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Objective: Globally, waterpipe (WP) smoking is becoming a more prevalent form of tobacco consumption. Whilst research so far has demonstrated a significant link between WP use and a number of health outcomes, little is known of its association with heart disease. We examine in this study the association of WP smoking with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: A total of 1210 patients, aged 40 years and over and free from smoking-associated illnesses or history of cardiovascular procedures, admitted for coronary angiography at four major hospitals in Lebanon, were included. The extent of CAD was summarized in two ways, firstly as diseased (≥ 50% and ≥ 70% occlusion in at least one main coronary artery) versus non-diseased (entirely normal coronaries), and secondly, as CAD cumulative score based on Duke CAD Prognostic Index. A score of WP-years, capturing intensity and lifetime duration of exposure, was estimated for each individual. Results: Lifetime exposure exceeding 40 WP-years was associated with a threefold significant increase in the odds of having severe stenosis (≥ 70%) compared to non-smokers (OR = 2.94, 95% CI 1.04-8.33) as well as with the CAD Index (β = 7.835, p-value = 0.027), net of the effect of socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and co-morbidity. A dose-response relationship between WP-years and percent stenosis was also established. WP smoking status (never, past and current) did not associate with CAD. Conclusions: Cumulative exposure to WP smoking is significantly associated with severe CAD. There is a need to monitor WP use among cardiac patients and include this information in their medical charts in the same manner cigarettes smoking is documented. This is likely to increase awareness of the hazards of WP smoking and prompt physicians to target WP tobacco control by providing advice to their patients on WP smoking cessation.
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Lifetime cumulative exposure to waterpipe smoking is associated with
coronary artery disease
Abla M. Sibai
a
, Rania A. Tohme
a
,
b
, Mohamad M. Almedawar
c
,
d
, Taha Itani
e
,
Sara I. Yassine
a
, Eden A. Nohra
f
, Hussain A. Ismaeel
c
,
d
,
*
a
Department of Epidemiology & Population Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon
b
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
c
Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon
d
Vascular Medicine Program, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon
e
Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany
f
Department of Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon
article info
Article history:
Received 22 November 2013
Received in revised form
20 March 2014
Accepted 31 March 2014
Available online 15 April 2014
Keywords:
Waterpipe smoking
Coronary artery disease
Heart disease
Caseecontrol study
abstract
Objective: Globally, waterpipe (WP) smoking is becoming a more prevalent form of tobacco consump-
tion. Whilst research so far has demonstrated a signicant link between WP use and a number of health
outcomes, little is known of its association with heart disease. We examine in this study the association
of WP smoking with angiographically conrmed coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods: A total of 1210 patients, aged 40 years and over and free from smoking-associated illnesses or
history of cardiovascular procedures, admitted for coronary angiography at four major hospitals in
Lebanon, were included. The extent of CAD was summarized in two ways, rstly as diseased (50% and
70% occlusion in at least one main coronary artery) versus non-diseased (entirely normal coronaries),
and secondly, as CAD cumulative score based on Duke CAD Prognostic Index. A score of WP-years,
capturing intensity and lifetime duration of exposure, was estimated for each individual.
Results: Lifetime exposure exceeding 40 WP-years was associated with a threefold signicant increase in
the odds of having severe stenosis (70%) compared to non-smokers (OR ¼2.94, 95% CI 1.04e8.33) as
well as with the CAD Index (
b
¼7.835, p-value ¼0.027), net of the effect of socio-demographic char-
acteristics, health behaviors and co-morbidity. A doseeresponse relationship between WP-years and
percent stenosis was also established. WP smoking status (never, past and current) did not associate with
CAD.
Conclusions: Cumulative exposure to WP smoking is signicantly associated with severe CAD. There is a
need to monitor WP use among cardiac patients and include this information in their medical charts in
the same manner cigarettes smoking is documented. This is likely to increase awareness of the hazards of
WP smoking and prompt physicians to target WP tobacco control by providing advice to their patients on
WP smoking cessation.
Ó2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
More than 3 billion people worldwide currently smoke tobacco
in its various forms, and the majority (80%) live in low and middle-
income countries. Tobacco use has already been established as the
number one modiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases,
contributing to an annual mortality rate that exceeds six million
individuals [1]. Whist smoking tobacco using waterpipe (WP) has
been most commonly associated with the Eastern Mediterranean
Region, it is increasingly becoming a popular method of tobacco
consumption worldwide [2]. Data from several national and
regional studies suggest that the epidemic of WP smoking is on the
rise reaching a prevalence of 20e30% among adults and increasing
signicantly among younger cohorts [3]. With the accumulated
evidence of the epidemiology of this behavior and its health con-
sequences, the American Lung Association addresses WP smoking
as a growing threat to public healthand an emerging deadly
trend[4].
*Corresponding author. American University of Beirut Medical Center, Cairo
Street, P.O.Box: 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107-2020, Lebanon. Tel.: þ961 1
350000x5785; fax: þ961 1 370814.
E-mail address: hi09@aub.edu.lb (H.A. Ismaeel).
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Atherosclerosis
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/atherosclerosis
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.03.036
0021-9150/Ó2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Atherosclerosis 234 (2014) 454e460
Research has so far demonstrated a signicant link between WP
smoking and a number of diseases including lung, oral and bladder
cancers, respiratory illnesses and adverse pregnancy outcomes [5].
Some studies have also shown associations with surrogate markers
of coronary disease such as heart rate variability [6], heart rate and
systolic blood pressure [7]. Though anticipated to share the coro-
nary disease hazards of cigarettes smoking [8], epidemiological
studies addressing the long-term effect of WP smoking on heart
disease remains largely lacking [5]. We examine in this study the
association of WP smoking with heart disease as manifested by
angiographically determined coronary artery disease (CAD).
