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Antimitotic and antibacterial effects of the Primula veris L. flower extracts

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Primula is a plant genus which comprises about 400 species. It has been found in a number of pharmacological studies that primrose extracts are rich in saponins. Phenolic glycosides and saponins are characteristic compounds for the genus Primula. In this study several flower extracts from Primula veris L. has been tested for antibacterial activity and decoction from the flowers has been tested for antimitotic activity. Antibacterial activity was determined by the well diffusion method and Allium cepa L. has been used for evaluating cytotoxicity. Decoction of flowers was toxic on root number and root length in A. cepa L. and reduced the mitotic index significantly. All of the tested P. veris L. extracts showed inhibitory effect against both Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms at varying degrees. The most effective fraction was found to be the ethanolic.
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Caryologia
International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics
ISSN: 0008-7114 (Print) 2165-5391 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tcar20
Antimitotic and antibacterial effects of the Primula
veris L. flower extracts
Gamze Başbülbül , Ali Özmen , H. Halil Biyik & Özge Şen
To cite this article: Gamze Başbülbül , Ali Özmen , H. Halil Biyik & Özge Şen (2008) Antimitotic
and antibacterial effects of the Primula veris L. flower extracts, Caryologia, 61:1, 88-91, DOI:
10.1080/00087114.2008.10589614
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00087114.2008.10589614
Published online: 04 Feb 2014.
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Citing articles: 2 View citing articles
CARYOLOGIA Vol. 61, no. 1: 88-91, 2008
INTRODUCTION
Primula is a plant genus included about 400
species. Some of them are popular garden plants
because of their colourful blossoms. Efficacy of
primrose extracts which are rich in saponins have
been demonstrated in a number of pharmaco-
logical studies, which has potent anti-asthmatic,
anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties. Phe-
nolic glycosides and saponins are characteristic
compounds for the genus Primula (MÜLLER et al.
2005). Flavonoids may have existed in nature for
over one billion years. Methoxyflavones have im-
portant effects in plant biochemistry and physi-
ology, acting as antioxidants, enzyme inhibitors,
precursors of toxic substances and have long been
recognized to possess anti-allergic, anti-inflamma-
tory, antiviral, anti-proliferative and anti-carcino-
genic activities as well as to affect some aspects of
mammalian metabolism (HUCK et al. 2000). Ten li-
pophilic flavones were isolated from Primula veris
L. in vitro cultures (BUDZIANOWSKI et al. 2005).
Two new flavonol glycosides have been identified
and isolated from Italian Primula species (FICO et
al. 2007). Otherwise Primula veris L. has a poten-
tial anxiolytic activity (SUFKA et al. 2000). Primula
species can also contains allergens (PAULSEN et al.
2006) and some species are used traditionally to
treat epilepsy and convulsions (JAGER et al. 2006).
Another Primula species has flavonoids that pos-
sessed strong cytostatic properties against HL 60
cells even at low concentrations (TOKALOV et al.
2004). The biological effects of the genus Primula
are evident. The aim of this study is to determine
antimitotic and antibacterial effects of several
flower extracts from Primula veris L..
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Extraction of flowers - Ether extract: 20 g of dried
and milled flower were placed in a soxhlet car-
tridge and extracted with diethylether at 350C.
After extraction Ether was evaporated by a rotary
evaporator connected to a vacuum pump.
Ethanol extract: The residue in soxhlet car-
tridge has been dried and treated with ethanol in
a shaker at room temperature. After extraction
ethanol was evaporated.
Decoction - 50 g of dried and milled flower has
been boiled in 1000 ml distilled water for 1 h.
After boiling the extract was filtered and a part
of this filtrate has been freeze-dried for preparing
the Water extract. After freezing the water was
removed by lyophilization.
Antimitotic and antibacterial effects of the Primula veris L.
flower extracts
Gamze Bas¸bülbül, Ali Özmen*, H. Halil Biyik and Özge S¸en
Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Biyoloji Bölümü Aydýn, Turkey.
