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Customer Loyalty to the Salesperson and the Store: Examining Relationship Customers in an Upscale Retail Context

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Abstract

Only recently has research interest in relationship marketing and customer loyalty converged in the retail context. Although this research shows that relationship customers maintain their primary loyalty to the salesperson, which then “spills over” and affects loyalty to the store, other research suggests that salesperson loyalty has direct effects on store-level outcomes, such as spending and word of mouth. However, this has not been comprehensively investigated, and relationship researchers have specifically called for research examining the effects of salesperson and store loyalty on store-level outcomes. Our research addresses this call, and shows that in an upscale retail context a relationship customer's loyalty to the salesperson is significantly related to store loyalty as well as the important store-level outcomes of share of purchases, word of mouth and competitive resistance.

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... In regard to this, the most commonly used measures for operationalization of customer loyalty are repurchase intentions (Cronin & Taylor, 1992;Fornell et al., 1996;Zeithaml et al.,1996;Bloemer et al., 1999); intentions to recommend the company to friends (Bei & Chiao, 2006;Baumann et al., 2007); price indifference, i.e. the willingness of customers to pay more (Fornell et al., 1996;Zeithaml et al., 1996;Bloemer et al., 1999); customer complaints (Bloemer et al., 1999;Zeithaml et al., 1996); word-of-mouth communication (Bloemer et al., 1999), etc. Beyond this, Iacobucci and Ostrom (1996) and Reynolds and Arnold (2000) argued that loyalty built on individual-to-individual relationships is different than loyalty built on individual-to-firm relationships. Macintosh and Lockshin (1997) empirically demonstrated discriminant validity between commitment to salesperson, i.e. loyalty at interpersonal level and loyalty at store (company) level. ...
... Moreover, according to Beatty et al. (1996), given that in retail environment customers prefer personalized services, their primary loyalty is not to the store, but to the retail sales employees. Prior studies suggested that loyalty to the salesperson is positively related to loyalty to the company in the retail context (Reynolds & Arnold, 2000;Wong & Sohal, 2003). Certainly, the interpersonal relationships play an important role in retail contexts and consequently in retail banking contexts. ...
... Additionally, the findings of Al-Hawari et al. (2009) and Ladhari et al. (2011) supported the strong impact of service quality on customer retention in the context of traditional banking. Reynolds and Arnold (2000) empirically proved that loyalty to salesperson is a significant antecedent to loyalty to company and that customer satisfaction influences both loyalty to employee and loyalty to company. Additionally, Macintosh and Lockshin (1997) also suggested that commitment (loyalty) to the salesperson is positively associated with loyalty at company level. ...
Chapter
The present paper analyzes service quality, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty in the retail banking context in North Macedonia, emphasizing the two levels perspective of customer loyalty, i.e. at bank and at employee level. A survey on a sample of 786 respondents was performed and further structural equation modeling was conducted. In the research model service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction were analyzed as crucial antecedents of customer loyalty on both levels (loyalty to bank and loyalty to employees). Additionally, customer satisfaction was analyzed as a mediator in the relationship between service quality dimensions and customer loyalty. The results revealed that loyalty to employee is significantly determined by intangibles, followed by pricing, both mediated by customer satisfaction. Loyalty to bank is directly influenced by tangibles, while only indirectly affected by intangibles and pricing through customer satisfaction. At the same time, customer satisfaction is a significant predictor of both types of loyalty, additionally mediating the relationship between loyalty to employees and loyalty to bank. The present study contributes to the research corpus in this area by providing more comprehensive understanding of customer loyalty and its antecedents. The two levels perspective of customer loyalty adds further to the value of this research.
... These additional articles did not make it to the shortlist of 131 publications, but have been cited in at least two of these publications and more than 50 times overall (according to Google Scholar); hence they merited inclusion in our review. They were: Beatty and Talpade (1994), Haytko and Baker (2004), Kiecker and Hartman (1994), and Reynolds and Arnold (2000). Thus, at the end of the fourth step, we had 135 publications that qualified for inclusion in our review. ...
... Fourth, extant research on commercial friendships (Beatty et al. 1996;Jones et al. 2008;Reynolds and Arnold 2000) has established that customer loyalty to the sales-person is correlated with higher repatronage intent from the store. However, how exactly does customers' friendship with retail salespersons translate into higher repatronage intent? ...
... Here again, researchers might want to examine the relative roles that the different outcomes of friendship, that is, positive affect, selfvalidation, intimacy, and support, have on repatronage intentions. Though Reynolds and Arnold (2000) suggest that loyalty to the salesperson influences competitive resistance (i.e., the tendency of customers not to shop elsewhere if the brand is unavailable or if the price is lower at the particular store), which in turn impacts store loyalty, the friendship outcome constructs have not been specifically looked at here. Such research can have potential managerial implications as well, since retailing companies are likely to benefit. ...
Article
The concept of friendship remains important from societal, academic, and practitioner perspectives. We find that there is a proliferation of research in the marketing discipline on the utilization and applicability of the concept of friendship, but the literature is fragmented. By fragmentation, we refer to the fact that the notion of friendship is tapped in multiple, independent research streams. As a result, there is a lack of an organized and holistic view of friendship-related research in the marketing domain. Drawing on an extensive literature review of 130 papers in more than 30 peer-reviewed scholarly journals across a 37-years time span (1980–2017), this paper synthesizes the extant friendship research in the domain of marketing through a taxonomy, which categorizes the different types of friendship conceptualizations based on two underlying characteristics, or dimensions, the formation of friendship, and consumption timeline. The proposed taxonomy shows the differences as well as the interrelationships between the different publications, giving a systematic view of the research landscape. We suggest future research avenues as well, for further research in the area of marketing-related friendships and highlight why the research is relevant from a real-world perspective.
... Considering that high employee turnover can be detrimental and costly for organizations (Park and Shaw 2013), it is critical to examine how to retain employees when they are presented with competing external job opportunities. Following the conceptualization of customer competitive resistance, which is defined as a customer's intention to disregard competing offers from other providers (Asatryan and Oh 2008;Reynolds and Arnold 2000), this study proposes the term of employee competitive resistance to describe the employee intention to stay with the brand when facing outside competing job offers. This term is distinct from employee retention or employee turnover intention which are often used in previous literature (e.g., Tse et al. 2013) to describe the general employee intention to stay with the organization in the short and long term. ...
... The Cronbach's alpha for this construct was 0.95 in this study. Employee competitive resistance was measured based on the adaption of the customer competitive resistance in Reynolds and Arnold (2000) and Asatryan and Oh (2008). An example item is "I will continue working in my organization even if there are attractive job offers from its competitors." ...
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The hospitality work environment presents many unique challenges for employees and organizations, such as the intertwined and collective work nature, implicit job expectations, and a shrinking labor market. The demand for highly skilled employees who are sufficient to deliver the unique brand values to customers is on the rise for building successful service brands through employees. The need to retain talented employees is further intensified by the “great resignation” movement in the USA along with the COVID-19 pandemic. This study demonstrates the positive role of brand-specific transformational leadership in promoting employees’ highly engaged brand building behavior (investment-of-self) and their resistance to outside competing job offers. More importantly, drawing upon cognitive dissonance theory, this study shows that the impact of brand-specific transformational leadership is mediated by employees’ sense of brand community internally, as well as moderated by perceived brand promise accuracy. These results supported the essential role of achieving employees’ cognitive consonance in brand communication both internally and externally. These results are supported by 203 US hospitality employee responses from multiple data collections purposefully designed with temporal and cognitive distance.
... Since salesperson-owned loyalty belongs to the salesperson, the buyer's degree of allegiance spills over to the firm, allowing the selling firm to reap greater sales benefits from having a committed relationship with the buyer via the salesperson. Studies have found that buyers who are loyal to salespeople will spend more money, pay a greater price and purchase more frequently from the salesperson (Palmatier et al., 2007;Reynolds and Arnold, 2000). The large number of purchases loyal buyers make on behalf of their selling firms is an indication of their commitment and loyalty to the salesperson (Reynolds and Arnold, 2000). ...
... Studies have found that buyers who are loyal to salespeople will spend more money, pay a greater price and purchase more frequently from the salesperson (Palmatier et al., 2007;Reynolds and Arnold, 2000). The large number of purchases loyal buyers make on behalf of their selling firms is an indication of their commitment and loyalty to the salesperson (Reynolds and Arnold, 2000). While past research shows that loyalty to a salesperson signals a desire to stay in a buyer-selling firm relationship, no existing research suggests that the same will hold true when sourcing from multiple salespeople. ...