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Study population
The study sample included consecutive admissions of patients
for coronary angiography at four major tertiary hospitals in Beirut,
the capital city of Lebanon, and its suburbs, during the period
extending from July 2007 until August 2008. Patients were
excluded from the study if they: 1) were younger than 40 years old;
2) had undergone a previous coronary angiography, coronary artery
bypass surgery, or percutaneous coronary intervention; 3) had a
history of heart disease (myocardial infarction, angina, valvular
heart disease, congenital heart disease), peripheral vascular dis-
ease, or stroke; 4) had chronic or obstructive pulmonary disease; or
5) any type of cancer associated with smoking (lung, gum, mouth,
throat, pancreas, bladder and cervix).
During the study period, a total of 2525 consecutive patients
were admitted for cardiac catheterization. Of these, 625 were
admitted on an out-patient basis and could not be contacted, 632
did not meet the inclusion criteria, 32 refused to participate in the
study, and 26 had missing data on the main exposure variables,
yielding a total of 1210 study subjects with complete interviews.
2.2. Outcome measure and classication
Extent of CAD, our outcome variable, was based on percent
maximal stenosis at any location (ostium, proximal, mid and distal)
in the coronary vessels (left main, left anterior descending, rst and
second diagonals, left circumex, rst, second, and third obtuse
marginals, right coronary artery, and posterior descending artery).
In vessels that had more than one stenosis, the most severe stenosis
was recorded. For this study, the extent of CAD was summarized
and examined in two ways: rstly, as diseased versus non-diseased
(dichotomous outcome) using the caseecontrol study design and
corresponding method of analyses, and secondly, as detailed
characterization of the extent of coronary disease severity
(continuous outcome) using the cross-section approach and cor-
responding method of analyses.
In the caseecontrol design, subjects with mild stenosis (1e49%,
n¼247) were excluded from the analysis. This was made for a
precise separation between diseased and non-diseased subjects
and for better delineation of risk factors for angiographically
dened coronary atherosclerosis [9]. Hence, persons with entirely
normal coronaries (0% stenosis, n¼382) were considered as con-
trols, and following the American College of Cardiology/American
Heart Association guidelines [10],wedened two groups of cases:
patients with 50% stenosis in any coronary artery (Group I cases,
n¼581) and patients with 70% stenosis in any coronary artery
(Group II cases, n¼327).
For the second classication of the outcome, the atherosclerotic
burden of CAD was summarized for the total sample (n¼1210) a s a
continuous measure based on the Duke Coronary Artery Disease
Prognostic Index [11]. This CAD Index takes into consideration not
only the percent of coronary lesions but also the number of
diseased vessels and the site, thus providing a weight for various
combinations. For example, a one vessel disease with 75% stenosis
was given a score of 23, while a three-vessel disease with 95% in
at least one vessel was given a score of 63, and a left main disease of
75% stenosis was given a score of 82. This yielded a stenosis Index
for each patient ranging from 0 (completely normal arteries) to
100% (left main 95%).
2.3. Interviews and measures of exposure
Interviewers were recruited at each hospital for the face-to-face
interviews using a structured questionnaire. In order to avoid
reporting bias, patients were interviewed either prior to the per-
formance of the catheterization (37%) or prior to their knowledge of
the results of their cardiac catheterization (57%).
The questionnaire items on WP smoking habits were adapted
with minor modications from Maziak and colleagues standardized
interview schedule [12] eliciting information on WP smoking status
(never, past and current), duration (age at initiation and age at
stopping for the past smokers), frequency (number of days of
smoking per week) and intensity (average number of WPs
consumed on each occasion). Consequently, waterpipe-years(WP-
years) were estimated for each individual by multiplying the average
number of WPs smoked per day by the number of years they have
been smoking. This yielded a continuous score ranging from 0 for the
never WP smokers to a maximum of 164 WP-years. Thus, for a
person scoring 20 WP-years for example, this meant that the subject
had smoked an average of two WPs per day for a total of 10 years or
one WP per day for 20 years, and so on. The score, capturing lifetime
WP smoking exposure, was then grouped into four categories (0, 1e
20, 21e40 and 41 WP-years). Information on cigarette smoking
was similarly reported and assessed according to status (never, past
and current) and cigarette pack-year. The pack-year was grouped
into ve categories (0, 1e20, 21e40, 41e60, and 61 pack-years).
Data on socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, edu-
cation, work and marital status) and the classical, behavioral and
clinical risk factors for CAD (physical activity, alcohol consumption,
diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and family history of CAD)
were also collected. Physical activity was assessed by including
both habitual work and leisure physical activity [13]. Alcohol
drinking was categorized as never/rare(none or <1 glass per
week), occasional(1e2 glasses per week), and frequent(3
glasses per week) [14]. Diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia
were considered present if the subject was diagnosed of having any
of the conditions or if they were on a diet and/or were taking
medications for these conditions. Family history of CAD was
restricted to early CAD onset in rst degree relatives (<50 years for
males and <55 years for females).
The Institutional Review Board of the American University of
Beirut approved the study protocol which complies with the
Declaration of Helsinki, and participants signed an informed con-
sent prior to the interview. All data were treated in a condential
manner and the anonymity of respondents was maintained.
2.4. Data analysis
Frequencies and means with standard errors (SE) were used to
describe the sample, and differences in baseline characteristics and
potential confounders across categories of the WP-years were
examined using chi-square test and t-test, as appropriate. Associ-
ations between WP and cigarette smoking with angiographically
determined CAD were analyzed in two ways: considering the
outcome rstly as a dichotomous variable (cases vs controls) and
secondly as continuous (CAD index). Two case control comparisons
A.M. Sibai et al. / Atherosclerosis 234 (2014) 454e460 455
(controls vs group I: 50% and controls vs group II: 70% stenosis)
were evaluated. Because associations with CAD were more evident
for WP-years than WP smoking status, the analysis presented
thereafter focused on WP-years. Three multiple logistic regression
equations and three multiple linear regression equations were
modeled to determine the association of WP-years with CAD. The
rst model presented the unadjusted association of WP-years with
CAD, the second model controlled for socio-demographic charac-
teristics (age, gender, education and occupation), and the third
model controlled additionally for the classical CAD risk factors
(cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, dia-
betes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and family history of CAD).