AbstractPrimula is a plant genus which comprises about 400 species. It has been found in a number of phar-
macological studies that primrose extracts are rich in saponins. Phenolic glycosides and saponins are characteristic
compounds for the genus Primula. In this study several flower extracts from Primula veris L. has been tested for
antibacterial activity and decoction from the flowers has been tested for antimitotic activity. Antibacterial activity
was determined by the well diffusion method and Allium cepa L. has been used for evaluating cytotoxicity. Decoc-
tion of flowers was toxic on root number and root length in A. cepa L. and reduced the mitotic index significantly.
All of the tested P. veris L. extracts showed inhibitory effect against both Gram positive and Gram negative micro-
organisms at varying degrees. The most effective fraction was found to be the ethanolic.
Key words: Allium cepa L., antibacterial, antimitotic, cytotoxicity, Primula veris L..
* Corresponding author: phone: ++90 256 2128498;
fax: ++90 256 2135379; e-mail: aozmen@adu.edu.tr
Downloaded by [181.112.228.71] at 19:15 28 January 2016
antimitotic and antibacterial effects of the
primula veris
l. flower extracts 89
Antimitotic activity - Allium cepa has been used
for evaluating cytotoxic properties since the ear-
ly 1920’s (GRANT 1982). This method is an easy
and sensitive tool for measuring the total toxic-
ity caused by chemical treatments as expressed
by growth inhibition of the roots of onion bulbs.
It has been reported that the results from Al-
lium test fit in well in a test battery composed of
prokaryotes and /or other eukaryotes (FISKESJÖ
1993). Small onion bulbs are carefully unscaled
and cultivated on top of test tubes filled with the
decoction of flowers. Water was used as a con-
trol. The test tubes were kept in an incubator at
24±20C and the test samples were changed dai-
ly. After 72 h the roots were counted and their
lengths were measured for each onion. When the
newly emerged roots measured 2.0 – 3.0 cm, they
were fixed. The fixative solution was glacial acetic
acid/absolute alcohol (1/3 v/v). The root tips were
kept in aceto-alcohol solution for 24 h. After fixa-
tion, the slides were prepared for examination or
the roots were transferred to %70 ethyl alcohols
and stored in a refrigerator. For examination, the
root tips were put into a watch glass to which 9
drops of aceto-orcein and 1 drop of 1 M HCl were
added and warmed over a flame of spirit lamp for
2-3 min. These tips were kept at room tempera-
ture for 15-30 min. After removing the root caps
from well-stained root tips, 1 mm of the mitotic
zones were immersed in a drop of %45 acetic-
acid on a clean slide and squashed under a cover
glass. In order to spread the cells evenly on the
surface of the slide, squashing was accomplished
with a bouncing action by striking the cover glass
with a match stick. MI was expressed in terms of
divided cells/total cells. A statistical analysis was
performed on the collected data. The means of
the control and seed extracts were obtained from
descriptive analysis and an Independet-samples
test was performed to obtain P values.
Antibacterial activity - Antibacterial activity was
determined by the well diffusion method. Muller
Hinton agar plates were seeded with 24 h cul-
tures of the bacterial strains. The inoculum was
adjusted to 0.5 MacFarland turbidity standards
(108 cfu/ml). Muller-Hinton Agar plates were in-
oculated with each of these bacterial suspensions
using sterile swabs. The dried plant extracts were
dissolved in sterile dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)
to give a final concentration of 100 mg/ml. Wells
were cut into the agar and filled with 50 ml of the
plant extracts. Sterile DMSO was used as nega-
tive control. Inoculated plates were incubated at
37°C for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Es-
cherichia coli ATCC 35218, Enterococcus faecalis
ATCC 51299, Proteus sp., Listeria sp. , Serratia
marcescens and at 30 °C for Micrococcus luteus
ATCC 9341, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Pseu-
domonas fluorescens DSMZ 50090, B. sphaericus
DSMZ 396.
The antibacterial activity was evaluated by
measuring the diameter of inhibition zone. The
experiment was carried out in duplicate and the
mean of the diameter of the inhibition zones was
calculated.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Antimitotic activity - The root lengths and num-
bers from control and decoction are given in ta-
ble 1. Primula veris L. flower decoction reduced
significantly root number and root length when
compared with control.
Table 1 — The average root lengths and numbers in
control and in decoction after 72 h.
