Article

Global Assessment of Human-induced Soil Degradation (GLASOD)

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Abstract

Soil is a valuable natural resource that in the short - term is nonrenewable and is difficult to reclaim when degraded. The use of soils on a sustainable basis requires that their capability to withstand the demands upon them is not exceeded. Those people concerned with conservation should be aware of the vital importance of soil for maintaining food supplies for an increasing world population. Increasing demands place a greater strain upon the soil. If the demands become too great, the soil becomes degraded. As soil is the basis of all terrestrial ecosystems, a degraded soil means lower fertility, reduced biodiversity, and human poverty. To provide basic information on soil degradation worldwide, a survey of soil loss through erosion, physical deterioration, and chemical pollution was made. Digital databases are not available to hold information necessary to monitor and combat soil degrada tion at global and national scales. Soil degradation is recognized as a serious and widespread problem, so in September 1987 the International Soil Reference and Information Centre was commissioned to make a survey for a map at a scale of 1:10,000,000 entitled "Global Assessment of Human - Induced Soil Degradation" (GLASOD). Until it was published in 1990, there was no uniformly collected body of information on soil degradation worldwide. The GLASOD survey provides basic data on the world distribution and intensity of erosional, chemical, and physical types of degradation. The original purpose of GLASOD was to provide factual information, to replace sweeping statements about soil and land degradation, and to raise awareness of policy makers and governments for the continuing need for soil conservation. The GLASOD survey also enables comparisons to be drawn between degraded soils of different continents, and the methodology used can be a basis upon which plans for restoration of degraded lands can be based.

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... Further, the influence of grazing on grasslands will be altered with environmental change. For instance, in arid lands, grazing is a pervasive driver of loss of soil functioning (Bridges and Oldeman, 1999), leading to decrease in soil organic C and above-ground biomass (Asner et al., 2004). In less arid regions, grazing could promote woody encroachment and thus increase both above-and below-ground carbon stock (Anadón et al., 2014). ...
... Despite the compensatory growth exhibited by plants, overgrazing has resulted in a widespread decrease in biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and services in grasslands worldwide (Erb et al., 2017). As a consequence, overgrazing has been reported to decrease plant species diversity, productivity, and SOC, and to alter C, N, and P pools and stoichiometry of steppe ecosystems (Bridges and Oldeman, 1999;Asner et al., 2004;Bai et al., 2012). In this study, the negative effects of grazing on plant species richness and SOC may result from overgrazing for most sites of this region (Han et al., 2008;Yan et al., 2013), although we lack data on accurate grazing intensity for this study. ...
... These findings suggest that land-use had greater effects on plant species richness, above-ground biomass, and SOC in more arid regions. Overgrazing is a pervasive driver of soil function loss (Bridges and Oldeman, 1999), resulting in decreases in SOC and above-ground biomass in arid lands, while detrimental effects may be less pronounced in semiarid lands (Anadón et al., 2014). In this study, grazing and haying effects on above-ground biomass and SOC were greater at more arid sites than those at more humid sites. ...
Article
Climate and land-use change are some of the most profound threats to the biodiversity and functioning of the Earth’s ecosystems. However, potential synergistic effects of these drivers through biodiversity change on ecosystem functioning remain unclear. Here we examined how aridity and land-use (overgrazing and haying) affect above-ground biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) through changes in plant species richness across 701 grassland sites in China. We found that aridity and grazing reduced SOC through decreasing plant species richness, but did not significantly affect above-ground biomass. Notably, we observed strong negative synergistic effects of aridity and grazing, suggesting that soil carbon content was particularly threatened by grazing in arid environments. By contrast, haying reduced above-ground biomass and had no significant effect on SOC, although it increased plant species richness. Plant species richness had greater positive effects on SOC than on above-ground biomass, and its effects became stronger in more arid regions. Together, the results demonstrate that aridity and overgrazing threaten soil carbon content via their detrimental effects on plant diversity, and that detrimental overgrazing effects are particularly strong under arid conditions. However, the study also indicates that certain management types like haying or less intensive grazing can maintain or enhance plant diversity and soil carbon content, and that the beneficial effects of plant diversity are particularly important in arid environments.
... These challenges affect the sustainable use of natural resources [4]. However, soils are in several cases mismanaged and deteriorated [5,6]. Providing food for the growing population and reducing environmental damage requires sustainable soil use [7]. ...
... Worldwide, removal of crop residue from the field after crop harvest is the norm or cultural heritage to conserve the plantation "clean" [5,6,10]. The removed residues are generally used for food and fiber (animal feed and bedding, biofuel production, building materials, household fuel, paper making, and mushroom cultivation), negatively affecting soil fertility, agronomic productivity, and environmental quality [14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Strategic management of crop residues is essential to enhance soil quality for sustainable agriculture. However, little is known about the specific amounts of crop residues needed to improve soil quality characteristics which are key to develop economic plans. In this study, we investigated the effects of applying crop residue at five rates, including 100% (R100), 75% (R75), 50% (R50), 25% (R25), and 0% (R0), on wheat yield and soil properties. Field experiments were conducted for two cropping seasons in a wheat-corn rotation under conventional (CT) and no-till (NT) systems to observe the first results obtained during short-term periods (one-year application). During the study, the wheat and corn fields were irrigated. Application of plant residue resulted in increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and available nutrients and improved soil physical properties, i.e., aggregates mean weight diameter in wet (MWDw) and dry (MWDd) conditions, water-stable aggregates (WSA), dry-stable aggregates, (DSA), soil water infiltration (SWI), soil available water (SAW), and yield of wheat and corn. The effects were stronger at higher residue application rates. In the CT system, compared to R0, R100 resulted in the highest increase equal to 38, 29, 23, 34, 35, 41, and 11% for SOC, MWDw, MWDd, WSA, DSA, SAW, and wheat grain yield, respectively. This was equivalent to 28, 19.5, 19, 37, 44, 52, and 6% for the NT system, respectively. Generally, the NT system resulted in a stratification of the soil properties within 0–10 cm compared to 10–20 cm soil depth, but a uniform distribution for both depths under CT system. Overall, these results show that crop residue application can improve soil quality and yield in cereal production systems under semi-arid conditions during the first year of application. It will be key to monitor these changes in along-term field studies.
... Of the current 230 Mha of irrigated land, 45 Mha is salt-affected and almost 1500 Mha of dry land agriculture, 32 Mha are salt-affected to varying degrees by human-induced processes. Thus, globally almost 77 Mha of land is salty due to human-induced salinization (Bridges and Oldeman, 1999;FAO/AGL, 2000). In alkali soils a hard kankar layer of calcium carbonate is generally found at a depth of about 1.25 to 1.5 m which acts as a barrier for root penetration. ...
Article
Full-text available
Agroforestry is as old as agriculture itself. Many of the anecdotal agroforestry practices, which are time tested and evolved through traditional indigenous knowledge, are still being followed in different agro-ecological zones. The traditional knowledge and the underlying ecological principles concerning indigenous agroforestry systems around the world have been successfully used in designing the improved systems. Many of them such as improved fallows, home gardens, park systems, and alley cropping have evolved as modern agroforestry systems. During past four decades, agroforestry has come of age and begun to attract the attention of the international scientific community, primarily as a means for sustaining agricultural productivity in marginal lands and solving the second generation problems such as secondary salinization due to waterlogging and contamination of water resources due to use of excess nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides. Research efforts have shown that most of the degraded areas including eroded lands; saline, waterlogged and perturbation ecologies like mine spoils; and coastal degraded mangrove areas can be made productive by adopting suitable agroforestry techniques involving highly remunerative components such as plantation-based farming systems, high value medicinal & aromatic plants, livestock, poultry, forest and fruit-trees and vegetables. New concepts such as integrated farming systems; and urban and peri-urban agroforestry have emerged. Consequently, the knowledge-base of agroforestry is being expanded at a rapid pace. It is both a challenge and an opportunity to scientific community working in this inter-disciplinary field. In order to prepare themselves better for facing future challenges and seizing the opportunities, scientists need access to synthesized information and develop technologies to assess the environmental benefits we get from different agroforestry services. The global community has to recognize the potential benefits of many underexploited systems to address the most intractable land-management problems of the 21 st century, such as food and nutrient security, climate change mitigation and adaptation, biodiversity conservation, and rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems. As we move forward to vigorously exploit these potential benefits, we will witness the involvement of agroforestry and its progress for solving these problems and be able to ensure food and environmental security at global level. Key words: Cindrella agroforestry systems, environmental benefits, improved agroforestry systems, integrated farming systems, mangrove-based aquaculture, problem-solving agroforestry and way forward.
