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Effects of Poor Training and Development on the Work Performance of the Fast Food Employees in Cape Town

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Effects of Poor Training and Development on the Work Performance of the Fast Food Employees in Cape Town

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This research was conducted to establish whether the fast food employees within the Cape Town metropolis were being trained, and if not, what can be the possible reason for the lack of training. Fast food employers depend on their workers’ skills, knowledge and abilities for effective customer services, which make it necessary for workers to be trained and developed to achieve a better work performance. The objective of this study is to evaluate the state of training and development within the fast food outlets, in order to establish the impact of the current state of training and development on employees’ work performance. The purpose is to suggest ways of improving employee job performances through training and development at fast food outlets in Cape Town. Furthermore, to encourage the management of fast food outlets in Cape Town, in order to implement training and development of workers in their workplaces as this will improve the work performance of their employees. The sample consisted of 200 employees from different fast food outlets, out of which 123 responded. A triangulation method was utilized to find information from the different units within the fast food outlets. The the managers, cashiers, production units and others form part of the sample. A closed-ended questionnaire was used. The results obtained proved that a majority of fast food employees in Cape Town do not receive enough training compared to what they should. However, some ex-staff members suggested that there is a need for employee training and development at fast food outlets to improve their job performances. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n14p571
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ISSN 2039-9340 Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy
Vol 4 No 14
November 2013
571
Effects of Poor Training and Development on the Work Performance
of the Fast Food Employees in Cape Town
Nnenna E. Ukandu
Faculty of Business Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town South Africa
Wilfred I. Ukpere
Department of Industrial Psychology & People Management, Faculty of Management
University of Johannesburg, P. o. Box, 524, Johannesburg, South Africa
Corresponding email: wiukpere@uj.ac.za or wilfredisiomaukpere@gmail.com
Doi:10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n14p571
Abstract
This research was conducted to establish whether the fast food employees within the Cape Town metropolis were being
trained, and if not, what can be the possible reason for the lack of training. Fast food employers depend on their workers’ skills,
knowledge and abilities for effective customer services, which make it necessary for workers to be trained and developed to
achieve a better work performance. The objective of this study is to evaluate the state of training and development within the
fast food outlets, in order to establish the impact of the current state of training and development on employees’ work
performance. The purpose is to suggest ways of improving employee job performances through training and development at
fast food outlets in Cape Town. Furthermore, to encourage the management of fast food outlets in Cape Town, in order to
implement training and development of workers in their workplaces as this will improve the work performance of their
employees. The sample consisted of 200 employees from different fast food outlets, out of which 123 responded. A
triangulation method was utilized to find information from the different units within the fast food outlets. The the managers,
cashiers, production units and others form part of the sample. A closed-ended questionnaire was used. The results obtained
proved that a majority of fast food employees in Cape Town do not receive enough training compared to what they should.
However, some ex-staff members suggested that there is a need for employee training and development at fast food outlets to
improve their job performances.
Keywords: Training, development, employee work performance, skills, job satisfaction, Workplace, fast food outlets
1. Introduction
Fast food is a term that is given to food that can be prepared and served quickly and easily (Chang, 2009:1). They are
meals that can be prepared easily and on time. Fast foods are also foods that can be sold in a restaurant and served to
customers as a packaged take-out/take-away. Fast food outlets are also known as quick service restaurants. They are
operated under franchising as part of restaurant chains, which have standardized foodstuffs that are shipped to each
restaurant from a central location. The capital required to open a fast food restaurant is low (Jakle & Sculle, 1999: 1).
Franchising permits a big corporation to dictate to small business persons how to operate their business at a minimize
risk. The franchised system of distribution and ownership provides a powerful drive to the growth of the fast food industry
in the United States (Fantasia, 1995: 208). Franchising is a way of distributing merchandise to licensed distributors.