Article
Purpose Drawing on the organizational buying decision-making framework, the purpose of this study is to investigate how sales orientation (SOCO) affects buyers’ conflict, salesperson-owned loyalty and buyers’ propensity to end a supply relationship when selling firms use a single versus multiple salesforce go-to-market strategy. Design/methodology/approach Survey data was analyzed with a sample of organizational buyers. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data. Findings Findings reveal that a selling firm’s go-to-market salesforce strategy moderates certain relational aspects of the buyer–salesperson relationship, consequently influencing a buyer’s decision to end a supply relationship. Research limitations/implications Empirically, these findings indicate that the effects of selling orientation on conflict, salesperson-owned loyalty and exit intentions are not only based on the salesperson’s efforts but are conditional on the selling firm’s go-to-market strategy, particularly with the implementation of multiple salespeople selling to a particular industrial buyer. Practical implications These results suggest that a salesforce go-to-market strategy conveys serious consequences on buying decisions. Given that a go-to-market strategy involving multiple salespeople impacts the buyer’s relationship with the selling firm to a greater degree, managerial oversight must remain present when selling firms decide to pursue such a go-to-market strategy. Originality/value The empirical investigation of a salesforce go-to-market strategy is an original pursuit. Specifically, this study shows that while it is critical that buying and selling firms monitor buyer–salesperson relationships as the basis for supply partnerships, these exchanges are largely contingent on the selling firm’s go-to-market strategy.
... Moreover, service satisfaction results in repeat purchases and continuous transactions (Kotler & Gertner, 2002). In numerous studies (Dick & Basu, 1994;Reynolds & Arnold, 2000;Carpenter, 2008), customers' satisfaction with services has been confirmed to enhance their loyalty as well as relationship continuity, which indicates continuous relationships and purchases. Even in the marine transportation service, it is expected that the higher the level of customers' service satisfaction is, the higher their relationship continuity is. ...
... The three items for service quality of marine transportation concerned "timeliness," "stability," and "reliability," respectively, which were based on Gronroos (1984) and Hurley and Estelami (1998). Finally, the dependent variables, service satisfaction and relationship continuity, were measured with three items based on Chane et al. (2011) and Kuo et al. (2009) and four based on Reynolds and Arnold (2000), Dick and Basu (1994), and Carpenter (2008). ...
... Customer satisfaction is often used as a predictive measurement of future consumer purchases as hypothesized by Newman and Werbel (1973). Satisfied customers are more likely to resort to repeating purchases in the time of actual instance, as reported by Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman (1996) in their studies, Moreover, highly satisfied customers will convey their success stories of satisfaction and directly recommend that others try the source of satisfaction, as stated in the studies conducted by Reynolds and Arnold (2000). Fitzell (1998) suggested that such satisfied customers shall become less receptive to the competitor's offerings .A quick observation of customer loyalty is demonstrated by repeated purchase as in the studies by Ball, et al. (2004). ...
... Customer satisfaction is often used as a predictive measurement of future consumer purchases as hypothesized by Newman and Werbel (1973). Satisfied customers are more likely to resort to repeating purchases in the time of actual instance, as reported by Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman (1996) in their studies, Moreover, highly satisfied customers will convey their success stories of satisfaction and directly recommend that others try the source of satisfaction, as stated in the studies conducted by Reynolds and Arnold (2000). Fitzell (1998) suggested that such satisfied customers shall become less receptive to the competitor's offerings .A quick observation of customer loyalty is demonstrated by repeated purchase as in the studies by Ball, et al. (2004). ...
... The concept of customer loyalty is generally derived from value creation, and it yields significant sales, profits, and shareholder value (Duffy, 2003). Moreover, customer loyalty has gained academic and practical interest (Bapat & Thanigan, 2016;Reynolds & Arnold, 2000). Prominent firms such as Amazon, Netflix and Apple are keen on creating customer loyalty and have been ranked in the top three places according to a loyalty report published on 1121 brands across 109 categories. ...
... Indeed, customer coproduction of services has been shown to have a positive influence on both customer well-being and customer loyalty (Mende et al. 2017), and can serve to jointly impact the well-being of the customer and salesperson. We stress that such behaviors may improve long-term relationships and increase the likelihood of referrals, thus resulting in superior financial performance for the salesperson and the firm (e.g., Reynolds and Arnold 2000;Zeithaml, Berry, and Parasuraman 1996). ...
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Although the topic of well-being has become an increasingly prominent topic of discussion amongst scholars and practitioners alike, it has heretofore been given scant attention in the academic sales discipline. The current research attempts to correct this notable omission by developing a vision of salesforce well-being as it pertains to the people, processes, and performance metrics associated with the sales function. We posit that the concept of well-being is of enduring importance to the many stakeholders impacted by professional sales organizations. We conclude our research by offering a series of research questions for interested scholars who, in lending insight into these questions, will advance both academic theory and provide needed insights to sales organizations who must increasingly attend to the well-being of their employees, customers, suppliers, and communities.
... Additionally, the present studies all focused on one-time interactions between a consumer and an employee rather than analyzing ongoing relationships. Previous research has demonstrated that consumers can form loyalty relationships with specific employees in consumer settings (Reynolds and Arnold, 2000), and responses to IER attempts may vary based on the previous relationship between a customer and an employee. This possibility presents an interesting avenue for future research. ...
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This research demonstrates that interpersonal emotion regulation—attempts to manage others’ feelings—influences consumer perceptions during sales and service interactions impacting brand trust and loyalty. Building on previous research linking interpersonal emotion regulation to improved outcomes between people, across five experiments, we demonstrate that antecedent-focused interpersonal emotion regulation strategies result in enhanced brand loyalty and brand trust compared to response-focused interpersonal emotion regulation strategies. Analysis of mediation models reveals this effect is explained by changes in the consumer’s emotions, which in turn influence evaluations of the service interaction and subsequently impacts brand outcomes. We identify reactance as a moderator of this effect, such that customers with low (high) reactance to interpersonal regulation attempts exhibit more (less) favorable brand trust and loyalty evaluations. Further, we demonstrate that the visibility of interpersonal emotion regulation represents an important boundary condition. These findings support the process model of interpersonal emotion regulation and generate important insights for both theory and practice.
... A happy customer is more likely to buy again in the future (Zeithaml et al., 1996). Highly satisfied customers are more likely to recommend their favorite green product to others (Reynolds & Arnold, 2000). ...
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Eco-friendly refers to goods and materials that are not detrimental to the environment. This product promotes green living and green manufacturing practices that use less or different types of resources. The paper examines the influence of factors like social media, reference groups, promotional activities, and government initiatives that influence consumers buying intention towards eco-friendly products during coronavirus outbreaks in Bangladesh's eco-friendly product condition. The primary goal of this study is to study the elements that influence consumers' buying intentions for eco-friendly products during the coronavirus pandemic from the perspective of Bangladesh. The information was gathered from 205 respondents via a structured questionnaire with five-point Likert scales and multiple items. The approach of purposive sampling is applied. Frequency, mean, standard deviation, and regression analysis are used to examine the data. According to the regression analysis, the research identifies that factors social media, reference groups, promotional activities, and government initiatives significantly influence consumers' green products purchase decisions. This paper may be contributed to this green buying intention and buying decision issues. Companies can be profited by knowing the influential factors of consumers' eco-friendly products buying intention. This paper creates consciousness among environmental consumers, investigators, academicians, officials, government, and greening working companies. Hence, there is an obligatory need to recognize the persuasive aspects of consumers' eco-friendly products buying intention in order to rush into the eco-friendly products buying among all consumers to save this world for afterward generations.
... Purchase decision is an important predictor of green product purchases, as it indicates that the goal of the purchase influences the likelihood of a consumer's decision to buy green products (Beckford et al., 2010;Chan, 2001. Highly satisfied customers are more likely to recommend their favorite green product to others (Reynolds & Arnold, 2000). ...
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Green products are described as being environmentally friendly, non-toxic, and made from biological materials and components that have a positive impact on societal well-being (Schlegemich et al., 1996). The paper examines the impact of factors (environmental concern, environmental awareness, product awareness, product price), that influence consumer purchase intention during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh's ecological goods condition. The primary goal of this study is to study the elements that influence consumer purchase intention during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh's ecological goods condition. The information was gathered from 205 respondents via a structured questionnaire with five-point Likert scales and multiple items. The approach of convenience and judgmental sampling are applied. Frequency, mean, standard deviation, and regression analysis are used to examine the data. According to the regression analysis, the research identifies that factors environmental concern, environmental awareness, product awareness, product price significantly influence consumer purchase intention during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh's ecological goods condition. This paper may be contributed to this green purchase intention issue. Companies can be profited by knowing the influential factors of consumers' green products purchase decisions. This paper creates consciousness among green consumers, researchers, academicians, politicians, government, and greening practicing firms. Therefore, there is an indispensable need to identify the influential factors of consumers' green products purchase decisions in order to rush into the green purchasing decision among all consumers to save this world for the next generations.
... Unlike transactional marketing, which focuses on single transactions with customers, relationship marketing focus on building and sustaining long-term relationships with customers (Das, 2009;Egan, 2004;Payne, 2000). In the marketplace the concept of relationship has attracted much attention, and this concept has met with enthusiastic support from both academicians and practitioners (Reynolds & Arnold, 2000). ...
