Article

Guiding Principles for Fostering Productive Disciplinary Engagement: Explaining an Emergent Argument in a Community of Learners Classroom

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Abstract

This article suggests that productive disciplinary engagement can be fostered by designing learning environments that support (a) problematizing subject matter, (b) giving students authority to address such problems, (c) holding students accountable to others and to shared disciplinary norms, and (d) providing students with relevant resources. To provide empirical support for this suggestion, we use these 4 guiding principles to explain a case of productive disciplinary engagement from a Fostering Communities of Learners classroom. We use the principles to understand 1 group of students' emergent and sustained controversy over a species' classification. The students became passionately engaged, used evidence in scholarly ways, developed several arguments, and generated questions regarding biological classification. We propose the controversy as an example of productive disciplinary engagement, and show how it was supported by: the treatment of the classification as a legitimate problem by the students and teacher; the students having the authority to resolve the issue for themselves while being held accountable to relevant contributions from peers and outside sources as well as to classroom disciplinary norms for using evidence; and students having access to multiple sources of information, models of argumentation, and other relevant resources. The article closes by reflecting on the generality of the principles, showing how they can be used to understand 2 other cases of productive disciplinary engagement from the literature on reform programs in science and mathematics. By specifying differences as well as similarities in the ways the principles were embodied in these cases, the article may provide learning designers with a landscape of possibilities for promoting the specific kinds of productive disciplinary engagement that they most value.

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... In examining the participants' descriptions of student engagement, we note that the descriptions aligned with productive disciplinary engagement (PDE). A general definition of PDE is "active, goal-directed, flexible, constructive, persistent, focused interactions with social and physical environments" [44] (p. 399). ...
... While the literature typically describes PDE as an outcome, our findings suggest that PDE can also support efforts to scale PBL. This may be the case because many of the characteristics of PDE identified by Engle and Conant, such as "active", "goal-directed", "flexible", and "constructive", align with the features of project-based learning [44]. Engle and Conant describe PDE as an outcome that can be achieved through the purposeful design of the learning environment [44]. ...
... This may be the case because many of the characteristics of PDE identified by Engle and Conant, such as "active", "goal-directed", "flexible", and "constructive", align with the features of project-based learning [44]. Engle and Conant describe PDE as an outcome that can be achieved through the purposeful design of the learning environment [44]. For example, Engle and Conant suggest that problematizing content, giving students roles for initiating the critical view of materials, and enhancing the responsibility that students have toward one another will result in PDE [44]. ...
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This paper explores enabling conditions for scaling high-quality project-based learning (PBL) to understand factors that influence how PBL spreads, whether and how it can be sustained and the extent to which it informs meaningful change in schools. We report on a year-long collaboration across three research projects. Each project team analyzed qualitative data from their individual project and then aggregated data across projects to understand similarities and variations in conditions that support the long-term implementation goals of PBL. We used systems mapping as a methodological tool and a case study approach to test and refine the map. We focus on two enabling conditions for PBL that emerged across all contexts: teacher agency and productive disciplinary engagement (PDE). Teachers reported having agency and described making instructional decisions and adapting PBL to support students’ needs. PDE motivated teachers to deepen PBL practices. While the studied collaboratory is not the first to pursue shared goals, to our knowledge it is the first to produce research that aggregates knowledge and data across projects. While scaling innovations in schools is complex, the results suggest that certain conditions enable PBL to be implemented with greater depth and can be generalized across contexts. We discuss the implications of this approach for researchers, stakeholders, and practitioners.
... Our research team, like our peers in science education [7,8], are dedicated to engaging students in authentic disciplinary activities of engineering, especially around mathematical modeling [9]. Specifically, we look to give students opportunities to solve "workplace" problems [10,11] that ask them to grapple with complexity and further develop professional engineering practices, like engineering judgement [12]. ...
... Some students' descriptions clearly illustrate that such feelings were more prevalent while doing these problems than they are while tackling typical textbook problems. The feelings of frustration, confusion, and excitement are similar to feelings found when examining students doing science [7,14,17]. The strongest parallel we see is between OEMPs and Engle & Conant's [7] work in productive disciplinary engagement because in both, students have agency to define the scope of their problem. ...
... The feelings of frustration, confusion, and excitement are similar to feelings found when examining students doing science [7,14,17]. The strongest parallel we see is between OEMPs and Engle & Conant's [7] work in productive disciplinary engagement because in both, students have agency to define the scope of their problem. In our data, students described the freedom they had to decide how to go about solving the problem [22], in some cases in very disciplinarily authentic ways. ...
... For higher process quality, science teachers may enact reflective discourse by throwing the responsibility of thinking back to students, allowing students to clarify their ideas, helping students in using experimental strategies, and modelling practices of scientific inquiry (Crawford, 2000). Moreover, science teachers should ensure interthinking (collaborative thinking) where students enrich their peers' opinions (Engle & Conant, 2002) in a challenging but co-constructive classroom atmosphere (Chen et al., 2016). Science teachers may invite students to assess the credibility of an idea. ...
... It was needed for tackling the conceptual inconsistencies (e.g., which variable-height and/or mass-would be more effective when deciding on the move of an object on an inclined plane that can divide the gravitational force into its components). The students became the owners of the inquiry (experimental) processes (inquiry aspect: experimental tactics for better investigations) (Chen et al., 2016;Lombard & Schneider, 2013) once Milena urged them to take on intellectual problems (argument aspect: delayed agreement) (Engle & Conant, 2002). In the classroom of Milena, the students' explorations came to resemble the investigations of real scientists. ...
... For instance, Milena invited the student groups simultaneously since the groups had derived mutually exclusive interpretations from the identical experiments conducted for addressing the same/similar research questions (inquiry aspect: comparing and contrasting). As a result, Milena ensured a version of the epistemic accountability as the students had to be responsible for their classmates' evaluations and scientific norms (Engle & Conant, 2002) as an indicator of high process quality. Mercer and Dawes (2008) and Alexander (2008) enlisted some process quality indicators: students should engage critically but constructively with each other's ideas, instructional setting should be challenging, and cognitively demanding, contradictory ideas should be valued and discussed, and proposed claims should be made publicly and theoretically accountable. ...
Article
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The paper presents a study that aimed to reveal the process quality descriptors of an argument-based inquiry approach. Process quality signifies whether a teacher is a better or unsatisfactory implementer of a version of in-class science inquiry. An experienced middle school science teacher was the participant. Based on the initial analysis completed by the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol, it was observed that the teacher was a high-capacity implementer of the argument-based inquiry approach. Through episode-based analysis, discursively regulated indicators of the process quality were identified. The teacher adopted a flexible instructional agenda for the high process quality by welcoming students’ everyday social languages. The teacher also combined low interanimation (collecting alternative utterances) and high interanimation (eliciting alternative statements) of ideas. The teacher avoided an early conceptual consensus by pressing the students to cope with a discussant who could not be persuaded easily by unwarranted claims. The teacher played the devil’s advocate role by making the students’ cognitive contradictions explicit and tangible. Before the experimenting phase, the teacher intentionally elaborated on the student-proposed research variables and guided them to evaluate other groups’ experimental outcomes. Educational suggestions are presented about teacher noticing for enhancing the process quality.