Fast food outlets in Cape Town are in the process of making a turnaround strategy that will help to transform the
organization into a more proficient, profitable and effective service organization, which will assist their customers. This
transformation involves training and development programs for both new entrants and existing staff within the
organization. Training is an important component of internal service quality, which is considered as a path to quality
customer service, consistency in job performance and satisfaction, as well as commitment to the organization (Wesley &
Skip, 1999:176). Every worker requires rudimentary training in addition to normal induction training before they are of any
value to their employers (Ball, 1992:90).
Fast food organizations have been faced with employee poor performance as a result of poor training (Wesley &
Skip, 1999: 176). Generally, researchers believe that training and development increases employee performance, job
satisfaction and the length of employment of employees (Conrade & Woods, 1994:16). Many fast food outlets in Cape
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Town have recognized the need for training and development of their employees and have taken steps to improve the
quality of their training and development programs, while some are still struggling with it. Training and development at
fast food outlets should constantly be updated (Chiang, Back and Canter, 2005:100).
2. Problem Statement
This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of training and development concerning the work performance of
fast food employees in Cape Town. Training plays a major role in determining the performance of the workers and hence
employees should be made capable to withstand the competitive atmosphere. If training is well planned, it can improve
employees’ productivity and increase the cash flow of the organization. Also, it can increase workers’ job satisfaction and
their commitment to their workplace. In other words training helps to improve the work performance of individual
employees and within teams. It also helps to improve workers’ level of motivation. The current problem is that training
and development at fast food outlets seems to have been eroded as majority of the outlets do not take proper training of
workers into consideration.
3. Research Objective
The objective of this study is to evaluate the state of training and development in the fast food outlets, in order to
establish the impact of the current state on work performances. It is part of the objectives of this paper to proffer ways of
improving employee job performances at fast food outlets in Cape Town, through effective training and development.
Furthermore, the research is intended to encourage the management of fast food outlets in Cape Town to initiate
different training and development schemes that will help to accelerate the level of motivation and employees’ work
performance.
4. The Concept of Training
Training is defined as a systematic and planned process to change the knowledge, skills and behaviour of employees to
achieve organizational goals (Erasmus & Van Dyk, 1999:2 cited in Van Dyk, Nel, Loedolff & Haasbroek, 2001: 147).
Training is also a learning experience that imposes a permanent change in an employee, which improves his/her ability
to perform on the job (De Cenzo & Robbins, 1994: 255). Training is task-oriented, which means that it focuses on the
work performance of workers. Furthermore, it helps to improve employees’ job performance. Training is meant to be
offered when existing work standards are not impressive, and there is a lack of skills and poor attitudes of employees.
This necessitates additional insight to training at fast food outlets in Cape Town as explicated in the literature below.
5. Literature Review
Fast food outlets, in general, cannot have a high volume of success without correctly trained and motivated staff. Due to
the high degree of attrition rate in the fast food industry, the industry has a poor reputation for training. Managers seem to
be reluctant to invest in training in case a staff member subsequently leaves (Lowry et al., 2002, cited in Poulston,
2008:414). Managers sometimes feel that performing a task publicly whilst having insufficient skills, jeopardizes their
service quality and can demean and embarrass employees, yet training is poor or non-existent and employees are
disciplined for their poor performance (Ukandu & Ukpere, 2011, 7). However, managers in the fast food industry support
training and development of employees, but do not put it into practice (Go et al., 1996).
6. Employee Training and Development
Training is defined as the process by which employees are provided with knowledge and skills that are required to
operate within their work environment (Sommerville, 2007: 208). It is also an activity that changes workers’ behaviour
(Mccleland, 2002: 7). Training is an important tool in Human Resource Management practices, and hence many
organizations have come to realize the importance of training and development in their workplace.
In fast food outlets in Cape Town, the competences and qualities of workers are considered as essential. The
quality of services delivered depends on the quality of the employees recruited. Employee qualities also depend on how
much training and development is acquired from the organization, as well as knowledge and skills gained. Employee
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training generally increases productivity, motivates workers and inspires skills by providing all the information that
workers need to do their work (Yang, 2010: 15). Training and development help organizations to implement Human
Resources Management practices and polices (Nickson, 2007: 154). The afore-mentioned author also states that training
and development is an important development strategy for all organizations to help in improving their skills.