Thesis
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Introduction Relationship marketing and e-Commerce are the modern phenomenon of doing business. Relationship marketing has focused on the importance of loyalty and retention with the inclusion of customer lifetime values as a key metric. The emergence of Relationship Marketing (RM) as a modern philosophy and its subsequent evolution as a marketing function into CRM has shifted the spotlight from traditional transactional approach to a market orientated business climate focusing on long-term relationships with customers, competitors, and other important influence markets. With this perspective, many organizations are faced with new challenges since the conduct of business is on the Internet. E-commerce is growing at an incredible pace and so is the need of relationship marketing into it. The accessibility of the internet makes electronic commerce a realistic possibility for every business. As the amount of business transacted over the web grows, the value of goods, services, and information exchanged over the internet seems to double or triple each year. E-commerce allows a firm to reach a large number of customers, anywhere around the globe. The rapid growth of the travel industry requires sophisticated information technologies (ITs) for managing the increasing volume and quality of tourism traffic. Prior studies have indicated that modern travelers demand more high quality travel services, products, information, and value for their money. Tourism researchers have emphasized the importance of the Internet on travel and tourism. As a result, the travel industry has witnessed a gradual shift from traditional travel agencies to recent Online Travel Agencies (OTA). An OTA is more like an online booking resource/ website that can provide full service solution to make travel arrangements. With the advent of the internet, the growth of e-Commerce and trend towards online services in travel and tourism, the traditional way of meeting each traveler‟s needs becomes unsustainable. The key indicator of performance of an organization i.e. relationship quality and customer loyalty, cannot be ignored. As global competition increases and product differentiation becomes increasingly difficult, Online Travel Agencies (OTA) have begun moving from a product centric to customer-centricstrategy. The interactivity of Internet technology brings with it a range of opportunities and challenges for the marketer aiming to build customer relationships. It is argued that in the Internet market the competitive environment is close to pure competition, and that the seller has no market power. Therefore, more than ever, the customer is the natural focus of attention in a business process that aims at surviving in long run. However, this can be achieved by improving relationship quality and maintain customer loyalty. Significance of the Study The proposed study aims at contributing to both theory as well as practice. In theory, it will try to contribute to the body of knowledge by providing an insight of the three key construct i.e. relationship marketing, relationship quality and e-loyalty and association among them through customer perspective. In practice, it is likely to provide insight in relevant managerial implications that should help the online travel agencies to sustain in market. It will give valuable information for building long term relationship with their customers. The proposed study will suggest the way to the Online Travel Agencies (OTAs) to build long term relationship with customers in virtual environment. It will focus on the relationship among relational bonds, relationship quality and e-loyalty, while determining which bonding strategies leads to higher relationship quality and in turn stronger customer loyalty. Scope and Focus of the Study This study is concentrated towards relationship marketing impact in Online Travel Agencies. Sample for the study was drawn from Delhi & NCR (National Capital Region). This area was selected due to the fact that Delhi is categorized as Tier I/ Metro city having around 8.1 million Internet users in 2013, ranked second among the cities across India with highest number of internet users (The Financial Express Online, 2013) and also 67% of its population prefers online shopping (ASSOCHAM Report, 2014). Thus, it is deemed that the information obtained from this region could provide satisfactory information about the impact of relationship marketing in OTA sector. This study is customer-oriented, with special attention directed towards the registered or unregistered regular customers who had availed the services of Online Travel Agencies for making their travel arrangements. Overview of Online Travel Agencies (OTAs) Indian online travel market is growing at a steady rate due to increase in awareness coupled with confidence among the customers to make online transactions. The Indian customer is aware about online travel portals and is ready to pay for the convenience and better service. Today, the online travel industry is the driving force in the e-commerce segment and its importance is likely to increase in the future. Various offers and deals from the OTAs have made the market very lucrative for the customers, thus driving competition. To sum up, OTAs provide various travel options in one spot and also exposed the travelers to the options that they may not have thought of before. Hence, it broadens their horizon of what type of travel arrangements are available to them and enables them make a right decision. Another pro for using an online travel agent website is the wide variety of products that they offer. Not only can a customer browse airfare, car rental, and hotel options, travel insurance, airport shuttles, and tour tickets are also available for purchase. This is very helpful to an online travel planner, as they can cover most of their travel planning needs in one visit to a website. Theoretical Consideration Relationship Marketing Relationship marketing is quite a new concept that is emerging within the marketing literature over the past decade. Essentially developed from theories of services marketing and the network approach to industrial marketing, relationship marketing has been argued to cause a fundamental directional change in mainstream marketing. Relationship marketing focuses upon the establishment, development, and maintenance of long-term exchanges. Past studies have revealed that customers in many service industries are realizing the benefits of entering into relationships. Some have also indicated that the nurturing of market relationships has emerged as a top priority for most firms because loyal customers are far more profitable than the switcher who sees little difference among the alternatives. Central to the stability of buyer-seller relationships is the psychological attachment produced by relational bonds Relational Bonds as antecedents of Relationship Marketing Relational bonds as psychological, emotional, economic, or physical attachments in a relationship arising from association and interaction that bind parties together in a relational exchange. Researchers theorize that diverse relationship marketing strategies may formulate different types of relational bonds. These are divided into three levels: financial, social, and structural bonding tactics.. Considering the previous studies, this study also proposed to adopts financial, social, structural bonds as antecedents of relational bond to model relationship marketing strategies. Major Findings Major findings of the study, as an outcome of data analysis, interpretation and subsequent discussion on the same, are listed below:-  There exist a significant positive association among Relationship Marketing Relational Bonds (financial, social and structural), Online Relationship Quality (satisfaction, trust and commitment) and Customer e-Loyalty. All dimensions of Relational Bond are having significant positive impact on Relationship Quality. Among all dimensions of relational bonds, Structural Bond is having more impact on Relationship Quality. All dimensions of Relationship Quality are having significant positive impact on Customer e-Loyalty and among all dimensions; Customer Commitment is having more impact on customer e-Loyalty.  Relationship Quality is having mediating role between Relational Bonds and Customer e-Loyalty. The greater the Relationship Quality between e-tailers and customers, the higher is the e-Loyalty. Relationship quality is found important in predicting loyal customers.  There exist an association among Relationship Quality, e-Loyalty and Word of Mouth. Relationship Quality and E-Loyalty is having influence in spreading positive word of mouth. Between the Relationship Quality and e-Loyalty, Relationship Quality is having a greater impact on Word Of Mouth in spreading positive words.  Demographic variables were found partially significant to Relational Bond, Relationship Quality and e-Loyalty. When aligned with previous studies, it is inferred that demographic variables may influence Relational Bonds, Relationship Quality and e-Loyalty differently in different market and environment.  The usage pattern of OTAs by customers also has a partial significant difference to Relational Bond, Relationship Quality and e-Loyalty. There is a significant difference found in relational bond with respect to the preferred OTA products by customers. Also, in the frequencies of purchases there found significant difference on Relational Bond and Relationship Quality.  Proposed Relationship Marketing Model aimed at exploring how online travel agencies‟ relationship marketing influences the quality of online customer‟s relationship, and in turn their loyalty was also found confirming the association of Relational Bonds, Relationship Quality and e-Loyalty and acceptable model fit was established in structural model. Discussion Association Relational Bond, Relationship Quality & e-Loyalty There exist a significant positive association among Relationship Marketing Relational Bonds (financial, social and structural), Online Relationship Quality (satisfaction, trust and commitment) and Customer e-Loyalty. It leads to achievement of first objective of the study about investigating the association among relationship marketing relational bonds, online relationship quality and customer e-loyalty. Mediation role of Relationship Quality Result of data analysis and interpretation revealed that relationship quality is having mediating role between relational bonds and customer e-loyalty. It leads to the fulfillment of second objective of the study about exploring the mediating role of relationship quality between relational bonds and e-loyalty. Acceptance of hypothesis in this pursuit supported the attainment of the research objective. Influence of Relationship quality and e-Loyalty on Word of Mouth Relationship Quality and e-Loyalty have an influence on Word of Mouth. Hypotheses established to test the association of relationship quality and e-Loyalty on word of mouth were accepted and leads to the fulfillment of third objective of identifying the influence of relationship quality and e-loyalty in spreading positive „Word of Mouth‟. Hence, it can be concluded that there exist an association among relationship quality, e-loyalty and word of mouth. Relationship quality and e-loyalty also influence word of mouth and relationship quality is having a greater impact on word of mouth in spreading positive words. Influence of Demographic Variables Results revealed that there lies a significant difference in some of the established hypotheses. It means demographic variables are partially significant to relational bond, relationship quality and e-loyalty. The result of the study provides a conclusive confirmation of influence of demographic factors in attaining loyalty though relationship marketing and relationship quality. Discussion on the influence of OTA’s Usages Pattern There is a significant difference found in few of the established hypotheses with respect to OTA usage pattern. It means the usage pattern of OTA also has a partial significant difference to Relational Bond, Relationship Quality and e-Loyalty. There is a significant difference found in relational bond with respect to the preferred OTA products by customers. Also, in the frequencies of purchases there found significant difference on Relational Bond and Relationship Quality. Online Relationship Marketing Model Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to test the propose model with Amos 21. This was having two sections - measurement model and structural model. In every structural model the results of indices confirmed the relationship and acceptable model fit is established. The acceptable model fit indices bridge the research gaps by providing an extended online relationship marketing model for exploring how online travel agencies‟ relationship marketing influence the quality of online customer‟s relationship, and in turn their loyalty. The emerged model confirmed