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Chemical composition and antioxidative properties of seeds of Moringa oleifera and pulps of Parkia biglobosa and Adansonia digitata commonly used in food fortification in Burkina Faso

  • Université Joseph KI ZERBO
  • Joseph KI-ZERBO University
  • University Joseph KI-ZERBO


This study aimed to identify the nutrient composition and antioxidant properties of seeds of Moringa oleifera and pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa. Crude proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, crude fibers, ashes and mineral elements were determined. Total phenols, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins of seeds and pulps were reported. The seeds of Moringa oleifera are particularly rich in proteins (35.37±0.07 g/100 g), lipids (43.56±0.03 g/100 g), and minerals (Mg2+ and Zn2+). Pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa have a relatively high carbohydrates content (67.8±0.05 g/100 g and 67.66±0.05 g/100 g, respectively). Glucose, fructose and sucrose were the main carbohydrates of seeds of Moringa oleifera and pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa. Seeds of Moringa oleifera have the highest proanthocyanidin and flavonoid content whereas pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa were characterized by the highest total phenol content. Seeds of Moringa oleifera had the strongest MBTH radicals scavenging activity (99.74%) compared to the pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa 94.98 and 79.40%, respectively. This study indicated that these pulps and seeds have a good potential in macro and micronutrients content and for its valorization; they can be effectively used to fortify staple food particularly for children and contribute to eradicate malnutrition due to micronutrients deficiencies.
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences 3(1): 64-72, 2011
ISSN: 2041-0778
© Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2011
Redeiveded: December 03, 2010 Accepted: December 25, 2010 Published: January 15, 2011
Corresponding Author: W.R. Compaoré, CRSBAN/UFR-SVT/ University of Ouagadougou, 03 P.O. Box 7131, Ouagadougou,
Burkina Faso
Chemical Composition and Antioxidative Properties of Seeds of Moringa oleifera
and Pulps of Parkia biglobosa and Adansonia digitata Commonly used in Food
Fortification in Burkina Faso
1W.R. Compaoré , 1P.A. Nikièm a, 1H.I.N . Bassolé, 1A. Savadog o, 2J. Mouecoucou,
3D.J. Hounhouigan and 1S.A. Traoré
1CRSBAN/UFR-SVT/University of Ouagadougou, 03 P.O. Box 7131
Ouagadougo u, Burkina Faso
2Département de Physiologie, Faculté de Médecine, Université des Sciences de la Santé,
Libreville (Gabo n)
3Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences/FSA, University of Abomey-Calavi (Benin)
Abstract: This study aimed to identify the nutrient composition and antioxidant properties of seeds of Moringa
oleifera and pulps of Adansonia digita ta and Parkia biglobos a. Crude proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, crude
fibers, ashes and mineral elements were determined. Total phenols, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins of seeds and
pulps were reported. The seeds of Moringa oleifera are particularly rich in proteins (35.37±0.07 g/100 g), lipids
(43.56±0.03 g/100 g), and minerals (Mg2+ and Zn2+). Pulps of Adanson ia digitata and Parkia biglobosa have
a relatively high c arbohydrates co ntent (67.8±0.05 g/100 g and 67.66 ±0.05 g/100 g, respectively). Glucose,
fructose and sucrose were the main carbohydra tes of seeds of Moringa oleifera and pulps of Ada nsonia digitata
and Parkia big lobosa. Seeds of Moringa oleifera have the highest proanthocyanidin and flavonoid content
whereas pulps of Adansonia digitata and Parkia biglobosa were characterized by the highest total phenol
content. Seeds of Moringa oleifera had the strongest MBTH radicals scavenging activity (99.74%) compared
to the pulps of Adanson ia digita ta and Parkia biglobosa 94.98 and 79.40%, respectively. This study indicated
that these pulps and seeds have a good potential in macro and micronutrients content and for its valorization
they can be effectively used to fortify staple food particularly for children and contribute to erad icate
malnutrition due to micronutrients deficiencies.
Key wor ds: Functional, Leguminoseae, nutritional, unde r exploited products
Edible wild indigenous plants become an alternative
source of food with high potential of vitamins, minerals
and others interesting elements particularly during
seasonal food shortage (February to May)
(Glew et al., 2005). Wild fruits are also known to have
nutritional and medicinal properties that can be attributed
to their antioxidant effects and they can be used to
fortify staple foods p articularly for malnourished children
(Meda et al., 2008).
The present stud ies aimed at providing complete
proximal and minerals composition of the fruit pulp of
Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth., comm only called né
and fruit pulp of Adanson ia digitata (monkey bread) and
seeds of Moringa oleifera (horradish tree) through
characterization and quantification of their main phenolic
and bioactive compounds.
Sample collection: Burkina Faso is a sub Saharan country
with tropica l, dry and arid c limate (Characterized by
rainfalls variation with an average o f 350 mm in No rth to
1000 mm in South-w est) with 2 contrasted seasons (rains
lasts May-June to September and dry season lasts October
to May). Due to unequal reparation of the rains pulps of
Parkia biglobosa, Andasonia digita ta and seeds of
Moringa oleifera were collected immediately after
maturation in different regions of Burk ina from April to
June 2008. The first region was Ouagadougou (Central
region and capital city of Burkina Faso with annual rains
around 750 mm), Badala (located at 400 km West from
Ouagadougou where rains were around 900-1200 mm per
year), Koupela (140 km Ea st from Ouagadougou w here
annual pluviometry was around 800 mm) and Ouahigouya
(200 km North from Ouagadougou with annual rain s with
Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 3(1): 64-72, 2011
600 mm aroun d). Fresh fruits were harveste d, packed in
airtight polyethylene paper bags and send to the research
centre (CRSBAN) at the University of Ouagadougou
where they were dried at laboratory tem perature (25ºC ).
