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Comparison of surface macrotexture measurement methods

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Recent advances in technology allowed for the use of laser-based systems that can directly measure macrotexture properties of various surfaces. Volumetric or sand patch method has historically been used as the main technique for measuring macrotexture. Different available methods do not all measure the same surface properties and often generate different measurements. Thus, it is crucial to determine the most suitable method for measuring surface macrotexture. This paper investigates mean profile depth measurements from three laser based macrotexture measuring devices, including a laser profiler, a laser texture scanner and a circular texture meter. The results are compared with mean texture depth obtained from volumetric sand patch tests. Experiments were conducted to measure macrotexture of 26 laboratory specimens, which included asphalt and Portland cement concrete samples of various type and finish, as well as other common manufactured textured samples. Based on the evaluation of experimental data collected in this study, relationships are recommended to predict standard macrotexture using the mean profile depth data measured by a laser equipment or scanner.
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Corresponding author: Halil Sezen
E-mail: sezen.1@osu.edu
Copyright © 2013 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press
www.tandfonline.com/tcem
S153
JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT
ISSN 1392-3730 print/ISSN 1822-3605 online
2013 Volume 19(Supplement 1): S153–S160
doi:10.3846/13923730.2013.802732
COMPARISON OF SURFACE MACROTEXTURE MEASUREMENT METHODS
Nicholas Fisco
a
, Halil Sezen
b
a
TranSystems Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
b
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science,
The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA
Received 08 Apr 2012; accepted 26 Jun 2012
Abstract. Recent advances in technology allowed for the use of laser-based systems that can directly measure macrotex-
ture properties of various surfaces. Volumetric or sand patch method has historically been used as the main technique for
measuring macrotexture. Different available methods do not all measure the same surface properties and often generate
different measurements. Thus, it is crucial to determine the most suitable method for measuring surface macrotexture.
This paper investigates mean profile depth measurements from three laser based macrotexture measuring devices, includ-
ing a laser profiler, a laser texture scanner and a circular texture meter. The results are compared with mean texture depth
obtained from volumetric sand patch tests. Experiments were conducted to measure macrotexture of 26 laboratory speci-
mens, which included asphalt and Portland cement concrete samples of various type and finish, as well as other common
manufactured textured samples. Based on the evaluation of experimental data collected in this study, relationships are rec-
ommended to predict standard macrotexture using the mean profile depth data measured by a laser equipment or scanner.
Keywords: macrotexture, mean profile depth, mean texture depth; pavement materials, sand patch, laser texture scanner.
Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Fisco, N.; Sezen, H. 2013. Comparison of surface macrotexture meas-
urement methods, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management 19(Supplement 1): S1531–S160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/13923730.2013.802732
Introduction
Macrotexture is a measurement that can be used to quan-
tify texture, roughness and friction characteristics of the
roads and other surfaces. Road surface texture is im-
portant to know because it affects many factors signifi-
cant in the design phase of a project. The surface texture
is related to and may be used in determination of noise
emission, friction, rolling resistance, splash and spray,
and tire wear which all contribute to the design and per-
formance of a roadway. Physical properties of pavement
materials have been investigated in the field (Kim et al.
2011).
The volumetric or sand patch method (ASTM E 965
2006) has been historically used as the main technique for
measuring pavement macrotexture. Macrotexture can be
defined as surface irregularities of wavelength varying
between approximately 0.5 and 50 mm. The texture depth
of the surface on which the sand patch test is performed,
is represented by mean texture depth (MTD). Recent
advances in technology have allowed for the development
of laser based systems that can directly measure macro-
texture, not only statically, but also at different speeds.
These different methods do not all measure the same
surface properties, though, and often generate different
measurements (Flintsch et al. 2003, 2005). Because of
these differences, it is crucial to determine the most suit-
able method for measuring pavement macrotexture. In
this research, several methods were used to determine
texture characteristics of laboratory specimens with dif-
ferent surface characteristics. Results from sand patch
tests, computed tomography scanning, laser profile scan-
ning, laser texture scanning and circular texture meter
scanning were evaluated and compared.
1. Laboratory samples
Samples ranging from asphalt and Portland cement con-
cretes of different finish and mix design, and with various
other textured surfaces were constructed or obtained.
Description of samples and test results can be found in
Fisco (2009) and Fisco and Sezen (2012).
1.1. Asphalt samples
Three different 356 mm diameter and 76 mm thick asphalt
samples were created by manually compressing the sam-
ples using a hand tamp in a metal mold. Stone matrix as-
phalt (SMA, Medium Grade) sample is composed of #7
aggregate, with an approximate particle diameter of
4.8 mm. SMA samples have a relatively rough surface
texture but less than that of the coarse graded asphalt. This
type of asphalt is commonly used as a surface course for
high-volume interstate roads due to its smoothness, drain-
age, friction, rut resistance and noise control characteris-
tics. Coarse Graded Asphalt Concrete or open graded
sample is composed of #57 aggregate, with particle sizes
N. Fisco, H. Sezen. Comparison of surface macrotexture measurement methods
S154
ranging from 4.8 to 25.4 mm, and contains large surface
irregularities. Sample appears very porous and has a very
rough surface texture. The air voids in the open graded
asphalt provide for excellent drainage characteristics,
which leads to a reduction in splash and spray. Dense
Graded Asphalt sample is composed of #8 limestone with
an approximate aggregate size of 2.5 mm and seems very
dense. Minimal voids between aggregate and binder appear
to exist and though it has a relatively coarse surface tex-
ture. It has the smoothest surface of the three asphalt sam-
ples used in this research. This type of asphalt is, when
designed correctly, relatively impermeable and appropriate
for use in all pavement layers and under all traffic condi-
tions.
Turf drag Portland cement concrete sample
Exposed aggregate Portland cement concrete sample
Smooth Portland cement concrete sample
SMA asphalt sample
Fig. 1. Selected samples and surface textures
1.2. Concrete samples
Concrete samples were 305 mm in diameter and 38 mm
thick. For all samples, the finish was done in a radial or
circular pattern to mimic a straight pattern as the samples
spin during experiments. Two samples of each finish,
except for burlap layover, were made for consistency.