the association of Relational Bonds, Relationship Quality and e-Loyalty. It also depicted the association and influence of Relationship Quality and e-Loyalty on Word of Mouth. Contribution to the Body of Literature This study has made a theoretical and practical contribution to the existing literature. It has traced out the path from financial bond, social bond and structural bond to relationship quality in terms of customer satisfaction, customer trust and customer commitment. It also traced out the path from customer satisfaction, trust and commitment to customer e-loyalty and in-turn spreading positivity through word of mouth. This study also reveals the importance of relational bond on relationship quality, customer e-loyalty and spreading through word of mouth. This is adding more understandings about association of one variable with other. The relationship with respect to customer OTA usage pattern will help researchers and practitioners to focus on designing services and offers to cater customer base for long term competitive advantages of service provider. The use of categories to demographic factors with respect to study variables in OTA will have edge in identifying individual likes and dislikes in respect to OTA in India. It will contribute to literature for better understanding about OTA users. Finally, the results of the study can guide theorists and practitioners in conceptualizing and developing policies and practices, which not only improve the overall organizational systems, but also develop marketing strategies and practices that can harness customer potential. Recommendations of the Study The recommendations drawn from the findings of this study have been incorporated in the form of managerial implications and implication for the OTA Industry. Managerial Implications Managers are recommended to offer variety of discounts, better deals, coupons and presents for first purchase then additional rebates, discounts and cumulative points programs on additional purchase for better financial bond with customers. Managers are advised to serve themselves as virtual friend to the customer by sending greetings or gifts on special occasion, paying attention to individual needs and problems, due consideration on opinions, providing personalized information to regular customers, and special treatment for being member of OTA. This will improve social bond of customer towards service provider. It is suggested that managers must provide accurate travel information as well as full knowledge about the services, more convenient and user friendly web interface and online booking system, secure and different payment options, confirmation and prompt after sale services, immediate responses and explanations for complain and problem; and integrating product or service with allied services. This will enhance structural bond of customer. Managers are recommended to facilitate online booking and services, deliveries and returns, after sale services, online transactions and performance of website, meeting with expectations and needs; and orientation in maintaining long term relationship to satisfy customers to maximum extent. This will lead to better satisfaction to customers. Managers are guided to have trustworthy and honest relationship with customers, must fulfill promises, provide security on online purchase, serve reliable travel information, and maintain high integrity by not gaining money illegally. This will help in getting and wining trust of customers with service provider. Managers must pay proper attention so that customer‟s continuously purchase from their website in the near future, not change their service provider willingly, must be devoted to the service, and take proper care and extra efforts for maintaining association. This will help organization to get committed customers. Managers are recommended to work on improvement of relational quality and in-turn e-Loyalty so that customer continues purchase even if better service is available on same cost. Loyal customer will spread the positivity through word of mouth which is still a one of the most effective way to get new set of customers. Macro Implications: Implications for OTA Industry For survival in a competitive business environment, the relational bonds (financial, social and structural bond) are essential marketing strategy for success and getting right perception of customer‟s towards product of the Online Travel Agencies. OTAs can introduce strategies and practices in order to serve in a structured and effective way for providing better customer satisfaction, getting customer trust and commitment with services. These OTAs are recommended to keep the balance between all the dimensions of relational bonds and relationship qualities. These dimensions are equally important in both service marketing and online marketing as each one is having significant role attaining customer loyalty and spreading positivity through word of mouth. Industry should focus on relationship marketing because attributes of relationship marketing lead to better relationship quality and e-loyalty. Therefore, relationship marketing strategies should be carefully implemented through relation bonds to improve upon the relationship quality in order to achieve and attain online customer loyalty. Also, the policy makers in this concerned should also incorporate OTAs in their planning process and public policies. OTAs are a growing market and policy maker should also align them in their future planning while devising public policies for travel industry. Doing so will help in achieving public policy priorities, which means not only a stronger online travel industry but safe, affordable and enjoyable travel experiences to the customers of OTAs. Limitations Though, there are number of precautions taken by the researcher to increase the reliability of the study. Yet, there are some limitations which may be given some due considerations. As in the case with most empirical research, the present survey research has some limitations associated with the identification of latent constructs, the operationalization of those constructs and the collection of survey data for testing those operationalized constructs. Customer satisfaction, trust, commitment and e-loyalty are broad area of study and could include several variables and indicators. There could be some other dimensions as well which may out of the preview of the present study. The factors identified provide only a glimpse of the factors which could be affecting customer satisfaction and customer e-loyalty. There is a strong possibility of many exogenous variables which might be affecting the customer loyalty. The alternate models were not tested as it was not proposed in the study. Also, the hypothesized model needs to incorporate more variables at the individual-level in the model. Future Scope of Study Keeping in mind the broad objectives, the results obtained and the limitations of the study, some possible opportunities have been listed below for future research scope:- 1. A combined quantitative and qualitative study might provide further insight to the understanding of the relationships among various variables. 2. Future research could be extended to other online service users provided for many other sectors in order to have greater generalizability. 3. More independent variables can be included in the same model to study their impact on outcome variable. 4. The study can also be done in different demographic locations or culture to have a wider analysis and to make a comparison among the different locations and cultures. 5. Role of mobile phone applications can also be considered as a study variable in future to have more understanding about the association of relational bond, relationship quality and e-Loyalty.
... The prospective consumer purchases can be forecasted by their satisfaction (Oliver, 1999). The satisfied customers are usually involved in repetitive buying (Zeithaml et al., 1996), suggesting the product/service to the people (Reynolds and Arnold, 2000;Reynolds & Beatty, 1999) and are not likely to be attracted to product/service of other companies (Fitzell, 1998). As the customer satisfaction directly affects revenues, companies have to increase their focus on being green and environment friendly; they have stakeholders' pressures as well (Bansal, 2005;Barnet, 2007). ...
Article
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The purpose of this research is to focus on this untapped area. In this research, the unique and different factors have been presented that includes the external elements of green marketing mix and green customer satisfaction. The framework examines the influence on green customers' satisfaction by seven external green marketing mix elements (green people, green providers, green pressure groups, green politicians, green problems, green predictions, green partners) in Jordan. The survey was conducted through a questionnaire on customers of green or environmental products or services who were the focus of this research. To measure the variables, 5-point Likert scale was chosen and for the analysis of casual relationships between factors, Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique was used. According to the empirical findings, the seven external green marketing mix factors under study had positive relationships with green customer satisfaction. The second finding was that the green customer satisfaction was influenced the most by green pressure groups followed by the third finding which identified green problems as the second highest influencer. In addition, the green customer satisfaction was least affected by green predictions. The findings are coherent with other available literature on green marketing.
... al. 2001). Training should center on in developing skills in building customer relationships and determining customer needs so that the relationship may be customized to the individual customer's preferences /segments (Reynolds and Arnold 2000). These actions will fetch results in the long run but it will be a cost effective measure in retaining the customers and informing the consumers. ...
Article
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Brand loyalty is one of the key assets for any firm’s success. Neither the marketers’ actions nor the customers’ determination develop loyalty; instead, considered as a reciprocal relationship, a dynamic space shared by the brand and the consumer. Understanding the relationship between complaining behaviour and brand loyalty of the consumers, in rural-urban context of the Indian subcontinent would give a better understanding about the consumers and exploring the rural-urban differences, if any. The current research work addresses the complaining behaviour of rural-urban consumers and brand loyalty. Findings support that rural and urban consumers showed higher intentions to complain to storekeepers than firm level and the complaining intensity of the consumers improved the brand usage for a longer periods.
... Algunos factores que se han estudiado y que influyen para una comunicación positiva de boca a boca son la eficiencia del personal y la satisfacción del precio (Lymperopoulos y Chaniotakis, 2008). Las tiendas están manejando una relación vendedor-cliente para establecer lazos de lealtad con la tienda teniendo efectos significativos en este tipo de comunicación (Reynolds y Arnold, 2000). Es importante en la percepción de los clientes que se sientan escuchados por los vendedores para establecer de manera positiva la confianza, satisfacción, comunicación positiva, intenciones de compra, etc. (Bergeron y Laroche, 2009), de hecho los vendedores deben de asignar un mayor empeño en establecer estrategias en la comunicación de boca a boca (Shields, 2006). ...
Article
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Conocer la percepción del cliente a través de la imagen de la empresa es importante para mantener una imagen positiva en la mente del consumidor y una ventaja competitiva para permanecer en el mercado. La imagen de la tienda crea una satisfacción lo que conduce a una recomendación positiva de boca a boca, siendo esta importante para retener clientes y atraer nuevos. La revisión de la literatura en estos temas de investigación es significativa, dado que el ser humano es cambiante en su forma de pensar; por lo tanto es importante que las tiendas tengan un monitoreo constante para mantenerse en el gusto del cliente. El objetivo del estudio se encamina a identificar los elementos que intervienen en la imagen de la tienda en la satisfacción del cliente a través de la comunicación de boca a boca. La metodología utilizada es la revisión de la literatura a través de bases de datos con contenido de estudios empíricos. Los resultados determinan que la imagen de la tienda lleva a una satisfacción del cliente a través de una comunicación de boca a boca, así mismo se encontró los elementos que intervienen en cada una de las categorías formando los constructos para investigaciones cuantitativas.