Flesh and seeds were manually ground in mortar and
passed through a 25 mm sieve and kept for further
Nutritional composition: Moisture content has been
analyzed by the Codex-adopted AOAC method 934.06
(1990) and ashes by the AOAC official method 940.26
Total lipids were analyzed according to the method
described by AOAC official method 922.06 (1990) using
desegregation by hydrochloric acid and results were
expressed as g/100 g dried matter (DM ).
The AOAC official method 920.87 (1990) was used
to determine total proteins in pulps while proteins of
Moringa oleifera seeds were assessed using the AOAC
official method 992.23 (1990) afte r lipid extraction.
Total carbohydrates were analyzed according to the
939.03 AOAC official methods (1990). Fiber content was
determined by the ISO method (ISO, 1981). Two grams
of finely ground defatted sam ple were weighed and boiled
with sulfuric a cid solution (0.255 mol/L) for half an hour
followed by separation and washing of the in soluble
residue. The residue was then boiled with a sodium
hydroxide (0.313 mol/L) solution followed by separation,
washing and drying. The dried residue was weighed and
ashed in a muffle furnace at 600ºC and the loss in mass
was determined.
Potassium and sodium content were assessed by
flame spectrophotometer (Sena et al., 1998) while
calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc and copper
were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotom eter
(Sena et al., 1998). Phosphorus was analyzed
by Technicon Auto-analyzer methodology
(Lockett et al., 2000).
Mono and disaccharides analysis: Carbohydrates were
extracted from each sample of pulps and seeds following
the procedure described by Stockfleth and
Brunne r (1999).
A simple HPLC method is proposed to the
assessment of the main carbohydrates in pulps and seeds:
glucose, fructose and sucrose, (Sesta et al., 2006). The
chromato graphic determination is an HPLC analysis with
refractive index detection (Bogdanov et al., 1997b), but
the sample preparation was developed for the application
to a matrix (RJ) that requires more complex processing.
The HPLC analysis is carried out on a water/methanol
solution of RJ, after protein precipitation by means of
Carrez reagents (Bogdanov et al., 1997a) and lipid
removal by extraction with dichloromethane.
From each homogenized sample, 0.5 g was placed in
50 mL volumetric flask and mixed with 25 mL of hot
demonized water. A 2 mL volume of Carrez I reagent
(distilled water solution of potassium hexacyanoferrate
(II), K4Fe(CN)6
A3H2O, 15 g/100 mL) was added and
mixed. Subsequently a 0.2 mL volum e of Carrez II
reagent (distilled water solution of zinc acetate,
A2H2O, 30 g/100 mL) was added and
mixed. The mixture was shaken and kept at room
temperature (25ºC) for 10 min. After centrifugation at
1400 g for 10 min, to remove the protein fraction the
supernatant was filtered into a 50 mL volumetric flask.
The residue was washed tw ice with demonized water (5
mL) and centrifuged again at 1400 g for 10 min then
filtered into the volumetric flask. Demonized water was
added up to a final volume of 50 mL. Twenty microliters
of sample were injected and run for 35 min at 30ºC. The
carbohydrates were identified by their retention time
Fatty acid analysis: Measurement of fatty acid was
carried out by GC-M S. Fatty acids we re transformed to
their methyl-esters (FAME) following the method of
Hartman and Lago (1973). The FAM E com pounds were
injected into D B-5 semi-polar column (50 m; i.d.: 0.25
mm). The co lumn temperature was programm ed to remain
isothermal at 90ºC for 8 m in, after which the temperature
was increased at a rate of 10ºC per min to 180ºC and
stayed for 35 min. The volatiles fatty acids were identified
using an Agilent 6890 gas chromatograph interfaced with
a Agilent 5973 mass selective detector. Electron impact
mass spectral analysis was carried out at ionization energy
of 70 eV. The structural arrangements of the volatiles
were established by comparing mass spectra of separated
compounds with NIST/EPA/NIH M S database v 5.0 using
a microcomputer system.
Extraction of phenolic compounds: Phenolic
compounds were extracted according to the method
developed by André et al. (2007) with slight
modifications. Approximate ly 5.0 g of each sam ple were
mixed with 100 mL of 80% methanol, wrapped with
aluminum foil and homogenized in an Ultra-Turax
macerator. The mixture w as put to dryness at 60ºC for 1
h 30 min with intermittent shaking followed by
centrifugation. After centrifugation at 1400 g for 15 min,
the supernatant was collected and evaporated to dryness
at 37ºC. Phen olic compound s were re-suspen ded in 5 mL
of HPLC-grade methanol and stored at 20ºC.
Determination of total phenols, flavonoids, and
proanth ocyanidin conten t: The total phenols were
determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method
Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 3(1): 64-72, 2011
(Singleton et al., 1999). An extract of 0.1 g was dissolved
in 100 mL methanol. An aliquot of 0.5 mL was mixed in
an amber flask with 0.5 mL of the Folin-Ciocalteau
reagent followed by 0.5 mL of 100 mg/m L sodium
carbonate/distilled water (w /v). The mixture was allowed
to stand for 2 h and the optical density was measured at
765 nm. Total phen ols were express ed as mg of gallic
acid equivalent/g (DM ).