7. Skills Development in the Fast Food Industry
The nature of work and employment in the fast food industry discourages training and causes a shortage of skills in fast
food outlets. According to Baum (2002:347), jobs in the fast food industry is attributed to have a tendency to low wages
and skills shortage; unsocial hours; is family unfriendly, non-existence of career structures; high levels of labour turnover;
and informal recruitment practices. The fast food industry, generally, is dominated by low skilled workers that are
uneducated, unmotivated, untrained, unskilled and minimally productive (Shaw & Williams, 1994:142). Again, Burns
(1997:240) states that fast food industries operate within a business culture where labour is regarded as costs and skills,
and are not valued or developed. He further states that fast food work provides opportunities that range from senior
global business management through to work within the reach of people with a range of physical and learning disabilities,
but owing to low skilled workers, these opportunities are neglected.
8. Poor Training and Development at Fast Food Outlets
Employee training and development helps workers to behave well with their customers (Gilbert et al.., 1998 cited in
Poulston, 2008: 417). Most fast food outlets have a poor reputation for training and are unwilling to empower their
workers with training in case they subsequently leave the organization (Lowry et al.., 2002: 53 & Maxwell et al..,
2004:159). A fast food job is a job done publicly, which means that insufficient skill will place at risk the services rendered
to their customers. The main argument in this article is that many fast food workers, especially in the Cape Town
metropolis; do not receive enough training to enable them to do their work effectively. Inadequate training and
development affects job satisfaction and work performance of workers, which, in turn, results in staff turnover and also
threatens quality standards (Lashley & Best, 2002:6). One of the biggest problems experienced in the fast food industry
is a shortage of skills (HCTC, 1995; HEFCE, 1998). According to HCTF (1995), the fast food industry displays the lowest
level of training. Recent research on training in the fast food industry found that only 28 per cent of this industry had a
training plan, while only 19 percent had a training budget (HtF, 1996).
Additionally, training, as defined by Go et al (1996), is said to be a systematic process via which an organization’s
human resources gain knowledge and develop skills by instruction and practical activities that result in improved
corporate performance. As stated earlier, fast food managers do not always practice training in their organizations. Many
reasons have been given why they do not engage in training. According to Boella (1996), reasons for a lack of training
are as follows: first, many fast food managers do not have formal training themselves and hence are not aware of training
benefits. Second, employers are more interested in the operational problems of the organization rather than training and
do not have time to plan ahead. Third, many fast food industries cannot afford sufficient capital to invest in training.
Finally, they believe that it is the responsibility of colleges to equip their candidates with enough training. Hence, in many
fast food industries, training is a theory rather than a reality (Holden, 1991 cited in Wilson, et al., 1998: 80). However,
managers, instead of viewing training as an on-going process, regard it as a one-time activity that is designed to equip
employees with skills to work. Fast food industries are known for poor reputation of training (Maxwell et al., 2004).
Managers do not empower their employees with training in case they decide to leave. This leads to poor performance of
workers. Though the workers are not trained, they are punished for poor performance. Lam and Zhang (2003) state that
training and development affects employees’ job satisfaction and commitment, which, in turn, affect employee retention.
Furthermore, there are many ways by which the fast food employees can be trained and developed.
9. Methods of Training
There are different dimensions or ways of training fast food employees. A well organized training course can provide
employee motivation and improve performance. The following are different types of training that might be used.
- On-the-job training – this method of training is given to both unskilled and semi-skilled employees. It can be
done during working hours since employees will have to learn as they work.
- Coaching – another method that can be used in training fast food employees is via coaching. The worker can
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be trained by the supervisor or manager through use of instructional materials and guidelines.
- Understudy – this is training the employee by way of experience and observation. This will enable employees
to learn by practicing the job in a real life situation.
- Job rotation – workers can be trained by rotating them from one section of the organization to another to help
them know the company well, and to learn how to handle different situations in their workplace.
- Off –the- job training – employees can be sent to the organization’s training centre outside their work
environment to be trained.