Burlap Drag specimen was prepared by dragging a mois-
tened piece of coarse burlap (AASHTO M182 Class 2)
along surface, creating 1.6 mm deep striations. This finish
is usually used on roadways with lower travel speeds
(less than 70 km/h) and is less costly and quieter than
most tined finishes (Hoerner et al. 2003). Artificial Turf
Drag was prepared using an inverted piece of artificial
turf with 6.4-mm long blades and 9000 blades per ft
2
drug
along surface to create striations. Research has found that
this finish provides better surface friction and noise quali-
ties. Longitudinal Broom specimen was created using a
hand broom with hair bristles drug along surface, creating
1.6 to 3.2 mm deep striations. This finish has been found
to be a less costly and quieter alternative to tined finishes
and is adequate for roadways with travel speeds up to
70 km/h (Hoerner et al. 2003).
A metal trowel was used to make 3.2 to 6.4 mm
deep, 3.2 mm wide grooves spaced 19 mm at a radius of
127 mm in Transverse Tine sample. This type of tining is
cost effective and improves a pavement’s friction charac-
teristics because the grooves are highly efficient at quick-
ly removing surface water. A downside to this finish is
that it increases pavement noise. Metal trowel was used
to get the concrete surface of Smooth Finish sample as
smooth as possible. This finish is typically used indoors
on surfaces such as slabs. This finish is not ideal for
pavements, due to its low surface texture and low friction
characteristics.
A retarder was sprayed onto the surface of the Ex-
posed Aggregate sample and the top mortar was later
removed leaving the top layer or aggregate exposed. Ad-
vantages of this finish type of pavement surface include
low noise, exceptional high-speed skid resistance, low
splash and spray, and good surface durability. The speci-
men Burlap Layover was created by placing a piece of
moistened coarse burlap (AASHTO M182 Class 2) on
top of sample surface for 24 hours and then removed.
Texture of random thatched burlap pattern left on sample
surface. Figure 1 shows three different concrete samples
used in this research.
1.3. Other samples
Perm-a-Mulch Rubber Stepping Stone was a round, disc-
shaped artificial stepping-stone made of recycled rubber
pellets. The disc was 330 mm in diameter, 32 mm thick,
and was very porous. The surface of the disc was moder-
ately coarse due to the jagged rubber pellets that make up
its composition. USG Tivoli Ceiling Tile was a square
wood fibre ceiling panel that is 305 mm on each edge and
was 13 mm thick. The surface was smooth with random
1 mm indentations for aesthetics. USG Cheyenne Ceiling
Panel was a 610 mm square ceiling panel that was made
of slag wool and various minerals such as perlite, silicate
and kaolin. Texture of the tile was very rough with nu-
merous sharp peaks and irregularities. Sandpaper Discs
of grit 50, 60, and 80 were used. The 50-grit sandpaper is
coarser than the 60 grit, which is much coarser than the
80 grit. Granite Stepping Stone was a commercial
305 mm square stone with a 13 mm thickness. The stone
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 2013, 19(Supplement 1): 153–160
S155
had two distinct surfaces. One was very smooth while the
other was relatively rough.
2. Sand patch test method
In sand patch method or volumetric patch method, a fixed
volume of sand or glass spheres is carefully poured on a
test location. Using a flat disk, the sample is spread out in
a circular motion while trying to keep the sand or glass
spheres evenly distributed until the disk comes in contact
with the material surface. The patch area is calculated
using the average diameter of the circular patch. By di-
viding the volume of material by the area covered, the
average depth of the layer or mean texture depth (MTD)
of the surface is calculated from Eqn (1) specified in
ASTM E 965 (2006):
2
4
MTD ,
V
D
=
π ⋅
(1)
where: V is volume of sand or glass spheres; and D is
average patch diameter. Figure 2 shows four sand patch
tests performed on an exposed Portland cement concrete
sample using 12.5 mL of fine sand for each test.
Fig. 2. Volumetric sand patch tests performed on an exposed
aggregate concrete sample
3. Computed tomography scanning
The use of digital imagery, especially computed tomogra-
phy (CT) scans, to measure three-dimensional surface
characteristics of pavements has shown much promise. CT
scans can help to better understand sample surface charac-
teristics. Abbas et al. (2007) applied the results of CT
scans to measure the mean profile depth (MPD) of con-
crete field cores in accordance with ASTM E 1845 (2005).
Similarly, Kutay and Aydilek (2007) used CT scans to
quantify the effects of moisture on asphalt structure. CT
scanning is typically employs the use of tomography,
which involves the process of sectioning. Two-dimensional
x-rays or “slices” are combined using algorithms to make a
three-dimensional image of the object being scanned
around a single axis of rotation. In this research the speci-
men was placed on a bed that moves the specimen through
the gantry, or opening, of the machine. As the specimen
passes through, the gantry rotates around the bed and spec-
imen (single axis of rotation) and takes two-dimensional x-
ray images of the specimen. In this research, Siemens
SOMATOM Sensation CT Scanner was used. This scanner
has detector arrays which scan 64 slices per rotation. The
gantry takes 0.33 seconds to do a full rotation (180 rpm)
with a total scan time of under five minutes.
After the samples were scanned, the two-dimen-
sional images were reconstructed using the TeraRecon
Aquarius imaging software. A three-dimensional (3-D)
rendering of the entire sample was produced for each
specimen. In addition, a three-dimensional rendering was
made of a 100 mm square area of the surface (Figures 3d
and 3e). Though the use of CT imaging was limited dur-
ing this study, it showed great promise in obtaining accu-
rate representations of the sample surface and profile, as
well as the internal structure. A limitation of this method,
however, is that cores are required to perform laboratory
tests on, making it impractical for field use at this point.
a) b)
c)
d) e)
Fig. 3. Exposed aggregate concrete sample CT scan rendering:
a) top view; b) side view; c) two-dimensional CT scan slice;
d) top view; and e) side view of 100 mm square sections
4. Laser profile scanning
In recent years, different laser tools have been successful-
ly used to measure the surface macrotexture of highway
pavements (Choubane et al. 2002; Sezen et al. 2008;
Byrum et al. 2010). In this project, a laser profiler pro-
vided by Dynatest (Selcom Optocator 2008-180/390) was
used to measure the macrotexture of test samples. The
laser had a measuring range of 180 mm with a standoff of
N. Fisco, H. Sezen. Comparison of surface macrotexture measurement methods
S156
390 mm. It had a sampling rate of 62.5 kHz with 45 mi-
crons resolution. The laser system was mounted on the
front end of a van, and was housed in a steel box approx-
imately 305 mm off the ground (Fig. 4).