Flavonoids were assessed using a modified
colorimetric method (Jia et al., 1999). An extract solution
of 0.25 mL, 1 mg/mL was added to a test tube containing
1.25 mL of distilled water. Then 0.075 mL of 5% sodium
nitrite solution (w/v) was added to the mixture and
incubated at 25ºC for 5 min. After addition of 0.15 mL of
10% aluminium chloride, the mixture was incubated for
6 min at 25ºC and 0.5 m L of 1M sodium hydroxide was
added. The mixture was finally diluted with 0.275 mL of
distilled water and the absorbance measured at 510 nm.
Flavonoids content was express ed as mg of quercetin
equivalents/g (DM) based on a standard curve.
Proanthocyanidins were determined according to the
procedure described by Sun et al. (1998). Five hundred
microliters of the extract solution were mixed with 3 mL
of 4% vanillin/methanol (v/v) and 1.5 mL of pure
hydroch loric acid. The mixture was incubated and heated
at 100ºC for 2 h. After cooling, the absorbance was
measured at 550 nm. The final result was expressed as mg
of catechin equivalent /g (DM ).
The phosphomolybdenum assay: The antioxidant
activities of methanol extracts were evaluated according
to the phosphomolybdenum method developed by
Prieto et al. (1999). Aliquots of 0.2 mL of sample
solutions (50 :g/mL in dimethyl sulfoxide) were
combined in 4 mL vials with 2 mL of reagent solutions
(0.6 M sulphuric acid, 28 mM sodium phosphate and 4
mM ammonium molybdate). The vials were capped and
incubated in a water bath at 95ºC for 90 min. Samples
were coole d down at room temperature and the
absorbance was measured at 695 nm. The antioxidant
activity was expressed as mg of vitamin C equivalent / g
Determination of the antioxidant activity with the
b-carotene bleaching method: The antiox idant activity
of extracts was evaluated using $-carotene-linoleic acid
(Miller, 1971; Kabouche et al., 2007). A stock solution of
$-carotene-lino leic acid mixture was prepared as follows:
0.5 mg of $-carotene was dissolved in 1 mL of chloroform
(HPLC grade); 25 :L of linoleic acid and 200 mL of
tween 40 were added as emulsifier because $-carotene is
not water soluble. Chloroform was completely evaporated
using a vacuum evaporator. T hen, 100 mL of distilled
water saturated with oxygen was added with vigorous
shaking at a rate of 100 mL/min for 30 min; 2500 :L of
this reaction mixture was dispersed to test tubes, and 350
:L portions of ex tracts, prepared in 2 g/L concentrations,
were adde d. The emulsion system was incu bated for up to
48 h at room temperature. The same procedure was
repeated with a positive control BHT and a blank. After
this incubation time, the absorbance of the mixture was
measured at 490 nm. A ntioxidant capacities of extracts
were com pared with those a t the BHT and th e blank.
Tests were carried out in triplicate.
Inhibition of coloration of $-carote ne in percentage
(I%) was calculated as:
I% inhibition = [(Ablank - Asample)]/ Ablank] × 100
Where Ablank is the absorbance of the control reaction
(containing of the reagents except the test compound) and
Asample is the absorbance of the test compound.
Statistical analysis: All assays were carrie d out in
triplicate, and the means and standard deviations are
reported using SPSS for Windows 13. Differences in
mean performance for each composition among sample
coming from each area were tested by the Stu dent’s t-test.
p<0.05 implies significa nce. Pearson linear correlation
coefficients were used to assess relationships among total
phenolic compounds, and biochemical constituents.
Regional variability: Physico chemical analysis of pulps
coming from different regions did not shown significant
statistical difference between samples. Statistical analysis
of seeds samples from different regions has not presented
statistical difference. So, results of each analysis were
pooled tog ether for further analys is.
Proximate analysis of seeds: The results of the
proximate composition (Table 1) revealed that seeds of
Moringa oleifera, as other legumes, are good source of
fats, proteins, and crude fibers. In th is study lipid content
is about 43.56±0.03% and is greater than that from Brazil
reported by Oliveira et al. (1999). It is higher than that
reported for various soybean varieties (14.9 to 22.0 g /100
g) (Leffel and Rhodes, 1996; Vasconcelos et al., 1997)
and comparab le with th ose of peanut (44.0 to 54.7 g /100
g) (Grosso et al., 1997), castor bean (47.91 g/100 g) (Polit
and Sgarbieri, 1976), rapeseed (43.7 to 49.7g / 100 g)
(Zhou et al., 1990), sunflowe r (45.54 to 47.85g / 100 g)
(Saeed and Cheryan, 1988; Alza and Fernandez-
Martinez, 1997) and mustard (24.0-40.0%), grown in the
United States, Brazil, China and som e othe r Asian
and European (Pritchard, 1991). Ac cording to
Tsaknis et al. (1999) the oil concentration varied from 25
Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 3(1): 64-72, 2011
Table 1: Proximal analysis of pulps of P. biglobosa, A. digitata and seeds of M. oleifera
Analysis P. biglobosa A. digitata M. oleifera
Moisture (g/100 g DM) 8.43±0.21 8.52±0.20 2.14±0.01*
Ash (g/100 g DM) 4.84±0.04 4.97±0.02 4.98±0.04
Proteins (g/100 g DM) 5.37±0.07 5.23±0.03 35.37±0.07*
Lipids (g/100 g DM) 1.72±0.02 1.61±0.01 43.56±0.03*
Total Carbohydrates (g/100 g DM) 67.66±0.05 67.8±2.1* 9.17±0.25
Crude fibre (g/100 g DM) 11.98±0.02 11.87±0.01 4.70± 0.2
*: p = 0.05
Table 2: Relative percent composition of fatty acid in M. oleifera seed oil
Fatty acids Burkina Faso1M alays ia2Greece3Kenya4
C8:0 0.04±0.01 -0.03 0.03
C14:0 0.1±0.06 0.1 0.13 0.11
C16:0 5.57±0.31 7.8 6.46 6.04
C16:1 1.28±0.09 2.2 1.45 1.57
C17:0 0.1±0.04 -0.08 0.09
C18:0 3.84±0.43 7.6 5.88 4.14
C18:1 72.4±0.55 67.9 71.21 73 .6
C18:2 0.95±0.35 1.1 0.65 0.73
C18:3 0.45±0.12 0.2 0.18 0.22
C20:0 3.4±0.40 43.6 2.76
C20:1 2.7 ±0 .2 1.5 2.22 2.4
C22:0 6.95±0.32 6.2 6.41 6.73
C22:1 0.14±0.07 -0.12 0.14
C24:0 1.5 0.1 1.3 -1.08
C26:0 0.08±0.02 -1.18 -
Total satu red fa tty acid 2.66±0.01 27±1 23.77±0.05 20.98±0.03
Total mo no insatured fa tty acid 76.52±0.02 71.8±0.05 75±2 77.71±0.01
Total po ly insatured fatty acid 1.4±0.01 1.1±0.1 0.83 ± 0.02 0.95±0.03
Total 99.5 99 .9 99 .6 99.64
1: Our stud y; 2: Abdulkarim et al. (200 5); 3: Lala s and T sak nis (2002 b); 4: Tsaknis et al. (1999)
to 35.7% depending on different extraction methods.