... As such, they must consider objections to their personal theories and assumptions, attempt to understand alternative positions, and formulate objections and/or counter-objections (Stein & Miller, 1993). Through this interactional work, where students engage in collaborative inquiry, formulating, supporting and challenging multiple interpretations, they acquire deeper, more complex disciplinary knowledge (Engle & Conant, 2002;Krange & Ludvigsen, 2008;Reznitskaya & Gregory, 2013). ...
... We argue that this assignment was an important element for the unfolding of the rich discussion. This finding resonates with previous studies, demonstrating that when students were assigned specific roles, the talk became enriched since the positions that the students took often allowed for wider differences in views and knowledge (Engle & Conant, 2002;Resnick et al., 2018). ...
... Previous research has explained the benefits of dialogues and argumentations by pointing out that students acquire deeper and more complex disciplinary knowledge by engaging in such interactions (Engle & Conant, 2002;Krange & Ludvigsen, 2008;Reznitskaya & Gregory, 2013). The analysis of interactions presented in this article may add to these explanations by investigating how querying may contribute to students' meaning-making. ...
Article
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This study investigates how students in a 10th-grade class used querying in subject-oriented meaning-making. We combine thematic analysis of a video-recorded learning trajectory comprising eight lessons in social science, with interaction analyses of selected episodes. We investigate how querying may prove productive and we aim to identify teaching strategies that are conducive to such querying. The findings suggest that querying can lead to cognitively demanding coordination and enhance an evaluative epistemic stance. We found the use of a microblogging tool to be productive in facilitating querying by displaying contrasting ideas and mediating uptake in whole-class conversations. Strategies to obtain productive querying are related to the teacher's assignments and uptake of students' contributions, as well as the teacher allowing students space to explore.
... Teaching approach principles used by the TE This study followed Engle and Conant's (2002) principles for productive disciplinary engagement in each discussion on teaching, learning, and knowledge. Pedagogical cases were problematized by initially located brainstorming activities to encourage the PTs to take on philosophical problems. ...
... Here, the central pedagogical problem or challenge for the PTs was whether Lily understood the vision phenomenon in the desired way via formal instruction or whether she was exhibiting unsound reasoning. In accordance with Engle and Conant (2002), the PTs discussed this and similar problems after being assigned specific intellectual roles, such as being the epistemic and social authority of classroom discourse. ...
... According to the third negotiation principle, every individual claim should be warranted. As Engle and Conant (2002) suggest, every learning community member should be accountable to others and to the disciplinary norms. In this respect, justified claims were more acceptable for both the TE and PTs. ...
Article
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Purpose This study explores the relationships between the cognitive demands of the questions asked by a teacher educator (TE) and prospective teachers’ (PT) capacity for critical thinking (CT). Design/Approach/Methods Participants comprised a TE and 32 PTs. The cognitive demands of the TE's questions and PTs’ CT were analyzed using a systematic observation approach. Findings Results indicate that there are tangible connections between the increasing mental demand of TE questions and PTs’ higher-order cognitive processing. The PTs achieved higher-order CT when the TE asked more cognitively demanding questions. For instance, when the TE's questions were pitched at the cognitive demand levels—namely, the analyze, evaluate, and/or create levels—the PT answers were longer and reflected higher CT, such as inductive reasoning, suggesting new ways of thinking, or legitimating the arguments of others. Accordingly, results suggest that intentionally subjecting PTs to sustained higher cognitive demands via questions may help them reach their optimal CT capacity. Originality/Value Although proposed teaching strategies have been invaluable in proposing content-specific interventions for fostering the CT of university students, how lecturers should use their questions to conduct such interventions has been overlooked. This study addresses this gap.
... The productive disciplinary engagement (PDE) framework of Engle and Conant [21,22] provides a solid foundation for understanding the value of certain dispositions in supporting high quality scientific engagement. A group of students working together manifests the characteristics delineated in the PDE framework when their participation is responsive to one another, their engagement makes collective progress over time, and their conversations and actions align with established disciplinary discourse and norms. ...
... Moreover, we identified instantiations of IH such as seeking external help, analyzing evidence, and argumentation that align well with current frameworks for high-quality science education [62]. These findings are also consistent with the principles in Engle and Conant's engagement framework related to agency and authority [21] and provide concrete examples of students' enactments of these principles that should be supported and encouraged. ...
... Our findings as a whole suggest that instructors wishing to engage students in productive collaborative practices [21][22][23] must foster classroom spaces that value positions of uncertainty and reduce social risks to students voicing their limitations. Students can benefit from learning environments that encourage them to voice confusion and/or express what they do not know or understand as well as provide guidance about how to appropriately handle these gaps. ...
Article
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The growing adoption of active learning techniques in physics courses requires that students productively engage in collaboration with their peers. Although studies in physics education research (PER) have addressed aspects of group work, the problem persists of how to engage students in collaborative work with appropriate self-awareness, adequate argumentation skills, openness to the views of others, and willingness to negotiate their ideas. In this article, we present intellectual humility (IH) as a new construct for PER to help advance our understanding and support of students’ collaboration with peers. We particularly focus on authentic group work engagement, where students must handle their intellectual shortcomings during discussions in order to make sense of physics and solve problems. The aim of our work is to formally introduce the construct of IH from a limitations-owning perspective and report on the results of a mixed-methods study investigating students’ learning experiences in introductory physics courses through an IH lens. The study provides quantitative evidence about how students gauge their own IH based on analysis of survey responses. We also provide an initial empirical foundation for facets of IH already present in the physics classroom from analysis of students’ reflections and researchers’ classroom observations. We find that students report high levels of love of learning, one characteristic of IH, however, our findings also point to students discomfort with intellectual limitations and inadequate handling of these shortcomings during group work. Our results suggest that students would benefit from learning spaces that welcome and encourage discussions around uncertainties, with minimal social risks that may be perceived as hindering their engagement.
... These excerpts show that Gillian's students acknowledged, built upon, and elaborated on each other's ideas when discussing the problem. Extended discourse episodes are associated with the sort of active, participatory activities that learning sciences research shows contributes to deeper conceptual understanding, greater transferability of knowledge, and better retention (Engle & Conant, 2002 ;Greeno, 2006 ;Sawyer, 2006 ;Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2006 ). Additionally, her students' explanations went beyond algebraic manipulations and began to address the underlying concepts (see Gillian,lines 14;43;[45][46]. ...
... In these ways, Gillian's students engaged in what (Lave & Wenger, 1991 ) called a "community of practice," where the goal was to support both the growth of individual cognitive advancement and the collective knowledge of the group. Many education researchers have stressed that once a collaborative group culture has emerged, it can motivate and engage students in knowledge building and in constructing understandings that support integration and application of the content (Blumenfeld, Kempler, & Krajcik, 2006 ;Engle & Conant, 2002 ;Greeno, 2006 ;Sawyer, 2006 ;Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2006 ). ...
... In line with how knowledge is constructed in the real world, students are expected to work as active sense-makers and "doers" of science to figure out how the world works (Berland et al., 2017;Manz, 2015;Schwarz et al., 2017). Through this process, they not only learn disciplinary concepts and skills but also become legitimate participants in the science enterprise including its social, epistemic, and material dimensions (Engle & Conant, 2002;Ford and Forman, 2006;Lehrer & Schauble, 2006). ...
