced a partnering strategy to integrate stakeholders' diverse expertise and need for better solutions to design. This study has quantitatively investigated the cause-effect relationships among partnering, design management, and project outcomes by developing and testing a conceptual model. With the support of data collected from Chinese construction companies as EPC contractors, this study reveals that contractors' design management should focus on four factors: planning and executing, resolving disputes, optimizing design, and promoting techniques. Path analysis confirms that partnering can not only significantly facilitate design management, thereby improving project outcomes, but also directly promote project performances and create long-term strategic benefits. Canonical correlation analysis further quantifies the different extents to which two groups of partnering critical success factors (CSFs) interact with four design management factors, together with their effects on five indicators of project outcomes. This research has important primary contributions to the body of knowledge by establishing interdisciplinary linkages among knowledge areas of partnering, design management and international project delivery, demonstrating the multiorganizational dynamics in delivering international EPC projects on a holistic view. Understanding the in-depth underlying causes to improve design management will be crucial for EPC contractors to optimally integrate all stakeholders' resources into designs by considering project lifecycle processes.
Article
The building design has drawn great attention in recent years because of its large impact on many aspects of the functionality and maintenance activities in high-rise residential buildings (HRRB). These buildings include innovative and exciting design solutions that increase project complexity and produce substantial unexpected design deficiencies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and examine the design deficiencies' impact on maintenance cost and investigate the mitigation strategies in reducing this cost. To fulfill the aim of this study, 42 design deficiencies and 11 mitigation measures were identified through a comprehensive literature review. This was followed by a questionnaire that was developed and administered to collect data, and 118 respondents graded the identified design deficiencies and mitigation measures using a five-point Likert scale during this online survey. Then the ranking analysis was done utilizing mean value and standard deviation (SD). The analysis revealed that architectural design deficiencies group has the most impact on increasing maintenance cost. Among 42 design deficiencies, only 23 were recognized as critical design deficiencies (CDD). Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) test result showed that statistically insignificant differences in rankings were observed for two design deficiencies: non-availability of specific building materials in the market and difficult to reach and maintain fenestration. The Mann-Whitney test revealed that the building supervisors and facility managers had different opinions for these two design deficiencies compared to three other groups of the respondents. Furthermore, applying the factor analysis technique, 23 CDD were categorized into six groups: poor quality of design, inaccessibility for maintenance work, inappropriate material selection, lack of designer’s responsibility, lack of designer’s experience, and improper design scheme. Finally, the relationships between the 23 CDD and the mitigation measures were identified using the Spearman correlation test. This study is worthy of industry-wide attention and its implementation can be greatly advantageous for the construction industry professionals.
Article
Full-text available
Design errors can adversely influence project performance and can contribute to failures, accidents, and loss of life. Although there has been a considerable amount of research that has examined design error causation, little is known about design error costs. With increasing emphasis placed on the use of nontraditional forms of procurement methods as a result of various government reports and the advent of Building Information Modelling there is a general perception that design error costs will be significantly less than those projects procured by traditional means. By using a questionnaire survey, estimates for design error costs were obtained from 139 projects. The mean direct and indirect costs for design errors were revealed to be 6.85 and 7.36% of contract value, respectively. Design error costs were found not to significantly vary with procurement method and project type used. Although the research provides invaluable insights into practitioners' perceptions of design errors costs, their actual costs remain relatively unexplored. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000454. (C) 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of research in the area of construction engineering and management has moved toward the use of quantitative metrics and research methods for identifying and evaluating the impact of events or procedures on the construction process. While quantitative research methods can be very important for answering certain research questions, there are important reasons for adopting qualitative or mixed methodology studies to gain a better understanding of complex phenomena. This paper explores the use of observational studies and their potential use within the field of construction research. Observational studies can provide answers to "what" phenomena occurred, particularly when people are involved in a process, along with gaining insights into "why" the phenomena occurred. This paper discusses two types of observational studies, structured and unstructured, and provides a procedure for their implementation within construction research. To clearly demonstrate the methodology, a case study focused on the investigation of two different versions of an educational simulation application, the virtual construction simulator (VCS), is used to illustrate the benefits and challenges of implementing mixed methodology observational studies. The case study involved the video recording and analysis of interactions between student team members when using the VCS application for a construction sequencing task. The video recordings were analyzed, and important insights were identified, both qualitative and quantitative. Through content analysis, it was determined that the improvements made in a new version of the VCS application were beneficial, and the detailed observational studies identified insights into why the revisions in the application yielded improved results. This case study details the steps and considerations involved in planning an observational study, as well as the benefits and challenges that researchers may encounter when using observational research methodologies.