... Out of 3.3 billion hectares of soil suitable for agricultural use, about 2 billion hectares are in varying degrees of degradation [7,11]. Soil degradation occurs as a result of such processes as washout and water erosion, deflation and wind erosion, chemical degradation, reconsolidation, and waterlogging [12][13][14]. For agricultural soils, there are also processes of dehumification, devegetation, contamination with pollutants of various kinds (carcinogenic compounds, heavy metals, and pesticide residues) [11,[15][16][17][18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research looked at the state of soils faced with urbanization processes in the Arctic region of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District (YANAO). Soils recently used in agriculture, which are now included in the infrastructure of the cities of Salekhard, Labytnangi, Kharsaim, and Aksarka in the form of various parks and public gardens were studied. Morphological, physico-chemical, and agrochemical studies of selected soils were conducted. Significant differences in fertility parameters between urbanized abandoned agricultural soils and mature soils of the region were revealed. The quality of soil resources was also evaluated in terms of their ecotoxicology condition, namely, the concentrations of trace metals in soils were determined and their current condition was assessed using calculations of various individual and complex soil quality indices.
... The losses of agricultural sector could reach as high as 27.3 million US dollars due to increasing salinization and decreasing productivity (Qadir et al. 2006). It is also estimated that every minute about 3 ha area of arable land turns unproductive due to secondary salinization (Bridges and Oldeman 1999). ...
Chapter
To feed around 9.8 billion people by 2050, it is equally important to increase food production while maintaining the sustainability of the environment. Conservation agriculture (CA) is one of the approaches to manage agro-ecosystems in order to improve productivity, increase the profitability and food security and enhance the resource base and environment. Although many researchers have pointed out the prospects and concerns of adopting CA in different climatic conditions, CA in arid regions raises uncertainties due to its extreme climates, most of the soils with low water holding capacity, high potential evapotranspiration, low and non-uniform distribution of rainfall and greater wind erosion. However, CA practices could benefit the arid agriculture through moderation/reducing of evaporation, regulating water and nutrient in soil and reducing wind erosion. Arid soils, largely characterised by low soil organic carbon (SOC), have the greater potential for higher C sequestration with the use of CA practices. Among the key components of CA, no-tillage (NT) coupled with mulching might be effective in distribution of the soil moisture at proper stage of the crop growth. The emission of CO2 flux from soil and soil salinity are reduced with the adoption of CA in arid soils with the use of cover crops. Due to better aeration and nutrient movement in CA land, beneficial bacterial community and diversity are promoted. However, for CA to work effectively in arid regions, the three components of CA such as minimum disturbances of soil through no- and reduced-tillage, permanent soil cover and crop rotation must be critically followed together or simultaneously for improving soil health, crop productivity through high nutrient and water efficiency, carbon sequestration, mitigation of climate change and sustainability.
... Of the current 230 Mha of irrigated land, 45 Mha is salt-affected and almost 1500 Mha of dry land agriculture, 32 Mha are salt-affected to varying degrees by human-induced processes. Thus, globally almost 77 Mha of land is salty due to human-induced salinization (Bridges andOldeman 1999, FAO/AGL 2000). Recent figures indicate that in India salt-affected soils are distributed almost throughout the country over about 6.75 Mha, 3.8 Mha being sodic and rest saline (Mandal et al. 2010). ...
Chapter
Agroforestry is an effective land use system which contributes to food, nutritional and environmental security. It has significant potential to provide employment and additional income to farmers. About 2 billion ha in the world is affected by various forms of human induced land degradation with erosion by water being the chief contributor (1.1 billion ha). In India, out of 120.8 million ha (Mha) degraded land, 82.6 Mha is estimated to suffer with water erosion, 24.7 Mha from chemical degradation, 12.4 Mha due to wind erosion and 1.1 Mha from physical (mainly due to stagnation of water) degradation. About 6.75 Mha is adjudged as salt-affected. Agroforestry, as an alternative land use option, holds promise to rehabilitate these degraded environments for livelihood security and environmental protection. With developing scenarios of severe water scarcity and competition from other sectors of economy, it appears axiomatic that agriculture would have to increasingly depend upon marginal and poor-quality waters including sewage water. In most of the arid and semi-arid regions the ground water aquifers are saline. The groundwater surveys indicate that poor-quality water utilized in different states of India ranges between 32 and 84% of the total ground water development. To meet various diverse needs of ever-increasing human and animal population, we need to restore or rehabilitate all degraded lands. Many species of forest and fruit trees, shrubs, forbs, grasses and medicinal plants have been identified and evaluated for growing in problematic areas. Vast tracts of arid and semi-arid areas remain barren due to salinity or water scarcity. With use of appropriate planting techniques and salt-tolerant species these could be brought under viable vegetation cover. Auger-hole technique for sodic soils, furrow technique of tree plantation for saline soils, and ridge plantation in waterlogged Complimentary Contributor Copy J. C. Dagar and S. R. Gupta 48 fields are found quite appropriate. By applying appropriate planting and management techniques (e.g., sub-surface planting and furrow irrigation), various species of forest and fruit trees, forage grasses, medicinal and aromatic and other high value crops have been found equally remunerative. Tree-based technologies have additional environmental benefits including huge amount of carbon sequestration, biological reclamation, biodiversity restoration, and mitigating climate change. Despite its obvious benefits, agroforestry continues to face challenges such as unfavourable policy environment, lack of scientific knowledge and public awareness, legal constraints and poor coordination as well as convergence among the multiple sectors involved-namely agriculture, forestry, rural development, environment and trade. Inadequate investment, lack of suitable extension mechanism and weak market linkages are the real concerns for improving the livelihood of small and landless farmers. Reaffirming that agroforestry has a major role to play in and beyond the 21 st century in addressing the food, nutritional and environmental security, we need to think the way forward to take the agroforestry at national and regional level and to formulate viable policies to remove the bottlenecks of the problems agroforestry is facing today. National sustainable development strategies should integrate agroforestry more fully into key areas such as poverty alleviation, rural livelihood security, skill development, natural resources management and restoration of degraded landscapes so as to contribute more effectively towards Nationally Determined Contributions to the UNFCCC. Some of these issues have been discussed in this chapter.
... Of the current 230 Mha of irrigated land, 45 Mha is salt-affected and of almost 1500 Mha of dry land agriculture, 32 Mha are salt-affected to varying degrees by human-induced processes. Thus, globally almost 77 Mha of land is salty due to human-induced salinization (Bridges and Oldeman 1999;FAO/AGL 2000). ...
Chapter
Agroforestry is as old as agriculture itself. Many of the anecdotal agro-forestry practices, which are time tested and evolved through traditional indigenous knowledge, are still being followed in different agroecological zones. The traditional knowledge and the underlying ecological principles concerning indigenous agroforestry systems around the world have been successfully used in designing the improved systems. Many of them such as improved fallows, homegardens, and park systems have evolved as modern agroforestry systems. During past four decades, agroforestry has come of age and begun to attract the attention of the international scientific community, primarily as a means for sustaining agricultural productivity in marginal lands and solving the second-generation problems such as secondary salinization due to waterlogging and contamination of water resources due to the use of excess nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides. Research efforts have shown that most of the degraded areas including saline, waterlogged, and perturbation ecolo-gies like mine spoils and coastal degraded mangrove areas can be made productive by adopting suitable agroforestry techniques involving highly remunerative components such as plantation-based farming systems, high-value medicinal and aromatic plants, livestock, fishery, poultry, forest and fruit trees, and vegetables. New concepts such as integrated farming systems and urban and peri-urban agroforestry have emerged. Consequently, the knowledge base of agroforestry is being expanded at a rapid pace as illustrated by the increasing number and quality of scientific publications of various forms on different aspects of agroforestry. It is both a challenge and an opportunity to scientific community working in this interdisciplinary field. In order to prepare themselves better for facing future challenges and seizing the opportunities, scientists need access to synthesized information and develop technologies to assess the environmental benefits we get from different agroforestry services. The global community is still only in the beginning phase to recognize the 14 potential benefits of many underexploited systems to address the most intractable land management problems of the twenty-first century, such as food and nutrient security, climate change mitigation and adaptation, biodiversity conservation, and rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems. As we move forward to vigorously exploit these potential benefits, we will witness the involvement of agroforestry and its progress for solving these problems and be able to ensure food and environmental security at global level.