Anwar et al. (2006) have found after oil extraction by
hexane method 38.37% in the seeds samples of Jhang
region (Pakistan) which were assayed from the Moringa
oleifera plants harvested in the vicinity of river “Chenab”,
the sandy soil texture and favourable environment for
Moringa growth.
The variation observed in the Moringa seeds with
regards to oil content may ha ve be en due to either a
different genetic make up of the plants or more probably
due to environmental effects and variation in oil content
across countries mig ht be attributed to the
environmental and geological conditions in the regions
(Ibrahim et al., 1974).
Fatty acids composition of seeds: The fatty acids of
Moringa oleifera are pre sented in (Table 2). The major
saturated fatty acids were behenic (C22:0), arachidic
(C20:0), stearic (C18:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids and
the main unsaturated fatty acid is oleic acid (C18:1w9)
with small amounts eicosenoic (C20:1w 9) and palmitoleic
acids (C16:1w7). For these co mpounds simila r results
have been found by Tsaknis et al. (1999), Lalas and
Tsaknis (2002a) and Anwar et al. (2006); while different
results have been reported by Abdulkarim et al. (2005).
Differences observed between results can be attributed to
geographical, soil composition, cultivation climate,
ripening stage, the harvesting time of the seeds and the
extraction method used. T he high percentag e of oleic acid
(monounsaturated fatty acid) in the oil makes it desirable
in terms of nutrition and h igh stability cooking and frying
oil (Abdulkarim et al., 2005; Anwar et al., 2006). A
higher intake of oleic acid is associated with decreased
risk of coronary heart disease caused by high cholesterol
level in blood (Corbett, 2003). The seeds oil can also be
used as a natural source of behenic acid, which has been
used as an oil structuring and solid ifying agent in
margarine, shortenin g, and foods containing sem i-solid
and solid fats, elimina ting the need to hydrogenate the oil
(Foidl et al., 2001). Moringa oleifera oil appears to be a
potentially valuable and might be an acceptable su bstitute
for high-oleic oils like olive and high-oleic sunflower
oils as our dietary fats and it also could be used
for various commodities of commercial attributes
(Anwar et al., 2005 ).
Protein, carbohydrates and fibre analysis: Analyses of
the Moringa oleifera seed residue revealed a high protein
Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 3(1): 64-72, 2011
Table 3: Macro element’s of pulps o f P. biglobosa , A. digitata and seeds o f M. oleifera
Analysis P. biglobosa A. digitata M. oleifera
Potassium (g/100 g) 441.36±0.04 786.5±0 .2 48 .2±0.2
Calcium (mg/100 g) 109.6 ±0 .6 309±1 78±1
Magnesium (mg/100 g) 13 9±0.2 155±2 261±1
Iron (mg/100 g) 103±1 14.97±0.06 12.77±0 .4
Phosphorus (mg/100 g) 11.81±0.21 775.0±2 525.0±2
Manganese (mg/100 g) 78.53±0.09 0.6±0 .1 95 .40±0 .4
Sodium (mg/100 g) 31.22±0.01 34.61±0 .3 25.01±0.01
Copper (mg/100 g) 25.2± 0.2 6.7 3±0.1 54.2±0.2
Zinc (mg/100 g) 3.01±0.01 1.54±0.02 300.47±0.07
Table 4: Total polyphenols, flavonoids, proan thocyanidines of pulps of P. biglobosa, A. digitata and seeds of M. oleifera
Analysis P. biglobosa A. digitata M. oleifera
Total polyphenols (mg/100 g) 104.66 ± 2 121.53 ± 2.34 145.1 6 ± 0.1
Total flavonoids (mg/1000 g) 73.06 ± 0.02 111.73 ± 0.05 144.0 7 ± 0.2
Total proanthocyanidines (mg/1000 g) 64.38 ± 0.01 106.68 ± 0.06 14 0.4 9 ± 0.1
content 35.37±0.07%. This value was similar than those
from Malaysia with 38.3± 1.3 % (Abdulkarim et al., 2005)
and Pakistan where A nwar et al. (2006) have found a
value ranging from 29.6 to 31.3%.