Fig. 4. Test apparatus for laser profiler
An apparatus was built to spin the samples to simu-
late the Dynatest laser profiler driving over the surface of
the sample. To do this, a Makita 7,500 RPM metal grinder
was attached to an aluminium plate, which was bolted to a
concrete slab (Fig. 4). Samples were bolted to the alumini-
um plate and grinder. To make all tests comparable, read-
ings were taken on each sample for a set total distance of
152 m. An average of all MPD values over the 152 m sec-
tion was then taken and used as the average MPD at the set
speed in compliance with ASTM E 1845 (2005).
5. Laser texture scanning
Portable laser macrotexture measurement devices have
recently been developed for determining pavement tex-
ture. The laser texture scanner system produced by Ames
Engineering is used in this research (Ames 2009). This
device scans the material surface in multiple line scans to
measure the mean profile depth (MPD), estimated texture
depth (ETD), and a 3-D image of the material surface.
The scanner is capable of scanning an area that is
101.6 mm long and 76.2 mm wide and has a maximum
capacity of 1200 lines, which equates to an average spac-
ing of 0.0635 mm between scan lines. The laser has a
standoff distance of 42 mm, vertical and horizontal sam-
pling resolutions of 0.015 mm, and profile wavelength
ranging from 0.03 mm to 50 mm. Four different quarters
were tested on each sample, with the scanner set to run
100 lines. 3-D rendering of the exposed aggregate con-
crete sample is shown in Figure 5.
6. CT meter scanning
Circular texture meter (CT meter) is a surface macrotex-
ture measurement device that uses a laser to measure the
MPD of a surface along a circular track with a fixed di-
ameter of 284 mm. The device used in this study was the
Nippo CTM manufactured by the Nippo Sangyo Co. of
Japan (Abe et al. 2001). It uses a 670 mm wavelength
laser that has a spot size of 70 µm, a measuring range of
30 mm, and a vertical resolution of 3 µm. The arm on
which the laser is mounted spins at a speed of 7.5 rpm
and the laser samples at a rate of 1,024 samples per rota-
tion. The sample is split radially into eight 112 mm arcs
of equal length (labelled A through H) and the MPD of
each arc is determined. These eight measurements are
then averaged to give an overall MPD for the entire sur-
face and produce a 2-D surface profile.
All specimens described above were placed on the
ground or in a testing rig and the CT meter was then
placed above each specimen. Surface of each specimen
was scanned three times along the same 284-mm diame-
ter circular track, with an MPD reading and a 2-D surface
profile being recorded for each test. As an example, the
measured surface profile of the exposed aggregate sample
is shown in Figure 6.
7. Comparison of surface macrotexture methods
In this research, four main macrotexture testing methods
are compared. The Dynatest laser profiler measures tex-
ture by obtaining MPD readings for a 2-D profile of the
surface in the direction of travel. These MPD values must
be transformed into estimated texture depth (ETD) so that
they can be compared to MTD measurements from the
sand patch method. The Ames laser scanner measures a
3-D profile of a 102×76 mm area by making repeated
passes with the laser and compiling the 2-D profile data
for each pass. From these compiled profiles, an ETD
value is calculated, which can be compared directly to the
MTD value.
a) b)
Fig. 5. 3-D surface rendering of the exposed aggregate concrete sample obtained from laser texture scanner: a) top; and b) side views
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 2013, 19(Supplement 1): 153–160
S157
Fig. 6. Surface profile of exposed aggregate sample measured by the CT meter scanner (in mm units)
The CT meter is another laser based method to
measure 2-D texture and MPD along a circular track.
These MPD values are also transformed into ETD so that
they can be compared to measurements from the sand
patch tests and other methods. A disadvantage of this
method is that it only measures texture along a single 2-D
profile and may, therefore, miss what’s happening on the
other parts of the surface, which may be rougher or
smoother than the track being measured. The features of
the surface texture that are missed by the CT meter can be
captured using the 3-D texture measurement methods of
the sand patch and Ames scanner. The main disadvantage
of 2-D CT meter and 3-D Ames laser scanner is their
limitation on the size of scanned area. These two tools
can measure the texture of a relatively small surface.
They are not practical to measure the macrotexture of
large pavement segments. 2-D Dynatest laser profiler can
be handy to measure the macrotexture of large surfaces.
The 2-D testing may have problems with porous,
open-graded, and highly textured surfaces. Because these
surfaces have large voids, it is unlikely that the 2-D pro-
filer captures all the highest peaks and the lowest valleys
of the voids. Rather, the profile captures some of the
extremes but, for the most part, captures points in be-
tween, thus underestimating the actual texture. Similarly,
sand patch test cannot accurately predict the texture of
very rough or porous surfaces because even distribution
of sand or glass spheres may not be possible.
7.1. Texture depth from laser profiler and laser
scanner
The mean profile depth (MPD) value provided by the
Dynatest laser profiler is obtained as the average of MPD
values calculated at user specified intervals. The MPD
value is calculated using an algorithm based on
ASTM specification E 1845 (2005). Per ASTM E 1845,
the profile is divided into segments with a base length of
100 mm. The slope of each segment and the height of the
highest peak are determined. The difference between the
height and the average level of the segment is then calcu-
lated. The average values of these differences for all
segments making up the measured profile are finally
reported as the MPD for the entire pavement section.
In order to compare the MPD to mean texture depth
(MTD) from sand patch test, a transformation equation is
used to reclassify the MPD as an Estimated Texture
Depth (ETD). Eqn (2) should yield ETD values which are
close to the MTD values obtained from the volumetric
technique according to ASTM E 965 (2006) and
ASTM E 1845 (2005) in mm units:
ETD = 0.2 + 0.8 · MPD. (2)
After each laser scan, the average MPD for the
scanned sample area was reported by the Ames laser
scanner. The average MPD was then converted into ETD
by using Eqn (2) as recommended by Ames
(2009).
7.2. Texture depth from CT meter
The MPD values obtained from each of the three runs
along the same circular track on a sample were converted
to MTD using Eqn (3) presented in ASTM E2157 (2005)
in mm units. For the purpose of this study, this MTD will
be referred to as ETD to avoid confusion when the sam-
ple macrotexture from different methods are compared
below. The ETD values from three runs were averaged to
get an overall average value of the ETD for each sample.