... Erosion starts when rain or irrigation water detaches soil particles [1]. Soil erosion is the most widespread form of land degradation worldwide [2]. According to [3], soil erosion as a part of soil degradation is the decline in quality and quantity of a soil, which may be a function of various processes including erosion, contamination, drainage, acidification, laterization and loss of soil structure or a combination of these. ...
... Les sols scellés des milieux urbains sont alors les plus anthropisés, les sols cultivés, Luvisols ou Cambisols, étant à l'opposé du gradient. En France, l'anthropisation des sols s'est longtemps accompagnée d'une dégradation de leur qualité bio-physico-chimique, à travers la mécanisation de l'agriculture, l'expansion urbaine ou encore le développement des industries métallurgiques et sidérurgique (Bridges and Oldeman, 1999). Elle s'est également accompagnée d'une perte de services écosystémiques, notamment en ce qui concerne sa capacité à être support de biodiversité (Jeffery and Gardi, 2010) ou a connu une transition de la multifonctionnalité vers la fourniture de mono-service (Cousin et al., 2015). ...
Thesis
Dans un contexte de dégradation des sols suite aux activités anthropiques et d’érosion de la biodiversité, la compréhension du rôle de la faune édaphique dans le fonctionnement des humipedons est d’intérêt croissant. Le développement de stratégies de réhabilitation des sols anthropisés basées sur les concepts de l’ingénierie écologique pourrait notamment s’appuyer sur les actions de transformation des matières organiques que réalisent les organismes saprophages. L’objectif de cette thèse était (i) de caractériser les fonctions écologiques réalisées par les organismes saprophages à travers la production de biostructures sur des sols fortement anthropisés et (ii) d’évaluer leur potentialité de réhabilitation des Technosols de friches industrielles. Pour cela, une démarche intégrative, basée sur le changement d’échelle spatiale, a été menée sur une friche industrielle d’intérêt. Dans un premier temps, il a été mis en évidence que les caractéristiques physico-chimiques des substrats de Technosols peuvent représenter un filtre abiotique pour la colonisation de la faune édaphique, qui se traduit notamment par l’absence de lombricidés anéciques et endogés dans les Technosols. Dans un deuxième temps, à l’échelle de l’humipedon, les résultats ont permis de montrer que la dynamique des matières organiques néoformées par la végétation dépend également de la nature du substrat utilisé lors de la réhabilitation de la friche. En effet, sous l’action des saprophages épigés, une série d’horizons ectorganiques, similaire à celle d’un Moder, s’est développée sur l’horizon technogénique des Technosols. Le terme de « Techno-moder » a ainsi été proposé pour décrire cette nouvelle forme d’humus. Les spécificités chimiques et ultrastructurales de l’horizon zOH du Techno-moder, constitué de biostructures produites par les saprophages, ont également confirmé cette proposition de classification. Pour finir, l’étude en conditions contrôlées des déjections produites par l’isopode saprophage Porcellio scaber a permis de mettre en évidence que les traits physico-chimiques des déjections dépendent du substrat composant le Technosol et de la matière organique apportée. En accord avec ce qui avait été conclu à l’échelle de l’humipedon, il semble donc que les traits des déjections produites par les saprophages épigés soient une caractéristique intrinsèque de l’écosystème, qui résulte des facteurs environnementaux caractérisant l’humipedon des Technosols. Le développement de stratégie de réhabilitation des Technosols par inoculation couplée de saprophages et de matières organiques pourrait ainsi améliorer certaines caractéristiques physico-chimiques des humipedons de Technosols tout en imposant la prise en compte des interactions spécifiques des organismes avec le substrat.
... Soil erosion is already identified as one of the major environmental threats to arable land globally (Heitz et al., 2009;Maeda et al., 2010;Nearing et al., 2005;Panagos et al., 2015). Global soil erosion rates have previously been estimated to be around 10.2 ha -1 yr -1 (Yang et al., 2003), with erosion by water accounting for the most significant loss of soil (Panagos et al., 2015;Verstraeten et al., 2003;Yang et al., 2003), contributing to approximately 55% of global soil erosion totals (Bridges & Oldeman, 1999). Sediment loads and water discharge were previously found to change by 2% and 1.3%, respectively, for every 1% change in precipitation (Lu et al., 2013). ...
Preprint
Climate models consistently project large increases in the frequency and magnitude of extreme precipitation events in the 21st century, revealing the potential for widespread impacts on various aspects of society. While the impacts on flooding receive particular attention, there is also considerable damage and associated cost for other precipitation–driven phenomena, including soil erosion and muddy flooding. Multiple studies have shown that climate change will worsen the impacts of soil erosion and muddy flooding in various regions. These studies typically drive erosion models with output from a single climate model or a few models with little justification. A blind approach to climate model selection increases the risk of simulating a narrower range of possible scenarios, limiting vital information for mitigation planning and adaptation. This study provides a comprehensive methodology to efficiently select suitable climate models for simulating soil erosion and muddy flooding. For a study region in Belgium using the WEPP soil erosion model, we compare the performance of our novel methodology against other model selection methods for a future period (2081–2100). The main findings reveal that our methodology is successful in generating the widest range of future scenarios from a small number of models, compared with other selection methods. This represents a novel targeted approach to climate model selection with respect to soil erosion by water but could be modified for other precipitation–driven impact sectors. This will ensure a broad range of climate impacts are simulated so the best- and worst-case scenarios can be adequately prepared for.
... Soil salinization affects negatively crop productivity, agricultural sustainability, and food security, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions of the world [43,56,61]. At global scale, every minute, secondary salinization causes an area of 3 ha arable land unproductive which drives 10-20 million ha of irrigated land to zero productivity every year [3]. ...
Article
This study was conducted with the aim to assess the effect of land use on chemical properties (organic carbon; pH; electrical conductivity; available P, K, Ca, Mg, Na), microbiological properties (basal soil respiration, microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase activity and phosphatase activity), and physical property (moisture content) of salt-affected soils developed under different geographical locations and climate i.e. Hungary and India. In Hungary, soil samples were taken from two different soil types with different land uses such as arable land (Solonetz—HSNA) and pasture land (Solonetz—HSNP; Solonchak—HSCP) while in India samples were collected from Solonetz soil of different land uses, namely, arable (ISNA), pasture (ISNP) and bare land (ISNB). Based on chemical properties and moisture content, one-way ANOSIM (Analysis of similarities) proved that all six sites were statistically different from each other. The results of PCA showed that soil samples from Hungary and India must be separated unambiguously from each other; furthermore the Hungarian ones differing in soil type and land use could be also differentiated. Cluster analysis (Bray-Curtis) gave similar results for microbiological properties in Hungarian sites while in Indian sites, three land use practices were grouped into two clusters where the pasture land was grouped to both arable land and bare land. CCA results revealed that more than 86% of variation in microbiological properties were explained by the environmental factors.
... Dust emission is an important process that has an impact on climate (Boucher et al., 2013;Shao et al., 2011;Tegen et al., 1997), the global chemical flux (Lawrence & Neff, 2009;Mahowald et al., 2009), public health (Goudie, 2013;Sprigg, 2016), and the degradation of croplands (Bridges & Oldeman, 1999;Chappell et al., 2019;Chappell et al., 2012;Oldeman, 1992;Sterk et al., 1996;Visser & Sterk, 2007). Due to climate change, the emission of dust from disturbed soil surfaces from arid regions is expected to increase (Mahowald & Luo, 2003;Shepherd et al., 2016;Tegen et al., 2004;Woodward et al., 2005), which could enhance the on-and off-site effect of dust emission. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Free State has been identified as the region with the most dust sources in South Africa. These dust sources can be linked with the large, heavily cultivated cropland areas in this province, which leaves fields vulnerable to wind erosion after the harvest in the winter. For this study, the focus was on the factors that influence the emission from bare, flat surfaces on agricultural lands in this region. The Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL) was used to measure the emission flux from adjacent crusted and loose surfaces, which was combined with shear strength, moisture, and soil texture measurements. Boosted regression tree (BRT) analyses were used to identify the variable with the highest relevance on the emission flux. On the whole dataset, that the shear strength is the most important variable that controls the emission. This is reflected in the significantly lower emission from the crusted surfaces (0.49 mg m⁻² s⁻¹) compared to that of loose surfaces (2.34 mg m⁻² s⁻¹). However, for crusted surfaces, the presence of abraders appeared to be the most significant factor in emission, showing a power relationship between the abrader count and the emission flux (R² = 0.76). In the case of the loose surfaces, the presence of clay and silt was a major influence in emissivity, with a linear relationship between the two variables (R² = 0.68). This difference in factors depending on the agricultural disturbance, asks for a more holistic approach when predicting emission from such arid cropland areas.