Protein seeds of Moringa oleifera presented in
Table 1 is greater than those reported for important grain
legumes and cereals which contain, in g eneral, 18 to 25 g
/ 100 g of dry matter (Singh and S ingh, 1992) and 7 .8 to
22.8 g / 100 g (Bullock et al., 1989; Ranhotra et al., 1996)
of dry matter, respec tively. The crude pro tein analysis by
Nzikou et al. (2009) in C ongo Brazza ville by the method
of micro-Kjeldahl revealed a value of 37.6±1.07%. Thus,
these seeds are a potentially good source of proteins and
oil which should be exploited to determine if they are
commercially viable.
Carbohydrate is the low est macronutrient p resent into
seeds of Moringa oleifera (Table 1). Its value is about
9.17% while Nzikou et al. (2009) have found a value of
13.6% and Abdulkarim et al. (2005) reported a range
value of 16.5 to 17.8%. These authors have not appreciate
the main carbohydrates present into seeds so, it’s diffic ult
to compare o ur resu lts to those of oth ers authors.
Crude fiber of Moringa oleifera is about 4.0.2%.
Nzikou et al. (2009) have found in their study a crude
fibre value of 3.2±0.80% while A nwar et al. (2006) have
found a range value of 6.60 to 9% and Anwar and
Bhangar (2003) a value of 7.20% . Although crude fibre
does not contribute to nutrients or e nergy, it is a source of
dietary fiber. This value of fibre might be helpful in terms
of maintaining positive effects on intestine and colon
physiology, besides other hom eostatic and therap eutic
functions in h uman nutrition (M cPherson, 1982 ).
Minerals profiles of seeds: Minerals analysis of
Moringa oleifera seeds is presented in Tab le 3 and it
revealed presence of mos t of minerals. In their study
Nzikou et al. (2009) have found for calcium, magnesium,
potassium and sodium values of 83.75 ± 0.01 mg /100 g;
251±0.02 mg /100 g; 36.53±0.02 mg /100 g and
22.5±0.01 mg /100 g, respectively. These values are slight
higher than our results although the atomic absorption
spectrophotometer method has been u sed for minerals
Determination of oxidative capacity of seeds: The
lowest content of tota l phenol was ob served with the
seeds of Moringa oleifera. Comparing these results with
literature, similar values were reported for Andean
chicuru (Stangea rh izanta) (Campos et al., 2009) and
mushroom (Pavel, 2009). However, values that differed
from our results were found by Gernah et al. (2007). The
variation may be due to differences in varieties, climate,
ripeness and extraction method.
The oxidative cap acity determ ined by researchers has
demonstra ted the strong ability of seeds oil of
Moringa oleifera (Anwar and Bhangar, 2003;
Abdulkarim et al., 2005; Anwar et al., 2006).
According to the results obtained (Table 4), seeds of
Moringa oleifera were found the most active one with an
antioxidant value of 99.74±0.01%. Samples with high
radical scavenging activity and/or antio xidant ability
generally have higher phenolic content with good
correlations (Chen et al., 2008). In this study, the
regression analyses indicated the correlations between
free radical scavenging activity, antioxidant activity and
phenolic content (r = 0.7 479). This result can be explained
by the high content of phenolic compounds especially
flavonoïds. Although none of res earcher at this time has
not conclude to this possibility proanthocyanidins content
in Moringa oleifera seeds may be its free radical
scavenging ability. Studies conduced at this time have
been interested by oxidative ab ility of seeds oil. For the
Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 3(1): 64-72, 2011
Table 5: Mono an d disaccharides profile of pulps o f P. biglobosa, A. digitata and seeds of M. oleifera
Analysis P. biglobosa A. digitata M. oleifera
Glucose (g/100 g DM) 13.55±0.05 6.96±0.03 2.57±0.05
Fructose (g/100 g DM) 18.51±0.01 4.03±0.02 0.03±0.01
Sucrose (g/100 g DM) 24.07±0.04 21.63±0.03 2.91±0.01
rest of the samples, there is no available literature
information about the content of phenolic compounds or
the antioxidant capacity but the results are generally in the
order of magnitudes reported for fruits.
Proximate analysis of pulps: Pulps of Adansonia
digitata and Parkia biglobosa are rath er rich in
carbohydrates than protein and lip id (Table 1). Ada nsonia
digitata fruit pulp carbohydrate content is lower
than those from Senegal (Becker, 1983), Malawi
(Saka et al., 1994) and from Tanzania and Transvaal
where value s where about 46 .6 g/100 g to 88 g/ 100 g of
dry weight (Murray et al., 2001). The presence of
carbohydrates was also mentioned by Soloviev et al.
(2004), who found monosac charides conten t of 7.2-11.2
g/100 g of dry weight in baoba b pulp, while Nour et al.
(1980) reported 23.2% of monosaccharides. According
to Murray et al. (2001) monosaccharides in baobab pulp
account for about 35.6 % of the total carbo hydrate content.
