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Diversité et productivité des champignons comestibles dans la forêt classée de Wari-Maro au Bénin (Afrique de l´Ouest)

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... Unfortunately, the response of EcM communities to global warming and environmental changes is scarcely addressed in tropical zones and especially in tropical. In Sudanian woodlands of Africa, a strong variability has been noticed regarding species richness and community structure throughout the fruiting season (Yorou et al., 2001). Nevertheless, the authors failed to link species composition, community structure and productivity patterns of EcM with either the local temperature or soil humidity. ...
... To our knowledge, that study is the only one in tropical Africa addressing the impact of climate parameters on wild EcM fungi phenology and productions. Now, knowing temporal change in the phenology and production distribution, and their determinants is essential in the valorisation of natural productions of wild edible EcM fungi that amounts to thousand tons annually and involves many rural women (Yorou et al., 2001Yorou et al., , 2014 Boa, 2004). However, a prerequisite to climate impact assessment is the analysis of EcM fungi diversity and the evaluation of possible other natural underlying mechanisms of richness pattern (Tedersoo and Nara, 2010). ...
... EcM fungal fruit bodies (EFFB) were collected in each plot following parallel bands of 2 m large. To avoid missing short living species, each plot was visited once a week from April to early October 2014 as implemented by Yorou et al. (2001). We recorded the nearest EcM partner trees to each sampled fruit body and geographic coordinates using GPS Garmin GPSMAP® 62stc (Garmin International Inc., Olathe, KS, USA). ...
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The key role of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi in ecosystems functioning has been demonstrated worldwide. However, their diversity, spatial distribution, fruiting phenology and production as influenced by climatic parameters variability remain poorly understood in tropical African forests. Weekly surveys were conducted from April to early October 2014 at the Comoé National Park (CNP), Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) in 09 permanent plots established in Isoberlinia doka (IW), Uapaca togoensis (UW) and Mixed (MW) woodlands. Non metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of EcM fungi abundance was run to assess the influence of environment tal parameters on fungi distribution using the package VEGAN. Hierarchical clustering based on dissimilarity and indicator species analysis were run to characterize fungi communities. Analyses were computed with the statistical program R. A total of 123 EcM fungi species belonging to 23 genera and 09 families were collected at CNP. Simpson diversity (1-D) and evenness were 0.97 and 0.54, 0.97 and 0.61, 0.96 and 0.52 for IW, MW and UW respectively. Yet, weekly-based species accumulation curves did not reach an asymptote. Stem density of U. togoensis Pax (UTDen) and I. doka Craib & Stapf were the most important tree parameters influencing EcM fungi distribution (respectively r 2 = 0.92 / p-value = 0.002 and r 2 = 0.83 / p-value = 0.018). Two sites groups were distinguished and four indicators species were identified.
... In West African countries (particularly Benin, Togo and Ghana), the cultivation of mushroom of genus Pleurotus generates income, especially for women, thereby contributing to their economic independence (van Djick et al. 2003;Apetorgbor et al. 2005). However, in spite of the high natural production of edible fungal species in these countries, their harvest and trade is qualified as an occasional activity ( Yorou et al 2002). In Côte d'Ivoire, mushrooms are known and consumed in many households. ...
... A clearly subdivided trade route in the seasonal exploitation of these mushrooms exists. In Benin for example, in spite of the high natural production of edible mushroom species in some areas, their harvest and trade remain an opportunistic activity ( Yorou et al 2002). In Ghana, women and children do mushroom hunting but no wellestablished trade route exists for their seasonal exploitation ( Apetorgbor et al. 2005). ...