... Through a sequential methodological approach combining LU/LC mapping and the Land Capability Classification method (USDA, 1961), land degradation was assessed following the GLASOD definition of degradation hotspots (Bridges and Oldeman, 1999). This land degradation mapping scheme encompassing the combination of LCC and LU/LC mapping, led to a micro-scale mapping of land degradation based on the definitions of zones where lands are being underutilized, managed within its capability and being used in a manner that exceeds their capability. ...
Article
This study aims to implement the Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) concept on a test site: the 309 km 2 Nahr Ibrahim watershed Lebanon, by integrating soil erosion as an LDN indicator given its status as a land degradation driver and common concern of the Mediterranean region. Land degradation was mapped, and erosion risk maps were also established. Through LDN's response strategy, an alternative LDN based land use/land cover (LU/LC) scenario was obtained. The LDN scenario was then tested for adoption as a counter-erosion measure. Under current land occupation conditions, a 63.54% (194 km 2), 4.20% (12.82 km 2) and 32.32% (98.7 km 2) distribution of lands being underutilized, managed within their capability, and being used in a manner that exceeds their capability, respectively, was found. Soil erosion risks under current conditions were distributed as 3.88%, 38.19% and 54.48% low, moderate and high erosion risks, respectively. Following the proposed LDN scenario, 86.7 km 2 (28% of the basin) were restored, while erosion risks shifted to 5.19%, 45.66% and 45.71% for low, moderate, and high erosion risks, respectively. The presented approach revealed the efficiency of LDN not only as a land restoration tool, but also as a powerful counter-erosion measure.
... Ground-based measurements have been utilized to evaluate the severity, degree and extent of land and soil degradation at global, regional, national and local levels. For example, the Global Assessment of Humaninduced Soil Degradation (GLASOD) which is based on expert opinion provides information on the global distribution, intensity and the causes of erosional, chemical and physical degradation [7,26]. The World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) provides information on soil and water conservation (SWC), conservation approaches and technologies to combat desertification in 23 countries spread across six continents [3,37]. ...
Article
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Assessments of land degradation vary in methodology and outcome. The objective of this study is to identify the state, extent and patterns of land degradation in Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania). More recently (2000s), satellite-based imagery and remote sensing have been utilized to identify the magnitude and processes of land degradation at global, regional and national levels. This involves the use of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer data and the use of high-quality satellite data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. This study is the first in Eastern Africa to complement remote sensing with ground-level assessments in evaluating the extent of land degradation at national and regional scales. The results based on NDVI measures show that land degradation occurred in about 51%, 41%, 23% and 22% of the terrestrial areas in Tanzania, Malawi, Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively, between the 1982 and 2016 periods. Some of the key hot spot areas include west and southern regions of Ethiopia, western part of Kenya, southern parts of Tanzania and eastern parts of Malawi. To evaluate the accuracy of the NDVI observations, ground-truthing was carried out in Tanzania and Ethiopia through focus group discussions (FGDs). The FGDs indicate an agreement with remotely sensed information on land degradation in seven sites out of eight in Tanzania and five sites out of six in Ethiopia. Given the significant magnitude of land degradation, appropriate action is needed to address it.
... Therefore, defining and characterizing research dimensions such as soil sensitivity to degradation [8,9], in turn, associated with the notion of multi-hazard risk of desertification [10][11][12][13], is vital to perform integrated monitoring approaches. While soils are recognized as the most ignored part of the global ecosystem, they are likely the most affected by physical and economic deterioration [14][15][16]. ...
Article
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Following an operational framework derived from earlier research, our study research estimates the specific contribution of biophysical and socioeconomic factors to soil sensitivity to degradation at two-time points (Early-1990s and Early-2010s) in Italy, a Mediterranean hotspot for desertification risk. A total of 34 variables associated (directly or, at least, indirectly) with different processes of soil degradation (erosion, salinization, sealing, contamination, and compaction) and climate change were considered here, delineating the predominant (underlying) cause (i.e., biophysical or socioeconomic). This set of variables represented the largest (quantitative) information available from national and international data sources including official statistics at both national and European scale. Contribution of biophysical and socioeconomic dimensions to soil sensitivity to degradation was heterogeneous in Italy, with the level of soil sensitivity to biophysical factors being the highest in less accessible, natural areas mostly located in hilly and mountainous districts. The highest level of soil sensitivity to socioeconomic drivers was instead observed in more accessible locations around large cities and flat rural districts with crop intensification and low (but increasing) population density. All these factors delineated an enlarged divide in environmental quality between (i) flat and upland districts, and between (ii) Northern and Southern Italian regions. These findings suggest the appropriateness of policy strategies protecting soils with a strong place-specific knowledge, i.e., based on permanent monitoring of local (biophysical and socioeconomic) conditions. Citation: Gambella, F.; Colantoni, A.; Egidi, G.; Morrow, N.; Prokopova, M.; Salvati, L.; Morera, A.G.; Rodrigo-Comino, J. Uncovering the Role of Biophysical Factors and Socioeconomic Forces Shaping soil Sensitivity to Degradation: Insights from Italy. Soil Syst. 2021, 5, 11. https://doi.
... The emission of dust can have offsite effects on the regional and global climate [1][2][3], global geochemical fluxes [4,5], and human health [6,7]. For the emitting surface, dust emissions can lead to land degradation due to the removal of fine soil particles and organic material, especially in semi-arid and arid environments [8][9][10][11][12]. Due to these impacts, many studies have focused on assessing the sources of dust and the factors controlling dust emission [13][14][15][16]. ...
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The sandy croplands in the Free State have been identified as one of the main dust sources in South Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and strength of physical soil crusts on cropland soils in the Free State, to identify the rainfall required to form a stable crust, and to test their impact on dust emissions. Crust strength was measured using a fall cone penetrometer and a torvane, while laboratory rainfall simulations were used to form experimental crusts. Dust emissions were measured with a Portable In-Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL). The laboratory rainfall simulations showed that stable crusts could be formed by 15 mm of rainfall. The PI-SWERL experiments illustrated that the PM10 emission flux of such crusts is between 0.14% and 0.26% of that of a non-crusted Luvisol and Arenosol, respectively. The presence of abraders on the crust can increase the emissions up to 4% and 8% of the non-crusted dust flux. Overall, our study shows that crusts in the field are potentially strong enough to protect the soil surfaces against wind erosion during a phase of the cropping cycle when the soil surface is not protected by plants.
... Out of that, 3332 million ha (73%) were designated as moderate to severely degraded (Table 6.7). Bridges and Oldeman (1999) stated that 830 million ha land (198 m in Asia, 243 m in Africa, 68 m in South America, 9 m in Central America, 29 m in North America, 48 m in Europe and 83 m in Oceania) is degraded due to overgrazing. Other causative factors of humaninduced land degradation (total 1995 million ha) include deforestation, agricultural mismanagement, over-exploitation and industrial activities. ...
