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Nasiternella regia, a redescription of the adult and neotype designation (Diptera: Pediciidae)

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  • Slezské zemské muzeum, Opava, Czech Republic

Abstract and Figures

Nasiternella regia Riedel, 1914 (Diptera: Pediciidae) is redescribed from new material collected in Slovakia, and the fi rst illustrations of the male and female terminalia are provided. A neotype of the species is designated.
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ACTA ENTOMOLOGICA MUSEI NATIONALIS PRAGAE
Published 15.vii.2013 Volume 53(1), pp. 315–322 ISSN 0374-1036
http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:48C648A2-CCBC-4CB7-B0D9-A2027C9AAAB1
Nasiternella regia, a redescription
of the adult and neotype designation (Diptera: Pediciidae)
Jaroslav STARÝ1) & Jozef OBOŇA2)
1) Neklanova 7, CZ-779 00 Olomouc-Nedvězí & Silesian Museum, Tyršova 1, CZ-746 01 Opava,
Czech Republic; e-mail: stary.crane y@gmail.com
2) Department of Biology and General Ecology, Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences,
Technical University, T.G. Masaryka 24, SK-960 53 Zvolen, Slovakia;
e-mail: xobonaj@tuzvo.sk
Abstract. Nasiternella regia Riedel, 1914 (Diptera: Pediciidae) is redescribed
from new material collected in Slovakia, and the rst illustrations of the male and
female terminalia are provided. A neotype of the species is designated.
Key words. Diptera, Pediciidae, Nasiternella regia, redescription, male and female
terminalia, neotype designation, Slovakia
Introduction
Nasiternella Wahlgren, 1904 (= Nasiterna Wallengren, 1881, preoccupied by Nasiterna
Wagler, 1832 (Aves: Psittaciformes)) is a small pediciid genus comprising only six species
worldwide, viz. N. grallator Alexander, 1962 (Oriental), N. hyperborea (Osten Sacken,
1861) (Nearctic), N. ignara (Alexander, 1950) (Oriental), N. regia Riedel, 1914 (Palaearctic),
N. tjederi Alexander, 1962 (Oriental), and N. varinervis (Zetterstedt, 1851) (syn. N. hokkaiden-
sis Alexander, 1934) (Palaearctic) (OOSTERBROEK 2012). From all other European pediciid
genera Nasiternella clearly differs in a supernumerary cross-vein in cell M (Fig. 1). Outside
Europe, however, there are other genus-group taxa with a supernumerary cross-vein in cell
M, such as Amalopinodes Alexander, 1949, Heterangaeus Alexander, 1925, Malaisemyia
Alexander, 1950, Polyangaeus Doane, 1900, and others, but these either have additional
supernumerary cross-veins in other wing cells or/and r-m connected with R5, and lacking R4+5
(so-called capture of R4 by R2+3 by ALEXANDER 1927, 1930). In Nasiternella, cell R4 is petiolate,
with R4+5 developed (Fig. 1), as e.g. in Tricyphona Zetterstedt, 1837. The male terminalia of
Nasiternella are distinctive by having the gonocoxite comparatively short and broad with a
powerful apical lobe that projects beyond the gonostylus such that the latter arises from the
medial wall of the gonocoxite at about its midlength or even closer towards its base.
Nasiternella regia was described by RIEDEL (1914) from a single female collected in
Romania, then deposited in the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest. Subsequently,
STARÝ & OBOŇA: Nasiternella regia, redescription and neotype designation (Pediciidae)
316
records from Albania and Austria were published by LACKSCHEWITZ (1940) based on additional
material from the Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien. Altogether ve specimens (1 4 )
were recorded, including the holotype female; the record from Austria (Wien-Schönbrunn)
suggested the occurrence of the species in Central Europe. However, despite its considerable
size and conspicuousness, and despite efforts by the senior author, N. regia was not redisco-
vered and became a somewhat enigmatic species. It was only in 2010–2012 that the junior
author found both larvae and pupae of this species, and later also the adults, in water- lled
tree holes in deciduous forests in Slovakia. The larva and pupa of N. regia were described
recently (OBOŇA & STAR Ý 2013). As the original description of the species (RIEDEL 1914) was
based on a female, and, moreover, the holotype was aberrant in the wing venation, we here
give a redescription of the adult from new material and provide the rst illustrations of the
male and female terminalia. In addition, we designate a neotype of N. regia.
Material and methods
The morphological terminology adopted here essentially follows MCALPINE (1981) except
for terminology of the wing veins which is in accordance with HENNIG (1954) (Fig. 1).