Extract Average root
numbers
(±SD)
Average root
lengths (mm)
(±SD)
Control 35 (±4) 27.9 (±3.7)
Decoction 27.8 (±3.8)* 7.1 (±1.7)*
*Significant at 0.05 level
These results show that the extract from
Primula veris L. flowers has inhibitory effects on
root growth and length in Allium cepa. In con-
formity with human cell cytotoxicity (TOKALOV et
al. 2004) it was found that Primula veris L. flower
decoction has cytotoxic properties also in plant
test systems.
Table 2 The dividing and total cells that counted
in microscopic observations and mitotic index (MI) in
control and in decoction.
Extract Total cells Dividing cells MI (±SD)
Control 10000 1617 %16 (± 1, 6)
Decoction 10000 516 %5 (± 1, 2)*
*Significant at 0.05 level
In table 2 the mitotic indexes are given for
control and for decoction. It is evident that de-
coction of flowers reduced the mitotic index sig-
nificantly. In conclusion antimitotic effect of plant
is provided by substances which found in flower
decoction.
In respect of this results, Primula veris L. flowers
contains antimitotic constituents that can stop the
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gamze, özmen, biyik and s¸en
90
mitosis in anywhere of the cell cycle. Furthermore
these constituents probably affect the cytoskeleton
or tubulin polymerization or degradation.
Antibacterial activity:
Antibacterial activity of three different ex-
tracts of Primula veris L. has been evaluated in
vitro against ten bacterial test species, which are
known to cause some infections in humans. These
results are given in table 3.
All the tested extracts have inhibited both
Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial species
at varying degrees. Among the tested microorgan-
isms E. faecalis, B. cereus and Pseudomonas fluores-
cens were inhibited by all extracts. Ether and water
extracts have higher inhibitory spectrum from that
of ethanol extract. None of the tested extracts did
show inhibitory effect against S. aureus, Proteus sp.
and Listeria sp. The biggest inhibition zone was
observed with ethanol fraction.
It is known that Primula herb has antispas-
modic, vermifuge, emetic and astringent effect in
public medicine. However, there has been rela-
tively few study in literature about antimicrobial
and anticancer effects of this plant. Primin (2-
methoxy-6-n-pentyl-1, 4-benzoquinone), a natu-
rally occurring product obtained from Primula
obconica has shown antimicrobial and antitumour
properties (BRONDANÝ et al. 2007). An other liter-
ature reports that water insoluble crude extracts
from Primula longipes aerial parts has strong an-
timicrobial activity with low MIC values against
both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria
(BURUK et al. 2006).
Antimycobacterial effect of Primula has also
been investigated. Leaves and flower extracts of
Primula vulgaris Huds. subsp. sibthorpii has shown
to be active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
H37RV (ATCC 27294) and extracts caused % 41 in-
hibition of M. tuberculosis (TOSUN et al. 2005).
Traditionally, Primula extracts are prepared
with water in folk medicine and especially con-
sumed as Primula tea. Because of water extract
found as potentially active fraction against many
bacteria, results of this study support the tradi-
tional use of this herb. Additionally, there must be
very active compounds in the other extracts while
they show wide inhibitory spectrum.
The results of these antimicrobial screening
confirms the potential of Primula herb for produc-
tion of bioactive compounds. These findings are
useful tools for rationalizing the use of medicinal
plants in folk therapy. However, the phytochemi-
cal characterization of extracts and identification
of biologically active compounds are necessary.
REFERENCES
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Table 3 — Diameters of inhibition zones.
Extracts
Zone of inhibition (mm)
S.aureus
E.faecalis
B.cereus
B.sphaericus
M.luteus
S.marcescens
E.coli
Proteus sp.
Listeria sp.
P.fluorescens
Ether 10 12 11 – – 8 – – 12
Ethanol 12 8 28
Water 12 10 8 – 8 – – – 20
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antimitotic and antibacterial effects of the
primula veris
l. flower extracts 91
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Received August 6th 2007; accepted February 14th 2008
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... The members are widely distributed in the mild climate zone of the northern hemisphere [10]. The members of the genus Primula are cultivated for ornamental and medicinal purposes in the mild climate zone [11][12][13]. The Primula auriculata used in the present study is a rosette plant measuring between 20 and 50 cm height with oblong-lanceolate leaves and bright-purple or violet flowers that mostly bloom during spring [14]. ...