... Science learning entails learning the authentic practices of scientific knowledge construction by engaging in classroom activities that reflect important aspects of professional science (Chinn & Malhotra, 2002;Engle & Conant, 2002;Ford & Forman, 2006;Hutchinson & Hammer, 2010;Lehrer & Schauble, 2006). Real-world knowledge building practices unfold as a dynamic process to address ever-evolving challenges and unknowns (Knorr Cetina, 2001). ...
Preprint
FREE FULL TEXT access at https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.21717 As a hallmark of authentic science practices, students need to enact epistemic agency to shape/reshape the key aspects of their inquiry work as a collaborative community. This study elaborates an emergent temporal mechanism for engaging students' epistemic agency: "reflective structuration" by which members of a classroom community co-construct ever-evolving inquiry directions and group structures as their collective inquiry work proceeds. Using an interactional ethnography method, we examined how students (n = 22) in a Grade 5 classroom co-constructed shared inquiry directions and flexible group structures to guide their sustained inquiry about human body systems over seven months supported by a collaborative online environment. Rich data were collected to trace the work of the eye inquiry group as a telling case. With their teacher's support, students took agentic moves to construct an evolving set of wondering areas as a way to frame what their whole class needed to investigate. Flexible groups, such as the eye inquiry group, emerged and evolved in the various areas, leading to progressively deepening inquiry and extensive idea exchanges among students. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
... To understand what students found interesting and meaningful, we attended to aspects of the investigation children introduced into small group or whole group conversation. We also took as an indication of children's interest and sense of purpose moments that, regardless of who introduced a question or idea, resulted in increased participation, changes in affect (e.g., excitement, impassioned disagreement), and engagement with others' ideas (Engle & Conant, 2002). We developed an "uncertainty log" for each classroom (Table 2), moving through the data to document when and how the uncertain aspect of the investigation (e.g., temperature, changing back) occurred. ...
Article
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Changing where, when, and how objects are studied is central to lab-based science (Knorr Cetina, 1999). Science involves changing the scale of objects—particularly scales of size, time, and intensity—from what is experienced in the world. Similar to investigations conducted in science laboratories, classroom investigations involve re-representing and re-scaling entities, manipulating them, and observing effects in new locations and timescales. However, this aspect of investigation is under-studied and under-utilized as a resource for learning. We argue that, from elementary school, children can experience quantification, or identifying, developing, and working with variables, as consequential and can take up differences in representation and scale in empirical investigations as opportunities for sense-making and conceptual progress. We describe two instantiations of an investigation into heating and cooling, showing that 7- and 8-year-old students oriented to gaps and ambiguities related to temperature and that the redesign supported children and teachers to take up temperature for productive sense-making and conceptual progress. We examine opportunities for quantification across the heating and cooling investigation and a second investigation into landforms. This work has implications for supporting quantification in science activity in the early grades and using empirical investigations as opportunities for sense-making.
... 987), Phillips et al. (2017) counted it as providing evidence, although the "evidence" is more like an implicit rule-based argument (e.g., lighter things cannot hold heavier things). When coding students' evidence use in their arguments over whether orcas should be classified as whale or dolphin, Engle and Conant (2002) explicitly take into account supports that are much less empirical in nature, such as lexical evidence and evidence about credibility of sources. "If a killer whale was a dolphin, how come they would call it, how come they're not called the 'killer dolphin?'" (p.423) is specified as an example of using lexical evidence to argue "for the importance of a standardized nomenclature" (p. ...
Article
Science education researchers agree about the importance of evidence in science practices such as argumentation. Yet, disagreements and ambiguities about what counts as “evidence” in science classrooms pervade the literature. We argue that these ambiguities and disagreements can be viewed as falling along three fault lines: (i) the source of evidence, specifically, whether it must be first-hand; (ii) whether “evidence” must always be empirical; and (iii) the extent to which evidence is inferred, and what degree of inference transforms “evidence” into something else. In this paper, after showing how these three fault lines manifest in the literature, we argue that these three dimensions of disagreements and ambiguities are not confined to research and research-based curricula; they are also salient in teachers' classroom practice, as illustrated by a dramatic, multiday debate between a mentor teacher and her teacher intern. After establishing the salience of the three fault lines in both research and practice, we explore whether Next Generation Science Standard (NGSS) can provide a resolution to the teachers' debate and to the disagreements/ambiguities in the literature. Our analysis reveals that NGSS reproduces rather than resolves those three fault lines—but in doing so, it invites a resolution of a different type. Instead of providing a single, precise, context-independent definition of “evidence,” NGSS implicitly reflects a defensible view that what counts as “evidence” depends on the epistemic aims of the practices in which the students are engaged. This implied context-dependency of what counts as good evidence use, we argue, could be made explicit in an addendum document clarifying aspects of NGSS. Doing so would provide valuable guidance to teachers, teacher educators, and researchers.
... This position draws upon a well-developed line of research that elucidates both the affordances and the challenges of translating the practices of science to the classroom environment. Engle and Conant (2002) argue that productive disciplinary engagement of science GRAY ET AL. | 5 students in the classroom entails multiple factors including problematization of subject matter, giving students authority to solve problems, providing material resources, and maintaining accountability to shared disciplinary norms. Collectively, these entailments can also be characterized as the social, conceptual, and epistemic dimensions of science (Duschl, 2008). ...
Article
In this study, we examined the ways in which two middle school science teachers elicited and were responsive to students' initial science ideas for explaining an anchoring phenomenon while teaching the same model-based learning unit focused on plate tectonics. Data sources included student models, classroom video, and classroom artifacts. Our analysis revealed a connection between the elicitation of initial ideas, teacher responsiveness to those ideas, and the continued use of those ideas by the students across the unit as evidenced in their individually constructed models. In both classrooms, variation in initial ideas seen on the first day narrowed as students engaged in activities designed to challenge their ideas and present the scientifically accepted explanation of the phenomenon. In one classroom, however, far more ideas were surfaced early, and those ideas were utilized by students as they made sense of the phenomenon. In the other classroom, far fewer ideas were surfaced early and those that were all but disappeared once the unit activities began suggesting student ideas were less likely to be utilized as a sense-making resource. This study contributes to a growing understanding of the importance of eliciting and responding to students' initial ideas in students' productive disciplinary engagement across an instructional unit.
... Second, we found that, when students saw the plausibility of multiple ideas, the legitimacy of their role as investigators was reinforced. This finding is aligned with prior research suggesting that tasks which elicit variation in students' hypotheses and models allow for greater engagement in scientific practices (Engle and Conant, 2002;Lehrer and Schauble, 2005). ...
Article
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Modeling is a scientific practice that supports creative reasoning, motivates inquiry, and facilitates community sense-making. This paper explores students' perspectives on modeling in an undergraduate laboratory course, Authentic Inquiry through Modeling (AIM-Bio), in which they proposed, tested, and revised their own models. We conducted comparative case studies of eight students over a semester. Students described using models to support multiple forms of scientific reasoning and hypothesis generation. They recounted the challenges of dealing with uncertainty and integrating diverse ideas. They also described how these challenges pushed their thinking. Overall, students reported feeling a sense of scientific authenticity and agency through their modeling experience. We additionally provide an in-depth look at two students whose unique experiences in AIM-Bio emphasize the variable ways modeling can support inquiry learning. We claim that modeling emerged as a legitimate practice among students, because the AIM-Bio curriculum encouraged diversity in students' models, provided opportunities for students to grapple with uncertainty, and fostered collaboration between students. We suggest that biology educators consider how model-based inquiry can allow students to participate in science, as a way to support interest in, identification with, and ultimately persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields.