Chapter
Grazing lands in different regions of the world have become very fragile and unsustainable due to unbalanced utilization, resulting in large-scale degradation. The primary cause of degradation is the demographic pressure on land, leading to loss of vegetative cover through deforestation and overgrazing. About 60% of the world’s agricultural land is grazing land, supporting about 360 million cattle and over 600 million sheep and goats. Many of the world’s grazing areas are threatened with degradation, especially in the semi-arid and subhumid zones. For an estimated 100 million people in arid areas, and probably a similar number in other zones, grazing livestock is the only possible source of livelihood; therefore, the management of grazing lands needs priority not only for livelihood security of millions of poor people but also for the environmental security. There are sufficient evidences which prove that even simple protection from grazing or by control grazing can result in a significant increase in production, greater tree regeneration, erosion control and amelioration of soil in terms of increase in organic carbon, nutrients and biological activity. The various approaches for managing the grazing lands include control grazing or complete fencing, judicious application of fertilizers, introduction of legume components, optimizing harvest schedules, moisture conservation, fodder farming under old plantations, use of improved productive varieties of grasses and legumes for fodder production and retaining or introducing nitrogen-fixing trees. Protection of existing trees on grazing lands and introduction of nitrogen-fixing trees constitute a sustainable and productive silvopastoral system. Multipurpose tree species can also be adopted in degraded grazing lands with poor vegetation cover or by developing location-specific silvopastoral models. This chapter describes the status of grazing lands and approaches to improve their productivity and develop sustainable silvopastoral agroforestry systems.
... We note that within the assessment category "environmental media" the indicator framework should ideally capture next to GHGs also other pollutants to air (e.g., particulate matter, NO x , SO x , and others) both from a production and consumption perspective. Furthermore, the environmental media soil and water could be included in future developments, e.g., by accounting for selected aspects of soil degradation (Borrelli et al., 2017;Bridges and Oldeman, 1999) (if not covered yet in land use) and grey water use as an indicator of the volume of freshwater required to assimilate the load of pollutants reaching a water body (Franke et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Indicators are required to monitor the progress of resource and circular economy policies. The German Sustainable Development Strategy and Resource Efficiency Program already include a number of indicators for mapping Germany's resource use and socio-economic metabolism. However, currently used indicators only include a subset of natural resources and often lack an impact evaluation (e.g., considering resource scarcity or environmental relevance). Resource and environmental footprints indirectly caused through the trade of goods have so far only partly been considered by German resource policy and in official statistics. As a result, burden shifting between different resource categories, world regions, or environmental effects can remain undetected. To fill this gap, we discuss the overall scope of natural resource monitoring in Germany and review existing resource indicators evaluating them against a set of predefined criteria. We then propose a possible monitoring framework for Germany consisting of a materials-layer (the focus of resource and circular economy policies to date) for the evaluation of material flows and stocks, and corresponding water, land, and emissions-layers which should be monitored simultaneously to track contributions to the overarching objectives of resource and circular economy policies. Possible indicators and data sources are discussed and an outlook for future research provided.
... Soil erosion is an important form of land degradation globally [1]. e loss of fertile surface soil through erosion is fundamental for successful agricultural, pastoral, and forestry practices [2]. ...
Article
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Soil erosion is a key problem in Ethiopia in view of tropical climate, lack of vegetation, and landscape relief. Therefore, soil and water conservation (SWC) measures have been practiced, but their impacts on soil loss have not been estimated adequately. The RUSLE modeling was applied using satellite imageries, ASTER GDEM, rainfall, and soil data to estimate total annual soil loss for a 100 km2 hilly and highly populated area in Ethiopia. Soil loss decreased in the Damota districts from 21 to 13 million tons from 2000 to 2020. Similarly, the average annual soil loss decreased by 36%. Very slight-risk areas ( 50 t ha−1 yr−1) decreased from 12 to 5%. Soil and water conservation measures showed an important implication against soil erosion through improved land cover and landscape greenness. However, still, the rate of soil erosion is high compared to the soil loss tolerance of 1–6 t ha−1 yr−1 for the Ethiopian highlands.
... The second phase is the transport of the detached material from the accumulated flow and the final phase of erosion is deposition, which occurs when the transport forces are depleted (Wischmeier and Smith 1978;Morgan 1979;Werner 1980). In this regard, erosion is divided in two subcategories: loss of topsoil (rainsplash and sheet erosion) and terrain deformation (rill, gully and channel erosion) (Figure 3-1) (Bridges and Oldeman 1999). ...
Thesis
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Water and energy are the two key aspects driving economic and social development of a region. River impoundments are important structures for providing water, in case of domestic use, irrigation or mining and for providing energy as in the case of hydropower. The human interference in the riverine systems for creating these reservoirs is accompanied with several drawbacks. One and most important: ecosystem disruption. The reservoirs, which cause the disruption of a river continuum, also suffer from it by having a limited lifetime. Rivers are dynamic systems, which transport large amounts of organic and mineral material from the mountains until the sea. When they are impounded, this continuum is divided and the reservoir becomes the first sink of the particles. In order to plan remediation measures, a major scientific and engineering challenge is the assessment of sediment amounts that reach the reservoir in a certain time. The sediment volume/mass can be assessed via either the monitoring and modelling of sediment input from the hydrological catchment or, by measurements of the sediment volume in the reservoir. In the first case the spatial and temporal scale in which sediment mobilization takes place in the watershed, in addition to the episodic nature of sediment formation, make it difficult to derive reliable assessments of sediment input. On the other hand, the underwater environment and the spatial extent of the reservoir contributes also in the lack of reliable results concerning volumetric assessment of sediment. This study aims at a better assessment of both aspects of sediment input and reservoirs’ sediment accumulation. The first part of this thesis deals with the quantification of erosion and sediment input from a watershed via modelling. The rapid population growth in many regions has dictated intense land use and landcover changes. These imply the usage of more dynamic models. Technological advancements in satellite imagery make it possible to improve the spatial and temporal resolution of the models but the overall effects of the integration of this data on the results are still not fully investigated. For assessing the improvement due to the technological advancement, the case of Passaúna catchment, located in southeast Brazil was examined. For this catchment, it was possible to quantify the sediment input and soil loss interanual dynamics in a monthly timestep, and to evaluate to what extent the inclusion of freely available satellite imagery can improve the modelling results. In other words, the integration of freely available Sentinel 2 satellite data made it possible to reduce the time and spatial resolution in comparison to the existing similar approaches. The second part of the thesis deals with the quantification of the sediment volume in the Passaúna reservoir. In this study, five different remote sensing as well as conventional and proxy sediment sampling techniques are integrated for increasing the accuracy of sediment volume assessment. At the end, an accurate assessment of the sediment volume in the reservoir was iv achieved. In addition, a guiding diagram to choose the most suitable sediment detection method, depending on sediment characteristic (sediment magnitude and biochemical activity) was derived. The results of both sections are closely related as the sediment input from a watershed is also the sediment amount that should be found in a reservoir like Passaúna where the trapping efficiency is ~100%. In this case, there is a difference of almost 50% between the modelled sediment input and the sediment stock in the reservoir. The most important factors contributing in this discrepancy are the non-inclusion of gully-channel erosion in the sediment input model, errors in the calculation process, internal production of the reservoir, and errors in the measuring process. In overall based on the results of this thesis, the most important findings consist in the successful integration of freely available satellite imagery in a modelling approach to improve the sediment input assessment, and the combination of several methods for an accurate assessment of reservoir siltation. The findings of this thesis can contribute in bridging the gap between the two aspects of sediment budget by initially achieving an accurate reservoirs’ sediment stock assessment and secondly by quantifying the discrepancy of each contributing factor for a case study.
... Many methods have been applied to assess degradation in different approaches, which use either qualitative or quantitative measures or both. Global Assessment of Land Degradation (GLASOD) is the only approach that has been applied on a worldwide scale, which is based on responses to a questionnaire, which was sent to recognized experts in countries around the world (Bridges and Oldeman, 1999). Soil Degradation in South and Southeast Asia (ASSOD) is another approach in which, the degree of soil degradation is expressed by degradation subtypes using qualitative terms such as impact on productivity (Lynden and Oldeman, 1997). ...
... In the African Sahel, years of above-average rainfall followed by drought starting in the 1960s (Haywood et al., 2013) were closely associated with a more-than doubling of the area devoted to crops (Kandji et al., 2006). Such unsustainable land management practices are well known to deplete the topsoil (Desta et al., 2021) and they have contributed to the Sahel ranking among the regions with most severe soil degradation in the world (Bridges and Oldeman, 1999). Depleting soil organic matter not only increases atmospheric carbon but also negatively impacts the potential of soil as a carbon reservoir (Amelung et al., 2020). ...