... The reference standards used for compound identification were obtained as follows: protocatechuic acid (1), 4′-hydroxyflavone (6), apigenin (9), luteolin (11), kaempferol (12), quercetin (13), rhamnetin (16), isorhamnetin (17), apigenin 7-O-glucoside (22), luteolin 7-O-glucoside (24), kaempferol 3-O-glucoside (26), myricitrin (30), isoquercitrin (31), acaciin (33), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (35), rutin (37), and pectolinarin (38) were obtained from Extrasynthese (Genay, France); caffeic acid (2) and neochlorogenic acid (3) were supplied by Phytolab (Vestenbergsgreuth, Germany); and chlorogenic acid (4) was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Acetonitrile (hypergrade for LC-MS), formic acid (HPLC-grade), and methanol (analytical-grade) were purchased from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany). ...
... In addition, seven diglycosides (33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39) and four triglycosides (40)(41)(42)(43) were tentatively identified in the studied Primula extracts (Table 2). Compounds 6,9,11,12,13,16,17,22,24,26,30,31,33,35,37, and 38 were identified by comparison with authentic standards. [45]. ...
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The biological activity of the aerial part and rhizomes of Primula auriculata were assessed for the first time. The biological activities (antioxidant properties, enzyme inhibition, and AGE inhibition) as well as the phenolic and flavonoid contents of the ethyl acetate, ethanol, hydro-ethanol and water extracts of P. auriculata aerial parts and rhizomes were determined. Cell viability assays and gelatin zymography were also performed for MMP-2/-9 to determine the molecular mechanisms of action. The gene expression for MMPs was described with RT-PCR. The levels of various proteins, including phospho-Nf-κB, BCL-2, BAX, p-53, and cyclin D1 as well as RAGE were measured using Western blot analysis. The hydro-ethanol extract of the aerial part possessed the highest phenolic (56.81 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (63.92 mg RE/g) contents. In-depth profiling of the specialized metabolites by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) allowed for the identification and annotation of 65 compounds, including phenolic acids and glycosides, flavones, flavonols, chalcones, dihydrochalcones, and sapo-nins. The hydro-ethanol extract of the aerial parts (132.65, 180.87, 172.46, and 108.37 mg TE/g, for the DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP assays, respectively) and the ethanol extract of the rhizomes (415.06, 638.30, 477.77, and 301.02 mg TE/g, for the DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP assays, respectively) exhibited the highest free radical scavenging and reducing activities. The ethanol and hydro-ethanol extracts of both the P. auriculata aerial part and rhizomes exhibited higher inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase, while the hydro-ethanol extracts (1.16 mmol ACAE/g, for both the aerial part and rhizomes extracts) were more active in the inhibition of α-glucosidase. After the treatment of an HT-29 colorectal cancer cell line with the extracts, the apoptosis mechanism was initiated, the integrity of the ECM was remodeled, and cell proliferation was also taken under control. In this way, Primula extracts were shown to be potential drug sources in the treatment of colo-rectal cancer. They were also detected as natural MMP inhibitors. The findings presented in the present study appraise the bioactivity of P. auriculata, an understudied species. Additional assessment is required to evaluate the cytotoxicity of P. auriculata as well as its activity in ex vivo systems. Citation: Kurt-Celep, I.; Zheleva-Dimitrova, D.; Gevrenova, R.; Uba, A.I.; Zengin, G.; Yıldıztugay, E.; Picot-Allain, C.M.N.; Lorenzo, J.M.; Mahomoodally, M.F.;
... Turkish scientists studying the extracts of primrose flowers found antibacterial and antimitotic effects. The extracts had an Since 2002 inhibitory effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms [12], [13]. ...
... Approximately 15% of the thick extract of primrose roots-rhizome consists of a complex mixture of saponins, and it has been thought that the expectorant activity of saponins is mediated by the gastric mucosa, with reflex stimulation of the bronchial mucous glands through the parasympathetic pathway. Saponins have also been shown to have spasmolytic, bronchodilatory, and antibacterial activities from the leaves and rhizome with roots of P. veris [9], [12]. ...