Since most of the samples were only 305 mm in diameter
and the CT meter took measurements at a diameter of
284 mm, it is possible that macrotexture near the edges
can be slightly different (edge effects):
MTD = 0.947 · MPD + 0.069. (3)
7.3. Comparison of macrotexture from different
methods
Table 1 shows the MTD values from volumetric sand
patch tests, along with the ETD values, calculated from
Eqns (2) and (3) using the MPD values from the Ames
laser texture scanner, Dynatest laser profiler, and CT meter
tests, respectively. Data reported in Table 1 for the laser
profiler corresponds to a laser speed of 40 km/h. Table 1
shows that the open graded and SMA asphalt samples, and
exposed aggregate concrete samples have the highest MTD
and ETD values. Conversely, the smooth granite samples
had the smallest average MPD and ETD values. Of the
concrete samples, the exposed aggregate samples were the
roughest, while the smooth finished samples had the small-
est MPD and ETD values. For the sandpaper samples, the
average MPD and ETD decreased as grit number in-
creased, which is expected, since the fineness of sandpaper
increases as the grit number increases.
Table 1 shows that, in general, the Ames laser tex-
ture scanner results are comparable with the sand patch
MTD than the results from Dynatest laser profiler and CT
N. Fisco, H. Sezen. Comparison of surface macrotexture measurement methods
S158
meter ETD. The average percent difference between the
sand patch data (MTD) and other methods (ETD) was
also calculated. When the average was taken, the porous
samples (e.g. rubber stepping-stone and open graded
asphalt) were not taken into account due to the potential
inadequacy of the sand patch method on those surface
types. As mentioned above, when the sand is poured onto
the porous surface, the sand flows in the voids, giving a
smaller value for the MTD and, therefore, overestimating
it. This is one advantage of using a laser based system.
Also, the asphalt samples were not taken into account for
the Dynatest laser profiler comparisons. This was done
because of the problem of changing of surface texture
while the samples were spun at high speeds and could not
be adequately restrained. The overall average percent
difference for the Ames laser texture scanner, Dynatest
laser profiler and CT meter was 28%, 36% and 37%,
respectively.
The percent differences were averaged and classi-
fied according to type of sample (concrete or non-
pavement) and texture (overly rough with MTD more
than 1.90 mm or overly smooth with MTD less than
0.25 mm). It was found that the laser texture scanner had
the smallest percent difference for the concrete break-
down, while the CT meter had the least percent difference
for the non-pavement and smooth samples.
8. Analysis of test results
The results from each method were analysed by compar-
ing the MPD data from each method with MTD values
from the sand patch tests. A best-fit line and coefficient
of correlation were calculated for the two methods. The
closer the coefficient of correlation is to 1.0, the better the
correlation, and the better the method is (Moore et al.
2009). Many researchers, including Prowell and Hanson
(2005), Flintsch et al. (2005), Meegoda et al. (2005), and
Wang et al. (2011) used this technique to compare ma-
crotexture methods, such as the CT meter and laser pro-
filers.
Figure 7a shows the relationship between the MTD
values from sand patch tests and MPD data obtained from
the laser texture scanner. The MPD measurements ob-
tained from the laser profiler at a speed of 40 km/h were
plotted against sand patch MTD to determine how well
the data correlated. A similar linear relationship was ob-
tained for the sand patch MTD and CT meter MPD data.
The equations relating the sand patch MTD data and the
MPD data from the laser texture scanner, laser profiler
and CT meter are shown and compared with the corre-
sponding ASTM equations in Table 2.
Table 1. Average MTD from sand patch tests compared with average ETD and percent difference for Ames laser texture scanner,
Dynatest laser profiler at 25 mph speed, and CT meter
Sand patch Laser scanner Laser profiler CT meter
MTD ETD ETD ETD
mm mm (%) mm (%) mm (%)
50 Grit Sandpaper 0.305 0.389 (24) 0.505 (49) 0.224 (31)
60 Grit Sandpaper 0.337 0.345 (2.3) 0.430 (24) 0.198 (52)
80 Grit Sandpaper 0.237 0.345 (37) 0.484 (69) 0.154 (42)
Alpine Tile 0.708 0.677 (4.5) 0.708 (0) 0.584 (19)
Broom 1 1.372 1.103 (22) 0.776 (56) 0.685 (67)
Broom 2 1.324 1.043 (24) 0.810 (48) 0.656 (67)
Burlap Drag 1 0.767 0.787 (2.6) 0.654 (16) 0.748 (3)
Burlap Drag 2 0.738 0.845 (14) 0.688 (7) 0.795 (7)
Burlap Layover 0.354 0.465 (27) 0.423 (18)
Cheyenne Tile 2.498 1.878 (28) 2.334 (7)
Dense Graded Asphalt 0.703 0.636 (10) 2.532 (113) 1.382 (65)
Exposed Aggregate 1 2.492 1.869 (29) 1.934 (25) 1.966 (24)
Exposed Aggregate 2 2.486 1.836 (30) 1.954 (24) 1.714 (37)
Open Graded Asphalt 1 7.885 2.682 (99) 3.229 (84)
Open Graded Asphalt 2 11.85 2.276 (136) 5.508 (73)
Radial Tine 1 2.206 1.790 (21) 1.948 (12) 1.101 (67)
Radial Tine 2 2.187 1.761 (22) 2.286 (4) 0.814 (92)
Rough Granite 0.364 0.608 (50) 0.606 (50) 0.479 (27)
Rubber Stepping Stone 3.259 1.049 (103) 2.936 (10) 0.959 (109)
SMA 2.864 1.582 (58) 3.223 (12) 1.654 (54)
Smooth 1 1.855 1.296 (36) 2.222 (18) 0.322 (55)
Smooth 2 0.166 0.324 (65) 0.329 (66) 0.236 (39)
Smooth Granite 0.223 0.327 (38) 0.349 (44) 0.104 (104)
Tivoli Panel (12") 0.130 0.265 (68) 0.403 (103) 0.249 (54)
Turf Drag 1 0.234 0.341 (37) 0.417 (56) 0.536 (44)
Turf Drag 2 1.131 1.008 (12) 0.728 (43) 0.959 (32)
Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 2013, 19(Supplement 1): 153–160
S159
a)
b)
Fig. 7. Linear relationship between MTD from sand patch test
and: a) laser scanner; and b) laser profiler
Table 2. Summary of proposed macrotexture relations and
ASTM standard equations (in mm units)
Method ASTM Standards Proposed equations
Laser scanner 0.8 · MPD + 0.2 1.17 · MPD
Laser profiler 0.8 · MPD + 0.2 0.96 · MPD + 0.139
CT Meter 0.947 · MPD +
0.069 1.25 · MPD + 0.078
Overall 1.1 · MPD + 0.082
Conclusions
Macrotexture of 26 laboratory specimens were obtained
using: 1) sand patch test method; 2) x-ray computer to-
mography (CT) scanner; 3) laser profiler; 4) laser texture
scanner; and 5) laser circular texture meter (CT meter).