Article
Moisture stress is one of the major constraints for crop production in African Sahel. Here, we explore the potential to use natural genetic variation to build on the inherent drought tolerance of an elite sorghum cultivar (Teshale) bred for Ethiopian conditions including chronic drought, evaluating a backcross nested-association mapping population using 12 diverse founder lines crossed with Teshale under three drought-prone environments in Ethiopia. All twelve populations averaged higher head exsertion and lower leaf senescence than the recurrent parent in the two highest-stress environments, reflecting new drought resilience mechanisms from the donors. 154 QTLs were detected for eight drought responsive traits – the validity of these were supported in that 113 (73.4%) overlapped with QTLs previously detected for the same traits, concentrated in regions previously associated with ‘stay-green’ traits. Allele effects show that some favorable alleles are already present in the Ethiopian cultivar, however the exotic donors offer rich scope for increasing drought resilience. Using model-selected SNPs associated with eight traits in this study and three in a companion study, phenotypic prediction accuracies for grain yield were equivalent to genome-wide SNPs and were significantly better than random SNPs, indicating that these studied traits are predictive of sorghum grain yield.
... Land degradation induced by soil erosion is prominent in semiarid regions globally [1][2][3][4][5]. The agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China has characteristics that are typical of a semiarid climate transition zone in that the ecological environment of the region is fragile, and inappropriate land-use management has resulted in severe accelerated soil erosion in the region [6][7][8]. ...
Article
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Land degradation induced by soil erosion is widespread in semiarid regions globally and is common in the agro–pastoral ecotone of northern China. Most researchers identify soil erosion by wind and water as independent processes, and there is a lack of research regarding the relative contributions of wind and water erosion and the interactions between them in what is referred to here as compound soil erosion (CSE). CSE may occur in situations where wind more effectively erodes a surface already subject to water erosion, where rainfall impacts a surface previously exposed by wind erosion, or where material already deposited by wind is subject to water erosion. In this paper, we use the Chinese Soil Loss Equation (CSLE) and the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) to calculate the rate of soil erosion and map the distribution of three types of soil erosion classified as (i) wind (wind-erod), (ii) water (water-erod), and (iii) CSE (CSE-erod) for the study area that spans more than 400,000 km2 of sand- and loess-covered northern China. According to minimum threshold values for mild erosion, we identify water-erod, wind-erod, and CSE-erod land as occurring across 41.41%, 13.39%, and 27.69% of the total area, while mean soil erosion rates for water-erod, wind-erod, and CSE-erod land were calculated as 6877.65 t km−2 yr−1, 1481.47 t km−2 yr−1, and 5989.49 t km−2 yr−1, respectively. Land subject to CSE-erod is predominantly distributed around the margins of those areas that experience wind erosion and water erosion independently. The CSLE and RWEQ do not facilitate a direct assessment of the interactions between wind and water erosion, so we use these equations here only to derive estimates of the relative contributions of wind erosion and water erosion to total soil erosion and the actual mechanisms controlling the interactions between wind and water erosion require further field investigation. It is concluded that CSE is an important but underappreciated process in semiarid regions and needs to be accounted for in land degradation assessments as it has substantial impacts on agricultural productivity and sustainable development in regions with sandy and/or loess-covered surfaces.
... An example of an expert-based approach is GLASOD which maps the status of soil degradation within loosely defined physiographic units. The GLASOD project prepared a global map, at a scale of 1:10 million indicating type, extent, degree, rate and main causes of degradation (Bridges and Oldeman, 1999). Out of a total of 1965 M ha land of the world 1094 M ha was found to be degraded with water erosion thus affecting the majority of the land. ...
Article
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The aim of this review paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of geographical information systems and remote sensing-based water erosion assessment. With multispectral and multi-temporal low-cost data at various resolutions, remote sensing plays an important role in mapping the distribution and severity of water erosion and for modeling the risk and/or potential of soil loss. The ability of geographic information systems to integrate spatial data of different types and sources makes its role unavoidable in water erosion assessment. The role of satellite data in the identification of eroded lands and in providing inputs for erosion modeling has been discussed. The role of GIS in mapping eroded lands based on experts' opinion, in generating spatial data inputs from sources other than remote sensing, and in integrating the inputs to model the potential soil loss has been discussed.
... Grassland yield are available as carbon/m2 like all the other pft specific harvests. Concerning degraded land, the glasod database is used (Bridges and Oldeman, 1999). The timber wood is a standard output, filled with all timber wood from landuse change. ...
Technical Report
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This deliverable describes the initial background and conceptual framework of the Land-use sub-module in the WILIAM (WIthin Limits Integrated Assessment Model) set of Integrated Assessment Models developed in the LOCOMOTION project.
... This observation backs that made by FAO (2016). As such, some 75+ million ha of land has been exposed to varying forms of humaninduced salinization (Bridges and Oldeman 1999;FAO/AGL 2000). ...
Chapter
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Despite significant progress in increasing agricultural production, meeting the changing dietary preferences and increasing food demands of future populations remain significant challenges. This is especially the case in developing countries. Climate change and variability, unstable markets, and shrinking arable land resources that result from urbanization and industrialization represent additional challenges. In many countries – especially those with dense populations and/or diverse ecosystems in need of conservation – expanding agriculture to new lands to increase production is not an option. Conversely, where farmers’ practices result in land degradation and deterioration of soils and natural resources upon which future productivity depends, urgent research and policy attention is needed to arrest and reverse declines in land degradation and adverse soil quality in consideration of mounting global demands for agricultural goods. This chapter provides a synopsis of agricultural land degradation issues while providing potential solutions to reverse soil quality decline through an understanding of integrated land management practices. In addition to methodologically describing the impacts of land degradation on agricultural productivity, the chapter provides up-to-date information for the specialists in the fields of agricultural development, soil science, topography, economics, and ecological management. Options for appropriate policy frameworks to mitigate the degradation of agricultural land at the international, regional and national levels are discussed and proposed.
... Soil compaction, especially subsoil compaction, is one of the major threats of soil degradation globally (Bridges and Oldeman, 1999). The European Soil Framework Directive (2006) stated that soil compaction, along with erosion by water and wind, is one of the main physical processes that severely threatens soil and causing degradation. ...
Article
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The mechanical strength of agricultural soils depends on many soil properties and functions. The database, “soil strength and consequences for sustainable land use and soil management SOILMECHDAT-Kiel”, originates from the “Horn Research Group” includes analyses of undisturbed soil samples taken from more than 460 profiles in and is developed in collaboration with BONARES, a funding initiative of the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research that focuses on the sustainable use of soils. For over 40 years, over 42 different authors recorded 59 physical and 29 chemical parameters for complete soil profiles. In order to the aim of the initial analyses of this data is to determine the influence of bulk density (BD) organic matter (OM) and time (year) on precompression stress (Pc) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (ks) as a function of Pc. Three main textural groups sand, loam, and silt for both topsoils and subsoils (SS) were studied. In loamy and silty subsoils BD and OM are not related to Pc ( R ² = 0.17 and R ² = 0.25). OM and bulk density are more related to Pc in sandy soils ( R ² 0.55–0.59). The link between ks and Pc showed that sandy soils have a significantly higher Pc (>150 kPa) and conductivities did not change much. In loamy soils, with a Pc > 90 kPa, 50% of the ks fell below the critical value of 10 cm d ⁻¹ . For silty soils, at a Pc of 60 kPa, 50% of the data fall below the critical value of ks. These findings suggest that the stability of loamy and silty soils not only depends on OM and BD, but requires further data to explain the variation in the measurements. With respect to ks, the results show that fertile silty soils are more sensitive than formerly defined.
... Soil erosion is one of the greatest environmental threats to the productive capacity and sustainability of agriculture. The most common process is erosion by water, which causes about 55 % of total global erosion (Bridges & Oldeman, 1999). Soil erosion impacts involve the relocation and loss of soil within/from a field, a decline in organic matter, in soil structure, in nutrients content, and in soil fertility (Ketema & Dwarakish, 2019). ...