Variables entered in these models were either signicant at the
bivariate level (p-value <0.2) or were of conceptual importance as
established risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding
95% condence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The data were
initially entered on CSPro 3.3, and then imported to SPSS (version
17.0 Chicago, IL) and STATA (STATA MP, release 14) for analysis. A p-
value <0.05 was considered signicant.
3. Results
Of the 1210 study subjects, 235 (19.4%) were ever WP smokers,
765 (63.3%) were ever cigarette smokers, 894 (73.9%) ever smoked
either of the two forms of tobacco, and 57(4.7%) were current
smokers of both types of tobacco. Also, 140 (11.6%) accumulated a
lifetime WP smoking between 1 and 20 WP-years, 49 (4.0%) be-
tween 21 and 40 WP-years, and 46 (3.8%) more than 40 WP-years.
Further details on smoking habits by caseecontrol status and CAD
score are presented in Table 1. Compared to the controls, group I
cases with 50% stenosis did not vary signicantly with respect to
their WP or cigarette smoking status (never, past, current); how-
ever, cases and controls differed signicantly by their lifetime
exposure to tobacco use with cases accumulating more WP-years
and more cigarette pack-years than controls (5.9 0.9 vs.
3.3 0.8, p-value ¼0.026; and 33.2.0 1.6 vs. 24.3 1.7, p-
value 0.001, respectively). Whilst there was no signicant dif-
ference between group II cases (70% stenosis) and controls in
terms of their WP smoking behavior (status and WP-years), a
signicantly higher proportion of current and past cigarette
smokers were found among cases than controls (p-value ¼0.034),
with cases signicantly accumulating more cigarette pack-years (p-
Table 1
Distribution of cases and controls by water pipe and cigarette smoking behavior.
Smoking status Total sample
(n¼1210)
Controls (n¼382) Group I
cases 50%
(n¼581)
Group II
cases 70%
(n¼327)
P-value
a
P-value
b
n%n%n%n%
Waterpipe smoking status
Never 975 80.6 307 80.4 463 79.7 257 78.6 0.844 0.580
Past smoker 36 3.0 10 2.6 19 3.3 13 4.0
Current smoker 199 16.4 65 17.0 99 17.0 57 17.4
Waterpipe-years
Never 975 80.6 307 80.4 463 79.7 257 78.6 0.041 0.267
1e20 140 11.6 57 14.9 66 11.4 43 13.1
21e40 49 4.0 10 2.6 25 4.3 15 4.6
41þ46 3.8 8 2.1 27 4.6 12 3.7
Mean SE 5.2 0.6 3.3 0.8 5.9 0.9 5.2 1.1 0.026 0.159
Cigarette smoking status
Never 445 36.8 160 41.9 200 34.4 106 32.4 0.064 0.034
Past smoker 221 18.3 66 17.3 114 19.6 66 20.2
Current smoker 544 45.0 156 40.8 267 46.0 155 47.4
Pack years
Never 445 36.8 160 42.0 200 34.7 106 32.9 0.004 0.002
1e20 164 13.6 68 17.8 72 12.5 37 11.5
21e40 231 19.1 64 16.8 123 21.4 77 23.9
41e60 150 12.4 35 9.2 70 12.2 38 11.8
61þ211 17.4 54 14.2 111 19.3 64 19.9
Mean SE 30.4 1.1 24.3 1.7 33.2 1.6 34.3 2.2 <0.001 <0.001
a
Comparing Group I vs controls.
b
Comparing Group II vs control.
Fig. 1. a Extent of atherosclerotic burden as a function of WP smoking status and WP-
years. b Extent of atherosclerotic burden as a function of cigarette smoking status and
pack years.
A.M. Sibai et al. / Atherosclerosis 234 (2014) 454e460456
value<0.001). Results for the CAD Index by waterpipe and cigarette
smoking behavior are illustrated graphically in Fig. 1aeb. With the
never smokers treated as the referent category, the only signi-
cance difference was noted in the case of exposure to 41 WP-years
(mean CAD scores 33.5 vs 22.8, respectively; p-value ¼0.003).
The distribution and associations between potential cofounders
and our main exposure, WP-years, are examined in Table 2. Lifetime
WP smoking did not vary signicantly by gender. However, higher
WP-years accrued with increasing age. WP-years was signicantly
associated with education and work status, with those consuming
more than 40 WP-years being more likely to be illiterate and to
include never workers. In terms of health related characteristics,
WP smoking was signicantly more common among the never
cigarette smoking group. Furthermore, physical activity, diabetes,
hypertension and hyperlipidemia were signicantly associated
with WP-years. Patients with family history of CAD were more
likely to include WP smokers but this did not reach statistical
signicance.
Tables 3 and 4 present the ndings of the logistic and linear
regression analyses, respectively. Overall, the magnitude of the
associations was stronger when comparing controls to group II
cases having 70% stenosis than controls to group I cases having
50% stenosis. The odds was strongest and signicant for the
comparison between controls and group II cases for the highest
category of exposure to WP-years (41 WP-years) (OR ¼2.94; 95%
CI 1.04e8.33); with ndings showing a doseeresponse relation
increasing with increasing exposure to lifetime WP use.
Furthermore, the risk of CAD increased signicantly with age and
was higher among males than females. Whereas diabetes and
hyperlipidemia were associated positively with CAD in both sets of
caseecontrol comparisons; alcohol consumption and physical ac-
tivity were negatively associated with both outcomes. Similarly,
lifetime exposure to waterpipe smoking exceeding 40 WP-years
was associated signicantly with CAD Index (
b
¼7.835, p-
value ¼0.027). Other signicant co-variates included age, gender,
cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, diabetes, and family his-
tory of CAD.