... From a sociocultural perspective, learning contexts in schools are configured by material, social, and institutional conditions that shape students' and teachers' trajectories of participation in activities (Furberg & Silseth, 2022;Kozulin, 2004;Newman et al., 1989;Säljö, 2010). Studies of classrooms and instructional work have shown the significance of student-teacher interactions for student participation and engagement (Engle & Conant, 2002;Kozulin, 2004;Mehan, 1979b;van de Sande & Greeno, 2012;Wortham, 2004). However, less research has detailed how teachers' explicit orientations to policy mediate student participation in student-teacher interactions. ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to examine the complex relationships between educational policy and classroom practice. By employing a sociocultural perspective, we examine formulations inscribed in socio-material artifacts about what students should learn and how they should engage with knowledge. We explore how these formulations are mobilized in instructional work and the implications this activity has for student participation. To address this issue, we analyzed video data of how teachers invoke competence aims from the national curriculum in their instructional work in six classrooms. The analytical procedures were derived from interaction analysis. The analysis focuses on how such formulations explicitly mediate social interaction as it unfolds on a micro level. The findings show that competence aims gain different functions as they are mobilized in classroom practice; in other words, they serve different purposes in teachers’ instructional work and anticipate different modes of student participation. In this study, the competence aims were (a) invoked as a source of authority, (b) translated into instructions, and (c) mobilized to obtain social order in the classroom. More rarely, the competence aims were used in meta-level discussions, where they functioned to reach agreements on how to pursue work toward joint goals. We discuss the implications of these ways of invoking competence aims for student participation.
... Apreciamos esta dificultad, específicamente, en la práctica docente de los futuros profesores. Stein et al. (2008) se sitúan en un marco planteado por Engle y Conant (2002), que trata del involucramiento disciplinar productivo en la clase. Estos autores sugieren dos normas que pueden ayudar a los docentes a involucrar su pensamiento en las tareas, y a la vez evolucionar hacia ideas matemáticas importantes: la autoridad de los estudiantes y la responsabilidad hacia la disciplina. ...
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Esta colección contiene artículos que ponen en diálogo los aportes de la didáctica de la matemática con la práctica educativa.
... Teachers and researchers agree that in discourse-heavy classrooms student talk is important for student success (e.g. Barron, 2003;Engle & Conant, 2002;Langer-Osuna, 2011), but I argue there is more for us to learn if we expand our participation lens to include non-verbal indicators and underlying interactional mechanisms, as opposed to just isolated participation metrics. An expansive view of participation allowed me to look beyond Becca's lack of talk to understand more about a) Becca's mathematical participation b) the co-construction of "quiet" participation through interactions c) how inequitable opportunities for participation unfolded, and d) what might be done to support more equitable participation in the future. ...
Conference Paper
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To disrupt patterns of marginalization that play out through interactions in math classrooms, teachers need to identify and address inequities in student participation, both in terms of participation outcomes and processes. In this study, I take an expansive view of participation and examine how the "quiet" participation of one 9th grade student is co-constructed through small-group interactions during an Algebra task. Analysis reveals three features of the group's interactions that fostered the co-construction of Becca's "quiet" participation: 1. Becca was positioned as a non-contributing silent beneficiary of learning, 2. Becca's contributions received less support than her peers', 3. Disagreement with Becca was softer than with John. Findings suggest that the perceived issue of low verbal production did not reside within Becca, but rather was the result of inequitable participation processes that played out through peer interactions.
... All of these skills are "language-intensive," requiring students to draw upon their academic and everyday discourses and requiring educators to foster such communication in and around science by giving students authority within the learning environment (Engle & Conant, 2002). For multilingual students learning new or additional languages, "the primary process by which learning takes place is interaction, more specifically, engagement with other learners and teachers in joint activities that focus on matters of shared interest and that contain opportunities for learning" (Walqui, 2006, p. 159-160). ...
... In describing the scientific learning of elementary students, the authors described affective response as part of the "substance" students need when learning science and as a necessary component to motivate and structure learning experiences. Authentic experiences that excite students and acquaint them with the questions that disciplinary experts engage with can provide a platform for rich learning to take place (Engle & Conant, 2002). ...
Article
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Graduate Teaching Assistants (GTAs) carry a substantial instructional role in introductory courses for many mathematics and statistics departments. As a result, many GTAs have first-hand influence on the initial statistical impressions of students from a range of disciplines. But as simultaneous learners of the discipline themselves, GTAs in statistics are still forming their conceptions of statistics and statistics instruction. Using multiple case study design, I conducted a longitudinal study with four, first-year statistics GTAs aimed at capturing their experiences and notions related to statistics. This paper highlights several important disciplinary perspectives and tensions expressed by the GTAs. In addition to examining their disciplinary notions, I also discuss noteworthy connections between the participants’ statistical perspectives and their pedagogical views for introductory statistics. Findings reveal that the participants struggled to reconcile how authentic statistical practice could be translated into the introductory curriculum. Implications for GTA training are discussed.
... Freedman (2020) similarly found that a class of students that prepared for a historical discussion with a richer set of resources experienced greater engagement than another class that did not prepare, even though both classes demonstrated similar levels of historical reasoning. Freedman drew on Engle and Conant's (2002) concept of "productive disciplinary engagement" to frame his search for "dialogic discussion, where students exchanged ideas with minimal teacher interference" (p. 10), contrasting it with "discussion sputter," where teachers interfered or students failed to take up each other's ideas. ...
Article
Background/Context Although calls for rich discussion and argumentation about disciplinary texts and content are frequent, research indicates that in classrooms such discussions are rare. When discussions do happen, few students tend to participate. Purpose/Focus of Study We look to exemplar teachers’ classrooms where a range of ethnically, racially, linguistically, and academically diverse students participated substantively in discussions throughout social studies inquiries to understand what those teachers do to support broad and substantive student participation in discussion, knowing that discussion promotes student learning. Research Design Using video recordings of class sessions, we conducted discourse analysis and used case study methods to examine classroom discourse over 20 days of inquiry across an academic year within the context of a larger, design-based research project. Findings We identify how two teachers build toward and facilitate three types of disciplinary, whole-class, text-based discussions: Sensemaking, Argumentative, and Culminating Argumentative. We analyze the instructional work involved in preparing students for discussions, in situating discussions within a larger context of inquiry, and in facilitating discussions in the moment, focusing on the intellectual work being done when students take extended turns of talk that build on what has been said before. Conclusions/Recommendations This work contributes a broader understanding of how students’ full participation in disciplinary discussion and argumentation can be supported in the context of inquiry. We draw implications for enabling all students to participate in inquiry, with particular attention to students learning English or needing support for reading complex sources.
... This belief concerns the authority relation in learning dealing with the power of epistemic agency between students and teachers (Stroupe, 2014). While research has repeatedly emphasized that science practices require students to take responsibility for generating knowledge (Duschl, 2008;Engle & Conant, 2002;Stroupe, 2014), little is known about whether a particular knowledge or belief enables teachers to create such opportunities. This study demonstrated that the belief that teachers have no control over what is going on in students' minds is critical to making a fundamental shift in power and authority relations in learning. ...