The majority of the analyses discussed in this paper was
done with the assumption that the sand patch test meas-
urement (MTD) was the most accurate predictor of sur-
face macrotexture. This may be incorrect since there is no
way of obtaining a truly accurate measurement of pave-
ment macrotexture. For example, it was concluded in this
research that sand patch test should not be used to predict
the macrotexture of porous surfaces. If a new equipment
or measurement method is developed in the future, the
relations based on MTD can be updated using the new
method as it is done in this study.
Whenever practical, laser texture scanner can be
used to collect 2-D and 3-D surface macrotexture data.
Laser scanner is probably the most suitable device for the
measurement of surface macrotexture due to various limi-
tations of each method investigated in this paper. It was
found in this research that reasonably accurate MPD can
be obtained by laser scanning within 60 seconds, which is
typically less than the time required for conducting a sand
patch test. The laser texture scanner MPD was found to
have a higher correlation to the MTD from sand patch
tests. Due to the time and traffic control needed to per-
form laser texture scanning, the 2-D laser profiler may be
superior due to its quickness, relative ease of operation,
and relative accuracy of predicting surface macrotexture.
The relations between MTD and MPD were found
to differ from the equations presented in ASTM E 1845
(2005) and ASTM E 2157 (2005). The simplified equa-
tions shown in Table 2 are proposed for the laser texture
scanner, laser profiler and CT meter investigated in this
research. A general equation is also recommended to
predict standard macrotexture (MTD) from the MPD
measured by a scanner or laser equipment.
Acknowledgements
Funding for this research was provided by the Ohio De-
partment of Transportation (ODOT); this is gratefully
acknowledged. The contents of this paper reflect the view
of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official
views or policies of the sponsor or other entities. Asphalt
and concrete samples were created by Kokosing Materi-
als Inc. and by ODOT, respectively. The CT meter was
provided for use by Burns, Cooley, Dennis, Inc. of
Ridgeland, Mississippi through the Federal Highway
Administration loan program. The authors would like to
thank these entities and the Ohio State University Center
for Automotive Research, Ames Engineering Inc., and
Dynatest.
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Nicholas FISCO. A structural engineer with the TranSystems Corporation in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. He received his
Master’s degree from the Ohio State University in 2009.
Halil SEZEN. An Associate Professor in the Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering at the Ohio
State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA. He got his BSc, MSc and PhD degrees from the Middle East Technical Universi-
ty, Ankara, Turkey; Cornell University, New York; and University of California, Berkeley, respectively.
... The typical parameter to describe pavement macrotexture is the mean profile depth (MPD) or the mean texture depth (MTD). MPD is linearly related to MTD and is usually converted to MTD when comparing different macrotexture calculation methods (Fisco and Sezen 2014;Henry 2000). ...
... The sand patch method is operator-dependent, and the test results have poor repeatability (Sengoz, Topal, and Tanyel 2012). Other problems with the sand patch method include that on surfaces with very deep textures, it is very easy to overestimate the texture depth (Fisco and Sezen 2014), and accurate sand patch testing cannot be done when the road surface is sticky or wet (Praticò and Vaiana 2015). As is the case with the sand patch method, the outflow method also is labor-intensive and time-consuming, and the reliability of the results depends largely on the operator. ...
... The circular laser-based device has been deployed for routine macrotexture measurement since 2002 (Abe et al. 2001), and the more portable handheld laser meter, such as the Ames laser texture scanner (LTS) and ELAtext meter (Patzak et al. 2016), were used and evaluated for macrotexture measurement. Laser-based linear profiling devices have been shown to be able to improve testing efficiency to a great degree (Fisco and Sezen 2014). White, Ward, and Jamieson (2019) showed that the macrotexture measurement results from an ELAtext meter were reliable compared to the sand patch method. ...
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... The only limitation of using a laser texture meter is the cost compared to the sand patch method, but it has the advantages of being easy to transport and its ability to overcome the limitations of the sand patch method that includes human error and wind blowing of sand during the experiment. There are different available handheld laser texture meters including Circular Track Meter (CTM), Digital Surface Roughness Meter (DSRM) (Fisco 2009;China & James, 2012), Laser Inertial Road Profiler (LIRP) (Flintsch et al. 2003) and ELAtext meter (Patzak et al. 2016). ...
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Samples were cut into three disks and the bitumen was extracted from each disk. Extracted bitumen was tested for SARA analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, and DSR. The results showed the more severe effect of ageing on the bitumen in the top disks, compared to middle disks in both oven and weathering chamber. The ageing severity gradient was more noticeable in samples aged in the weathering chamber, which reflects the limited depth into which UV irradiation penetrates the asphalt mixture, in addition to the exposure of surface disks to elevated temperature and air which promotes binder oxidation. It was concluded that UV irradiation causes more severe ageing when combined with heat, which highlights the effect of UV irradiation as a catalyst in the ageing phenomenon and the importance of including UV irradiation in future accelerated ageing protocols. Inter-relations between different test results showed weak positive correlations between FTIR results and SARA fractions. In addition, a weak positive correlation between colloidal instability index and the results from FTIR exists. This means there were no meaningful correlations between SARA analysis results and FTIR. Separating the SARA fractions and testing each fraction is recommended for better understanding of the relationships between SARA fractions and FTIR. On the other hand, there was a good positive correlation between the terminal resilient modulus as a dependant variable and the initial resilient modulus, in addition to the rheological and chemical properties of bitumen. Initial resilient modulus and the complex modulus of the extractions from top disks showed significant contribution to the model, while SARA analysis results and FTIR showed insignificant contribution. However, changes in the chemical composition play a crucial role in terms of the changes of the rheological properties. Two approaches were compared to find the equivalent field ageing durations to the developed ageing models. First, estimating the field duration in terms of comparing the field UV irradiation intensity and the UV chamber irradiance, which appears to be unrealistic because the temperature of the chamber affects the acceleration rate of the ageing process. Second, comparing the rheological and chemical properties of the extracted binder from lab aged samples and the corresponding properties of the extractions from field cores, at different climatic regions, which showed promising results. It is recommended that future research include the recovery of aged field cores to provide researchers with a reliable database for the estimation of the equivalent field durations. The results of this study show the significant contribution of UV irradiation to the ageing of bitumen and bituminous mixtures, and it is recommended that future laboratory ageing protocols include UV irradiation in addition to heat for better simulation. This can only result in improved research related to age-related distresses, rejuvenation and ageing of sustainable pavements, which is considered important to the pavement industry.
