ArticlePDF Available

New record of a population of Penelope montagnii in the sector Orocué, El Tamá Natural National park, Colombia.



We report a population of Penelope montagnii present in the National Natural Park Tama (PNN Tama), Colombia. During February 2008, we registered 40 individuals vocalizing and also directly observed 7 individuals of P. montagnii along the path El Arenal in the area of Orocue of the PNN Tama. The period when vocalizations were most frequent was between 4:30 – 5:30 hrs. This record confirms the presence of the species in the region and also suggests the need for longer-term studies aiming at estimating more precisely the size of this population. Finally, we recognize that the area of Orocue is a perfect place to carry out detailed studies on the vocalizations of P. montagnii, which would also contribute to the clarification of the taxonomy and systematics of such species.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Different authors have used different methods and nomenclatures to describe bird nests of the Neotropical region, leading to muddled terminology which makes comparisons among published data difficult. The present study suggests a standardization and a hierarchy of criteria which make easier to understand nest structures and allow direct comparisons among data from different authors in reports on bird evolution, conservation, phylogeny, etc. For that, the nest has been defined as any place where the eggs are laid. Four elementary nest standards are proposed: simple (when eggs rest on an unlined or roughly lined floor), cup (any basket or bowl-like form), closed (when the walls completely cover the incubatory chamber), and cavity (when they are placed inside natural or artificial cavities). The simple standard has two variants: unlined and platform. The cup standard has two variants: high cup and low cup; the closed standard has six variants: long, globular, furnace, irregular, ovoid and retort. The cavity standard presents simple, cup, or closed nests inside, each one with or without an access tunnel to its interior. When hierarchically ordered, these four elementary standards, their variants and the four main ways by which nests are attached to substrate (by their bases, by their laterals, by a branch fork, or pensile) proved to be efficient for the description of neotropical nests, as shown by the examples given in the text including 97 species, 88 genera, and 33 families from more than 9 countries. These combinations, totaling 30 basic nest types, allow easy evaluation of important inter- and intra-specific differences and of the evolutionary processes which are relevant to taxonomy and conservation. In addition, suggestions for making and keeping scientific nest collections are presented.
I recorded data on group sizes and nesting habits of Rufous-vented Chachalacas (Ortalis ruficauda) at two locations in north-central Venezuela. Three types of chachalaca group associations were described: basic unit, family group, and flock. Observed group sizes were significantly different between the repro- ductive season (2.7 ± 1.5 individuals) and the non-reproductive season (3.7 ± 1.8 individuals), although the mode for both periods was 2 individuals. Nests of Rufous-vented Chachalacas are not elaborate and appear to be made with material found near the nest site. These birds do not seem to be specialists in their requirements for nesting.