4. Discussion
To date, this study is the rst to examine the relationship be-
tween WP smoking and CAD as manifested by the extent of an-
giographically determined stenosis. The study showed that lifetime
cumulative WP smoking (frequency and duration of risk exposure)
appears to be a more critical risk factor to CAD than the status of
WP smoking (never, ex- and current), with individuals accumu-
lating greater than 40 WP-years being almost three times more at
risk of having severe stenosis (70%) than nonsmokers, net of the
effect of the traditional CAD risk factors including cigarette smok-
ing. Using the CAD Prognostic Index, the study also established a
signicant increase in the extent of CAD with increasing exposure
to WP use. The Index was originally derived as a more detailed
reection of important prognostic aspects of coronary anatomy
than the traditional classication of one-, two- and three-vessel
Table 2
Distribution of co-variates by categories of exposure to waterpipe years.
Co-variate Waterpipe years
Never 1e20 21e40 41þP-value
n%n%n%n%
Total 975 80.6 140 11.6 49 4.0 46 3.8
Demographics
Gender (% male) 605 62.1 96 68.6 27 55.1 28 60.9 0.323
Age (years)
40e49 212 21.7 43 30.7 13 26.5 8 17.4 0.023
50e59 279 28.6 46 32.9 9 18.4 10 21.7
60e69 280 28.7 33 23.6 14 28.6 12 26.1
70 204 20.9 18 12.9 13 26.5 16 34.8
Mean SE 60.3 0.4 56.6 0.9 61.6 1.7 64.1 1.7 <0.001
Education
Illiterate 119 12.1 9 6.4 7 14.3 12 26.1 <0.001
Primary 262 26.9 22 15.7 18 36.7 11 23.9
Secondary 337 34.6 63 45.0 17 34.7 17 37.0
University 257 26.4 46 32.9 7 14.3 6 13.0
Work status
Never 286 29.3 33 23.6 22 44.9 18 39.1 0.003
Current 488 51.1 92 65.7 14 28.6 18 39.1
Retired 201 20.6 15 10.7 13 26.5 10 21.7
Marital status
Single 62 6.4 7 5.1 2 4.1 3 6.7 0.542
Married 860 88.8 129 93.5 44 89.8 41 91.1
Divorced/widowed 47 4.9 2 1.4 3 6.1 1 2.2
Health related characteristics
Cigarette smoking
Never 316 32.4 67 47.9 25 51.0 37 80.4 <0.001
Past 183 18.8 24 17.1 11 22.4 3 6.5
Current 476 48.8 49 35.0 13 26.5 6 13.0
Alcohol
Never/rare 846 86.9 124 88.6 44 89.8 42 91.3 0.831
Occasional 59 6.1 9 6.4 3 6.1 3 6.5
Frequent 68 7.0 7 5.0 2 4.1 1 2.2
Physical activity (%yes) 679 69.8 112 80.0 21 42.9 28 60.9 <0.001
Diabetes (%yes) 266 27.3 48 34.3 20 40.8 21 45.7 0.006
Hypertension (%yes) 484 49.6 76 54.3 34 69.4 22 47.8 0.043
Hyperlipidemia (%yes) 401 41.4 76 54.7 27 55.1 24 53.3 0.004
Family history (%yes) 514 53.4 81 59.1 29 60.4 28 63.6 0.282
A.M. Sibai et al. / Atherosclerosis 234 (2014) 454e460 457
disease, and was used to estimate the mortality hazard for treat-
ment modalities against levels of coronary disease severity [11].
Importantly, the clinical implications of these ndings in terms of
how much does WP smoking contribute to increasing CAD-related
deaths or myocardial infarctions, and thereafter how to account for
WP smoking in CAD risk assessment models are compelling ques-
tions to address.
The present study reinforces previous ndings of the hazards of
WP smoking [5,15]. The association observed with CAD is expected
given that WP and cigarettes share common toxicants that are
associated with lung and cardiovascular diseases. The elevated risk
of CAD among WP smokers is likely to be related to various in-
ammatory and arrhythmic changes within the heart [6].WP
smoking has been shown to be associated with reduction in heart
rate variability, which increases the risk of coronary heart disease
and mortality [16], and causes an increase in systemic inammation
[17] and susceptibility to arrhythmia [18]. Moreover, recent studies
have demonstrated a signicant elevation in heart rate and systolic
blood pressure after a single session of WP smoking [7]. In fact, some
studies have linked WP smoking to in vivo oxidation injury and
atherosclerosis in peripheral and coronary vascular tissue [19,20].
While functionally signicant obstructive CAD is more present in
patients with increasing severity of stenosis [8],itisimportantto
note that the majority of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cases are
due to ruptured plaques with <70% stenosis. The role of WP use in
ACS remains a question that needs to be answered.
WP smoking has been increasingly gaining popularity world-
wide. This popularity is pronounced mainly in the youth lured by a
powerful tobacco industry and the appealing social circumstances
accompanying the behavior [3]. In addition and unlike cigarettes,
the production of WP is not regulated, its content is not monitored,
and in some countries, its use is exempted from banning policies at
restaurants or closed spaces [21]. Adolescents gather in WP cafes
and most often share the same apparatus, a practice similar to
recreational drug use. The attractiveness of WP smoking can be
attributed to several reasons: it is inexpensive, comes in multi
avors, and it is erroneously perceived to be less harmful and less
addictive than cigarette smoking [22]. In several studies, mis-
conceptions were reported regarding the safety of WP smoking and
a belief that water lters out the toxins from the smoke before
inhalation, with cigarette smokers often switching to WP smoking
when they decide to quit smoking [23,24].
While it is difcult to document the equivalence of each WP
smoker in this study, our nding of potentially more harmful effect
of WP compared to cigarette smoking merits attention. Studies
comparing the harmful constituents of WP versus cigarettes
smoking reveal a wide equivalence range which depends on several
factors including duration of the WP smoking session, the amount
and type of tobacco mounted in one WP and the number of puffs.
Whereas a cigarette can be consumed in 8e12 puffs, a WP may last
50e200 puffs, delivering up to 1 L of smoke in each WP session,
compared to 0.6 L of cigarette smoke [25]. The World Health Or-
ganization released an advisory note in 2005 explaining that one
session of WP smoking may deliver a smoke volume equivalent to
100 cigarettes and Masters and colleagues have shown that a 20-
min, 45-min, or 80-min WP smoking session is equivalent to 25,
60, or 100 cigarettes, respectively [26]. More recently, Cobb et al.