... Complexity may arise from an extensive assortment of options with numerous attributes making it difficult to decide (Botti and Iyengar 2006) leaving choosers anxious regarding the consequences of a poor choice (Song and Schwarz 2009), fearing regret (Schwartz 2000), less satisfied (Botti and Iyengar 2004), and less confident in their decision (Haynes 2009). In a retail context, consumers can avail themselves of the services of a sales associate to provide advice and assistance (Beatty et al. 1996) thereby increasing their satisfaction and loyalty (Reynolds and Arnold 2000). ...
Thesis
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An under-explored dimension of consumer decision-making is the motivation for seeking professional advice. While extant research in marketing describes some antecedents to seeking advice (e.g. complexity, risk), it is not known how these factors combine to influence consumer intentions to seek advice. Given the general consumer reluctance to obtain professional advice, the current research examines the factors that influence the motivations to seek advice. Professional financial advice is selected as the empirical context to investigate this issue. The first of two studies involved exploratory qualitative research and revealed the factors affecting the motivation to seek advice. It was observed that this decision is an instance of approach-avoidance conflict. Also, ambivalence was often apparent in simultaneously strong and opposing attitudes towards advice. Based on this, an approach-avoidance-ambivalence (AAA) model of advice seeking was developed. The second study tested this AAA model using a survey among consumers who were active financial investors. Overall, it was found that a distinct set of factors drove the approach (positive) versus avoidance (negative) attitudes towards professional advice, and the effect of these attitudes on intentions to seek advice was moderated by perceived ambivalence. Specifically, the effects of both approach and avoidance attitudes on intentions were attenuated for consumers who were ambivalent towards professional advice. The AAA model can be extended to examine advice-seeking motivations in other consumer domains (e.g., legal, medical, etc.). Insights will also be valuable for marketing strategies (e.g. focus directly on reducing ambivalence rather than merely increasing approach or reducing avoidance factors). This would in-turn improve the quality of consumer decisions in complex, risky, and consequential contexts.
... The second is the benefit of customer-salesperson relationship, which is crucial for customers to perceive this shopping experience as a pleasant one (Zhang et al., 2013). Moreover, positive customer service experience provided by a salesperson may spill-over to the e-commerce platform resulting in e-loyalty and positive word of mouth (Reynolds and Arnold, 2000). ...
... A happy consumer is a lot of possible to advocate the well-liked product to others (Reynolds and Arnold, 2000) [16] . A consumer's satisfaction towards the actual product can influence the longer term purchase choices of customers and type customer loyalty however conjointly unfolds a positive word of mouth regarding the merchandise. ...
Article
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There has been a zoom within the economy with a rise in utilization across the globe. This overutilization has resulted in the deterioration of the atmosphere. the implications of this environmental degradation have resulted in pollution, global warming, etc that has become a reason behind public concern that green ends up in the inexperienced movement for the preservation of the environment. The aim of this research paper was to grasp the variables poignant the patron shopping for behavior of the green products. The primary data was collected online from the final 92 participant using questionnaire by the means of Google Forms. Data analysis was done by means of SPSS 22. The study was unconcealed that demographic factors don't influence the buying behavior of Eco-friendly products. A consumer's buying behavior depends on the consumer's level of satisfaction towards the merchandise. Consumer Buying behavior and satisfaction are largely influenced by the attributes of Eco-friendly products.
... Goodwin and McElwee (1999) points out that staff attitude forms an important part of atmospherics and cannot be ignored. Good staff-customer relationships mean increased loyalty, resistance to switching and higher conversion (Reynolds & Arnold, 2000). Similarly, music played in a store contributes to store atmospherics. ...
Chapter
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Intense competition and price wars in the retail sector provide the impetus to examine consumer behavior in the retail industry. It has become increasingly important to scrutinize what drives consumer choice of retail stores. This chapter addresses this need and aims to establish the factors that drive consumer retail choice behavior. The empirical setting for the study was five organized Indian retail stores: Easy Day, Big Bazaar, More, Reliance Fresh, and Freshmart. Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire (n=700) in a store-intercept survey. Data were analyzed using multivariate data analysis techniques. A model identifying the variables that predicts retail store choice probabilities was developed and tested. Results establish that atmospherics, merchandise assortment, and customer satisfaction have a significant positive impact on retail store choice. On the other hand, price has a significant negative impact on retail store choice. Implications are discussed.
... It is common practice that venders/retailers depend upon their methods of profitable business, salespersons only have access to the customers and they try to convince the customers upon their requirement and need satisfaction towards particular products through conversation and making them understood about various products (Mohan et al., 2013). During purchase, bargaining is a very common practice of customers and salesperson play very important role (Reynolds & Arnold, 2000), because they were advising and providing details to the customers and encourage their decision making process faster than their particular choices about various products (Yu & Bastin, 2010). ...
Article
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The issues related to impulse buying have remained a major concern for marketing researchers as well as practitioners. This study aims to examine the factors influencing an individual's impulsive buying behavior. The study also aims to examine the association between independent variables which are the environment of store and individual factors influence with impulse purchasing and to investigate the mediating role of mood. To examine the relationship between the variables under investigation; responses of 279 respondents were used for analysis. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Regression and correlation analysis were conducted by using SPSS 17. The results show that the Store environment influences an individual's impulse purchase behavior similarly, further analysis of the data indicates that reference group influence is the aspect that influences the impulse buying behavior of individuals, and mood play's role of a partial mediator. Time pressure does not affect the impulse buying behavior of individuals. It was also found the difference between men and women impulse purchases and respondents were found of impulse purchases for food items. The study explored that mostly the food items are being purchased impulsively by the respondents, the results of the research show that 46.4 % of the total sample have purchased food items impulsively. The second product type which is being purchased impulsively is accessories like Tie, Belt, and artificial jewelry. Results show that 43.1% of respondents have purchased accessories impulsively. This study suggests some recommendations for the manager of stores for further improvement of store atmosphere to boost impulse buying behavior among buyers
... RL has been proven to be a necessity in attaining customer satisfaction and has been labelled a 'key determinant of consumer loyalty' (Lysenko-Ryba & Zimon, 2021, p. 448). Satisfied customers have a higher chance of making repeat purchases, advocating to others to do the same and making them indifferent to competitive offerings (Reynolds & Arnold, 2000;Zeithaml, Berry, & Parasuraman, 1996). ...
Article
As the supply chain environment is increasingly becoming uncertain and globally competitive, reverse logistics (RL) practices, which constitute a substantial component of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM), have been widely recognized as crucial in achieving sustainable competitive advantage. While past studies have proven the positive relationship between properly implemented RL and firm's environmental efficiency and overall competitiveness, developing, maintaining, and integrating RL into the organization's supply chain operations come at a cost and institutional commitment. This study seeks to provide evidence on how RL and organizational culture (OC) provide benefits specifically to the operational performance (OP) of an organization. The study addresses this, first, by an empirical examination of the direct effects of RL practices on firm OP and, then, by further examining whether RL practices' influence on OP is strengthened by OC. The study uses dataset gathered from 213 firms across the service and manufacturing sectors in the Ghanaian economy using a structured questionnaire. The study adopts confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in addition to partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS‐SEM) in analysing the study's measurement model and in estimating the resultant structural model. The study concludes that implementing RL practices positively influences the OP of the firm, while OC strengthens such influence. This study expands the RL literature by obtaining the results for the conceptual model and dealing with the implication from a developing economy's perspective, hence supplementing the growing body of knowledge.
... Example, customer repurchases the product and service in future when they are satisfied with it (Zeithml et al., 1996) [51]. On the other hand, Reynolds and Arnold, (2000) [52], defined satisfaction as when a customer recommends the products and services to others also known as word-of-mouth. Meanwhile, McCarthy & Perrault, (2002) [53], added that customer feels satisfied when they receive products and services according to their expectations and worth the cost. ...
Article
Day to day Muslims and non-Muslims customers are seeking for clean products and services which follows Islamic Shariah compliance principles. The purpose of this study is to identify the influencing factors of green marketing, Shariah compliance, customer’s environmental awareness and customer’s satisfaction towards Muslim purchasing behaviour at Kedah, Malaysia. A random sampling technique used to collect the respondents in Kedah, Malaysia also with quantitative approach through structured questionnaires developed from previous research. A total of 403 online survey questionnaires were distributed through Whatsapp application and Facebook pages. Data analysis were done with SPSS 25.0. Methodologies such as Pearson Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis were used to analyse data collected. Findings revealed that consumer purchasing behaviour has a positive and significant relationship with green marketing, Shariah compliance, customer’s awareness and customer’s satisfaction. Finally, this study is concluded with discussion, limitations of the study and some suggestions for future researches
... Customer satisfaction is defined as a customer's overall evaluation of the performance of an offering to date [26]. Satisfied customers have a higher probability of repeating their purchases over time [27], and, moreover, sharing this source of satisfaction with others [28], and becoming less sensitive to the competitor's offerings [29]. Customer satisfaction is one of the most important reasons for consumer retention and loyalty. ...