Article
Research in science education has emphasized the importance of knowledge generation approaches to learning. Creating generative learning environments requires teachers to address the epistemic underpinning of science practices and shift their orientations toward knowledge generation approaches. This study aimed to propose epistemic orientation as a key component of teacher development for implementing knowledge generation approaches and develop an empirically grounded model of the construct through a mixed-method approach. Epistemic orientation toward teaching science for knowledge generation (EOTS-KG) was defined as a particular direction of thinking concerning how to deal with knowledge and knowledge generation processes when a teacher aims to create generative learning environments for teaching science. Building on the theoretical model of EOTS-KG established through a critical literature review, we conducted a multiple case study of exemplary elementary teachers and designed an instrument called the Epistemic Orientation Survey. The model from the case study described four major subdimensions indicated by 11 essential elements that should be considered when preparing teachers for implementing a knowledge approach, suggesting that teachers' beliefs about learning
... Next, each group completed two, 30-minute collaborative exercises. Both collaborative exercises included a timely and regionally familiar topic with multi-disciplinary questions intending to incite argumentation through problematising subject matter (Engle & Conant, 2002). Groups presented their findings after the collaborative exercise to create anticipation and higher levels of accountability on the exercise (Tetlock, 1992). ...
Article
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Participation in collaborative learning environments has demonstrated significant learning advantages due to opportunities for group members to contribute to shared problem-solving processes, shared goals, and co-elaboration of knowledge. Furthermore, research has shown that higher levels of social perceptiveness are positively correlated with higher levels of group performance. However, collaboration is not always successful, sometimes exhibiting imbalances of power and status. In this study, positioning theory and interaction analysis were used to investigate (a) interactions in four racially and gender-mixed groups (of three university students each) working with technology and (b) their negotiated positions of power and status. Results showed that racial minority group members experienced a lower status as measured by behavioural indicators and rated participation as more inequitable. Results were exacerbated when minorities were also female.s Findings demonstrate the usefulness of positioning theory for examining collaborative interactions and have important implications for future CSCL research in both organisational and classroom settings.
... Comme nous l'exposions plus haut, la tâche d'identification des adjectifs proposée dans le test 2 de REAlang nous a semblé constituer une bonne matière pour ces entretiens d'explicitation, car l'identification ou l'étiquetage de classes grammaticales est une tâche scolaire par excellence, fortement associée à la discipline « français ». Il nous semblait donc qu'en plaçant les élèves en situation de verbaliser autour de cette tâche propre à la discipline nous leur offrions l'occasion de décrire des savoir-faire propres à ce champ disciplinaire, mais aussi d'adopter un vocabulaire situé dans les « normes » de cette « communauté discursive » (Engle & Conant, 2002). C'était donc pour nous une bonne occasion de quantifier le métalangage et l'ensemble du vocabulaire employé par les élèves dans cette verbalisation et de vérifier si cet emploi était pertinent (Le Levier et al., 2018) et efficace. ...
... Supporting engineering practices in tandem with social and linguistic practices is an opportunity to capitalize on the rich cultural assets found in urban schools as knowledgegenerating resources. Metaphors that view learning as socially coconstructed provide frames for identifying and valuing productive disciplinary engagement (Engle & Conant, 2002). ...
... Studies about the authority in the science classroom have suggested transferring the teacher's authority to students to resolve the situation in which the teacher stands as the sole authority (Engle & Conant, 2002;Gresalfi et al., 2009;Hutchison & Hammer, 2010;Kawasaki & Sandoval, 2019, 2020. In this study, however, we saw the entanglement of two different kinds of authorities: one is positional authority-the authority of the knowledge source's position, and the other is rational authority-the authority of the valid process in which knowledge is constructed. ...
Article
This study aimed to explore what kinds of epistemological messages were conveyed through teacher discourse in modeling‐based and traditional elementary science classrooms and how teachers framed the two classrooms distinctively through these messages. Data came from two sixth‐grade teachers' science classrooms—one characterized as a modeling‐based classroom and the other as a traditional classroom. Video recordings of science lessons in the two classrooms were analyzed as the main data source. Epistemological messages from within the teacher discourse in the two classrooms were identified, and different ways of the teachers' epistemological framing by these messages were inferred. As a result, we identified a constellation of epistemological messages corresponding to a variety of epistemological themes and categories communicated by the teacher in the modeling‐based classroom. This constellation indicated the teacher's framing of the modeling‐based classroom as supportive of students' construction of knowledge through engagement in the scientific practice of modeling. By contrast, in the traditional science classroom, epistemological messages served the teacher's framing of the classroom as a place for learning correct knowledge by recording and memorizing the information transferred via the teacher and the textbook. The findings suggest that epistemological messages can be used as a conceptual and instructional tool to analyze and shape epistemic aspects of science classrooms and that rational authority on scientific practices of modeling can be an important characteristic of a modeling‐based science classroom that sets it apart from a traditional classroom.
... Att engagemang blivit så viktigt att förstå, kan hänga ihop med att det är svårt att föreställa sig någon form av lärande som går direkt från motivation till lärande utan att medieras av engagemang (Engle & Conant, 2002;Reeve, 2012). Martin et al. (2020) drog i sin litteraturgenomgång av onlineundervisning (genomgång av åren 2009-2018) slutsatsen att även om elevers engagemang var det vanligaste temat i studier kring lärande online, hanterades A h e a d o f p r i n t fenomenet engagemang ofta inkonsekvent och ospecifikt. ...
Preprint
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Engagemang och motivation är distinkta fenomen, men ändå ofta begrepp som används överlappande eller synonymt. Trots att lärares uppfattning av elevers engagemang influerar både hur lärare interagerar med eleverna och elevers betyg, har vi lite kunskap om hur lärare förstår och ser på elevers engagemang, i synnerhet när lärande sker online. Denna studie undersöker genom mixade metoder lärares initiala och fördjupade förståelse av elevers engagemang och disengagemang i digitala lärmiljöer. Tolv lärare, som regel-bundet bedriver hybrid-, fjärr-eller distansundervisning i grund-, gymnasie-skola eller vuxenutbildning, intervjuades två gånger och ombads att fylla i en dagbok kring elevers engagemang mellan intervjuerna. Resultaten visar att majoriteten av lärarna gradvis ökade sin användning av ordet engagemang medan användningen av ordet motivation minskade. Resultaten speglar en övergång från en vag och generell förståelse för engagemang till en mer speci-fikt och situationsbunden. Det visade sig att lärare ofta försöker påverka elevernas engagemang via motivation, men att insikter i motivation inte kan stödja hur lärare designar engagerande lärande aktiviteter. Sammanfattnings-vis är ett professionellt språk en förutsättning för kollegial dialog, vilken behövs för att nå en ökad förståelse kring elevers faktiska engagemang i, eller disengagemang från, lärande, så att dessa insikter kan informera utvecklingen av lektionsdesign och den egna praktiken. INLEDNING Under de senaste decennierna har elevers engagemang i skolsammanhang kommit att erkännas som den enskilt mest kritiska faktorn för skolframgång. Analyser av elevers engagemang har till exempel använts för att utveckla läro-A h e a d o f p r i n t
... Articulating and orienting to uncertainty. The body of work on uncertainty highlights the ways that uncertainty as designed or supported in the learning environments, experienced by individual students, and shared in the classroom community can support students' sense-making (Chen et al., 2019;Engle & Conant, 2002;Ford & Forman, 2015;Manz, 2015;Watkins et al., 2018). Our analyses showed that there is significant pedagogical work involved for teachers to navigate individual's needs and interests alongside those of the classroom community, all while considering the resources available to make progress on an uncertainty. ...