Article
Full-text available
Construction and engineering practitioners have found it increasingly difficult to learn from their mistakes, particularly with regard to the prevention, identification and/or containment of design errors. Yet, design errors have been the root cause of numerous catastrophic accidents that have resulted in the death and injury of workers and members of the public. This paper examines and classifies the nature of error and design error causation in construction and engineering projects. A review of the normative literature revealed that design errors are caused by an array of factors that can work interdependently. A generic framework is developed that classifies design error according to people, the organization, and project is presented. The paper suggests that people, over and above organizational and project management strategies, have the greatest propensity to reduce errors through the process of situated learning and knowing. This is because the working environment provided by an organization and the processes used to deliver construction and engineering projects influence the nature and ability of people to undertake tasks. Consequently, there is no single but rather a multitude of strategies that need to be adopted in congruence to reduce design errors so that safety and project performance are ameliorated.
Article
Full-text available
We extend the knowledge about the causal attribution mechanism by investigating the roles of causal ascription (stability and locus of causality) and causal interpretation (personal control and responsibility) after error occurrence. One hundred twenty-five participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions (internal vs. external by unstable vs. stable attribution instructions). Internal unstable ascriptions lead to higher perceived control after error occurrence. Both control and responsibility, in turn, predict task behavior. While causal interpretation predicts outcome measures, causal ascriptions are related to the same measures only indirectly. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Rework is an endemic problem in building construction projects and is an area of research that has received limited attention. Recent research has shown that rework is the primary cause of time and schedule overruns in projects and that rework levels do not significantly differ between current procurement methods despite calls from government for the use of more integrated procurement approaches such as design-and-construct to improve project performance. To reduce the incidence of rework throughout the construction supply chain, data from 161 completed projects were gathered using a questionnaire survey. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine the significant variables that contributed to rework in projects. In conjunction with previously reported research, these variables were used to develop an alternative procurement model for reducing rework in projects. It is suggested that the proposed model could be used to stimulate interorganizational relations and promote teambuilding during the formative stages of a project, which is essential for reducing design-related reworking.
Article
Disputes have become an endemic feature of the Australian construction industry, despite the intense introspection into their causes and the identification for avoidance strategies. It is well known that factors, such as scope changes, poor contract documentation, restricted access, unforeseen ground conditions, and contractual ambiguities are contributors of disputes, but there is limited knowledge about the underlying latent conditions, referred to as pathogens, which contribute to their occurrence. In addressing this gap, the pathogens and the causal chains of disputes in construction projects are examined using an interpretative research approach based upon analytic induction. Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken with industry practitioners who identified 58 examples of disputes that they have been actively involved with. The analysis of the findings revealed that the pathogens associated with circumstance, practice, and task performance accounted for a significant proportion of disputes identified by practitioners. The environment associated with the use of traditional lump sum contracting, the practice of deliberately not adhering to polices and procedures, the task of failing to detect errors, and misinterpreting contract terms and conditions were revealed as contributors to disputation between parties. The presented research enables an ameliorated understanding about the mechanics and interactions of disputes to be attained. An underlying orthodoxy is established and should be followed by clients if the performance of projects is to be improved.
Article
Infrastructure projects regularly experience cost and schedule overruns. Research led by Flyvbjerg has suggested that misrepresentation and optimism bias are primary causes for overruns. While Flyvbjerg's research has made a significant contribution to ameliorating understanding as to why economic infrastructure projects experience overruns, it does not adequately explain why this is the case for such social infrastructure. In addressing this shortcoming, case studies are used to determine the intermediary events and actions that contributed to project cost overruns. The pathogens, events, and actions that contributed to overruns are identified and analyzed. The analysis of the cases' findings led to the propagation of a nomological framework for social infrastructure project overruns. Acknowledgment of the systemic pathogenic influences has enabled the establishment of an orthodoxy, which provides an impetus for addressing the issues needed to improve the performance of social infrastructure projects.