Article
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This paper takes a closer look at customer experience during product return and the customer’s ability to share information about it. The research process included the development of research tools such as questionnaires. Anonymous surveys were conducted by computer assisted web interview among individual customers from Poland on a sample 327 respondents. Non-stratified random sampling was used, as we considered it to be the most effective in terms of the effort-benefit ratio of the survey. A contingency table was constructed from the responses, the observed values and expected values were compared, and the Pearson Chi-square and the p-value of Fisher’s exact test were calculated. The research process carried out as well as the analysis of the obtained results allowed us to respond to the research questions. As a result, it can be stated that the clients, both satisfied (80.1%) and dissatisfied (84,4%), tended to share their opinion about return experience with other potential clients. Moreover, 42.2% of the respondents declared that they would not buy again from a seller after an unsuccessful return operation. The presented conclusions enrich the theoretical understanding of customer behavior and their purchase intention. It also offers retailers a quantitative benchmark and new perspective on the design of return policy in order to improve customer satisfaction.
... Satisfaction is often used as a predictor of future consumer purchases (Kasper, 1988;Oliver, 1999). Satisfied customers show an increasing amount repurchase intention (Zeithaml et al., 1996), tendency to make recommendations (Reynolds and Arnold, 2000) and pay more (Fitzell, 1998) over time. Previous studies have determined that the image has a significant effect on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Abdullah et al., 2000;Chang and Tu, 2005;Martenson, 2007). ...
Article
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The research was carried out to determine the effect of attitude towards green behavior on green image, green customer satisfaction and green customer loyalty. The universe of the study consists of customers who have visited green hotels in Turkey. In order to test the hypotheses, Smart PLS 3 (Partial Least Squares) statistics program was used in the research. Bootstrapping technique was used to test the hypotheses that were aimed to be measured in the research. According to the results of the analysis, the attitude towards green behavior is on the green image; the green image has also been found to have a positive effect on green customer satisfaction and green customer loyalty. In addition, as a result of the analysis, it was determined that green customer satisfaction positively affected green customer loyalty.
... Satisfaction is often used as a predictor of future consumer purchases (Kasper, 1988;Oliver, 1999). Satisfied customers show an increasing amount repurchase intention (Zeithaml et al., 1996), tendency to make recommendations (Reynolds and Arnold, 2000) and pay more (Fitzell, 1998) over time. Previous studies have determined that the image has a significant effect on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Abdullah et al., 2000;Chang and Tu, 2005;Martenson, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
The research was carried out to determine the effect of attitude towards green behavior on green image, green customer satisfaction and green customer loyalty. The universe of the study consists of customers who have visited green hotels in Turkey. In order to test the hypotheses, Smart PLS 3 (Partial Least Squares) statistics program was used in the research. Bootstrapping technique was used to test the hypotheses that were aimed to be measured in the research. According to the results of the analysis, the attitude towards green behavior is on the green image; the green image has also been found to have a positive effect on green customer satisfaction and green customer loyalty. In addition, as a result of the analysis, it was determined that green customer satisfaction positively affected green customer loyalty.
... Therefore, in order to achieve aims and purposes of marketing, it is essential for each business to generate, retain, and expand the sense of loyalty among customers toward their products (Dick & Basu, 1994). Besides, the studies carried out by Reynolds and Arnold (2000) have suggested that companies that focus on identifying customer brand loyalty possess the probability of generating profit increase, as well as the maintenance of durable relationship with consumers, reduction in cost of marketing, and increment in competitive advantage. Hence, it has been widely accepted that it is indeed essential for organizations to undertake the process of progress and improvement for loyalty of customers toward brand in the present situation of more competition. ...
Article
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To maintain a competitive advantage, the strategy of the creation and maintenance of brand loyalty plays a vital role. The main aim of this study is to examine the theoretical and empirical evidence on the causal relationships among different factors i.e., brand personality, image, experience, satisfaction, trust and commitment that have direct and indirect effects in the creation of brand loyalty. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using Partial Least Squares (PLS) method was applied to test the relationships in this study. The findings indicate that brand personality, brand image and brand experience are key sources of brand satisfaction.
... According to the loyalty program, value-based fairness redeeming the benefits as clear and complete focus on operational and procedural justice (Lacey & Sneath, 2006). Critically, the resort should be communicated effectively with the aim of regular guest or members and care them as an interactional transaction (Kim, Lee, Choi, Wu, & Johnson, 2013), (Reynolds and Arnold 2000). The guest of the resort maintains co-interact about the fairness issues between their purchase and consequent reward perceived to be unfair or less willing to revisit (H.Y. ...
Conference Paper
Food safety practices of food handlers play a significant role in ensuring that food is kept clean from the preparation and cooking process until it is served to customers (Mohan, 2006). This study assessed the compliance with food safety standards in the Science City of Munoz and San Jose City, both located in Nueva Ecija, Philippines with the Presidential Decree 856 Code on Sanitation of the Philippines serving as basis. The presidential degree prescribes indicators of appropriate practices in food safety and sanitation of ambulant food vendors. Street food vendors participating in the study were randomly sampled, while street food consumers were purposely selected. Their responses in guided interviews were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation (r), and t-test. Results show that participating ambulant food vendors exhibited the greatest compliance as regards procurement of raw materials, congruent with the street food consumers’ perception. Compliance of ambulant food vendors with regard to general requirement, general appearance, water and ice used, preparation and handling, washing of utensils, and distribution and point of sale were generally often observed as reported by the ambulant food vendors and perceived by the street food consumers. Vendors from San Jose City showed higher degree of compliance with food safety standards as regards procurement of raw materials, distribution and point of sale and overall compliance to standards. Given that food safety is a multi-sectoral concern, private and public sectors need to create programs, particularly on education and information dissemination, about food safety practices, including lectures and hands-on activities, for the benefit of both food vendors and consumers to help augment their knowledge on food safety practices. Regular monitoring on the part of the government must be conducted as fundamental ascendency to ensure that small- and medium-scale food handlers are primary initiators of food safety in the country. Key Words: Food safety, food handling and practices, ambulant vendors, street food consumers, Code on Sanitation of the Philippines
... Highly satisfied customers will convey their success stories of satisfaction and directly recommend that others try the source of satisfaction, as stated in the studies conducted by Reynolds and Arnold (2000). A quick observation of customer loyalty is demonstrated by repeated purchase as in the studies by Ball, at al. (2004). ...
Article
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Traditional media has dominated the landscape of promotional activity for brands till the recent past. With the proliferation of innovations in technology and their rampant use by consumers worldwide, organizations are forced to have a relook at their brand communication strategies. Social Media has added another dimension to the way in which consumers interact with each other as well as how brands connect with their consumers. This study aims to understand the use of Social Media as a tool for communication by global brands while entering emerging markets. An attempt is made to assess the differences among various social media tools and their relative effectiveness as an avenue for communication. The findings generate suggestions for brands to leverage their use of Social Media in order to meet the needs of Social Media-savvy consumers.
... Sales and salespersons (hereafter referred as sellers) bridge the gap between customer needs and the products and services that can fill those needs (Porter, 1996, Reynolds and Arnold, 2000, Winer, 2001. The sellers purchase products and offer services, and are challenged by an increasing number of technologies involved in these sales (Jones et al., 2005). ...
Book
Digitalization and digital devices are on the rise, and as a result, many new products and services have been developed, which has led to greater interaction between people and technology. This thesis explores the interaction between people and technology by looking at the daily use of a business intelligence (BI) system in an automotive company’s sales process, where sellers use the system to analyze, report, and measure sales performance. The thesis is based on a single case study, and the data sources are in-depth interviews, observations, and archival data. The theoretical perspective is grounded in the concept of sociomateriality and its notion of the imbrication of people and technology. Specifically, this work explores the research question ‘How does imbrication between people and technology develop during daily use of BI systems?’ The main theoretical finding is that three phases of imbrication can describe theses interactions, and these phases coincide with three situations in which people and technology must interact: automation of transactional work (Imbrication Phase 1), ‘informating’ of analytical work (Imbrication Phase 2), and transformation of work (Imbrication Phase 3). These three Imbrication Phases demonstrate the social dynamics at play when people interact with technology (specifically with BI). This contribution therefore extends the concept of imbrication within the field of sociomateriality. The primary empirical contribution is to illustrate the daily use and practice of BI within a sales process.
... One of the most significant advantages of physical stores over online channels is the social interaction with store employees, which adds to the shopping experience (Bell et al., 2018;Mattila & Wirtz, 2008). Customers derive value from the interaction with store employees (Reynolds & Beatty, 1999b), and this has positive impacts on store performance and attitudes towards the retailer (Reynolds & Arnold, 2000). Salespersons can help customers to find the desired product and to make the purchase choice, providing valuable advice during the shopping process. ...
Article
This paper focuses on postpurchase complaint behavior to understand under which conditions omnichannel shoppers choose to complain at the physical store instead of doing it through online channels. Using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), we find that four different combinations of situational, channel-related, and individual variables lead to complaining at the store. The motivation of seeking redress together with assertiveness and high dissatisfaction, play an essential role in the choice of complaint channel. The channel of purchase is not determinant for the choice of the store to complain. These findings have implications in terms of redefining the role of the store in the current omnichannel era.