The following acronyms for museums and collections are used in the text:
HNHM Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary;
JSOC J. Starý collection, Olomouc, Czech Republic;
NHMW Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien, Austria;
SNMC Slovenské národné múzeum, Bratislava, Slovakia;
TUZS Technical University, Zvolen, Slovakia.
Taxonomy
Nasiternella regia Riedel, 1914
(Figs 1–7)
Nasiternella regia Riedel, 1914: 150 (description), Fig. 5 (wings).
Nasiternella regia: LACKSCHEWITZ (1940): 109 (faun. records); SAVCHENKO (1986): 136 (redescription, based on RIEDEL
1914); SAVCHENKO (1989): 33 (references, distribution); SAVCHENKO et al. (1992): 196 (Palaearctic catalogue);
OOSTERBROEK (2012) (World catalogue).
New type locality. Slovakia, Diviacka Nová Ves (district Prievidza), oak forest northeast of the village, 320 m a.s.l.,
48°4525.1N, 18°3043.5E.
Type material examined. NEOTYPE: (present designation), “Slovakia 1.10.2011 / Diviacka Nová Ves (distr. /
Prievidza), oak forest [7277] / J. Oboňa leg.”. Accordingly labelled as neotype (“NEOTYPE / Nasiternella / regia
Riedel / J. Starý & J. Oboňa 2012”) (SNMC). The specimen has been pinned and the terminalia have been dissected
and placed in a plastic tube with glycerine, pinned with the specimen.
Additional material examined (12  6 ): SLOVAKIA: the same locality as for neotype, 18.vi.2011 (ex
larva, adult emerged 26.x.2011), 1 (pinned); 30.vii.2011 (ex larva, adult 26.x.2011), 1 (pinned); 27.ix.2011, 2
 (pinned, dried from ethanol); 1.x.2011, 4  (pinned), 1 1 (in ethanol); 2.x.2011, 1 (pinned); 9.iv.2012
(ex larva, adult 19.x.2012), 1 (pinned); 26.iv.2012 (ex larva, adult 14.x.2012), 1 (pinned); 22.v.2012 (ex larva,
adult 20.x.2012), 1 (pinned); 16.ix.2012 (ex pupa, adult 22.ix.2012), 1 (pinned); 25.ix.2012, 1 1 (pinned),
all J. Oboňa leg. (in JSOC, TUZS). ALBANIA: Babia, 14.ix.1917, 1 , Karny leg. (NHMW) [not “20.xi.” as listed
by LACKSCHEWITZ (1940)]. Years ago J. S. had examined the then single existing male of N. regia from the NHMW
and made a sketch of the terminalia based on a (badly distorted) mount in Canada balsam between celluloid slides,
probably prepared by Lackschewitz.
Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 53(1), 2013 317
Fig. 1. Nasiternella regia Riedel, 1914 (Slovakia, Diviacka Nová Ves). Male wing (photo J. Roháček).
Figs 2–5. Nasiternella regia Riedel, 1914. 2–3 – male terminalia: 2 – general view, dorsal; 3 – detail of gonostylus,
dorsal; 4–5 – female terminalia: 4 – internal structures, ventral; 5 – general view, lateral. Scale bars = 0.5 mm. Let-
tering: gfk – genital fork (vaginal apodeme); ib – interbase; ifa – infra-anal (supravaginal) plate; spt – spermathecae;
s9 – sternum 9; tgm – tegmen.
STARÝ & OBOŇA: Nasiternella regia, redescription and neotype designation (Pediciidae)
318
Figs 6–7. Nasiternella regia Riedel, 1914 (Slovakia, Diviacka Nová Ves). 6 – male (photo J. Starý, 2 Oct., 2011);
7 – female (photo J. Starý, 25 Sept., 2012).
Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 53(1), 2013 319
Diagnosis. Very large species. Body colouration yellowish brown. Prescutum with four dark
brown stripes. Wing long, broad, intensively tinged with yellowish brown. Male terminalia
with gonocoxite short, very broad at base, with powerful apical lobe; gonostylus bipartite,
positioned at about midlength of gonocoxite. Female terminalia with cercus moderately
upturned, obtuse at tip; spermathecae three, nearly spherical, small, and pale. Body length
15.3–22.6 mm, wing length 20.0–25.7 mm.
Redescription. Male. Head yellowish brown. Antenna short, 15-segmented, sometimes
appearing 14-segmented, reaching slightly beyond anterior margin of prescutum. Basal
segments yellowish brown, agellomeres a little darkened distally. Flagellomere 1 subequal
in length to scape, agellomeres 2–10 shorter, short-ovoid, slightly decreasing in length and
breadth towards apex of antenna, agellomere 12 longer, cylindrical, terminal agellomere
somewhat conical, shorter than penultimate. Verticils on agellomeres short, at most subequal
in length to their respective segments, pubescence very short, barely evident. Palpus short,
last palpomere about twice length of penultimate.