... The SPM is based on a spreading of a given amount and volume of graded sand over a desired pavement's surface. By measuring the volume of the spread sand and the diameter of the covered area by the same, the Mean Texture Depth (MTD) is calculated as described by the (ASTM Designation E965-15 2019; Highways Department of Hong Kong 1989;Fisco and Sezen 2013). ...
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... After abrasion, the texture depth was measured by the sand (volumetric) patch method (ASTM-E 965 [44]), where a constant volume of sand (or glass spheres) is carefully spread with a flat disk over the test location in a circular motion until the disk touches the material surface [45]. The result of this test is the average surface layer depth or mean texture depth (MTD) that helps us have information about the macro-textures' abrasive or nonabrasive depth. ...
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... The only limitation of using a laser texture meter is the cost compared to sand patch method, but it has advantages of being easy to transport and also its ability to overcome the limitations of sand patch method that includes human error and wind blowing of sand during experiment. There are different available handheld laser texture meters including Circular Track Meter (CTM), Digital Surface Roughness Meter (DSRM) (Fisco, 2009) (China and James, 2012), Laser Inertial Road Profiler (LIRP) (Flintsch et al, 2003) and ELAtext meter (Patzak et al, 2016). In Australia, almost all flexible airport pavements surfaces are 14 mm densely graded and Marshall designed mixtures. ...
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The phenomenon of aggregate loss from the surface layer, known as fretting (minor) and ravelling (severe) is considered one of the distresses that trigger pavement resurfacing in airport pavements, even in absence of other distresses. Most of the laboratory tests developed for the prediction of fretting and ravelling are abrasion based, but in airport pavements, fretting and ravelling is reported along the full width and length of pavement, much of which is untrafficked. The main objective of this study was to determine the relative contribution of aircraft traffic loading to asphalt mastic erosion and fretting/ravelling by comparing the macro-texture of otherwise identical trafficked and untrafficked airport asphalt surfaces. Three airports in South East Queensland, each with a surface age between 9 and 12 years, were selected for the study and a laser texture meter was used to measure the volumetric macro-texture of runway and taxiway surfaces. Statistical analysis of the macro-texture measurements showed that there was no significant difference between the trafficked and untrafficked portions of both the runway and taxiway surfaces. This means, at least for the investigated airports, that fretting and ravelling had occurred equally in and out of aircraft wheel path. It is therefore concluded that fretting and ravelling in airport pavements is primarily caused by environmental factors, such as oxidative ageing, ultraviolet radiation and exposure to rainfall. Although the investigated airports are typical of airports in many parts of Australia, these finding should be generalized by extending the investigation to airport pavement surfaces with different aircraft traffic and volumes, as well as in different climates. Moreover, accelerated weathering should become the focus of fretting and ravelling research for airport pavement surfaces and a standard for accelerated laboratory airport asphalt ageing requires development in the future.
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This study proposes a portable measurement system (PS) for pavement surface macrotexture, which improves the current detection technology and provides the necessary support for maintenance and evaluation works on urban roads, newly built roads, parking, footpath, tunnels, bicycle lanes, and short distance roads. The system can obtain the elevation values through a high precision laser sensor and a data acquisition card. Next, the outliers of natural elevation values are screened and interpolated by a statistical test method, and then the corrected data are filtered by an improved Kalman filter algorithm. Finally, the mean profile depth (MPD) is calculated based on the standard ASTM E1845-15. The replication experiments, the correlation experiments with sand patch test (SPT), and the comparative experiment with vehicle laser profiler (VLP) are carried out on 20 test sections. The results show that the variation coefficients of PS are less than 5%, the correlation indexes with SPT are more than 0.928, the mean square errors and the mean absolute percentage errors of PS are less than 0.0032 and 4.98%, respectively. Meanwhile, the conversion models of MPD with mean texture depth (MTD) are established to realise that the direct estimation of MTD data utilising MPD data for different pavement types.
Chapter
Pavement surface characteristics have been gaining relevance with the changing mobility paradigm as they greatly contribute to the degree of safety, comfort, environmental quality and long lasting pavements. The surveillance methods of pavement surface characteristics have evolved from manual to semi- and automated methods and also to more cost-effective methods. Automated condition surveys provide objective high-quality data. At network level, pavement distresses, friction, evenness and texture are currently surveilled. More rarely surveyed and related to sustainability demands are tyre-road noise and rolling resistance. They rely on dedicated pavement data collection vehicles or trailers coupled to vehicles, equipped with high-speed digital cameras, laser systems, ultrasonic sensors, accelerometers, microphones, etc. As a complementary alternative to these methods, unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with cameras as well as smartphone-based data collection methods are arising. In a design framework, the laboratory methods to survey pavement surface characteristics often use the same technology as in the field tests adapted to a much smaller scale and lower testing speed. In this chapter, the latest advances in laboratory and field tests, and surveillance methods of pavement surface characteristics are described and their performance is analyzed.KeywordsSurveillance methodsRoadMonitoringSurface characteristicsFunctional conditionPavement management
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For the safe operation of vehicles, pavement should provide adequate skid resistance, which can be achieved by using high polishing-resistant aggregate in wearing courses. However, supplying high-quality aggregate is not always feasible due to high transportation costs. For this reason, a method called gritting was adapted to meet the Highway Technical Specification (HTS) of Turkey in 2013. According to the method, for certain parts of the country, the wearing course can be constructed with local aggregates that have minimum polished stone value (PSV) of 40 (PSV ≥ 40), but, in this case, the surface must be covered with a high polishing-resistant aggregate (PSV ≥ 50), after the rollers' first pass. The objective of this study was to improve the present gritting method by investigating the effect of grit parameters on pavement performance under real traffic conditions. In this regard, during its construction, the wearing course of O-51 Highway was gritted with different aggregate types (slags and natural), sizes (1-3; 1-5 mm), spreading amount (1.5; 2; 2.5 kg=m 2), and spreading time (before and after the first pass of a roller) on eight test sections. Then, the macrotexture and skid resistance performance of these sections were evaluated under real traffic and environmental conditions for longer than 4 years. Changes in surface texture and skid resistance with respect to traffic were determined for each section. The results showed that higher skid resistance values were obtained at the sections gritted with metal-lurgical slags. Additionally, the sections gritted with 1-5 mm aggregates had better skid resistance than those gritted with 1-3 mm, while the change in mean texture depths were not very significant.