(2011) demonstrated that a single session of WP smoking delivers
1.7 times the nicotine, 6.5 times the CO, and 46.4 times the tar
compared to cigarette smoking [27].
The ndings of the study need to be discussed in light of its
potential biases and offsetting strengths. The clinical prole of the
Table 3
Logistic regression analysis of both sets of case control studies.
Variable (Referent category)
Cases 50% stenosis Cases 70% stenosis
Model 1
a
Model 2
a
Model 3
a
Model 1
a
Model 2
a
Model 3
a
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Waterpipe-year (Never)
1e20 0.77 0.52e1.13 0.86 0.57e1.29 0.79 0.51e1.24 0.90 0.59e1.38 1.05 0.66e1.68 0.97 0.58e1.63
21e40 1.66 0.79e3.50 1.76 0.79e3.40 1.62 0.71e3.73 1.79 0.79e4.06 1.83 0.75e4.44 1.68 0.65e4.39
41þ2.24 1.00e4.99 1.89 0.79e4.36 2.00 0.80e5.04 1.79 0.72e4.45 2.00 0.75e5.32 2.94 1.04e8.33
p-value for trend
b
0.031 0.093 0.076 0.137 0.098 0.027
Age (40e49)
50e59 1.73 1.18e2.52 1.45 0.96e2.19 1.88 1.20e2.94 1.51 0.92e2.46
60e69 2.88 1.90e4.36 2.50 1.59e3.94 3.25 2.00e5.28 2.95 1.73e5.05
70 4.33 2.65e7.07 4.47 2.56e7.73 5.31 3.00e9.40 5.23 2.78e9.85
Gender (Females) 3.88 2.51e6.01 4.48 2.79e7.19 6.28 3.49e11.28 8.73 4.55e16.75
Education (Illiterate)
Primary 0.69 0.41e1.17 0.76 0.43e1.33 0.68 0.37e1.25 0.88 0.45e1.74
Complementary 0.60 0.36e0.99 0.71 0.41e1.22 0.68 0.38e1.21 0.99 0.51e1.90
University 0.44 0.26e0.77 0.61 0.33e1.11 0.47 0.25e0.89 0.78 0.38e1.61
Occupation (Never worked)
Current 0.83 0.49e1.37 1.05 0.59e1.86 0.60 0.31e1.13 0.78 0.38e1.60
Retired 0.85 0.50e1.43 1.01 0.58e1.77 0.44 0.22e0.89 0.51 0.24e1.08
Pack years (Never)
1e20 1.17 0.74e1.84 0.97 0.56e1.70
21e40 1.98 1.30e3.03 2.17 1.33e3.54
41e60 1.87 1.09e3.21 1.99 1.06e3.73
61þ1.58 0.99e2.52 1.85 1.08e3.18
Alcohol (Never)
Occasionally 0.84 0.45e1.55 0.87 0.44e1.74
Often 0.54 0.30e0.96 0.54 0.28e1.06
Physical activity (Not active) 0.74 0.48e1.15 0.57 0.33e0.97
Diabetes 2.54 1.77e3.65 2.59 1.70e3.96
Hypertension 1.31 0.95e1.80 1.28 0.88e1.87
Hyperlipidemia 1.57 1.14e2.15 1.74 1.19e2.53
Family history 1.35 0.99e1.83 1.46 1.01e2.10
a
Model 1: unadjusted; Model 2: controlling for socio-demographic characteristics; Model 3: controlling for socio-demographic and traditional risk factors of CAD.
b
Linear trend for WP-years as a continuous variable.
A.M. Sibai et al. / Atherosclerosis 234 (2014) 454e460458
patients and the presence of multiple risk factors inuence the rate
of admission to the catheterization laboratory and, hence, the rate
of enrollment into the study. Nevertheless, there is no reason to
believe that the practice of WP smoking increases clinical aware-
ness of CAD or potentiates the search for atherosclerosis as WP
smoking is not yet perceived as an established risk factor for heart
disease by either the public or the medical community [24]. Second,
as in any caseecontrol study, differential reporting bias of exposure
between cases and controls is problematic; however, this is un-
likely in this study as subjects were not informed of the studys
specic objectives and the majority were interviewed before
knowledge of the results of the cardiac catheterization. Despite the
large sample size of the present study, it was difcult to measure
the pure effect of WP smoking because a considerable proportion of
current WP smokers were current (29.3%) or former (12.2%) ciga-
rette smokers. This may have resulted in an ination of the effect of
WP smoking acting synergistically with cigarette smoking. Finally,
a major challenge in any study of the health effects of WP remains
the quantication of the exposure. WPs are variable in the amount,
type and composition of the tobacco and the length of the tube
through which the tobacco is smoked, and thus the amount of
inhaled smoke [28]. Because WP smoking sessions are generally
tagged as social events with smokers being in the company of
others sharing in the same smoking ritual and sometimes the same
device, the puff frequency, the interval between puffs, the amount
of smoke inhaled and, hence, the levels of toxicants in the blood can
vary widely [29].
In spite of the above, our study provides the rst evidence of a
link between cumulative exposure to WP tobacco and increased
risk of severe CAD stenosis. Furthermore, our results on the asso-
ciation of the classical risk factors with the outcome were direc-
tionally similar to those established in the literature:
atherosclerosis increased with age and was more severe in men
than women; diabetes, hyperlipidemia and family history were
found to increase the risk of CAD; and physical activity, alcohol and
education associated negatively with the outcome, all of which
substantiate the internal validity of the study. Clinically, our study
argues for the need to inquire about the history of WP smoking
from patients with suspected CAD and document WP-years in their
medical charts, in the same manner cigarette pack-years are
documented. This would place WP use at the same level of risk as
cigarette smoking and is likely t6o mitigate misconceptions around
WP smoking and also increase awareness of the hazards of WP
smoking among both the physicians and the patients. With the
increasing global burden of WP smoking, more attention is needed
to document the harmful effects of this form of tobacco smoking,
and to start implementing cessation services and preventive con-
trol measures to address this growing public health epidemic.