Article
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The use of erosion assessment methods is critical for the sustainability of land use in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in countries lacking national information on soil erosion development, which is the case of Angola. This study aimed to evaluate the rainfall erosivity (R), soil erodibility (K), soil loss tolerance (T) and natural erosion potential (NEP) in Huambo (Angola). The R value estimated for a 25-year period was 7463 MJ mm ha −1 h −1 y −1. K values estimated from 25 soil profiles, described in the Soil Map of Angola, varied from 0.021 to 0.247 t ha h ha −1 MJ −1 mm −1 , respectively, in yellow ferralitic and paraferralitic soils (Ferralsols) and brown psamitic soils (Arenosols). A two-principal component (PC) model for soil erodibility variables explained 61.7 % of total variance. PC1 was related to particle size distribution and soil erodibility, pointing to a positive correlation between sand content in the soil superficial horizons and K. PC2 expressed soil loss vulnerability, with negative factor loading for soil loss tolerance. The cluster analysis (CA) grouped Arenosols in a significant cluster located in the positive quadrant of PC1, therefore , more erosion prone. The NEP average value found was of 605 t ha −1 y −1. The obtained results raise awareness concerning soil degradation by water erosion and can be of value for decision-makers and for farmers and land users, contributing to the sustainability of agriculture in Huambo.
... Water erosion is a hydrological phenomenon which washes away soils, nutrients, depletes plant and consequently reduces crop production (Kumar et al., 2016). Soil erosion is the most common form of soil deterioration in the world (Bridges and Oldeman, 1999, Ul Zaman et al., 2018, Bhat et al., 2019. The rainfall factor can be used as an erosive factor to predict soil erosion. ...
... Qadir et al. (2006) measured the annual losses in the agricultural sector as 27.3 million US dollars caused by the salinized lands. Bridges and Oldeman (1999) determine that, secondary salinization converts 3 ha of arable land to unproductive in every minute at a global scale, consequently converting irrigated land in the range of 10-20 million hectares to zero productivity in each year. So, salinity is consider one of the main hurdler in the way of increasing food production in order to meet the demand of the mounting world population, now predictable to cross 9 billion mark by 2050 (Shabala and Munns 2017). ...
Chapter
One of the key tasks of the Sustainable Development Goals connected to Agriculture, Safety and nutritional quality of food is to raise crop production per unit area without compromising the sustainability of agricultural resources and environmental security. Along with environmental constraints, soil salinization has become one of the major threats that restricts agricultural potential and is closely related to mishandling of agricultural resources and overexploitation of water resources, particularly in arid regions. The effect of salinity on the quality of various agricultural crops has not yet been much explored. Presently, this information is very important due to the increasing use of saline water for irrigation worldwide which has given rise to as soil salinity has become a critical around the world and the situation has been worsening over the last 20 years in arid and semi-arid regions particularly in Mediterranean area. Salinity stress significantly affect the nutritional properties and quality traits of crops due to physiological and biochemical alterations in plants at different growth stage. During salinity stress, plants tend to activate different physiological and biochemical mechanisms to cope with the stress through altering their morphology, anatomy, water relations, photosynthesis, protein synthesis, primary and secondary metabolism and biochemical adaptations such as the antioxidative metabolism response. Therefore, it is important for breeders and producers to understand the influence of salinity on the composition of crops, for improvement of protein and oil quality (amino and fatty acid) under the salinity conditions. The aims of present review is to quantify the adverse effects of salinity on quality parameters of crops and management approaches for ameliorating the adverse effects of salinity stress to enhance the yield and grain quality of crops.
... Ainsi, Bridges & Oldeman (1999) estiment qu'à l'échelle mondiale, chaque minute, une superficie de 3 ha de terres arables devient improductive en raison de la salinisation secondaire, ce qui conduit chaque année entre 10 et 20 millions d'hectares de terres irriguées à une productivité nulle. ...
Thesis
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Soil salinity is considered the most serious socio-economic and environmental problem in arid and semi-arid regions. This studym was carried out at an oasis in Zelfana, aims to (1) assess the quality of water used for irrigation, (2) estimate soil salinity/sodicity and follow their spatio-temporal and vertical variations, (3) compare two geostatistical methods of IDW and OK interpolation, (4) provide suggestions for a better management of the oasis agricultural system To achieve these objectives, samples of the irrigation and drainage water involved in this plot were collected and analyzed. Soil sample points were taken in two different periods (May, November) with two depths (0-30cm) and (30-60cm). The analysis of the irrigation water of the palm grove coming from the Albian water table, shows that it is admissible only for the palm orchards and poor for the other crops which hold a weak resistance to the saline stress. The content of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ increased in the drainage water in the same proportion as the electrical conductivity, which may prove that the soil has a large reserve of these elements, responsible for salinity. The results of the mapping analysis in the vertical direction of soil-bound salt dynamics indicate a trend of accumulation at depth that can be explained by leaching processes associated with the sandy texture and flood irrigation system. However, the seasonal spatial distribution showed strong differences in salt movement, related to the direction of water flow, lack of maintenance of the drainage system and furthermore the influence of topography (presence of stagnation zones). The efficiency and best model between two geostatistical methods inverse distance weighting (IDW) and Ordinary Kriging (OK) were evaluated by calculating the mean error (ME) and root mean square error (RMSE). These results showing that the ME of both interpolation methods was satisfactory for soil salinity (EC) and sodicity (SAR), but the RMSE value was lower using IDW for both periods. This may explain the accuracy of the IDW interpolation method. This research could be applied to other studies on the factors controlling salt dynamics in agricultural soils, especially in an oasis environment. It should be noted that our study was only conducted on oasis farmland in dry areas and needs to be extended to other similar regions on a large scale.
... Expert participatory knowledge evaluates the state of land degradation by incorporating oral histories and interviews to determine the extent, type, degree, rate, causes and severity of land degradation. For instance, the International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC) commissioned the Global Assessment of Human-Induced Soil Degradation (GLASOD) project to map land degradation globally based on expert knowledge (Bridges & Oldeman, 1999;Oldeman, 1998). However, this approach is critiqued for being subjective, inconsistent and difficult to replicate (Kapalanga, 2008). ...
Article
Land degradation is a complex environmental problem that requires robust decision-making processes that embrace diversity of local indigenous knowledge. Participatory approaches are essential in capturing the complexity in land degradation processes while overcoming limitations presented by scientific methods that disregard socio-economic factors. Hence, the triangulation approach can be used to combine participatory expert maps with satellite imagery by overlaying both maps to enhance understanding of land degradation. This study incorporated social and physical factors that cause land degradation through an expert assessment. This was achieved through a participatory expert mapping exercise using the World Overview Conservation Approaches and Technology (WOCAT) mapping questionnaire and remote sensing techniques to map land degradation severity that was integrated by overlaying, i.e. triangulation approach. The WOCAT results were validated using field observations and discussions on land covers. Climatic variability, improper soil management and unsustainable land-use practices were identified as leading causes of land degradation while soil erosion and loss of vegetation cover were the perceived prominent types of land degradation. The land degradation severity modelling assessment achieved an accuracy of R² 0.86, RMSE 7.72 and relRMSE 12.94% in estimating bare soil cover, which was used as an indicator of potential land degradation severity. Variables such as leaf area index (LAI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) were essential in determining degraded landscapes. The severity maps indicated that low-lying areas are moderately degraded due to overgrazing. The study concluded that a triangulation approach provides a better understanding of land degradation.
... Soil erosion is one of the major threats to the environment and agriculture in the world, and is influenced by multiple factors, such as soil properties, ground slope, vegetation, runoff and rainfall (Pimentel et al., 1995;Lal, 2004;Pimentel, 2006;Wang et al., 2015). Soil erosion is a global problem, and countries in different continents are more or less affected by it (Bridges and Oldeman, 1999;Li and Fang, 2016). During the second half of the 20th century, nearly one-third of the arable land worldwide was lost caused by erosion, and the per capita food productivity has begun to decline (Pimentel et al., 1995). ...
Article
Soil erosion is one of the major threats to the environment and agriculture in the world and rainfall erosivity is the most active factor to lead changes in soil erosion. Here, we use statistically downscaled, bias-corrected Community Earth Syatem Model (CESM) low-warming simulations to investigate the future changes in rainfall erosivity in mainland China under the Paris Agreement global warming targets. The downscaled simulations evidently outperform the original CESM simulations in capturing the spatial distribution, magnitudes and annual cycle of rainfall erosivity in China in the present day (1986-2005). The rainfall erosovity will be significantly increased in most regions of China under the 1.5°C and 2°C warming targets and the regional mean increases are approximately 33% and 40%, respectively. In addition, the corresponding increases are even larger than 60% and 75%, respectively, in a quarter of mainland China. The increase in rainfall erosivity is resulted from the joint contributions of increases in frequency and intensity of erosive rainfall. However, it is dominated by the increase in the frequency. Compared with annual rainfall amount, the future warming will bring a four times greater impact on the soil erosion potentially caused by rainfall. Limiting global warming to 1.5°C instead of 2°C would reduce 17% of the increase in rainfall erosivity in China. For grain producing areas like Sichuan Basin, the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and South China, the values are approximately 20%. The future warming will significantly increase the potential risk of soil loss in China, and it is beneficial to relief this risk if the global warming is limited to 1.5°C rather than 2°C.