Article
Normal Accidents analyzes the social side of technological risk. Charles Perrow argues that the conventional engineering approach to ensuring safety--building in more warnings and safeguards--fails because systems complexity makes failures inevitable. He asserts that typical precautions, by adding to complexity, may help create new categories of accidents. (At Chernobyl, tests of a new safety system helped produce the meltdown and subsequent fire.) By recognizing two dimensions of risk--complex versus linear interactions, and tight versus loose coupling--this book provides a powerful framework for analyzing risks and the organizations that insist we run them. The first edition fulfilled one reviewer's prediction that it "may mark the beginning of accident research." In the new afterword to this edition Perrow reviews the extensive work on the major accidents of the last fifteen years, including Bhopal, Chernobyl, and the Challenger disaster. The new postscript probes what the author considers to be the "quintessential 'Normal Accident'" of our time: the Y2K computer problem.
Article
Within Australia, civil engineering works continue to meet the insatiable demand for new infrastructure despite project complexity and cost and schedule overruns. A significant factor that can contribute to such overruns is rework; yet to date research into the root causes and consequential costs of rework in civil infrastructure projects has been limited. Using a questionnaire survey, rework costs and probable causes were obtained from 115 civil infrastructure projects. Stepwise multiple regression was then used to determine the significant variables that contributed to rework. The regression model revealed that the following five significant predictors accounted for 25% of the variance in total rework cost: (1) ineffective use of information technologies; (2) excessive client involvement in the project; (3) lack of clearly defined working procedures; (4) changes made at the request of the client; and (5) insufficient changes initiated by the contractor to improve quality. The findings also revealed that mean total rework costs were 10% of the contract value for the sample. Interestingly, the extent of rework experienced was significantly correlated with project cost and schedule growth (p<0.01). It is suggested that future work is required to determine the underlying factors that contribute to rework in civil infrastructure projects before effective preventive strategies can be identified.
Article
Gaining innovative and useful research findings concerning construction industry best practices requires an interaction and feedback mechanism between industry respondents and academia. Typical research methods such as surveys, source document reviews, and structured interviews will work, but suffer from barriers which can hamper results. Examples of these barriers include low response rates, asynchronous communication, time commitment of the researchers and respondents, access to project data, and travel costs. Structured workshops (research "charrettes") are a unique and useful method for facilitating data collection between industry respondents and academic researchers. They combine the best tenets of surveys, interviews, and focus groups in an accelerated time frame. This paper will explain how these workshops provide a critical avenue for industry interaction. Characteristics leading to successful charrettes will be outlined. The paper will conclude by describing the benefits of these workshops to researchers including lessons learned from successful workshops.
Article
Noting that the previous two decades have seen Lev Vygotsky's psychology become highly influential while the psychology of other theoretical giants has faded, this book provides a major intellectual biography about Vygotsky's theories and their relationship to twentieth-century Russian and Western intellectual culture. The book traces Vygotsky's ideas to their origins in his early essays on literary criticism, Jewish culture, and psychology of art, and explicates his psychological theory of language, thought, and development. The chapters of the book are: (1) "Toward the Psychology of Art," on the cultural milieu of the 1910s and 1920s and the ideological background of the phenomenon of Vygotsky; (2) "The Psychology of Tragedy," exploring Vygotsky's essay on "Hamlet"; (3) "The Crisis of Psychology," on the beginning of Vygotsky's career as an academic psychologist; (4) "Tool and Symbol in Human Development," a systematic overview of the cultural-historical theory developed as an answer to the crisis in psychology; (5) "Thought and Language," addressing Vygotsky's study of language in its capacity as a mediating mechanism for other psychological processes and as a mental function on its own; (6) "Mind in Trouble," examining the application of Vygotsky's theory to the problems of handicapped development and psychopathology; and (7) "The Life of Ideas," examining the posthumous development of Vygotsky's ideas. Each chapter contains extensive bibliographic notes. (HTH)
Article
During many construction projects frequent changes often result in time delays, cost overruns, quality defects and other negative impacts. In recent years, many researchers worldwide investigated the effects of project change and more importantly the common causes behind the changes from different perspectives. A large number of research papers have been published in this field. While most existing papers presented valuable empirical work, very few offered a comprehensive and systematic overview. There is also a certain degree of confusion in the terminology used by different authors. The objective of this paper is to fill this knowledge gap by: (1) reviewing and synthesising existing literature on project change causes and effects; (2) developing two taxonomies for change causes and change effects; and (3) illustrating how the taxonomies can be used during the project change management process.