Training results can be impressive if training is done for supervisors at least twenty five hours over ten weeks
(once a week) and, in turn, these supervisors retrain their subordinates. There will be a significant improvement in
employees’ performance and productivity (McCormick, 1971:3 cited in Sabura, 2011:40). Training can be a failure if the
program lacks a means of transferring learning to the job; if it lacks specific direction and focus and if management views
it as a cost, and not an investment (Sabura, 2011: 42).
10. Importance of Training and Development
According to Mccleland (2002: 7), employee training and development is a crucial function of Human Resource
Management and Development and helps to improve productivity and enhance employee motivation. Employees should
be developed with more skills in the presence of new technologies. Employee training commands a harmonious work
environment, accurate work specifications and a passion to work. It also encourages team spirit amongst workers
(Trainol, 2009). It strengthens the capabilities of employees and gives them a competitive advantage. Worker’s personal
characters and professional abilities will be improved (Sommerville, 2007: 210). Moreover, it increases employee job
satisfaction and will help them to have a better understanding of their work. Training and development enhances self
development and self confidence in the workplace and also allows them to become more effective problem solvers.
For the organization, training leads to increased productivity, reduces employee accidents and safety violations,
helps with organizational development, and reduces wastage and employee turnover (ibid).
11. Research Methodology: Sample and Research Process
The aim of this study is to derive a motivation strategy for fast food outlets in Cape Town. A case study approach was
used for this research because it dealt with a specific organization, namely fast food outlets in Cape Town. The research
methods that were used were both qualitative and quantitative (triangulation) as means to obtain the opinions of fast food
employees concerning motivation. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed and 123 employees responded and
these were used for analysis. Furthermore, a pilot study was conducted with a few staff members and managers in the
fast food industry from different outlets, while corrections were made before distributing it to others. This would allow
reliability and validity. Open-ended, semi-structured interview questions were also administered face-to-face to senior
and store managers of different fast food outlets to obtain their opinions of employee motivation, while a closed-ended
questionnaire was distributed to other staff members. As mentioned previously, the total population that was sampled
was 200. The selected sample comprised all staff members that have at least six (6) months of work experience within
the fast food industry. This was to enable the researcher to obtain reliable information. A report was compiled regarding
the level of motivation of workers. A high ethical standard was maintained as far as the information is concerned. In
addition, the data collected was analysed and results discussed in the next section.
12. Data Analysis
Data analysis was conducted to determine the level of training and development practiced in the fast food industry in
Cape Town. Questions were posed to employees to verify the extent of training and development at their various
establishments. The following were responses that were obtained.
13. Training and Development
The reason for including this section was to establish if fast food workers in Cape Town are empowered by means of
training and development. Training is a necessity for fast food employees because it helps the organization to achieve its
goals and retain talented candidates that are suitable to work in their organization. Training and development also
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improves job performances.
13.1 Is empowerment by means of training and development freely available in your organization?
The rationale for the above interview question was to determine if fast food employees in Cape Town are empowered
through training and development. The table below shows how the interviewees responded to the question.
Table 1: Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 56 45.5 45.5 45.5
No 67 54.5 54.5 100.0
Total 123 100.0 100.0
(n=123)
The consolidated table above shows whether fast food employees in Cape Town are empowered by means of training
and development or not. The table clearly points out that 45.5% of respondents are of the view that they are empowered
by training and development, while 54.5% respondents say that they are not empowered by training and development.
This table also shows that some fast food workers in Cape Town do not receive training and development, though from
the percentage above, the margin between those that receive training and development and those that do not receive
training and development, is not much.
Some interviewees stated that the management complained that the cost of training is high, and that they cannot
afford to train all staff. Again, in the literature it was stated that staff training and development has not been effectively
conducted, which has resulted in poor performances and low motivation of workers in the fast food industry. Training is
important for fast food workers since it improves their work performance and results in increased employee motivation.