Funding
This work was supported by the International Development
Research Centre (IDRC-EDR) [grant number 103436-001] to [AMS].
The funding source had no role in the study design, conduct or
analysis; in the writing of the paper or the decision to submit the
paper for publication.
Contributors
AMS proposed and designed the study, planned the analyses
and contributed signicantly to the interpretation of the results and
write-up of the manuscript. RAT coordinated and supervised the
study conduct and analysis. RAT, TI, SY, EN and MMA contributed to
the analysis and helped draft the manuscript. HAI provided critical
input on the plan of analysis and contributed signicantly to the
write-up of the manuscript.
Table 4
Linear regression analysis with CAD index as the outcome variable.
Variable (Referent category) Model 1
a
Model 2
a
Model 3
a
b
se p-value
b
se p-value
b
se p-value
Waterpipe-year (Never)
1e20 3.581 2.122 0.092 2.517 2.064 0.223 3.452 2.091 0.099
21e40 4.080 3.437 0.235 4.206 3.331 0.207 1.992 3.319 0.549
41þ10.684 3.542 0.003 8.924 3.432 0.009 7.835 3.534 0.027
Age (40e49)
50e59 4.249 1.868 0.023 2.473 1.886 0.19
60e69 7.984 1.959 <0.001 6.648 2.029 0.001
70 14.191 2.261 <0.001 12.932 2.357 <0.001
Gender (Females) 9.767 2.050 <0.001 11.199 2.084 <0.001
Education (Illiterate)
Primary 0.143 2.328 0.951 0.100 2.374 0.966
Complementary 2.140 2.282 0.349 1.178 2.337 0.614
University 5.155 2.525 0.041 3.038 2.605 0.244
Occupation (Never worked)
Current 2.236 2.438 0.359 3.646 2.566 0.156
Retired 1.341 2.416 0.579 2.571 2.404 0.285
Pack Years (Never)
1e20 0.379 0.379 2.084 0.856
21e40 3.771 3.771 1.882 0.045
41e60 3.970 3.970 2.212 0.073
61þ2.773 2.773 2.051 0.177
Alcohol (Never)
Occasionally 0.434 0.434 2.770 0.876
Often 10.330 10.330 2.708 <0.001
Physical activity (Not active) 3.488 3.488 1.859 0.061
Diabetes 8.545 8.545 1.528 <0.001
Hypertension 0.840 0.840 1.414 0.552
Hyperlipidemia 1.811 1.811 1.393 0.194
Family history 3.812 3.812 1.342 0.005
a
Model 1: unadjusted; Model 2: controlling for socio-demographic characteristics; Model 3: controlling for socio-demographic and traditional risk factors of CAD.
A.M. Sibai et al. / Atherosclerosis 234 (2014) 454e460 459
Competing interests
None declared for all authors.
Acknowledgments
We thank all the cardiologists at the American University of
Beirut, Makassed General Hospital, Rizk Hospital and Beirut
Governmental Hospital for contributing patients for this study, the
cardiologists who facilitated conduction of this study (Dr. Samir
Alam, American University of Beirut, Dr. George Ghanem, Rizk
Hospital, Dr. Shawki Abdallah, Makassed General hospital, Dr. Nabil
Shasha, Beirut Governmental hospital, Dr. George Saadeh), and the
interviewers at these hospitals (Mireille Azar, Haitham Awdeh, Bilal
Dimassi, Ghada Hamdar, Rasha Issa, and Fatima Al- Sayah). We also
thank the two anonymous reviewersfor their comments and
feedback on an earlier version of the manuscript.
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... Since narghile tobacco smoke contains constituents, "similar" to those generated by cigarettes , narghile use could lead to similar central and/or peripheral cardiovascular abnormalities (Alomari et al., 2014;Bhatnagar et al., 2019;Rezk-Hanna & Benowitz, 2019). Several studies have been interested in the effects of narghile use on the cardiovascular system at rest (Al-Kubati et al., 2006;Alomari et al., 2014Alomari et al., , 2015Al Suwaidi et al., 2012;Bentur et al., 2014;Bhatnagar et al., 2019;Cobb et al., 2012;El-Zaatari et al., 2015;Hawari et al., 2013;Nelson et al., 2016;Pratiti & Mukherjee, 2019;Rezk-Hanna & Benowitz, 2019;Selim et al., 2013;Shaikh et al., 2008;Sibai et al., 2014). These studies reported an association of short-and long-term narghile use with increased CVDs risk and severity as well as mortality (Al-Kubati et al., 2006;Alomari et al., 2014Alomari et al., , 2015Al Suwaidi et al., 2012;Bhatnagar et al., 2019;Cobb et al., 2012;Hawari et al., 2013;Nelson et al., 2016;Rezk-Hanna & Benowitz, 2019;Selim et al., 2013;Shaikh et al., 2008;Sibai et al., 2014). ...
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... Both ambient exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoke seem to have a composited effect, hence the higher levels of 1-OHPYR among smokers when compared to other countries. Being one of the main risk factors for CAD, tobacco smoking is considered a major reason why Lebanon is one of the Middle Eastern countries that reported CVD patients 12 years younger than patients residing in Western Europe, and China (CDC, 2010;Ezzati et al., 2005;Rosengren et al., 2004;Sibai et al., 2014). In fact, Lebanon has been ranked among the world's highest tobacco-consuming countries where 2038 cigarettes on average are smoked per person as Rossella et al. (2009) reported by the tobacco atlas (Tobacco Atlas, 2016). ...