Thorax yellowish brown, with four dark brown prescutal stripes, inner ones incompletely
separated from each other. Wing long, very broad, breadth about one-third its length, inten-
sively tinged with yellowish brown, slightly more so along anterior margin. Veins pale, some
cross-veins, especially r-m, slightly darker, with barely evident darkening on wing membrane.
Wing generally delicate, veins weak, wing membrane distinctly wrinkled. Wing venation
(Fig. 1): Sc2 more or less oblique, positioned at about two-thirds length of R. Rs arcuated
at origin, without any spur. R4 and R5 four times (or more) as long as R4+5. Cross-vein r-m
connecting R4+5 and M1+2. Discal cell closed, distal section of M1+2 (beyond discal cell) very
short, sometimes cell M1 almost sessile. Cross-vein m-cu at about one-third length of M3+4
(lower side of discal cell). Supernumerary cross-vein in cell M distinctly before origin of Rs.
Distance between of A2 and A1 at wing margin about six times or more that of A1 and Cu.
Halter yellowish brown. Legs yellowish brown, femora and tibiae with darker apices, distal
tarsal segments darker. Metatarsus of fore leg subequal in length to tibia. Tarsal claws simple,
lacking teeth along inner margin, slightly less than half length of last tarsal segment.
Abdomen yellowish brown, distal tergites incompletely dark brown medially, tracing out
longitudinal stripe. All tergites very slightly darkened laterally. Male terminalia (Figs 2–3)
yellowish brown. Segment 9 (basal ring) dorsally: short, broad, transverse, with median
emargination at posterior margin; edge of emargination slightly darkened, with fringe of
ne setae; ventrally: about twice as long as dorsally, thus gonocoxite connected to segment
9 at almost right angle. Gonocoxite generally short, very broad, in ated proximally, in distal
third tapered into massive, broadly rounded apical lobe, at apex densely covered with black
spinules. Gonostylus bipartite from base, arising roughly at midlength of gonocoxite. More
proximal part of gonostylus, slightly more ventral in position, smooth, generally sinuous,
obtuse at apex, with long, retrorse, somewhat twisted arm at about two-thirds its length, sub-
acute at tip, extending back above inner margin of apical lobe of gonocoxite. More distal and
dorsal part of gonostylus somewhat darker, covered with microscopic hairs distally, recurved
at about midlength, with acute tip touching retrorse arm of proximal part of gonostylus, more
or less rolled up in more proximal part. Small hump tipped with a few spinules present at
outer base of distal part of gonostylus. Interbase pale, slender rod, obtuse at apex, arising from
basal inner wall of gonocoxite. Aedeagal complex pale and comparatively inconspicuous, as
STARÝ & OBOŇA: Nasiternella regia, redescription and neotype designation (Pediciidae)
320
usual for Pediciidae, except for large, transverse, median, darkly pigmented plate (tegmen
of EDWARDS 1938 and DIENSKE 1987), situated dorsally slightly proximally of bases of gono-
coxites, shaped as in Fig. 3 (tgm), and normally partly concealed by membranous proctiger
(the latter removed in Fig. 3).
Female. In general appearance resembling male. Female terminalia (Figs 4–5) with cer-
cus moderately long, gently upturned, obtuse at tip. Infra-anal plate triangular, rounded at
apex, sparsely covered with setae. Sternite 9 as in Fig. 4 (s9), forming transverse blade with
elevated crescent-shaped central structure. Presumed genital fork very small, close to sternite
9. Hypogynial valve with four slender processes at inner margin, each tipped with seta, their
lengths and con guration as in Fig. 5. Spermathecae three, nearly spherical, small, and weakly
sclerotized, with sclerotized parts of ducts about half diameter of spermatheca.
Larva and pupa. For descriptions see OBOŇA & STARÝ (2013).
Differential diagnosis. The family Pediciidae contains some very large taxa such as Pedicia
(s. str.) Latreille, 1809 and Malaisemyia. Within the genus Nasiternella, however, N. regia
is quite unique in its size, being more than twice as large as its congeners. Beside its size, N.
regia is distinctive by colouration of the wings. These are plain but intensively tinged with
yellowish brown, whereas the wings in the other Nasiternella species are either conspicuously
spotted (N. hyperborea, N. ignara, N. varinervis) or crossbanded (N. tjederi), or reduced to
brachypterous condition in both sexes (N. grallator) (ALEXANDER 1916, 1919, 1934, 1950,
1962). The structure of the male terminalia in N. regia suggests a closer relationship only
to N. tjederi (India: Sikkim) based on the shape of the gonostylus which is bipartite in both
species (Figs 2–3, cf. ALEXANDER 1962: Fig. 47). Nasiternella regia seems not to be as closely
related to its European congener, N. varinervis. It should be noted that none of the specimens
examined here has any abnormalities in the wing venation, as had both wings as illustrated
for the female holotype of N. regia (RIEDEL 1914: Fig. 5).