Thesis
Full-text available
One of the most important function of a pavement is to provide a high skid resistant surface for a safe operation of vehicles. This can be ensured by using high polishing resistant aggregate at an appropriate gradation in pavement construction. Depending on the geological formation of the region, transportation agencies have difficulties in supplying high quality aggregates and expenses for transportation of materials increase as distance to the quality aggregate source increases. Turkey is one of country that has difficulty to obtain high quality aggregate by means of polishing resistance, which has at least polished stone value (PSV) of 50. In order to overcome mentioned difficulties and reduce construction costs; General Directorate of Highways (GDH) of Turkey has specified a new method called “Gritting” in Highway technical specifications since 2013. With gritting method, it was possible to use local aggregates that has a minimum PSV of at least 40 in construction wearing courses. But, in this case, covering the pavement surface is required with a high polishing resistant magmatic aggregate that has at least 50 PSV and 1-3 mm with 1,5-2,0 kg/m2 amount and applying the material on surface after the rollers’ first pass. However, this method is the same for two different wearing course such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and asphalt concrete (AC), which have different surface properties due to the aggregate gradation specified for them. It is not feasible to expect the same performance over the courses with such a kind of monotype gritting method for two different wearing course. The motivation of thesis was the deficiencies of this specified gritting method and the need to improve this application. The objective of this thesis was to improve the proposed gritting method by investigating the effect of construction parameters such as aggregate type (slags and natural), size (1-3; 1-5 mm), spreading time (before and after the first pass of roller), and amount (1.5; 2; 2.5 kg/m2) on pavement performance under the real traffic and environmental conditions on SMA and AC layer. Numerous test section that gritting application applied on SMA (eight test section) and AC wear courses (nine test section) were constructed on a highway and state-way in the border of 5th region of GDH. British pendulum test, dynamic friction tester and locked-wheel skid resistant tester were utilized to measure skid resistance of test sections. On the other hand, sand patch test, outflow meter and vehicle-mounted laser profiler were used to determine their surface texture. vi The data gather from field measurement for skid resistance performances and surface texture/profile depth throughout about four-year period were used for a comparative analysis. Changes in skid resistance and surface texture with respect to average equivalent single axle load (ESAL) data obtained from highway toll collection station and published by GDH on web site and shared by GDH 5th regional directorate were figured out for all test sections. The results showed that performance of almost all-alternative gritting application methods were better than the proposed method in HTS. The test sections constructed with slags for the two-wear course exhibited higher skid resistance values than the ones formed with natural aggregates. However, the section gritted with 1-5 mm sized aggregates on SMA and 1-3 mm sized aggregates on AC wear course showed better performance. Moreover, applying 1-3 mm materials on surface after first pass of roller and applying 1-5 mm materials before first pass of roller or after finisher make more efficient the gritting applications. However, the changes in mean-texture/profile depths were not significant for all test section formed on both wear courses. Overall, using slag in pavement gritting application provide better skid resistance performance. Using them as gritting material will provide numerous benefits by means of economic gains and environmental protection due to recovering and saving natural aggregate resources.
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Two- and three-dimensional macrotexture characteristics of various surfaces were measured using five different testing methods including sand patch method, laser profiler, laser texture scanner, circular texture meter, and x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning. A dynamic friction tester was also used to measure the friction resistance of the same surfaces. Asphalt and Portland cement concrete samples of various mix designs and finishes and other commonly manufactured textured samples were used. Relationship between the macrotexture and friction was investigated. Mean texture depth (MTD) of 26 laboratory specimens was obtained from volumetric sand patch tests. Two-dimensional profiles and mean profile depth (MPD) of specimens were measured by a laser profiler. A laser texture scanner and a circular texture meter were also used to calculate the MPD of sample surfaces. Three-dimensional rendering of the surfaces were obtained from laser texture scanner and x-ray CT scans. Using the experimental data collected in this study, relationships between friction resistance and macrotexture obtained from different methods were investigated. The estimated texture depths predicted from laser profiler, laser texture scanner, and CT meter were comparable to the MTD obtained from sand patch tests. Also, the friction resistance increased with increasing surface macrotexture.
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This paper describes development of an automated technology to quantify surface segregation seen during construction of hot mix asphalt concrete pavements. Segregation manifested on the surface produces nonuniform surface macrotecture. A laser-based system was used for detection of nonuniform surface macrotexture caused by segregation. Two segregated test sections and a control test section were tested to evaluate the laser texture method. Laser texture data were gathered from three sites, and sand patch and nuclear density tests were performed at 25 ft (7.62 m) intervals along three sections. In addition to the above, visual surveys were performed to confirm the measurements. Based on the test results, it was found that the nuclear density test could not be used to detect surface segregation but it could be used as a confirmation test. Test results from the control section were used to establish a correlation between the sand patch tests and the laser texture data. Copyright © 2005 by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.
Article
The circular texture (CT) meter is a laser-based device for measuring the mean profile depth (MPD) of pavement at a static location. MPD measurements from the CT meter and mean texture depth measurements from the sand patch test were obtained in five random locations in each of 45 sections of the 2000 National Center for Asphalt Technology (NCAT) test track. The NCAT test track provides a wide range of surface types, including coarse and fine dense graded Superpave® mixes, Hveem mixes, stone mastic asphalt, and Novachip. Testing indicated that the CT meter produced results comparable with the ASTM E965 sand patch test. When open-graded mixtures were excluded, this study indicated that the offset was nonsignificant between CT meter and sand patch test results. Previously developed equations to predict macrotexture were found to be inadequate for the wide range of mix types and aggregate types found at the NCAT test track. An equation was developed to relate fineness modulus to macrotexture. This equation was validated with independent data collected by the Virginia Transportation Research Council. Testing conducted as part of a mini round robin indicated that two readings should be averaged to represent a single CT meter measurement. The within-lab coefficient of variation for the CT meter is estimated to be 2.3%. The between-lab coefficient of variation for the CT meter is estimated to be 4.2%. Both estimates are based on the average of two tests being reported as a single measurement.