... According to the loyalty program, value-based fairness redeeming the benefits as clear and complete focus on operational and procedural justice (Lacey & Sneath, 2006). Critically, the resort should be communicated effectively with the aim of regular guest or members and care them as an interactional transaction (Kim, Lee, Choi, Wu, & Johnson, 2013), (Reynolds and Arnold 2000). The guest of the resort maintains co-interact about the fairness issues between their purchase and consequent reward perceived to be unfair or less willing to revisit (H.Y. ...
Article
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A loyal guest has demanded value-based fairness at the time of purchasing a product or accommodation as a member or regular guest. The purpose of the paper is to examine the relationships between service disclosure, price fairness, problem-solving, system adaptation, guest behavioral loyalty, and value-based fairness in Malaysian five-star resorts. This study follows the questionnaire survey-based procedure to collect data from the resort's guests, and 392 valid responses were collected. The analytical technique offers SEM (Structural Equation Modelling) to test the hypotheses of the model. The results found the relationships of influencing factors of guest behavioural loyalty and value-based fairness. Furthermore, guest behavioral loyalty significantly mediates between affecting factor of guest behavioural loyalty and value-based fairness. Thus, the model synthesized the links of verifying research and providing articulation of constructs on how might apply within the resort industry context. Research findings were achieved objectives simultaneously and will, assist the resort management and implement value-based fairness for the regular guest as connecting long-term relationship.
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The importance of understanding how to encourage consumer loyalty is critical to the success of a retail establishment. Faithful customers are more likely to be repeat buyers, purchase more frequently and recommend the store to others. Thus, it is essential to understand the factors that drive the most dedicated patrons. In this study, we look at whether salesperson behaviors, perceptions of their expertise, the quality of the products offered, and the overall reputation of the retailer, influence allegiance to a store. The results indicate that two variables, salesperson behavior and quality of the products offered at the store, significantly affect customer loyalty.
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This article studies the consumer store preferences while buying utility products in Bangalore. It also aims to compare the drivers of store choice in daily need category products, in the context of evolving different store type and retail industry in India. The survey-based method was used to collect data using convenience sampling from consumers outside different stores. We applied frequency analysis and multidimensional scaling to compare different factors behind selection of store. Grocery shopping frequency was divided among consumers into two categories, i.e., regular consumer and passive consumer. The study reveals that regular customers give more preference to accessibility and variety of merchandise while passive customers give high preference to discount.
Article
This study is an attempt to bridge the link between factors representing stores’ decision boundaries and consumers’ decision-making criteria. It also explores the impact of consumer demographic variables on the relationship between the influence of extended 3Ps (process, people and physical evidence) and store choice. Around 290 responses were found suitable for further statistical refinements through a structured survey. After carrying out the reliability and validity properties of the data, structure equation modelling was applied. The findings of the study revealed that individual demographics (income, age and gender) moderated the relationship between the extended 3Ps and consumer store choice for shopping (in this study example of shopping smartphone). However, occupation and education were found to have no different influence by separate segments of population. Also, all demographics have an interpretation for marketers, which are discussed in the conclusion section. The framework used in this article opens up new vistas for research on exploring different consumer segments and service decision-making in retail marketing.
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By adopting psychological ownership theory, this study examines the factors influencing trail visitors’ psychological ownership and behavioral intentions. A field survey was conducted with Korean tourists of Jeju Olle Trail, to test determining factors for psychological ownership and the role of commitment in the relationship between psychological ownership and intention to recommend. The results show that tourists’ participation and their sense of belonging were key predictors for psychological ownership. In addition, tourists’ psychological ownership had a positive influence on their commitment and intention to recommend. This study also discusses theoretical and practical implications along with suggestions for future research.
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This study examines the impact of retail services quality and selling behavior on customers’ satisfaction, trust, and store loyalty in case of high involvement products such as consumer electronics/home appliances in the context of Pakistan. The data was collected from 377 customers who completed the survey online. Respondents were particularly asked if they had any experience of buying such items recently and keeping in mind the purchase experience, rate the scale items accordingly. Factor analysis and multiple regression analysis were used for model testing. The study results show that store service quality and selling orientation strategy both have a significant impact on customer satisfaction, trust and store loyalty intentions. The study also involves the mediation analysis, satisfaction‐trust serving as mediator factor between two IVs (service quality and selling behaviors) and DV (store loyalty intentions). Results show that services quality and selling behaviour both have significant influence on store loyalty intentions. Further, satisfaction‐trust mediates the relationship between variables. The indirect path is significant which proves that satisfaction‐trust mediate the relationship between store attributes and consumer buying behaviour. The study has significant implications for multiple retail channels that can incorporate retail service quality and selling behaviour strategy (relational selling & consultative selling) to differentiate the retail brand services. Retailers of high involvement products category heavily relying on the selling skills and behaviour of salesperson/employee, can benefit from the study to implement retail brand positioning strategy.
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India is one of the world’s fastest growing automobile markets and is poised to become the third largest passenger’s car market by 2020 (Philip, L. 2016, Economic Times). The recorded sales growth of 4 wheelers like passenger car & utility vehicle has also risen up to 7.87 % and 6.25% respectively during April-March 2016 (SIAM, 2015-16). But what makes a car maker like Japan’s Maruti Suzuki and Korea’s Hyundai enjoys more than 67% of market share while others like US car makers Ford India and General Motors combined market share is just 4-5% (Philip, L.2016, The Economic Times). Sales in the North & East region have evidenced only 5%of changes in the FY16 which is comparatively lower than the west & south region (Khan, A.N,2016, The Economic Times). The Japanese car makers (Honda, Hyundai, Isuzu Motors, Nissan &Toyota) achieved an average of 48.01% of growth till July 2016 having a better stand from the Indian car makers (Hindustan Motors, M&M, M&S, Tata & Force motors) i.e. 6.74% (Autocar Pro News Desk, July 2016). In this study the researcher explored the factors affecting the satisfaction of prospective car buyers and existing car users at dealer point and facilitate dealer to create a brilliant “moment of truth” (Pioneered by JanCarlzon) when a customer encounter with company. (Madge, Davidson & Beaujean, 2006). KEYWORDS service quality, service recovery, moment of truth, dealer satisfaction, customer satisfaction, brand image
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Tujuan penelitan ini adalah menganalisa pengaruh kualitas pelayanan dan kepuasan terhadap Loyalitas Pasien Pengguna BPJS Kesehatan, dengan sampel 100 orng pasien.Analisa data menggunakan Uji Regresi Jalur, Uji F, Uji t, Koefisien deerminasi dan uji korelasi. Hasil penelitian sebagai berikut : Dari uji regresi jalur tangible berpengaruh langsung terhadap loyalitas lebih besar dari pengaruh tidak langsung tangible terhadap loyalitas dengan mediasi kepuasan, reliability berpengaruh langsung terhadap loyalitas lebih besar dari pengaruh tidak langsung reliability terhadap loyalitas dengan mediasi kepuasan, responsiveness berpengaruh langsung terhadap loyalitas lebih besar dari pengaruh tidak langsung responsiveness terhadap loyalitas dengan mediasi kepuasan, sehingga untuk meningkatkan loyalitas pasien dipilih jalur langsung, Pengaruh langsung assurance terhadap loyalitas lebih besar dari pengaruh tidak langsung assurance terhadap loyalitas dengan mediasi kepuasan, emphaty berpengaruh langsung terhadap loyalitas lebih besar dari pengaruh tidak langsung emphaty terhadap loyalitas dengan mediasi kepuasan, , Total pengaruh responsiveness terhadap loyalitas paling dominan pengaruhnya dari pada total pengaruh variabel yang lain. Dari hasil analisa data dapat disimpulkan bahwa variabel kepuasan bukan sebagai variabel antara (intervening)Kata Kunci : Kualitas pelayanan, kepuasan, loyalitas
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Rekabetin yoğunlaştığı günümüz çevresinde müşterilerin elde edilmesi uzun soluklu karmaşık bir süreçtir. Tüm pazarlarda yeni bir müşterinin elde edilmesinin maliyeti yüksekken, mevcut müşterilerinin bağlılığını garantilemenin maliyeti daha düşüktür (Gable vd., 2008: 47). Marka değişimi maliyetinin düşük olduğu durumlarda bile çoğu tüketici alışkanlıklarının ve atalet eğiliminin de etkisiyle aynı markayı tüketme eğiliminde olabilmektedir (Aaker, 1991: 34). Zira Pareto İlkesini dikkate alan akademisyen ve yöneticiler tarafından, eldeki müşterilerin %20’sinin işletme gelirlerinin %80’inini sağladığı, geriye kalan %80’lik müşteri portföyünün de kârın %20’sini oluşturduğu bilinmektedir (Grosfeld-Nir vd., 2007: 2318).Bu yüzden tüketicileri sadık birer müşteriye çevirmek için onların memnuniyeti garanti edilmelidir (Kurşunluoğlu, 2011: 242).