Article
The construction procurement process has been heavily criticised for its fragmented approach toward the delivery of construction projects. This has affected project effectiveness inasmuch as current procurement practices do not effectively encourage the integration, coordination and communication between participants. In addition, there is an ephemeral shifting coalition of participants from which divergent goals and objectives often emanate. This inhibits the scope for creativity and innovation throughout the procurement process. To overcome the difficulties often associated with procuring projects, industry practitioners and researchers have turned to the manufacturing industry as a point of reference and a potential source of innovation. Accordingly, a concept known as Concurrent Engineering (CE) has become a focal point for research. Concurrent engineering is a holistic approach to the design, development and production of a product. A multi-disciplinary team approach is required, whereby participants are brought together during the design to determine how downstream issues may be affected by design decisions. This paper suggests that a CE approach in construction may significantly improve the way in which projects are procured. A simple model demonstrating how CE can contribute to project effectiveness is proposed.
Article
The reduction of design fees in the UK since the start of the 1990 recession has emphasised the need to reduce waste and improve efficiency of the design process. Quality management and its application to the building design process is still a relatively new technique as are the concepts of waste, quality and efficiency. Waste, quality and efficiency are concepts which are difficult to appreciate and quantify in building design. Factors contributing to waste in building design are examined and appear to be mainly management problems. The paper concludes with management recommendations to reduce wastage and improve quality and profitability in architectural design. The following topics are examined in detail: wastage in the design process; quality in the design process; cost of quality in the design process; recommendations to improve efficiency of the design process; overall conclusions.
Article
While it is widely recognized that additional costs due to rework can have an adverse effect on firm and project performance, there has been limited empirical research investigating the influencing factors. The research presented in this paper determines if a firm'S quality and learning practices influence the level of rework costs incurred in construction projects. Using a questionnaire survey, data was obtained from 161 Australian construction firms about the quality and learning practices employed by companies when delivering construction projects. The data analysis revealed that a firm'S quality and learning practices did not significantly influence rework costs in projects. However, factors such as project reviews and external benchmarking were significantly correlated with project schedule growth. The size of the firm was identified as a factor that influenced the extent to which learning practices were implemented. The findings from the firms sampled indicate a low to moderate learning capability, which therefore can hinder their ability to implement best practice and work toward the reduction of rework in projects.
Article
Lean construction and Building Information Modeling are quite different initiatives, but both are having profound impacts on the construction industry. A rigorous analysis of the myriad specific interactions between them indicates that a synergy exists which, if properly understood in theoretical terms, can be exploited to improve construction processes beyond the degree to which it might be improved by application of either of these paradigms independently. Using a matrix that juxtaposes BIM functionalities with prescriptive lean construction principles, fifty-six interactions have been identified, all but four of which represent constructive interaction. Although evidence for the majority of these has been found, the matrix is not considered complete, but rather a framework for research to explore the degree of validity of the interactions. Construction executives, managers, designers and developers of IT systems for construction can also benefit from the framework as an aid to recognizing the potential synergies when planning their lean and BIM adoption strategies.
Within the Australian construction industry, rework has been identified as a significant factor that contributes to cost increases and project completion delays. It has been suggested that a major cause of rework relates to the quality of contract documentation that is produced by design consultants and that higher fees paid to consultants would result in improved contract documentation quality. Using a questionnaire survey, this paper determines the key contract documentation variables that influenced rework costs in 161 construction projects. Evidence from the findings presented form the basis of practical suggestions made for improving the management of the design process and the production of contract documentation in projects. However, no significant relationship between contract documentation and rework could be established from the findings presented.
Article
The bridging of different research disciplines such as computer modelling and design practice requires full understanding of both. Privileging one area of investigation while simplifying the other is not a feasible option. This approach is likely to produce work that scarcely reflects the actual complexity of the phenomena discussed.
Design and documentation quality survey, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
  • P A Tilley
  • S L Mcfallan
Tilley, P. A., and McFallan, S. L. (2000). Design and documentation quality survey, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Melbourne, Australia.
BIM: Implications for government, CRC Construction Innovation
  • K Brown
Brown, K. (2008). BIM: Implications for government, CRC Construction Innovation, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, Australia.
Quality management systems
International Organization for Standardization. (2000). " Quality management systems. " ISO 9000:2000, Geneva, Switzerland.
A methodology to identify and categorize costs of deviations in design and construction
  • J F Farrington
Farrington, J. F. (1987). "A methodology to identify and categorize costs of deviations in design and construction." Ph.D. dissertation, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC.
Implementation of ISO 9000 in construction
  • D Cusack
Cusack, D. (1992). "Implementation of ISO 9000 in construction." ISO 9000
Institution of Engineers
  • Forum Symp
Forum Symp., Institution of Engineers, North Melbourne, Australia.