13.2 How many times per year do you receive training?
The rationale for conducting this study was to find out how many times per year fast food employees in Cape Town
receive training. The respondents were meant to answer the above question. This would help the author to know if
respondents had sufficient training and development opportunities in their workplace. The number of times that
employees received training and development concerns their job performances.
Table 2: Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 026 21.1 34.2 34.2
135 28.5 46.1 80.3
213 10.6 17.1 97.4
4 2 1.6 2.6 100.0
Total 76 61.8 100.0
Missing System 47 38.2
Total 123 100.0
(n=123)
It was shown in Table 2 that the number of times of training correlated with cumulative percentage. Zero number of times
of training reflected 21.1% of employees who stated that they had no training; 28.5% of respondents said that they had
training only once a year; 10.6% of respondents claim that they receive training twice a year; and 1.6% of respondents
claim that they receive training 4 times a year. This result shows that the more the training, the less the percentage of
responses. Employees who received training 4 times a year had the least responses. This means that fast food workers
in Cape Town receive training less than 4 times a year, which is not enough to improve their performance. A total of
38.2% of respondents chose not to respond to the statement.
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13.3 Training and development programs have improved my job performance
The reason for asking this question was to ascertain if training and development programs have improved the
performance of fast food workers in their workplace. The table below illustrates how respondents responded to the above
question.
Table 3: Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 43 35.0 38.4 38.4
No 69 56.1 61.6 100.0
Total 112 91.1 100.0
Missing System 11 8.9
Total 123 100.0
(n=123)
A total of 35% of respondents from the above table stated that training and development programs improved their job
performance, while 56.1% claimed that training and development programs have not improved their job performance.
The gap between the two percentages is quite a bit. This shows that though there is training and development in some
fast food outlets, it has not improved the performance of most employees. This could be a result of the way the training
was conducted or perhaps because the workers receive less training.
The number of times that the employees receive training and development has to do with their job performance
and the method of training that is used. In comparison to Tables 2 and 3, it can be said that 28.5% of fast food
employees in Cape Town receive training and development once in a year, while 1.6% of workers receive training and
development four times a year. This shows that employees are not given enough training and development. The
literature review showed that fast food employees should be trained at least once a week or for ten weeks annually. This
also explains the reason why employees have poor performance. A total of 56.1% of employees accepted that training
has not improved their work performance as stated above. An increase in the number of times that employees receive
training and development per year increased the cumulative percentage. This shows that if the number of times of
training increased per year, less people are trained. Training more fast food workers in Cape Town and introducing more
hours and days of training will go a long way to improve employees’ job performances.
13.4 What is your view about the performance of your staff members?
The managers revealed that staff performances were poor because they did not receive any formal training. They also
lack self confidence and self respect. Few interviewees stated that sometimes staff performance is good and sometimes
it is not. Other managers stated that workers are not motivated because there is no training given to them, while
promises of recognition are made, but not delivered, and hence not enough recognition is practiced.
14. Discussion of Results
It is assumed here that most fast food employees are not empowered by training and development. Staff members that
are empowered with training and development seem not to be effective in their work. This could be as a result of poor
follow up after the training program to ensure that the new skills and knowledge acquired has actually taken place and
that it is used by employees in their workplace. Results from Table 1 showed that 54.5% of respondents were not
empowered with training and development, while 45.5% were empowered. The cumulative result in Table 1 also showed
that 100% of respondents are not trained, while 45.5% of respondents are empowered. This shows poor training and
development programs at fast food outlets in Cape Town.
The above analysis revealed that training and development of fast food workers in Cape Town is not enough.
Responses from the interviews with staff and managers revealed that they are not given enough training and
development, while some responded that they are not given any training at all. However, training and development is
meant to improve the performance of workers. It can be said that it is not the only way whereby employees can improve
their performance, but other means include improving the work environment, managerial behaviour towards workers, and
communication amongst workers (Ukandu & Ukpere, 2011: 7). This was mentioned in the main research. Also, training is
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the major tool by which employees can improve their performances. For instance, the management of fast food outlets in
Cape Town can improve the performances of employees by improving their customer services skills, sales and marketing
techniques, and so on. These methods can only be achieved with training and development.