Article
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Science education researchers have highlighted how uncertainty can foster meaningful scientific sense‐making, supporting students to re‐evaluate their understandings of scientific phenomena and pursue deeper causal accounts. However, facilitating whole‐class conversations motivated by uncertainty is complex and challenging, calling for further descriptions of the pedagogical work involved for teachers. In this study, we consider recurring pedagogical decision points as a way to get a handle on how teachers orchestrate classroom conversations and improvise to respond to students' reasoning. To examine these decision points, we analyzed five classroom episodes where classroom communities transformed a student's expression of uncertainty into an episode of collective, scientific sense‐making. Across these episodes, we found that teachers needed to make decisions around (1) whether to make space for an uncertainty, (2) how to transform an uncertainty into a collective problem, (3) which elements to fix and which to leave open, (4) when and how to support the class evaluate their accounts, (5) whether to make space for and/or mark new goals. Using detailed analyses of two episodes, along with short descriptions of the others, we illustrate how these decision points emerged, the different choices teachers made, and how these decisions shaped the trajectories of the classroom conversations.
... The PCS provides a scalable way to simulate high-risk activities for novices to experience in a safe environment, as well as a platform in which to study individual and group activities (Giboney et al., 2021). As players take on unique roles in a PCS, they enact principles of productive disciplinary engagement (Engle & Conant, 2002) by (1) tackling disciplinary problems, (2) gaining authority to make in-game decisions, (3) holding each other and themselves to disciplinary norms, and (4) using resources provided by the PCS. Figure 1 presents the core elements of a PCS, using our team-based, Risk Analysis cybersecurity PCS as an example. This PCS walks learners through the NIST Cybersecurity Framework, as they assume distinct roles as members of a municipal government Professional Development Program in the fictional city of Bronze Falls. ...
Conference Paper
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Playable Case Studies (PCSs) are online simulations that allow learners to adopt (play) a professional role within an authentic scenario (case) as they solve realistic problems alongside fictionalized experts in an unfolding narrative. The PCS architecture offers scalable options for creating learning activities for individual learners and student teams, and the means for observing and analyzing these activities. This interactive demo will showcase PCSs the team has developed for topics ranging from cybersecurity to technical writing to disaster response, illustrating how we embed learning assessments and research surveys and run them in classroom environments. Participants and potential collaborators will interact with and provide feedback on the prototype PCS Authoring Tool, designed to streamline the creation of new PCSs.
... Erikson (1968) considered the stage of adolescence as a time where young people are free to explore their potential identities and enhance ego capacities such as agentic abilities and strengths, and master potential difficulties that arise in social environments (Erikson, 1968). A major challenge for the development of agency and identity in adolescence is often considered to be their social and environmental contexts, as developing agency can be viewed as a social action that emerges when individuals associate with each other (Engle & Conant, 2002). Several studies have highlighted the tensions between different social and environmental structures and the agency of young people, with family, school, peers and media all playing a part in influencing agentic behaviour (Gergely, 2002;Hayes-Conroy & Vanderbeck, 2005;Wiseman et al., 2011). ...
Thesis
This thesis explores the role that curriculum-based environmental education plays in influencing young peoples' wellbeing. It adopts a social constructivist approach to understand how wellbeing is understood, articulated and experienced by young people in residential learning environments. The thesis argues that positivistic and adult-centred accounts of wellbeing have restricted our appreciation of the diverse ways in which young people engage with and recognise their emotions in educational settings. In adopting an alternative framework, the thesis argues for experiential and subjective understandings of wellbeing to be developed through a range of methodological tools. The research sought to develop these ideas by focusing on the experiences of students visiting the Field Studies Centre at Slapton Ley (Devon, UK) and utilised focus groups and solicited participant diaries, providing a basis for phenomenological inquiry that enabled a direct engagement with young people participating in environmental education programmes. The empirical research focused on the experiences of young people between the ages of 14 and 18 years on a residential, curriculum-based environmental education programme and examined the role and potential of environmental education for supporting the wellbeing of young people. From an initial thematic analysis of the data five elements were identified as key to the participants' wellbeing: wellbeing as multidimensional, social elements, psychological elements, physical health and environmental elements. These elements were then used to provide a framing for understanding young peoples' experiences of wellbeing throughout the lived experience of curriculum-based environmental education and, as a result, the research yielded three themes that provide an understanding of the key experiences of environmental education and its connection to wellbeing: experiences of place, experiences of people, and the learning experience. Using these themes and the participants' conceptualisations of wellbeing, the research then iii explored how strategies can be developed within environmental education to promote the wellbeing of young people and reveals the importance of fostering feelings of restoration, increasing social bonds and developing a sense of achievement and accomplishment. Consequently, this research contributes to the fields of environmental education and health and wellbeing research within a geographical context through demonstrating the importance of qualitative approaches in revealing the ways young people articulate their emotions in educational settings. Alongside this, it challenges assumptions about the way nature is utilised in wellbeing interventions, highlighting the role that social and cultural backgrounds can play in the way nature is experienced by different groups and how this can be addressed within environmental education. Therefore, a key contribution of this research is in providing an empirical analysis for the relationship between environmental education and wellbeing, and how to best design environmental education programmes that meet the needs of young people.
... It is significant to note that talk in the mathematics classroom has enjoyed a good deal of attention in our selection of literature as creating a classroom where there is productive disciplinary engagement (Engle & Conant, 2002) is a key focus of research on language and mathematics in global research in recent years. ...
Article
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This article presents a systematic review of research on language and multilingualism in mathematics education published in the South African journal Pythagoras from 1994 to 2021. This time frame was chosen as the year 1994 marked the acknowledgement of 11 official languages in the new democratic South Africa (including 9 indigenous languages), compared to only Afrikaans and English during the apartheid era. The review considers emergent themes in the included articles and examines what the articles reveal about mathematics education in South Africa. In addition to other findings, our corpus of literature indicates that research in this field of mathematics has been mostly undertaken in under-resourced schools and that research under the theme of multilingual education is at the forefront of research in South African mathematics education, while research on language policy needs more attention. Research on multilingual education in our corpus of literature also reveals great awareness of the value of seeing language as a resource, as well as the benefits that accrue when taking learners’ home languages are taken into account in mathematics teaching and learning. The gaps in research in the field of language and multilingualism in the teaching and learning of mathematics are also noted and recommendations for future research are made.
... Distinguished from the "word" dimension in the framework for behavioral engagement, the framework for cognitive engagement was proposed by focusing on the sematic level of discussion according to relevant studies (Engles & Conant, 2002;Helme & Clarke, 2001;Zhu, 2006). Our observation framework is based on the Analytical Framework for Cognitive Engagement in Discussion (Zhu, 2006) and Bloom's Revised Taxonomy (Krathwohl, 2002). ...
Article
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Driven by the initiative of e-learning, mobile technologies such as tablets, with the merits of portability and accessibility, have become vital tools for creating ubiquitous learning and mobile learning (m-learning) environments in science education. The reconstruction of the science learning environment enabled by mobile technologies may influence students’ learning engagement and correspondingly affect their science learning performance. Considering the limited empirical studies on student engagement in the m-learning environment at the senior secondary level, this study focuses on exploring the characteristics of students’ engagement in a mobile technology-supported science learning environment. In the study, a class with 45 10th grade students and three teachers at a senior secondary school was videotaped and observed. The data of students’ behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagements from 60 science lessons was coded and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively from the social-cultural perspective. On that basis, the correlations among these three dimensions of engagements in m-science learning environment were further calculated. The findings indicated the progress and pitfalls of current mobile technology-supported teaching and learning practices in science education. The results and discussions will inform the pedagogical design and implementation of mobile learning in science education.