In their study in composition of pulp o f Parkia biglobosa,
Gernah et al. (2007) have found 67.30% of carbohydrates
while Millogo et al. (1996) reported a value of 60%. In
our study the carbohydra te content is about 67.66±0.05%
which is higher to others researcher’s results. How ever,
the presence of carbohydrate can explains the noticeable
sweet taste of the pulp, the sweetness may vary for
different types of pulp. Carbohydrates identification by
HPLC revealed that pulp of Adansonia digitata and
Parkia biglobosa contain ma inly saccharose and glucose
(Table 5). Carbohydrates content of these pulps are lower
than that from Ben in (69.98±2.8%) a nd N igeria
(67.30±1 .3%) as reported by Codjia et al. (2001) and
Gernah et al. (2007) respectively for pulp of Adansonia
digitata and Parkia biglobosa, respectively. Differences
between results can be explained by geographical
difference in soil composition characterized by abundant
rains and vegetation.
Apart from imparting sweetness, carbohydrates act as
a preservative when present in food in high concentration
by making water unavailable to microorganisms. It is also
a ready source of energy since it is more easily digested
and absorbed than other complex carbohydrates. It is also
an indication of the sensory appeal of the fruit pulp.
The reported crude lipid content (Table 1) of
Adanson ia digitata and Parkia biglobosa pulps are
1.61±0.01 and 1.72±0.02%, respectively. These values are
higher than Nour et al. (1980) results (0.21 g/100 g) and
lower to Glew et al. (1997) results (15.5 g/100 g),
Sena et al. (1998) results (12.7 g/100 g) and
Gernah et al. (2007). The highest values without fatty acid
analyses, 4.3 and 4.1 g/100 g, respectively were reported
by Obizoba and Amaechi (1993) and Saka and
Msonthi (1994) who used dilute acid hydrolysis and
hexane extraction by the Soxhlet system. The latter
method was also used by L ockett et al. (2000) who found
a very low fat content of 0.41 g/ 100 g. So, variation
observed may have an origin other than the method used.
In our study, most fatty acids in pulps do not reach
detectable levels despite th e use of identical methods by
the researche rs.
The protein conte nt of these pulps were very low
however Sena et al. (1998) and Gernah et al. (2007)
reported higher values of 15.3 g /100 g and 6.56% for
protein in pulps of Adanson ia digitata and Parkia
biglobosa, respectively using analytical methods similar
to those app lied by the others rese archers.
Minerals profiles of pulps: The mineral analysis of
samples is presented in Table 3. Minerals content of
pulps are similar to those of Sena et al. (1998) and
Osman et al. (2004). The methods used by these different
researchers were generally atomic absorption methods and
a flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Comparison
between all samples sh owed that Parkia biglobosa and
Adanson ia digitata have the highest content on all
minerals without zinc. These minerals play an important
physiological role (structural and catalytic), and can help
to prevent micronutrients deficiencies. Comparison by
student t-test has not revealed a significant difference
between samples from different regions when considering
minerals con tent and proxima l composition of pu lp.
Phenolic compounds of pulps: Total phenolics,
flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in pulps of Adansonia
digitata and Parkia biglobosa extracts are reported in
Table 4 The p ulp of Adansonia digitata has the highest
content of total phenolics, followed by the pulp of Parkia
biglobosa. The proanthocyanidin content varied from
64.38±0.01 mg to 104.49±2.0 mg in the following
decreasing order: P. biglobosa < A. digitata < M. oleifera.
Determination of oxidative capacity of pulps: As
shown in Table 6, all samples showed appreciable free
radical scavenging activities. Adansonia digita ta had the
strongest radical scavenging activity, allowed by
Parkia biglobosa. The antioxidant activities found by
Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 3(1): 64-72, 2011
Table 6: Antioxidative capacity and radical scavenging o f pulps of
P. biglobosa, A. digitata and seeds of M. oleifera
Test system
#-carotene /linole ic acid
Samples MBTH (mg/100 g) inhibition (%)
P. biglobosa 508.34±0.05 79.40±0.02
A. digitata 948.22±0.02 94.98±0.07
M. oleifera 708.17±0.06 99.74±0.01**
Ascorb ic ac id ---- 99.98±0.01
**: p = 0.01
Meda et al. (2008) were (900 mg /100 g) for Adansonia.
digitata and (500 mg /100 g) for Parkia biglobosa. The
probably high conten t of vitam in C in pulp of Adansonia
digitata can explain its free radical scavenging capacity.
The total antioxidant activity of samples was
measured as % inhibition of lipid peroxidation in the
$-carotene-lino leic acid system, and w as compared w ith
the most commonly used standard antioxida nts BHT and
quercetin. The activity of Adansonia digitata
(94.98±0.07%) was higher than that of Parkia biglobosa
(79.42±0.02% ). Adansonia digitata with MBTH radical
scavenging activity was correlated with content of total
phenolics (r = 0.8176 ).
Use of these three wild plants products during food
fortification in Burkina Faso: Seeds of Moringa oleifera
and pulps of Parkia biglobosa and Andosonia digita ta
with nutritional composition describe above can be used
to fortify local cereals (millet or maize) with others
ingredients or to produce a complem entary food with
nutritional quality (energy density, macronutrients and
micronutrients requirements) locally available at a low
cost for the households. T he pro duction of this food will
contribute to recent concept developed by Zotor and
Amuna (2008) by food multimix (FMM) which is an
innovative approach using traditional methods of food
preparation and locally available, cheap and affordable
staples (fruits, pulses, vegetables and legumes) that makes
better use of traditional food sources as a tool for meeting
commun ity nutrition al needs (Zotor and Amun a, 200 8).