Comment on neotype designation. Nasiternella regia was described by RIEDEL (1914) from
a single female collected at Brassó (= Braşov) in Romania in a paper titled “Neue und wenig
bekannte Limnobiiden aus dem Ungarischen National-Museum” [= New and little-known
Limnobiidae from the Hungarian National Museum]. In the description, the depository of the
holotype was again indicated (“Ung. Nat.-Mus.”, RIEDEL 1914: 150). No type, or any other
specimen of N. regia is preserved in the HNHM, where it was most probably destroyed by
re during the Soviet army invasion in 1956 (G. Lengyel, pers. comm.). To x the identity
of the species, a neotype is designated here.
Biology. The immatures of N. regia were found to develop in water- lled tree holes, den-
drotelmata, mostly of oak trees (OBOŇA & STAR Ý 2013). Of 18 specimens listed here from
Slovakia (see above) 12 were captured in nature and 6 were reared from larvae/pupae. Of the
adults collected from the eld, all but one were taken from within tree holes during the day
in sunny weather. To learn something about night activities of adults, on September 25, 2012,
we adopted equipment used by collectors of moths, viz. a white vertical sheet illuminated
with a mercury-vapour lamp. No specimen of N. regia was attracted to this light, although
weather conditions seemed to be suitable. While searching with an electric torch during that
same night a male was found on a tree trunk a short distance from his hollow. Adults appear
to be negatively phototropic, leaving their shelters perhaps at twilight or by night, or maybe
just on cloudy days, but their activity is likely to be mostly limited to crawling up and down
Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 53(1), 2013 321
the trees, because, despite their large wings, they seem to be bad iers. A specimen removed
from the tree hole and released from the hand took a short descending ight and settled to
rest on the trunk of a nearby tree. This behaviour as well as the late imaginal occurrence (late
September to early October) may be reasons for the seeming rarity of N. regia (this paper).
Distribution. Albania, Austria (LACKSCHEWITZ 1940), Romania (RIEDEL 1914), Slovakia
(OBOŇA & STARÝ 2013, this paper).
Discussion. The original description of N. regia (cf. RIEDEL 1914) gave mostly external char-
acters; the female terminalia were only inadequately mentioned. Both wings were illustrated
(RIEDEL 1914: Fig. 5), aberrant in the wing venation in a different manner, and the abnormali-
ties were referred to in detail. Based on the external characters other than the wing venation,
however, it is clear beyond any doubt that our examined specimens belong to N. regia.
Acknowledgements
We are indebted to Gábor Lengyel (HNHM) for information on the HNHM collection.
Fenja Brodo (Ottawa, Canada) kindly checked and improved the English of this article. For
making a picture of the wing of N. regia we are grateful to Jindřich Roháček (Slezské zemské
museum, Opava, Czech Republic). The work of the senior author was supported by grant No.
IGS201103 from the Silesian Museum, Opava, Czech Republic.
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Full-text available
The previously unknown larvae and pupae of Nasiternella regia Riedel, 1914 (Diptera, Pediciidae) are described and illustrated from specimens collected in water-filled tree holes in deciduous forests in Slovakia. Brief comments on their ecology and behaviour are provided. Comparisons are made to the larvae of Nasiternella varinervis (Zetterstedt, 1851) as described by Krivosheina (2009).
New or little-known Tipulidae from eastern Asia (Diptera), XVIII
ALEXANDER C. P. 1934: New or little-known Tipulidae from eastern Asia (Diptera), XVIII. Philippine Journal of Science 53: 267–300.
British short-palped cranefl ies. Taxonomy of adults
  • W Edwards F
EDWARDS F. W. 1938: British short-palped cranefl ies. Taxonomy of adults. Transactions of the Society for British Entomology 5: 1-168.
Entomological results from the Swedish expedition 1934 to Burma and British India. Diptera: Tipulidae -Pediciini. Collected by René Malaise
  • C P Alexander
ALEXANDER C. P. 1950: Entomological results from the Swedish expedition 1934 to Burma and British India. Diptera: Tipulidae -Pediciini. Collected by René Malaise. Arkiv för Zoologi 42A: 1-21.