Article
Formative assessment practices map neatly onto many frameworks for high-quality teaching. Yet, in teacher preparation programs these practices are often left out of discussions of instruction because formative assessment practices may be considered separate from teaching practices. In this paper, we introduce a model of “practice progressions” for formative assessment to illustrate how formative assessment practices can gain in sophistication when considered an integral part of teaching. We provide an example of a preservice teacher's growth in formative assessment practices over the course of a practice-based program and map the growth to the practice progressions.
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Purpose This study explores prospective classroom teacher (PCT) question types and their role in initiating productive student-led talk. Design/Approach/Methods This study is a naturalistic inquiry focusing on the structure, nature, and productivity of PCT questions using data collected from 24 fourth-grade (exit-level) PCTs. Video-based data were analyzed via systematic observation. Findings This study identified nine types of teacher questions. Of these, six types—namely, communicating, monitoring-framing, critiquing, legitimating, evidencing, and modeling—were explicitly related to productive classroom talk indicators. While the remaining three question types—observe-compare-predict, concluding and naming, and maintaining—contributed to the variation in PCT questions, they were not directly linked to the indicators of talk productivity. Moreover, the critiquing, legitimating, and modeling questions expected to foster talk productivity were seldom asked, with classroom discourse dominated by communicating questions. Originality/Value The literature has yet to observe and systematically analyze the productivity of PCTs’ in-class questions. In addressing this gap, this study presents a wide-ranging and qualitatively oriented coding catalogue to identify several aspects of academically productive classroom discourse that can be triggered and maintained by PCTs’ questioning behaviors.
Article
This paper explores how the use of digital practice spaces (DPSs) can inform teacher preparation through a reimagining of clinical practice in teacher preparation by addressing the question: what roles might DPSs play in the ecology of apprenticeship opportunities for future educators? We leveraged AACTE’s Essential Proclamations and Tenets for Highly Effective Clinical Educator Preparation as an analytical framework to examine our own experiences using DPSs in our teacher education coursework. We discuss the alignment between these proclamations and the theoretical, conceptual, and practical underpinnings of DPSs. Finally, we consider the remaining proclamations that represent the horizons of DPSs within teacher preparation, a task we undertook as a set of informed provocations, envisioning how DPSs could be designed to support the proclamations not currently supported.
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El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una herramienta que oriente la validación y construcción de secuencias didácticas investigativas (SDI) de acuerdo con su potencial para promover la participación de los estudiantes. Para ello se adopta la noción de compromiso disciplinario productivo y los principios para su ocurrencia. A partir de ellos, se proponen preguntas generadoras para ser tomadas en consideración por los productores de SDI
Article
Society faces emerging challenges that require re-envisioning what it means to know and use science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and who are STEM scientists. We advocate for a transdisciplinary framework for participatory STEM learning based on the culmination of the authors’ designing and complemented by reviews of extant works in youth STEM learning and engagement. Data literacy, geospatial reasoning, and community science are cornerstones in our framework because of their power to leverage and integrate the four STEM disciplines. Youth with their families are authors and designers in community problem-solving using data literacy and geospatial reasoning through participatory community science to question, analyze, and design solutions empowered by their lived experiences. Through partnerships with community organizations, families, youth, and STEM practitioners, we discuss how to develop and use tools and methods to design and build better spaces for youths’ communities. Our aim is for more authentic, inclusive, and empowering learning opportunities that broaden youths’ STEM participation. We describe our framework and the underlying commitments, design principles, expected outcomes, and limitations.
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In science education, there has been a sustained focus on supporting the emergence of science practices in K–12 and field‐based settings. Recent work has elevated the integral role of emotion in sparking and sustaining such disciplinary practices, deepening the field's understanding of what is entailed in “doing” science. Yet even as we gain this richer understanding of practice, less attention has been given to the places where practice emerges. These places play a critical role in the co‐emergence of emotion and practice, and while separate strands of research have elevated emotion and practice or, alternately, place and practice, rarely has their dynamic relationship been considered together. In this article, I explore this interplay of emotion, place, and practice emergent in children's sampling practices within a multiweek curriculum centered around their schoolyard soil ecosystem. Through a comparative case study analysis of two student pairs using video data, student interviews, and classroom artifacts, my analysis reveals how children's emergent emotion was entangled in their relationships with the schoolyard and life within, shaping not only how they engaged in sampling practices but also what dimensions of the ecological system they attended to. I argue that emotion and place should be central to the design, teaching, and analysis of learning contexts, in turn centering the social and emplaced dimensions of science disciplinary practices for children and scientists alike. Implications for science teaching and learning are discussed, with particular consideration of field‐based sciences.
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This chapter examined the trends in reform-based mathematics teaching practices in the United States classrooms. The authors systematically analyzed the journal articles in the Mathematics Teacher: Learning and Teaching PK-12 (MTLT) in order to reveal the current practices that practitioners and experts in mathematics education deem significant and worthy. They found that the most trending reform practices were mathematical discourse, conceptual understanding, task selection, and real-life applications. They discussed each trending practice through sample strategies and provided examples from the reviewed articles. They also identified the least trending reform practices that need attention and discussed associated challenges.
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Este trabalho se ocupa de analisar a atividade de aprender ensinando, particularmente relacionado à sua potencialidade para identificar incompreensões e incertezas do conhecimento. A partir de um estudo envolvendo participantes de um projeto de aulas de monitoria em uma universidade brasileira, a investigação analisou a tomada de consciência destes alunos em termos do favorecimento da estruturação das aulas para identificar lacunas de aprendizagem. A investigação recorreu a entrevistas para responder ao questionamento central: o ato de ensinar na forma de monitoria oportuniza ao seu executor uma reflexão metacognitiva? A metacognição foi entendida como a capacidade dos sujeitos de monitorar e controlar suas compreensões, o que pode ser associado à identificação de incompreensões e incertezas do conhecimento. Os resultados apontaram que os estudantes apoiadores veem na atividade a oportunidade de aprender, sobretudo, no momento em que estão explicando o conteúdo. Além disso, o estudo explicita a importância de identificar lacunas de compreensão como forma de qualificar a aprendizagem.
Chapter
This chapter reports on an initial, small-scale examination of the convergence of principled learning designs and the development of situated analytics through a case-based analysis of the interactive systems of individual student learning within an online high school. The intersection between ODL and learning analytics embodies a unique combination of factors through which theoretically informed approaches can reveal insights about and catalyze changes to curricula and pedagogy. Using learning analytics to change practices within a particular context requires attending to the assumptions and values for teaching, learning, and knowing. In addition to prioritizing human-centered decision making with data, a situative approach prioritizes revealing the assumptions embedded within the design decisions of ODL environments. Focusing on individual students’ participation in ODL environments can illuminate design issues and reveal opportunities to change existing teaching and learning activities. The authors argues that the emphasis on smaller scale data analyses provides information relevant for identifying larger scale applications that can be constructed from explorations of more localized teaching and learning contexts. This chapter provides an emerging example to address the growing need for expanding learning analytics research as a process of joint collaboration between all members of an online learning community.