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BACKGROUND: At present, coughing can be regulated by medications such as dextromethorphan and codeine, which are associated with side effects, including drug drowsiness or dependency. Thus, there is an increasing demand for drugs that promote expectorant activities with fewer adverse effects. The root of Primula veris L. (Primulaceae) is an herbal medicine that has been used as an expectorant drug for thousands of years in folk medicine. AIM: The present study aims to create an in-depth pharmacological study of the expectorant activity of P. veris to create new drugs in different directions which are appropriate and promising. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expectorant effect of thick extracts of the study plant was studied on the influence of the motor activity of the ciliated epithelium and the secretory function of the bronchi. The expectorant activities of the ethanol extracts of leaves and rhizomes with roots from P. veris were evaluated using classical animal models. The expectorant assay was performed with phenol red secretion in the mouse trachea. After gastric administration of the test extracts in mice, 2.5% phenol red solution was injected intraperitoneally. The trachea was dissected and the optical density of tracheal secretion was measured. RESULTS: The results of the studies showed that a thick extract of primrose rhizomes with roots has a high ability to secrete sputum, which is almost not inferior to the Hedelix drops comparator (ivy extract) – 126.6% and 146.4%, respectively. Extract from the leaves of P. veris is characterized by less pronounced activity, which, at a dose of 200 mg/kg, was 74.5%. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study provide evidence that P. veris can be used as an expectorant herbal medicine and that triterpene saponins may be the main active ingredients of Primula veris responsible for its bioactivities.
... It is a habitat-sensitive and low-emerging herb that bears colorful and attractive flowers that bloom in April, June, and July. The Primula plants are well known among the inhabitants who cultivate them for medicinal and ornamental values (Bas ßbülbül et al., 2008;Fico et al., 2007). Primula species have a very extensive history of traditional uses and have been mainly used in treating conditions like cramps, paralysis, rheumatic pain, and insomnia in children (Majid et al., 2014). ...
... The antibacterial results revealed the different levels of activities according to plant species, plant parts, and extraction solvents tested. For example, the aqueous extract of flowers of P. denticulata was found active against all the tested bacteria which support the traditional use of flowers of P. denticulata as herbal tea (Bas ßbülbül et al., 2008). The antibacterial activity of this plant has already been reported. ...
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In this study, biosynthesis and in vitro phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of silver nanoparticles were investigated by using aqueous leaf, flower and root extracts of Primula vulgaris (P. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris). The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were confirmed by color conversion and ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrophotometry. The appearance of a dark brown color and a UV absorption spectrum range at 440 nm confirmed the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from the leaf of P. vulgaris; S. aureus 25±1, S. epidermidis 20±1, P. aeruginosa 20±1, A. hydrophila 21±1, C. albicans 25±1, C. tropicalis 25±1, C. parapsilosis 22±1 and C. glabrata 20±1 mm zone diameter was determined. The most antimicrobial effect of P. vulgaris leaf aqueous extract; S. aureus 20±1, S. epidermidis 18±1, A.hydrophila 15±1, P. aeruginosa 12±2, C. albicans 18±1, C. glabrata 18±1, C.tropicalis15±2, and C. parapsilosis 15±2 mm zone diameter was revealed. The presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, protein, and carbohydrates was found to be higher in silver nanoparticles synthesized in the flower part of P. vulgaris, according to phytochemical screening. While saponins were detected in