The nutritional analysis of pulps of Parkia biglobosa,
Adanson ia digitata and seeds of Moringa oleifera inform
one only of their potential values to those populations
who rely upon them as staples or supplements to their
diet. The next step is to assess the bioavailability of the
essential nutrients in these pulps and seeds. These studies
will focus on the digestibility of the proteins and lipids of
these plants, total characterization of phenolic compounds
and on the possible presence of antinutrients, such as
metal chelators (e.g., phytates, oxalates) and protease
The authors acknow ledge highly Dr O bam e Louis
Clement (Libreville, Gabon) for his technical support and
the following institutions for providing laboratory
facilities for this work: Laboratoire National de Santé
Publique (LNSP) and Bureau National d es Sols
(BUNASOL) (Burkina Faso). The financial support from
ISP/IPICS (Sweden), the Agence Universitaire de la
Francop honie (AUF) and the Union Economique et
Monétaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA) was appreciated.
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... The investigation of the functional properties of cakes included the determination of water absorption capacity (WAC) according to the standard procedure [17,18]. The suspended cake (1 g) in 10 mL of distilled water was shaken at ambient conditions for 15 min. ...
... The WAC (g water/g of plum seed cake) was calculated based on the difference between the weight of the precipitate and the sample. The standard procedure [18,19] was used to determine the water solubility index (WSI) of cakes. The sample was prepared by suspending 2.0 g of cake in distilled water (10 mL). ...
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The extraction of bioactive compounds from the waste material in the food industry is an important approach because, in that way, the plant raw material can be utilized before its landfill disposal or combustion. The interest of scientists is great for the development of innovative procedures for the further application of these materials. Plum kernels obtained after plum processing can be used for the isolation of oil enriched with unsaturated fatty acids and cakes remaining after oil isolation from plant material. This study aimed to consider the possibilities of the further utilization of cakes obtained after oil isolation from plum seeds using organic solvents in the Soxhlet extractor. The physical–chemical and functional properties of the obtained cakes were determined. The results indicated that the plum seed cakes are rich in proteins (36.95–61.90%) and crude fiber (6.36–9.85%). The HPLC analysis showed that the highest content of phenolic compounds had coumaric acid in the concentration range of 11.31–12.98 mg/100 g of dry weight. The amygdalin content (0.005–0.139 mg/g of dry weight) was in the allowed concentration range so that the cakes can be considered safe for human use. The antioxidant potential of the cakes (IC50 0.40–0.65 mg/mL) indicated that antioxidants are also present in this waste material so that the cakes can be used as a raw material for the development of sustainable products in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.
... The indigenous source of food would be better and safe for all of us. Their domestication and agricultural practice may introduce into the new food crops 1 . Moringa is one of the greatest boons of nature for the man. ...
... Moringa oleifera Lam. is the miracle plant for nutrition therefore a lot of studies have been done on different aspects were also done as food, fodder and medicine 5,10,11,12 . Many more workers examined the efficacy of food from seed 1,13,14 . The chemical composition of protein supplement of animal protein was experimented by Bridgemohan et. ...
Moringa is an indigenous plant which belongs to Family-Moringaceae, scientifically, known as Moringa oleifera Lam. It is distributed all over India. The plant is the store house of enormous nutrients. The Fresh leaves juice contains Vit-A, Vit-C, Vit-B complex, Calcium, minerals, Carotenoids and essential amino acids. The tree is also known as miracle plant. The plant is used as a good source of food, i.e., root, stem, leaves, flower, fruits and seeds. The fresh leaves are the rich source of food which has high nutritive values, i.e., 100 g high calories, vitamin C-0.5 mg, 229 mg phosphorus, calcium 285 mg, and many other important minerals viz. Iron (0.007 mg) Manganese (27 mg), Copper (0.029 mg), Potassium (366 mg), Vitamins B-Complex, Vitamins-A, and Vit-C. This indigenous plant is a ray of hope for farmer and it can boost up the health. The tree can be grown by seeds as well by stem cuttings. The high yield is obtained by purpose full agriculture of Moringa. It is a miracle plant which can helps to fight malnutrition.
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As per the records of World Health Organization (WHO), it is assumed that more than 60% of the global population is using the traditional medicine system in order to overcome several health related issues. Recent findings revealed that over 80% of the African population relies on medicinal plant species for their primary healthcare. Due to the unaffordability of conventional dugs, medicinal plants like sorghum stem sheath and moringa represent the key products for both urban and rural populations for their healthcare needs. These plants have found to have great therapeutic relevance for fighting major health problems. The research study investigated the proximate, vitamin C, mineral composition and organoleptic properties of sorghum stem sheath-moringa instant and infused drinks at ambient temperature. The result showed that minimal increases were observed in ash and vitamin C compositions of the enriched drinks with increased inclusion of moringa leaf extract. There was also a marginal increase in mineral contents not significantly improved in the enriched drink. The proximate compositions of the instant drinks were in the range of 0.079-0.232% (protein), 10.88-11.51% (carbohydrate), 0.005-0.008% (fat) and 0.25-0.28% (ash). The vitamin C contents of the infused drink ranged between 0.22 and 0.88 mg/100ml. Moreover, based on sensory evaluation, the sample with 15% moringa flour was most preferred in terms of all the sensory attributes evaluated by the panelists. This improved the nutritional value of the enriched drinks which can replace the laden fizzy carbonated commercial drinks in the market.
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... Moringa oleifera is a highly valued plant and characterized by multipurpose use (Abbas, 2013). The Seeds of M. oleifera have been reported as good sources of major feed ingredients, including fats, proteins and minerals (Compaore et al. 2011). Abdulkarim et al. (2005 reported the nutritional content of M. oleifera seed oil as moisture= 7.90±1.00 ...