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Objective: Picking fungal fruit bodies is a popular spare time occupation, as well as a source of income in many countries. In central and southern Côte d’Ivoire, fruit bodies of the genus Termitomyces are intensively harvested and sold by the local inhabitants. However, information on the dimensions of this trade and on other socio-economic aspects of the exploitation of these edible mushrooms is lacking. This study aims at (a) investigating the local populations’ knowledge about Termitomyces fruit bodies, (b) examining their utilization by identifying the actors involved of their exploitation and (c) determining the factors, explaining income differences among actors of this exploitation and fructification areas. Methodology: Some 240 persons from 12 villages belonging to two sub-ethnic groups (Baoulé and Abbey) were interviewed as to their attitude towards Termitomyces, using a structured survey questionnaire. Thus, we obtained information on Termitomyces fruit bodies’ availability, on indigenous knowledge and especially on the modes of utilization as well as on seasonal aspects of their trade. Conclusions: Interviewees had a solid knowledge of edible mushrooms in general and Termitomyces in particular. Four species were recorded in the study area (Termitomyces medius, T. letestui, T. cf. eurhizus and T. fuliginosus). The latter three species were considered as edible. These mushrooms are a key source of cash income, especially for women (traders) and the farmers (harvesters). However, only one species, Termitomyces letestui, is sold through a well-established trade route. Seasonal earnings within this trade route differed among actors, visited villages and phytogeographic zones. These fungi representing a typical Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) are menaced by unsustainable depletion. Overharvesting is jeopardizing their persistence as well as that of their dependant termite species. Raising an awareness that prevents their incurring the “tragedy of the commons” by developing a sustainable form of harvest is an essential prerequisite for their long-term preservation. Key words: Termitomyces; fruit bodies; Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs); seasonal income; Sustainable use.
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en The influence exerted by tree communities, topography, and soil chemistry on the assembly of macrofungal communities remains poorly understood, especially in highly diverse tropical forests. Here, we used a large dataset that combines inventories of macrofungal Basidiomycetes fruiting bodies, tree species composition, and measurements for 16 soil physicochemical parameters, collected in 34 plots located in four sites of lowland rain forests in French Guiana. Plots were established on three different topographical conditions: hilltop, slope, and seasonally flooded soils. We found hyperdiverse Basidiomycetes communities, mainly comprising members of Agaricales and Polyporales. Phosphorus, clay contents, and base saturation in soils strongly varied across plots and shaped the richness and composition of tree communities. The latter composition explained 23% of the variation in the composition of macrofungal communities, probably through high heterogeneity of the litter chemistry and selective effects of biotic interactions. The high local heterogeneity of habitats influenced the distribution of both macrofungi and trees, as a result of diversed local soil hydromorphic conditions associated with contrasting soil chemistry. This first regional study across habitats of French Guiana forests revealed new niches for macrofungi, such as ectomycorrhizal ones, and illustrates how macrofungi inventories are still paramount to can be to understand the processes at work in the tropics. Abstract in Spanish is available with online material. RESUMO fr L’influence exercée par les communautés d’arbres, la topographie et la chimie du sol sur l’assemblage des communautés de champignons reste très peu comprise, en particulier dans les forêts tropicales. Nous avons utilisé un jeu de données conséquent qui combine des inventaires de fructifications fongiques de Basidiomycètes, la composition en espèces d’arbres ainsi que les mesures de seize paramètres physico‐chimiques du sol, le tout collecté dans 34 parcelles de forêts tropicales situées dans 4 sites différents en Guyane Française. Les parcelles ont été établies dans trois conditions topographiques : en haut de colline, le long de la pente et dans les bas‐fonds inondés. Nous avons trouvé des communautés de Basidiomycètes très diverses, principalement appartenant aux Agaricales et Polyporales. Le phosphore, le contenu en argile et le taux de saturation sont extrêmement variables entre les parcelles et impactent la richesse et la composition des communautés d’arbres. Cette dernière explique 23% de la variation de la composition des communautés fongiques, probablement à travers la forte hétérogénéité de la chimie des litières et les effets sélectifs des interactions biotiques. L’hétérogénéité locale forte des habitats influencent la distribution à la fois des champignons et des arbres, conséquence de conditions hydromorphiques locales associées à une chimie contrastées des sols. Cette première étude régionales des habitats forestiers de Guyanes Française a révélé de nouvelles niches pour les macromycètes, telles que les ectomycorhizes, et souligne l’importance primordiale des inventaires afin de comprendre les processus au travail sous les tropiques
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