Table 2 above revealed that as the amount of training and development increased, the frequency of occurrence
reduced. This means that respondents received training and development less times in a year. The researcher observed
from the table above that most respondents had training once a year with 35 times of occurrence, hence 28.5%, while
the others did not have training and development at all with 26 times of occurrence hence 21.1%. The rest had training
and development twice and 4 times a year. However, the number was minimal with 13% and 2%, respectively.
Training plays an important role in the performance of fast food workers especially those in the Cape Town
metropolis by driving customer satisfaction, and by handling their orders quicker and more accurately. It also improves
employees’ morale and mood and increases employees’ motivation to work. Adequate training and development
programs enhance the quality of employees’ services. Their work environment can be frustrating and demoralizing if
training and development is not given to them.
Table 3 revealed that training and development programs have not improved the performance of a majority of fast
food employees in Cape Town. It also shows that 69% of respondents believe that training has not improved their job
performances, while 43% of respondents stated that training and development programs have improved their job
performance. There is no doubt that some fast food managers organize training and development for their staff
members, but the question is: are staff members implementing the skills and knowledge that they acquire from the
training program? As stated above, fast food workers are not performing well, which could be a result of poor follow up
after the training programs to ensure that the new skills and knowledge that were acquired, have in fact helped and are
being used by employees in their workplace. It could also be that the training and development method or technique
used during the program was not successful. A majority of fast food outlets were found not to provide training and
development for their workers, as shown in Table 1.
Indeed, there is a need for training and development programs at fast food outlets in Cape Town, as this will
ensure better work performance and help the organization, to achieve their goals. Poor job performance can be solved
by ensuring that training and development is organized for workers, and that a member of the management team attends
the training and development program as well with the rest of the staff members. Again, the training objectives should be
stated to staff members who attend the training program and these staff members should be followed up and their job
performance monitored for a better result.
It is important to note that an increase in the number of times that training and development is offered to fast food
workers in Cape Town will improve their work performance and state of motivation. Therefore, it is suggested that the
number of training and development programs should be increased. Literature revealed that training should be
conducted at least once a week or over a ten week period within a year. Anything less than this will be assumed as not
enough for workers.
15. Limitations
The researcher was delayed during the data collection process as a result of the structure of the respondents’ business.
Fast food outlets are usually busy, hence respondents were limited with time. Also, the researcher took time to explain
the questionnaires to each staff member, as most of the staff members were not properly educated and could, therefore,
not read or write well. Some staff members were sick at work and could not read and so the researcher had to read and
explain the questionnaire to them. Besides, some store managers and franchisees were difficult to approach as one of
them did not even respond to the interview questions.
The researcher was also hindered from receiving information from some fast food outlets and some store
managers warned beforehand not to bring questions from certain areas of study. Some fast food outlets did not give
permission to conduct the research at their outlets, while some workers also did not respond to the questions, hence
there was some missing data, which was negligible and did not affect the result.
16. Conclusion
It is clear from the analysis that employee training and development at fast food outlets in Cape Town was not sufficient
and as a result has not improved staff performances. This was assumed to be a result of the method of training and
development; poor follow up after training and the number of times per year that this training was administered. The
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management at fast food outlets in Cape Town was advised to take training and development of their employees
seriously, as this can destroy or mend their employees. Training and development should certainly become part of the
culture of most fast food outlets in Cape Town and employees’ benefits, including other economic issues, should be
emphasised. Therefore, a policy that promotes training and development of employees at fast food outlets within Cape
Town should be introduced in order to improve workers’ job performance. The importance of training and development is
multi-fold as stated above, and includes: a harmonious work environment, accurate work specifications and a passion to
work. It also encourages team spirit amongst workers. It strengthens the capabilities of employees and gives them a
competitive advantage. Workers’ personal characteristics and professional abilities are improved. Furthermore, it
increases employee job satisfaction and helps them to have a better understanding of their work. Training and
development enhances self development and self confidence in the workplace and also allows them to become more
effective problem solvers. For the organization, training leads to increased productivity, reduces employee accidents and
safety violations, helps in organizational development and reduces wastage and employee turnover. Finally, there should
be a strategic method of training and development of workers that is introduced at fast food outlets to enhance job
performance and to reduce employee turnover.