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This quantitative survey examines the relationship between digital gadgets and the mental health of developing children. It examines the young children’s usage of personal computers, mobile phones and tablet PCs. The objective of the study were to determine the impacts of digital gadget usage on developing minds studying in primary and Montessori levels at the top Montessori schools of Lahore. 300 respondents of Lahore, mainly parents of children with age between 0-8 years in Lahore have been surveyed. The parents were asked about the availability of digital products like smart phones, ipads and tablet pc’s in their homes. The children were asked about their access to the digital gadgets ,whether they seek permission from parents as well as parental rules with regard to the usage. 55% of the parents surveyed reported to have smart phones and tablet devices at home for their kids. Around 70% children had started using tablet devices/smart phone when they were less than 3 years old which was a shocking evidence for me. Mothers have also reported the increase of aggression, stubbornness and mood tantrums in their children after excessive usage of tablet devices. Research into smart phone addiction in children has followed the scientific literature on problematic mobile phone use developed during the last decade, with valid screening scales being developed to identify maladaptive behaviour with this technology, usually in adolescent populations(Olatz Lopez-Fernandez,2015). Gymboree(a Montessori academy by Beaconhouse), LGS and Learning Alliance was selected for the survey. Results of this study show that the heavy use of digital gadgets has a significant and direct impact on the child health. This study can contribute a lot in social sciences and technology management industry, through understanding the drivers of child’s psychological problems, cognitive learning and mood tantrums and the role of these gadgets in impacting the child’s behaviour.
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Interviewed 206 female customers of a large department store concerning their satisfaction with products and services. A statistical model was then developed to predict retail satisfaction. It is suggested that this model is the best possible representation of the psychological process underlying consumer satisfaction. (26 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the frequency with which consumers provide information about 7 dimensions that have been shown to be important in consumers' evaluations of retailers. Findings from telephone interviews with 203 heads of households indicate that consumers discussed some retail image dimensions more frequently than others, and some types of retailers (grocery stores) more frequently than others (discount and department stores). Consumers with general marketplace expertise and diffusion characteristics, referred to as market mavens, differed from other consumers on frequency of word-of-mouth communications. Market mavens provided significantly more retail information about store dimensions and types than did other consumers. Results suggest that market mavens should be targeted, primarily through women's homemaking magazines and direct mail. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Analysis of Ordinal Categorical Data Alan Agresti Statistical Science Now has its first coordinated manual of methods for analyzing ordered categorical data. This book discusses specialized models that, unlike standard methods underlying nominal categorical data, efficiently use the information on ordering. It begins with an introduction to basic descriptive and inferential methods for categorical data, and then gives thorough coverage of the most current developments, such as loglinear and logit models for ordinal data. Special emphasis is placed on interpretation and application of methods and contains an integrated comparison of the available strategies for analyzing ordinal data. This is a case study work with illuminating examples taken from across the wide spectrum of ordinal categorical applications. 1984 (0 471-89055-3) 287 pp. Regression Diagnostics Identifying Influential Data and Sources of Collinearity David A. Belsley, Edwin Kuh and Roy E. Welsch This book provides the practicing statistician and econometrician with new tools for assessing the quality and reliability of regression estimates. Diagnostic techniques are developed that aid in the systematic location of data points that are either unusual or inordinately influential; measure the presence and intensity of collinear relations among the regression data and help to identify the variables involved in each; and pinpoint the estimated coefficients that are potentially most adversely affected. The primary emphasis of these contributions is on diagnostics, but suggestions for remedial action are given and illustrated. 1980 (0 471-05856-4) 292 pp. Applied Regression Analysis Second Edition Norman Draper and Harry Smith Featuring a significant expansion of material reflecting recent advances, here is a complete and up-to-date introduction to the fundamentals of regression analysis, focusing on understanding the latest concepts and applications of these methods. The authors thoroughly explore the fitting and checking of both linear and nonlinear regression models, using small or large data sets and pocket or high-speed computing equipment. Features added to this Second Edition include the practical implications of linear regression; the Durbin-Watson test for serial correlation; families of transformations; inverse, ridge, latent root and robust regression; and nonlinear growth models. Includes many new exercises and worked examples.
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Salesperson behavior with respect to selling orientation-customer orientation (SOCO) is shown to influence customer satisfaction with the salesperson, dealer, product and manufacturer in a national sample of new car purchasers. The influence of selling behaviors on product satisfaction has significant implications for manufacturers in their efforts to enhance market acceptance. Strategies to enhance product satisfaction via salesperson behaviors are discussed. © 1997 New York University. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
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Local customers—usually defined as those who tend to concentrate their purchases within one or a limited number of brands or stores—have long been of major interest to marketing practitioners and academicians. In organizational purchasing literature, however, little attention has been focused on this important dimension of buyer behavior. The purpose of this article is to underscore the importance of the loyal customer, to distinguish between simple repeat purchasing and true loyalty, and to examine the reasons for such consistent purchase behavior.
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Personalization—the social content of interaction between service or retail employees and their customers—is advanced as an important mediator of customer satisfaction and patronage behavior. The influence of this service-enhancing factor is investigated within the nexus of SERVQUAL, a comprehensive measure of service quality. Survey data from 233 adult consumers show that “personalization” significantly influences customer experience and evaluation of service. As hypothesized, for a business that performs service on a physical possession, this influence is subsumed in other components of SERVQUAL. In contrast, for a business delivering service in interactive encounters with customers, “personalization” emerges as the most important determinant of perceived service quality, and of customer satisfaction and other patronage indicators.
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We provide a mathematical framework for assessing the value of customer satisfaction. The framework enables managers to determine which customer satisfaction elements have the greatest impact, and how much money should be spent to improve particular customer satisfaction elements. This makes it possible to hold customer satisfaction programs accountable, in the way that other business programs are held accountable, by forcing them to demonstrate their benefits with respect to bottom-line profitability. We use an individual-level model of loyalty and retention, and then build up to market share by aggregation. We demonstrate the application of our approach in a pilot study of a city's retail banking market.
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Although a widely prevalent practice among industrial buyers, relatively little is known about source loyalty. This article examines a number of definitional and conceptual issues in this area, and argues that loyalty is an attitudinal and behavioral response to the ongoing dynamics of buyer–seller interaction. As such, theory and practice will benefit from the adoption of a dyadic perspective on loyalty. Four dimensions of the buyer–seller dyad are discussed as they relate to source loyalty. A number of specific propositions are made regarding the nature and dyadic determinants of loyalty. The framework is then used to reexamine Wind's landmark study on loyalty. Suggestions are made for future research, and managerial implications are drawn.
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Many individual companies and some industries monitor customer satisfaction on a continual basis, but Sweden is the first country to do so on a national level. The annual Customer Satisfaction Barometer (CSB) measures customer satisfaction in more than 30 industries and for more than 100 corporations. The new index is intended to be complementary to productivity measures. Whereas productivity basically reflects quantity of output, CSB measures quality of output (as experienced by the buyer). The author reports the results of a large-scale Swedish effort to measure quality of the total consumption process as customer satisfaction. The significance of customer satisfaction and its place within the overall strategy of the firm are discussed. An implication from examining the relationship between market share and customer satisfaction by a location model is that satisfaction should be lower in industries where supply is homogeneous and demand heterogeneous. Satisfaction should be higher when the heterogeneity/homogeneity of demand is matched by the supply. Empirical support is found for that proposition in monopolies as well as in competitive market structures. Likewise, industries in general are found to have a high level of customer satisfaction if they are highly dependent on satisfaction for repeat business. The opposite is found for industries in which companies have more captive markets. For Sweden, the 1991 results show a slight increase in CSB, which should have a positive effect on the general economic climate.
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Relationship marketing is an old idea but a new focus now at the forefront of services marketing practice and academic research. The impetus for its development has come from the maturing of services marketing with the emphasis on quality, increased recognition of potential benefits for the firm and the customer, and technological advances. Accelerating interest and active research are extending the concept to incorporate newer, more sophisticated viewpoints. Emerging perspectives explored here include targeting profitable customers, using the strongest possible strategies for customer bonding, marketing to employees and other stakeholders, and building trust as a marketing tool. Although relationship marketing is developing, more research is needed before it reaches maturity. A baker’s dozen of researchable questions suggests some future directions.
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--The University of Michigan. Microfilm edition (1 reel) Positive; filmed by University Microfilms. Bibliography: p. 357-362.
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Despite a flurry of activities aimed at serving customers better, few companies have systematically revamped their operations with customer loyalty in mind. Instead, most have adopted improvement programs ad hoc, and paybacks haven't materialized. Building a highly loyal customer base must be integral to a company's basic business strategy. Loyalty leaders like MBNA credit cards are successful because they have designed their entire business systems around customer loyalty--a self-reinforcing system in which the company delivers superior value consistently and reinvents cash flows to find and keep high-quality customers and employees. The economic benefits of high customer loyalty are measurable. When a company consistently delivers superior value and wins customer loyalty, market share and revenues go up, and the cost of acquiring new customers goes down. The better economics mean the company can pay workers better, which sets off a whole chain of events. Increased pay boosts employee moral and commitment; as employees stay longer, their productivity goes up and training costs fall; employees' overall job satisfaction, combined with their experience, helps them serve customers better; and customers are then more inclined to stay loyal to the company. Finally, as the best customers and employees become part of the loyalty-based system, competitors are left to survive with less desirable customers and less talented employees. To compete on loyalty, a company must understand the relationships between customer retention and the other parts of the business--and be able to quantify the linkages between loyalty and profits. It involves rethinking and aligning four important aspects of the business: customers, product/service offering, employees, and measurement systems.
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