... Soil salinization/ alkalization have been identified as a major cause of land degradation, after erosion, globally (Oldeman et al., 1990, Bai et al., 2008 including India (Maji et al., 2010;Reddy et al., 2018;Kumar, 2018;Kumar et al., 2020). Global estimates reveal over 76 million hectare (M ha) area affected to various degrees of soil salinization (Bridges and Oldeman, 1999). In India the extent of salt affected soils (SAS) is reported to be 6.73M ha (Mandal et al., 2009;Maji et al., 2010). ...
Article
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The aim of this review paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of remote sensing-based mapping of salt affected soils. By providing multispectral and multi-temporal low cost data at various resolutions, remote sensing plays an important role for identifying and mapping the distribution of salt affected soils. Different bands of the multispectral data and the indices and transforms derived from them have been found useful in delineating salt affected soils. The various approaches to map salt affected soils involving remote sensing data, from visual interpretation to supervised and unsupervised classifications have been discussed. Quantitative mapping of soil salinity with remote sensing and other environmental variables have also been discussed.
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GeoWEPP is a process-based, distributed-parameter, and continuous simulation model of water erosion in watersheds with the possibility to simulate hillslopes and hydrographical network. Identifying problems in the real world usually produces large amounts of information and decision space, which requires optimization using evolutionary algorithms due to the variety of aims considered. Considering diversity of evolutionary algorithms, NSGA-II is one of the most common and effective multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA) and a very powerful tool for solving problems with conflicting objectives. Development of simulation models with optimization algorithms that are capable of analyzing very complex systems, has been found to be very efficient in real world problems. Simulation-optimization models are powerful tools for solving problems for least cost and best performance. Materials and Methods In this study, to predict sediment yield and runoff using GeoWEPP model, the integration of WEPP, TOPAZ, (Topography Parameterization), CLIGEN (Climate Generation) and GIS tool (ArcGIS) were used. The GeoWEPP model provides the processing of digital data including DEM, soil and landcover (The format of inputs was ASCII file). To generate climate file, the CLIGEN module which is a stochastic weather generation model was utilized. Furthermore, in TOPAZ part the CSA (critical source area) and MSCL (minimum source channel length) to delineate streams and also the outlet point of studied watershed were defined using GeoWEPP linked to ArcGIS. Using the basic maps including DEM, slope, soil great groups and soil database the GeoWEPP model simulates and generates the hillslopes automatically; therefore, this is an important advantage of GeoWEPP compared to WEPP model, which is capable of performing the simulation of watershed components spontaneously. In this study. in order to optimize the placement of gabions, 118 channels and 5110 candidate sites for gabion construction were simulated and evaluated. For optimization process of the number of objectives the AHP technique was initially used to prioritize the effective factors on the placement of gabions. Analytical hierarchy process is a structured technique for organizing and analyzing complicated decisions based on mathematical calculations. The AHP depicts the accurate approach for quantifying the weights of criteria and estimates the relative magnitudes of factors through pair-wise comparisons. The AHP technique includes creating hierarchical structure, prioritizing and calculating relative weights of the criteria, calculating the final weights and system results compatibility. The main criteria (objectives) for our study were minimum distance from road, minimum distance from residential area, maximum length of main channel, maximum sediment yield, maximum discharge volume and maximum volume structure. The AHP technique made it possible to restrict the decision making space and the number of possible options,, therefore simplify the optimization process. Then, NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm) was applied in order to find the best solutions, i.e., the Pareto front, of alternatives for optimal location of structures based on the two objectives with higher priority and distance constraint. Results and discussion The results of paired comparison matrix and prioritizing showed that the length of main channel in the watershed is the main effective criterion in locating gabion structures. The first priority is the most critical channel which produces the highest sediment yield; therefore, the most expensive structure is established on that channel. After channel length, the volume discharge is the second priority of effective factors for gabion placement. Using the results of AHP, based on channel length and discharge volume, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) was performed and the priority of critical channels and the specific position was determined from 1 to 35 among 5110 candidate sites for gabion construction. Using the ArcGIS, slope map and the lowest width of the critical channels, the best place for gabion construction was determined. Moreover, the main output of GeoWEPP is the spatial distribution of sediment yield and based on this map the sediment yield was classified in the watershed. Based on this map, the red color was the highest amount of sediment yield (more than 4 ton) in the watershed. Conclusion Results confirmed that application of simulation-optimization techniques helps to select the best sites to construct gabion as the best management practice in the watershed. Key words: GeoWEPP model, Optimization, Multi-objective decision making, NSGA-II algorithm, Analytic hierarchy process
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The integrated character of the sustainable development goals in Agenda 2030, as well as research in environmental security, flag that sustainable peace requires sustainable and conflict-sensitive natural resource use. The precise relationship between the risk for violent conflict and natural resources remains contested because of the interplay with socio-economic variables. This paper aims to improve the understanding of natural resources’ role in the risk of violent conflicts by accounting for complex interactions with socio-economic conditions. Conflict data was analysed with machine learning techniques, which can account for complex patterns, such as variable interactions. More commonly used logistic regression models are compared with neural network models and random forest models. The results indicate that a country’s natural resource features are important predictors of its risk for violent conflict and that they interact with socio-economic conditions. Based on these empirical results and the existing literature, we interpret that natural resources can be root causes of violent intrastate conflict, and that signals from natural resources leading to conflict risk are reflected in and influenced by interacting socio-economic conditions. More specifically, the results show that variables such as access to water and food security are important predictors of conflict, while resource rents and oil and ore exports are relatively less important than other natural resource variables, contrasting what prior research has suggested. Given the potential of natural resource features to act as an early warning for violent conflict, we argue that natural resources should be included in conflict risk models for conflict prevention.
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Pollution by inorganic and organic substances is increasingly disrupting the natural functions of soils. Some soils seem capable of receiving and holding chemical compounds, at the same time retaining their ecological flexibility, but others are readily damaged and should be regarded as vulnerable to particular pollution scenarios. At the request of the Chemical Time Bombs (CTB) Project, the International Soil Reference and Information Centre (ISRIC) organized an international workshop to assess the feasibility of increasing awareness of ‘soil vulnerability’ by a mapping exercise for Europe (SOVEUR), at a scale of 1:5 M, with reference to selected organic and inorganic contaminants. The workshop participants outlined procedures for a GIS-based approach to determining areas where vulnerable soils occur, and formulated proposals for the implementation phase of the SOVEUR programme. Funding is now sought for continuation of the work outlined in this paper.
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Soil is a complex organo-mineral association capable of sustaining all the terrestrial ecosystems on earth. It is a fundamental part of the environment upon which human beings and most other life forms depend, but despite this, soil is a grossly undervalued component of the natural world. Concerned by the lack of impact soil science has had, a group of soil scientists at a meeting in Rennes, concluded that a different, and more broadly based approach to the application of soil science research findings, particularly in Developing Countries, was needed. This approach they called holistic. It was defined as the task of all people concerned with the soil to direct their interest, not just towards the physical, chemical and biological aspects, but also to those environmental economic, social, legal and technical aspects that affect soil use. Subsequently, a workshop held in Harare, conducted in the form of a “think tank” explored the ways in which the soil resource could be used on a sustained basis within the social and economic framework of the countries of Southern Africa. The major issues relevant to “applied” soil science were discussed in a holistic manner so that the related issues of education, training, role of agricultural extension services and possibilities of co-operation in science and technology between institutions of the southern African countries and Europe could be identified. Soil scientists have a considerable challenge to face. They must work more closely with practitioners of other disciplines, and also take legal, economic and social conditions into account so that sustainable land management systems are developed and used. At the same time, standards of research in “pure” soil science must not be compromised by a broadening of the framework within which the discipline exists.
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Although there is a need to protect soils against future pollution, many sites are already badly contaminated by past activity. The paper describes some of the contaminants which affect soils, and the policies for acceptable levels adopted by national governments. Various appropriate clean-up policies are discussed.
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