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The Moringa oleifera plant is native of India, and it grows nowadays in several tropical countries, such as Angola, Brazil and Timor-Leste. The seeds can be used for human consumption, for animals and also has the potential for the treatment of water for consumption. In this sense, this work evaluated the applicability of the M. oleifera seed extract and the shells in stages of treatment of water for human consumption, involving the steps of coagulation, flocculation and filtration. The dye and iron (II) removal tests were using the different proportions of seeds extracts and filtration forms, such as filter paper, cotton and shells treated with NaOH. Finally, were evaluated the natural waters from different sources. The chemical characterization of M. oleifera seeds showed a high lipid content, mainly composed of oleic acid. Protein and carbohydrate contents were lower than those of lipids, and with low moisture content. The removal of dye and iron ions was possible only with the presence of the M. oleifera seeds extract and the shells treated with NaOH. For the natural waters using the seeds extracts and bark, it was verified the reduction above 85% of the initial turbidity, being within the limits of the drinking water purification. The results showed that the treatment with M. oleifera is suitable for the treatment of water for human consumption.
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Succulent leaves of two accessions of Baobab (Odo-Ere and Okoloke) grown under three poultry manure rates (PM) (0, 15 and 30 t ha-1) were harvested and assayed for proximate, mineral, vitamin and anti-nutrient compositions using standard analytical procedures in replicated trials. Results of the analysis of variance revealed a significant (p<0.05) effect of accession and poultry manure on some proximate, mineral, vitamin and anti-nutrient contents of Baobab leaves. Accession sourced from Okoloke contained higher carbohydrates and protein while Odo-Ere accession had higher moisture content. Application of 15 t ha-1 of PM increased moisture content. The effect of accession was non-significant (p>0.05) on mineral contents. No application of PM enhanced iron, iodine and zinc concentrations. Vitamins B6, E and carotenoid contents were higher in Okoloke. Application of 30 t ha-1 of PM increased vitamin B6 and carotenoids. Odo-Ere produced higher flavonoids, oxalate and phytate while Okoloke contained higher phenol. Application of 30 t ha-1 of PM increased phenol content. Plants grown without PM and plants treated with 15 t ha-1 of PM topped regarding saponin. Biplot analysis revealed wide variability in nutritional qualities of Baobab leaves in response to the combined effects of accession and poultry manure. The results provided further insight into the utilization potential of leaves of Baobab. Furthermore, the results showed that poultry manure application could have a positive impact on the vitamin, proximate and anti-nutrient contents of Baobab leaves.
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This study examined the proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient levels of Nigerian baobab pulp (Adansonia digitata). The results from proximate analyses revealed that the pulp contained 4.8% moisture, 9.10% crude protein, 1.5% each of crude fibre and crude lipid, 6% ash, 81.9% NFE and 3366.85 kcal/kg Metabolizable energy on dry matter basis. Mineral levels (mg/100 g) showed that the pulp contained 350, 76.6, 1.55, 7.75 and 1500 calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium respectively. Anti-nutrient levels (g/100gDM) of the test material showed that it contained tannin (15), saponin (1.45), phytate (2.53), oxalate (4.5) and cyanide (0.42 mg/l). The results showed that Nigerian baobab pulp is rich in nutrients and that the anti-nutrients are of the tolerable ranges.
The opportunities for high-oleic vegetable oils are discussed. These oils have demonstrated greater value in tests that measure oxidative stability and also have a low saturated fatty acid level. These oils can replace canola, soybean and partially hydrogenated soybean and canola oils, in edible and nonfood applications.
Sundrying, roasting and fermentation were the traditional processing techniques selected to use to improve the chemical composition of the baobab pulp and seed. The fruits were purchased from a retailer in Maiduguri. The pulp was scraped and kneaded in cold water to form an emulsion. The emulsion was passed through a fine sieve and frozen until used. The seeds were thoroughly cleaned, boiled, dehulled and divided into five portions. The first two portions were sun‐dried and roasted. The remaining three portions were fermented for 2, 4 and 6 days at 28°C. After this, they were dried to 96% dry matter, ground into fine powder and stored frozen as the pulp. Standard techniques were adopted for the analysis of the samples. Fermentation of the seeds for 6d offers much advantages over roasting as judged by crude protein, moisture and minerals. A 6‐day fermentation appears to be the promising method for producing nutritious food from baobab seed.
The long-term trend in relative value of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.] protein and oil is toward greater value of protein, thus furthering interests in the potential for increasing seed protein concentration in soybean. If a change in U.S. soybean breeding strategy for improving seed protein levels is required, it should be based on sound economic and biological principles. This research was conducted to: (i) develop high-protein soybean germplasm adapted to Mid-Atlantic latitudes; and (ii) compare agronomic performance, economic value, and stability of performance of resulting genotypes with that of normalprotein soybean cultivars. Fifty-two high-protein soybean lines were developed and evaluated in field tests in 1988 and 1989. Seven of the highest yielding high-protein lines, seven advanced commercial lines, and 'Essex' were evaluated in 11 field tests in 1990 [...]
Grain legumes continue to occupy an important place in human nutrition as sources of protein, vitamins and minerals. From a nutritional point of view chickpea, pigeonpea, mung bean, urd bean, cowpea, lentil, soybean and peanut are the important grain legumes for the millions of people in semi-arid and tropical regions of many Asian and African countries. These legumes are used in various food forms after suitable processing depending on the regions of their production and consumption. Such aspects as production and consumption, processing and food uses, chemical composition, and effects of processing on the nutritive value of these legumes are the important topics of this paper. To enhance their utilization, new potential and diversified food uses have been highlighted. Future research needs and priority areas are listed to improve their utilization and nutritional quality.