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Studies on deformation characteristics of early-age Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements (JPCP) due to environmental effects have drawn significant interest over the years. However, the complex nature of the problem arising from interacting environmental factors has resulted in difficulties in predicting the JPCP deformation characteristics. This study introduces a simplified approach for predicting the early-age deformation of JPCP due to environmental factors using an equivalent temperature difference concept. A newly constructed JPCP section on highway US–30 near Marshalltown, Iowa was instrumented to monitor the pavement response to variations in temperature and moisture during the first seven days after construction. Based on the collected field data, the total equivalent linear temperature difference (ΔTteltd ) corresponding to the actual deformation was quantified using Finite Element (FE) based approach, namely ISLAB 2000. The FE-based calculations were compared with the field measured slab deformation properties. Better predictions were obtained when employing a simplified equivalent temperature difference (ΔTteltd) concept for FE based primary response model. Santrauka Pastaraisiais metais ypač domimasi ankstyvojo betono kelio dangos (JPCP) deformacijos charakteristikomis ir poveikio aplinkai tyrimais, tačiau dėl aplinkos veiksnių sąveikos kyla sunkumų prognozuojant JPCP būdingąsias deformacines savybes. Šiame darbe pateikiamas supaprastintas metodas, kaip galima būtų prognozuoti ankstyvojo betono deformacijas JPCP, kylančias dėl aplinkos veiksnių, vartojant ekvivalentinės temperatūros skirtumo sąvoką. Naujai statomame JPCP US-30 plente prie Maršaltauno Ajovoje buvo sukonstruota bandymų įranga ir stebėta dangų reakcija į temperatūros bei drėgmės pokyčius per pirmąsias septynias dienas po statybų pabaigos. Remiantis gautais rezultatais, visų lygiaverčio linijinės temperatūros skirtumų (ΔTteltd ), atitinkančių faktinę deformaciją, vertės buvo skaičiuojamos taikant baigtinių elementų (FE) metodą su ISLAB 2000. Apskaičiuotos FE vertės buvo palygintos su natūrinėmis sąlygomis išmatuotomis deformacinėmis savybėmis. Tikslesnė prognozė buvo gauta taikant supaprastintą temperatūrų skirtumo (ΔTteltd ) metodiką, grindžiamą pirminiu FE modeliu. Reikšminiai žodžiai: betonas, JPCP, deformacija, baigtinių elementų metodas, temperatūrų skirtumas, dangos analizė ir projektavimas
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This paper compares pavement macrotexture measurements obtained using the volumetric method and three laser-based devices. The study used data from a controlled experiment conducted at the Virginia Smart Road, as well as samples of in-service highway and airport surfaces. The data collected at the Virginia Smart Road, a controlled-access two-lane road that includes various hot mix asphalt (HMA) and concrete surfaces, were used for the main analysis. The other two sets of data were used for verification and validation of the model developed. The analysis of the data collected at the Virginia Smart Road showed that the Circular Texture Meter (CTMeter) mean profile depth (MPD) had the highest correlation with the volumetric (Sand Patch) mean texture depth (MTD). Models for converting the laser-based texture measurements to an estimated MTD were developed. The developed model was tested using measurements collected on several other highway and airport surfaces and with positive results.
Article
Different techniques for measuring pavement surface macrotexture and their application in pavement management are discussed. The main applications of surface macrotexture are to measure the frictional properties of the pavement surface and to detect hot-mix asphalt (HMA) construction segregation or nonuniformity. Since surface macrotexture can be measured quite efficiently using noncontact technologies and provides important information regarding pavement safety and HMA construction quality, this parameter may be included in the quality assurance or control procedures. Correlations between different measuring devices were investigated utilizing different HMA wearing surfaces. Excellent correlation was found between the circular track meter and sand patch measurements. In addition, the macrotexture determined using a laser profiler correlates well with that determined with sand patch measurements. Consistent with previous studies, it was found that the skid number gradient with speed is inversely proportional to the pavement macrotexture. However, there was a noticeable difference in speed dependency when smooth and ribbed tires were used. Oscillations in the percent normalized gradient with time due to seasonal variations were also observed. Macrotexture measurements hold great promise as tools to detect and quantify segregation for quality assurance purposes. A standard construction specification was proposed in a recent NCHRP study. However, the equation proposed for computing the nonsegregated estimated (mean) texture depth could not be applied to the mixes studied. An alternative equation has been proposed, which estimates the surface macrotexture using the mix nominal maximum size and voids in the mineral aggregate. The study was based on the mixes used at the Virginia Smart Road. Further investigation using other mixes is recommended.
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The importance of surface texture characteristics to roadway safety was first recognized during the late 1940s and early 1950s when increases in traffic volumes and vehicle speeds resulted in increases in wet-weather crashes and fatalities. As a result, agencies conducted extensive research, including experimental projects around the country, to better understand and improve the surface conditions of portland cement concrete pavement in wet-weather conditions. As new surface-texturing methods were tried and evaluated, pavement engineers recognized that a general trade-off existed between friction and noise; that is, surface textures with higher friction tended to produce greater tire-pavement noise. Although considerable information exists on the influence of surface friction characteristics on safety and tire-pavement noise, it is dispersed among numerous sources. An effort is made to identify and summarize key texture-related information and recommendations based on the current state of the practice. Specifically, pavement texture nomenclature is introduced, methods of measuring and quantifying texture are discussed, traditional and innovative texturing methods and techniques are described, respective conclusions pertaining to the influence of texture characteristics on surface friction and tire-pavement noise are summarized, and current state-of-the-art texture-related recommendations are provided.
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The results of tests conducted with the circular texture meter (CTMeter), which measures the profile of a circle approximately 800 turn in circumference, are discussed. It is shown that by analyzing the profile data obtained with the CTMeter one can obtain reliable predictions of volumetric mean texture depth (sand patch texture depth) and the outflow times of several designs of outflow meters. Data from 3 years of testing are used to evaluate the correlation of the mean profile depth obtained with the CTMeter to the volumetric mean texture depth and the outflow time. In all cases the correlation coefficients (R-2 values) were very high. Recommendations for additional studies that might be conducted to exploit additional information that can be obtained by processing the CTMeter profiles are made. In particular, the analysis of the directional properties of the surface texture as they may relate to wet pavement friction and tire-pavement noise is suggested.