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In Lebanon, previous studies have indicated an onset of cardiovascular diseases 12 years earlier than in other parts of the world, suggesting the presence of additional risk factors specific to Lebanon. Measurements of airborne particles in Lebanon surpass the recommendations of the World Health Organization by over 150%. This study examined the association between obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), assessed by a novel marker calculated from coronary catheterization, and markers of air pollution, specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in a cohort of 258 patients seen at the American University of Beirut Medical Center since 2014. The concentrations of four types of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs), 2-OHNAP, 2-OHFLU, 3-OHPHE, and 1-OHPYR, were measured in the urine samples of these patients using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. Results showed that the OHPAH concentrations were higher than what was reported in high-income countries and, most notably, the levels for non-smokers in this study were higher than those of smokers and some occupational workers in other countries. This implies that patients were exposed to high levels of PAHs, which originate from combustion sources. In particular, 1-OHPYR showed a significant association with presence of obstructive CAD, even after adjusting for covariates like age, sex, and diabetes. Smokers or not, this association has implications for public health and calls for urgent need to pass regulations to reduce the emissions of PAH sources, such as cars, diesel generators, and incinerators.
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Introduction Flavourants and humectants in waterpipe tobacco (WT) increase product appeal. Removal of these constituents, however, is associated with increased intensity of WT puffing, likely due to reduced nicotine delivery efficiency. To clarify the potential public health outcomes of restrictions on flavourants or humectants in WT, we evaluated the effects of these constituents on puffing behaviours, biomarkers of exposure and subjective effects among adults with high versus low WT dependence. Methods N=39 high dependence and N=49 low dependence WT smokers (Lebanese Waterpipe Dependence Scale scores > 10 = high dependence) completed four smoking sessions in a cross-over experiment. Conditions were preferred flavour with humectant (+F+H), preferred flavour without humectant (+F-H), unflavoured with humectant (−F+H) and unflavoured without humectant (−F−H). Measures of puff topography, plasma nicotine and expired carbon monoxide (eCO) boost, and subjective effects were assessed. Results Level of WT dependence modified the effect of WT condition on average flow rate, average puff volume and eCO boost. Although, overall, participants puffed the +F+H WT least intensely and −F−H WT most intensely, this association was strongest among WT smokers with high dependence. Participants preferred smoking the +F+H WT and achieved the largest plasma nicotine boost in that condition. Discussion Findings underscore the complexity of setting product standards related to flavourants and humectants in WT. Future research evaluating whether WT smokers with high dependence would quit or reduce their WT smoking in response to removal of flavourants or humectants from WT is necessary to appreciate the full public health effects of such policies.
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Objectives: In the past decade, waterpipe smoking (a.k.a. hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon. In this review, we provide an updated picture of the main epidemiological trends in waterpipe smoking globally. Data sources: Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major biomedical databases between 2004 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, hookah, shisha along with epidemiology, patterns, prevalence and predictors. We also used different spellings of waterpipe terms commonly used. Study selection: The focus was on studies with large representative samples, national data or high-quality reports that illuminated aspects of the epidemiology and trends in waterpipe smoking. Data extraction: Multiple researchers extracted the data independently and collectively decided on the most important and pertinent studies to include in the review. Data synthesis: Waterpipe smoking has become a global phenomenon among youth. The global waterpipe epidemic is likely driven by (1) the introduction of manufactured flavoured tobacco (Maassel); (2) the intersection between waterpipe's social dimension and thriving café culture; (3) the evolution of mass communication media; (4) the lack of regulatory/policy framework specific to the waterpipe. Waterpipe smoking is becoming the most popular tobacco use method among youth in the Middle East, and is quickly gaining popularity elsewhere. Important patterns of waterpipe smoking include the predominance among younger, male, high socioeconomic, and urban groups. Intermittent and social use are also noted patterns. Conclusions: Waterpipe smoking has become a global public health problem. Developing surveillance, intervention and regulatory/policy frameworks specific to the waterpipe has become a public health priority.
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The biological effects of smoking water pipe on haemostasis and the eicosanoid system is unknown. Water pipe smoking is familiar to approximately 1 billion people around the world. Considering this quite impressive number, we investigated the potential effect of smoking the Narghile on oxidation injury by monitoring parameters of the (iso)eicosanoid system. Patients were allowed to smoke a water pipe once daily for 14 days. Blood was drawn from 7 healthy adult non-cigarette smoking male volunteers before and immediately after the first smoking of the water pipe and additionally after 6 hours. One and 2 weeks thereafter, blood was drawn again before and after smoking. A total of 7 blood samples was drawn during the study, and parameters of in vivo oxidation injury (8-epi-PGF2alpha, malondialdehyde [MDA]) and haemostasis (11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 [11-DH-TXB2]) were investigated. A single smoking session increased oxidation injury (8-epi-PGF2alpha: p=0.03; MDA: p=0.001) and 11-DH-TXB2 (p=0.00003) significantly, and repeated daily smoking induced a persistent long-lasting oxidation injury reflected by elevated prevalues but a smaller response to the actual water pipe smoke. These findings indicate a significant increase of in vivo oxidative stress by regular water pipe smoking.
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Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death and disease in the world; yet little is known about the levels or patterns of youth tobacco use on a global basis. The purpose of this paper is to focus on change in youth tobacco use using data from 100 sites that have conducted repeat Global Youth Tobacco Surveys (GYTS). The GYTS is a school-based survey that collects data from students aged 13-15 years using a standardized methodology for constructing the sample frame, selecting schools and classes, and processing data. GYTS is conducted in school classes using self-administered anonymous data collection. The GYTS sample produces representative, independent, cross-sectional estimates for each sampling frame. Of the 100 sites surveyed, 61 reported no change over time in prevalence of cigarette smoking, likewise in 50 of the 97 sites with data on use of other tobacco products there was no change. However, 34 sites reported an increase in other tobacco use. This appears to be attributed to waterpipe, an emerging trend in tobacco use. Evidence was found supporting the idea that tobacco use among adolescent girls is likely increasing. The global tobacco control effort continues to face many challenges in reversing the tobacco epidemic. Few countries have implemented comprehensive tobacco control legislation laid out by the World Health Organization. The few countries that have adopted some of these proven policies can serve as examples in achieving positive results in curbing the tobacco epidemic.