P. vulgaris root extracts, tannins and protein were detected in the leaf extract. The flower had the highest total phenolic extract content of the silver nanoparticle (29.08±0 mg GAE/g DW), while the leaf and root had the lowest total phenolic content of 9.06±0.5 and 8.64±3.3 mg GAE/g DW, respectively. The flower had the highest total phenolic extract content of the plant aqueous extracts (25.10±0.2 mg GAE/g DW), while the leaf and root had the lowest (8.28±0.5 and 5.20±0.0 mg GAE/g DW, respectively).The DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil) assay was used to assess free radical scavenging activity. The antioxidant activity of AgNPs biosynthesized using P. vulgaris flower extract was 90.6 %, while P. vulgaris flower aqueous extracts were 86.3 %. This can be concluded that silver nanoparticles synthesized using P. vulgaris flower extract are useful in the preparation of pharmacologically useful drugs. Primula vulgaris'ten Sentezlenen Gümüş Nanopartiküllerin Antimikrobiyal ve Antioksidan Potansiyeli ÖZ Bu çalışmada, Primula vulgaris'in (P. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) sulu yaprak, çiçek ve kök ekstreleri kullanılarak gümüş nanopartiküllerin biyosentezi ve in vitro fitokimyasal bileşimi, antibakteriyel ve antioksidan aktiviteleri araştırılmıştır. Sentezlenen gümüş nanoparçacıklar (AgNP'ler), renk dönüşümü ve ultraviyole-görünür (UV-görünür) spektrofotometrisi ile doğrulandı. Koyu kahverengi rengin görünümü ve 440 nm'de bir UV absorpsiyon spektrum aralığı, sentezlenen gümüş nanoparçacıkları doğruladı. P. vulgaris'in yaprak ekstraktından sentezlenen gümüş nanopartiküldeki en fazla antimikrobiyal etki; S. aureus 25±1, S. epidermidis 20±1, P. aeruginosa 21±1, A. hydrophila 21±1, C. albicans 25±1, C. tropicalis 25±1, C. parapsilosis 22±1 ve C.glabrata 20±1 mm zon çapı ile belirlendi.P. vulgaris yaprak sulu ekstraktın en fazla antimikrobiyal etki; S. aureus 20±1, S. epidermidis 18±1, A.hydrophila 15±1, P. aeruginosa 12±2, C. albicans 18±1, C. glabrata 18±1, C.tropicalis15±2 ve C. parapsilosis 15±2 mm zon çapı ortaya konmuştur. Fitokimyasal taramaya göre P. vulgaris'in çiçek kısmında sentezlenen gümüş nanopartiküllerde flavonoidler, terpenoidler, protein ve karbonhidratların varlığı daha yüksek bulunmuştur. P. vulgaris kök ekstraktlarında saponinler tespit edilirken, yaprak ekstraktında tanen ve protein tespit edildi. P. vulgaris MSU Fen Bil. 1014 yaprak ekstraktından sentezlenen gümüş nanopartiküllerin antimikrobiyal aktivitesinin, P. vulgaris yaprak sulu ekstraktının antimikrobiyal aktivitesinden daha aktif olduğu bulundu. Çiçek, gümüş nanopartikülün en yüksek toplam fenolik ekstrakt içeriğine (29.08±0 mg GAE/g DW) sahipken, yaprak ve kök, sırasıyla 9.06±0.5 ve 8.64±3.3 mg GAE/g DW ile en düşük toplam fenolik içeriğe sahipti. Bitki sulu ekstraktları arasında en yüksek toplam fenolik ekstrakt içeriği çiçekte bulunurken (25.10±0.2 mg GAE/g DW), yaprak ve kök en düşük (sırasıyla 8.28±0.5 ve 5.20±0.0 mg GAE/g DW) bulundu. DPPH (1,1-Difenil-2-pikrilhidrazil) tahlili, serbest radikal süpürme aktivitesini değerlendirmek için kullanıldı. P. vulgaris çiçek özütü kullanılarak biyosentezlenen AgNP'lerin antioksidan aktivitesi %90,6 iken, P.vulgaris çiçek sulu özütleri %86.3'tür. Buradan P. vulgaris çiçek ekstresi kullanılarak sentezlenen gümüş nanopartiküllerin farmakolojik olarak faydalı ilaçların hazırlanmasında faydalı olduğu sonucuna varılabilir.
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... Primroses are the earliest blooming plant taxa in very high soil moisture after snow melt in early spring and gradually make conditions favorable for the subsequent late flowering species (Gaur et al. 2003;Jacquemyn et al. 2003). As the pioneer species in the wetland and glacial forelands, Primroses bring microclimatic regulations and habitat stability like reducing soil moisture, controlling erosion, soil binding, accumulation of organic matter, provision of shade and protection from high intensity solar insolation and UV (Aronne et al. 2015;Whale 1983); which allows the late growing plant species to establish themselves and develop functional vegetation communities (Basbulbul et al. 2008). ...
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