17. Recommendations
In order to develop the abilities of employees to satisfy their present and future needs, a strategic method of training and
development should be introduced. This will ensure good execution of tasks and behavioural changes on the part of
workers. It enhances the skills and abilities of workers in their job performances. However, there is a need for
managements at fast food outlets to initiate a formal, systematic and holistic method of training and development of their
workers to improve the skills and abilities of their workers, and increase their motivation to work. The managements at
fast food outlets in Cape Town should train their workers by using on-the-job training methods. Workers should be
trained within their actual work environments as a real life situation, which will help employees to learn through
experience, and hence be motivated to work. Fast food workers should be trained by using job rotation in different
departments of the outlets, as this will allow workers to gain detailed experience of the job and be able to work in different
posts without someone helping them. Workers should be trained by inviting an experienced worker to present an oral
presentation of the job (coaching). Furthermore, employees should be given instructions or a list of steps, which they can
follow to perform a given task (job instruction). In addition, new employees should be placed under the auspices of an
experienced person (apprenticeship), which will result in high levels of motivation amongst workers, as well as better job
performance.
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... Nevertheless, training is an efficient and planned process to provide and improve knowledge and understanding, skills and behaviour of members to achieve the objectives of the organization. Also, it is a learning experience that benefits from perpetual adjustment, which helps to improve the organizational practices (Ukandu & Ukpere, 2013). ...
... Consistent with this study's findings, scholars of human resource management stated that training is a planned programme designed to improve performance at the individual, group and organizational levels (Cascio & Aguinis, 2005). It is a short term process piloted for the purpose of developing a systematic and planned practice by obtaining technical knowledge and skills for a certain matter or subject (Ukandu & Ukpere, 2013). ...
... Similarly, Nestoroska and Petrovska (2014) stressed that adequate training helps organizations and practitioners conduct their negotiations properly. However, Ukandu and Ukpere (2013) noted that training is designed to be offered when current standards are not inspiring due to lack of skills and poor attitudes of the organization's members. In view of that, this research argues that the challenge is about developing individuals and assisting them to be more confident and competent in the performance of their duties. ...
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... As a result, effective practices of development and training supports the workforce's motivation for training in human resource development strategies can make impacts of the Organization performance. Ukandu and Ukpere (2013) identified different types of training strategies that might use organizations and they are included on-the-job training, coaching, understudy, job rotation, and off -thejob training. They further indicate that training strategy can be a failure if the program lacks a means of transferring learning to the job; if it lacks specific direction and focus and if management views it as a cost, and not an investment. ...
... Organizations have to able to recognize the requirements for skills development strategies and programs as well as selecting appropriate techniques for these requirements, planning how to apply them and afterwards evaluate results (McCourt, and Derek, 2003). Furthermore, skills development increases employees job satisfaction and will help them to have a better understanding of their work (Ukandu and Ukpere, 2013). According to Buyens et al. (2001) Human Resources if they are adequately nurtured, developed and educated, are becoming the most important positive feature of an Organization. ...
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... In addition, Schultz et al. (2003) in their study also agreed that the organisation and manager should continue motivating their employees consistently to achieve organisational goals and reduce employee turnover. Moreover, motivated employees will usually work harder and try to improve themselves in every aspect (Ukandu & Ukpere, 2013). This study also supports the fact that intrinsic and extrinsic motivations significantly and positively influence employee performance, which is in line with the studies done by Afful-Broni (2004) and Tan, Mansor, and Tat (2014). ...
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... This study only focused on staff nurses who have worked for more than six months in the hospital. This is consistent with the research done by Ukandu and Ukpere (2013) who stated that six months is regarded as an adequate period for employees to adapt themselves to the organizational work environment. A period of two weeks was given to respondents to answer the questionnaire. ...
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