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There are limited data on the acute effects of water-pipe tobacco smoking, commonly known as water-pipe smoking (WPS), on cardiopulmonary parameters. This study evaluated the acute effects of a single 30-min session of WPS on carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels, pulmonary function test results, vital signs, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) levels, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) cytokine levels in volunteers in a domestic, open-air, group smoking setting. This prospective study evaluated the above-noted outcome parameters before and after 30 min of WPS. The primary outcome parameter was the change in COHb levels. Forty-five volunteers (30 men, 15 women), aged 32.35 ± 15.33 years, were recruited. After one session of WPS, the COHb levels rose significantly, from 1.47% ± 0.57% (median 1.4) to 9.47% ± 5.52% (median 7.4), P < .001. Systolic and diastolic BP levels significantly increased after smoking (systolic, 119.52 ± 12.07 mm Hg vs 131.98 ± 17.8 mm Hg; diastolic, 74.84 ± 7.89 mm Hg vs 82.98 ± 12.52 mm Hg, respectively; P < .001). Heart rates increased from 80.39 ± 9.92 beats/min to 95.59 ± 17.41 beats/min, P < .001; and respiratory rates increased from 14.36 ± 1.63 breaths/min to 16.68 ± 2.24 breaths/min, P < .001. There were decreases in forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC, peak expiratory flow rate, Feno levels, percentage of eosinophils in peripheral blood, and 8-isoprostane levels in EBC. This study shows that one session of WPS causes acute biologic changes that might result in marked health problems. It adds to the limited evidence that WPS is harmful and supports interventions to control the continuing global spread of WPS, especially among youth. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01157832; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
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Objective: In the present study we wanted to know whether 8-epi-PGF2α, which belongs to the class of isoprostanes formed by free radical-mediated peroxidation of arachidonic acid and arachidonyl-containing phospholipids, is enriched in isolated coronary arteries of patients suffering from coronary heart disease (CHD, n=23) who received allograft heart transplants as compared to vessels derived from patients with dilative cardiomyopathy (CMP, n=19) or from healthy heart donors (controls, n=6). Methods: Sections from the isolated coronary arteries were analysed by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry by determining the area and intensity of positive reaction for 8-epi-PGF2α in the vascular intima and media. In addition, the 8-epi-PGF2α content was determined using a specific immunoassay after extraction and purification. Results: The immunohistochemical results indicated that 8-epi-PGF2α is significantly enriched in arteries from patients suffering from CHD as compared to CMP (P<0.0001). In controls, significantly less immunostaining was observed. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and radioimmunological determination was observed too. Conclusions: From our findings we conclude that 8-epi-PGF2α is especially accumulated in coronary arteries from CHD patients and therefore is likely to be involved in atherogenesis.
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Tobacco smoking continues to be the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Each year more than 5 million smokers die prematurely because of their habit wreaking havoc on the welfare of families and communities worldwide. While cigarettes remain the main tobacco killer worldwide, for many youth tobacco use and addiction is maintained by means other than cigarettes. In particular, over the past decade, waterpipe smoking (a.k.a. hookah, shisha, narghile) has become increasingly popular among youth in the Middle East, and is rapidly spreading globally. Available evidence suggests that waterpipe smoking is associated with many of the known risks of tobacco smoking, particularly cancer. Despite these worrisome signs, policies and interventions to address this emerging public health problem have been lagging behind. In this short review I discuss briefly the evidence generated mostly in the past decade about the global spread of waterpipe smoking and its cancer risk potential.
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Tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (narghile, hookah, shisha) has become a global epidemic. Unlike cigarette smoking, little is known about the health effects of waterpipe use. One acute effect of cigarette smoke inhalation is dysfunction in autonomic regulation of the cardiac cycle, as indicated by reduction in heart rate variability (HRV). Reduced HRV is implicated in adverse cardiovascular health outcomes, and is associated with inhalation exposure-induced oxidative stress. Using a 32 participant cross-over study design, we investigated toxicant exposure and effects of waterpipe smoking on heart rate variability when, under controlled conditions, participants smoked a tobacco-based and a tobacco-free waterpipe product promoted as an alternative for "health-conscious" users. Outcome measures included HRV, exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO), plasma nicotine, and puff topography, which were measured at times prior to, during, and after smoking. We found that waterpipe use acutely decreased HRV (p<0.01 for all measures), independent of product smoked. Plasma nicotine, blood pressure, and heart rate increased only with the tobacco-based product (p<0.01), while CO increased with both products (p<0.01). More smoke was inhaled during tobacco-free product use, potentially reflecting attempted regulation of nicotine intake. The data thus indicate that waterpipe smoking acutely compromises cardiac autonomic function, and does so through exposure to smoke constituents other than nicotine.
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In the past decade waterpipe (WP) smoking (a.k.a. hookah, shisha, and narghile) has been steadily spreading among the youth around the world. The allure of this tobacco use method for the youth can stem from its pleasant smooth smoke, social ambience and the perception of reduced harm. The material in this review is based on detailed Medline search for articles appearing especially in the past two years that are of relevance to WP epidemiology, health and addictive effects, and WP-related tobacco control policies. It shows that WP smoking is continuing to spread among the youth worldwide, and perhaps represents the second global tobacco epidemic since the cigarette. Available evidence suggests that the prevalence of current (past month) WP smoking range from 6 to 34% among Middle Eastern adolescents, 5%-17% among American adolescents, and that WP use is increasing globally. Studies on the health effects of WP smoking are limited by methodological quality, as well as by the novelty of WP epidemic relative to the long latency of important smoking-related health outcomes. Still, research indicates substantial WP harmful effects similar to those of cigarettes, as well as to the potential of providing a bridge to cigarette smoking or relapse. Developing effective interventions to curb WP use among the youth requires a detailed understanding of how dependence develops in WP users, and how it is shaped by WP's unique features such as the following; the predominantly intermittent use with prolonged sessions, preparation time, accessibility, potent sensory cues, and convivial experience of group use. It also requires assessing effective policy options such as factual and visible health warnings on all its parts, as well as youth access and indoor smoking restrictions. WP smoking is currently showing all signs of a burgeoning global epidemic with serious implications for public health and tobacco control worldwide. Investment in research and policy initiatives to understand and curb WP use needs to become a public health priority.