Chapter
When learners’ full linguistic repertoire is recognized and actively mobilized, their learning experiences can be enriched as they grow disciplinary-specific skills, expand language proficiencies, and gain expertise. Leveraging learners’ multilingual repertoires is especially important when doing science, as it requires individuals to engage in oral, written, and semiotic communication to create hypotheses, develop theories, analyze or interpret data, synthesize information, and justify arguments. In this study, we illuminate the affordances of Chin-background refugee teenagers leveraging their full linguistic repertoires as they reason about scientific phenomena in a year-long after-school program focused on impacts of climate changes on human life around the globe. Based on close discourse analysis of four selected events, we show how the participants translanguaged across multiple languages to explain science ideas to one another, discuss cross-cutting concepts such as causal relationships, provide task-related social supports, and ensure that everyone in their group understood and could participate. This study provides specific examples of the functions of youths’ translanguaging practices in relation to their science learning, including attention to peer-scaffolding of scientific sense-making as well as affective supports to enhance engagement. Implications are discussed.
Article
Argumentation is a central epistemic process contributing to the generation, evaluation, and application of scientific knowledge. A key challenge for science educators and researchers is to understand how the important social and discursive (“social dialogic”) dimensions of argumentation can be implemented in learning environments. This study investigates how science educators learned about such argumentation through a professional development program at a scientific research center. The 13‐day program included 5‐days working in research laboratories with a mentor and observing scientific argumentation in context. Theoretically, this research draws on sociocultural frameworks to investigate the social dialogic dimensions of scientific argumentation. Methodologically, it examines the reflections of a cohort of 21 secondary science teachers as they observed argumentation in scientific research settings. It examines how research experiences for teachers can promote an understanding of the social dialogic dimensions of argumentation and to help teachers take up educational approaches that foster expansive argumentation practices. Teachers shared a heightened awareness of argumentation as a ubiquitous, embedded feature of authentic scientific activity; expanded ideas about forms, uses, and purposes of argumentation; and developed an understanding of how contexts for argumentation such as collaborative sensemaking and critique can help manage uncertainty and build knowledge. A year after their program participation, teachers recounted shifts in pedagogical practices, including desettling traditional classroom talk patterns, scaling back their epistemic authority, providing students with more agency and ownership of ideas, and recognizing the value of establishing a culture of community and collaboration. Findings highlight how professional development in research settings has the potential to broaden teachers' views of argumentation, with implications for secondary science teaching.
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Human one-to-one tutoring has been shown to be a very effective form of instruction. Three contrasting hypotheses, a tutor-centered one, a student-centered one, and an interactive one could all potentially explain the effectiveness of tutoring. To test these hypotheses, analyses focused not only on the effectiveness of the tutors' moves, but also on the effectiveness of the students' construction on learning, as well as their interaction. The interaction hypothesis is further tested in the second study by manipulating the kind of tutoring tactics tutors were permitted to use. In order to promote a more interactive style of dialogue, rather than a didactic style, tutors were suppressed from giving explanations and feedback. Instead, tutors were encouraged to prompt the students. Surprisingly, students learned just as effectively even when tutors were suppressed from giving explanations and feedback. Their learning in the interactive style of tutoring is attributed to construction from deeper and a greater amount of scaffolding episodes, as well as their greater effort to take control of their own learning by reading more. What they learned from reading was limited, however, by their reading abilities.
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In this study we discuss convergence between instructional practices suggested by research on achievement motivation and practices promoted in the mathematics instruction reform literature, and we assess associations among instructional practices, motivation, and learning of fractions. Participants included 624 fourth- through sixth-grade students and their 24 teachers. Results indicated that the instructional practices suggested in literature in both research areas positively affected students' motivation (e.g., focus on learning and understanding; positive emotions, such as pride in accomplishments; enjoyment) and conceptual learning related to fractions. Positive student motivation was associated with increased skills related to fractions.
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We report a study of the effects of a collaborative inquiry approach to science on language minority students' (middle and high school) learning. The emphasis in this approach is on involving the students, most of whom have never studied science before and some of whom have had very little schooling of any kind, in "doing science" in ways that practicing scientists do. The question addressed in this study is, To what extent do students appropriate scientific ways of knowing and reasoning as a result of their participation in collaborative scientific inquiry? The focus of our analysis was on changes in students' conceptual knowledge and use of hypotheses, experiments, and explanations to organize their reasoning in the context of two think aloud problems. In September the students' reasoning was nonanalytic and bound to personal experience. They responded as if they were being asked to answer questions in a reading comprehension task. In contrast, by June they reasoned in terms of a larger explanatory system, used hypotheses to organize and give direction to their reasoning, and demonstrated an awareness of the function of experimentation in producing evidence to evaluate hypotheses.
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We argue that reform in curriculum and instruction should be based on allowing students to problematize the subject. Rather than mastering skills and applying them, students should be engaged in resolving problems. In mathematics, this principle fits under the umbrella of problem solving, but our interpretation is different from many problem-solving approaches. We first note that the history of problem solving in the curriculum has been infused with a distinction between acquiring knowledge and applying it. We then propose our alternative principle by building on John Dewey’s idea of “reflective inquiry,” argue that such an approach would facilitate students’ understanding, and compare our proposal with other views on the role of problem solving in the curriculum. We close by considering several common dichotomies that take on a different meaning from this perspective
Article
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As part of a project to identify opportunities for reasoning that occur in good but typical science classrooms, this study focuses on how sixth graders reason about the goals and strategies of experimentation and laboratory activities in school. Collaborating with teachers, we explore whether reasoning can be deepened by developing instruction that capitalizes more effectively on the classroom opportunities that arise for fostering complex thinking and understanding. The design of the study includes (a) a baseline interview probing students' understanding of experimentation in the context of a standard, 40-min "hands-on" activity that is part of the standard sixth-grade curriculum; (b) a 3-week teaching study, in which five teachers, informed by the cognitive science research concerning the development of scientific reasoning, designed and taught a special experimentation unit in their classrooms; and (c) a series of follow-up interviews, in which students' understanding of experimentation was reexamined. The findings from the two learning contexts-one more supportive of student reasoning than the other-inform us about the kinds of reasoning that are developing in middle-school students and the forms of instruction best suited to exercising those developing skills.
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In considering the usefulness of quantification for the study of conversation, the author does not address the concept of quantification of interaction in general, but rather the usefulness of quantification of conversation as social interaction. In this framework, the concepts of significance and relevance are compared. The usefulness of such experimental quantifications as the denominator "laughs-per-minute" can be called into question. Not all talk-in-interaction is similarly organized, and the adequacy of findings therefore derives not only from the correctness of their substantive claims but from the bounding of the domain for which they are asserted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
Science education has undergone a revolution in recent years, shifting its emphasis from breadth and memorization to depth and understanding. Teaching Science for Understanding begins with an overview of the changes in science education. It then presents a review of each major instructional strategy, information about how it is best used, and the effectiveness of the strategies for understanding and retention of information. The book presents the main strategies used to achieve this depth of understanding, including the use of computer simulations, small laboratories, and journal writing, and it discusses how to use each strategy at the elementary, secondary, and college level.
Article
The situative perspective shifts the focus of analysis from individual behavior and cognition to larger systems that include behaving cognitive agents interacting with each other and with other subsystems in the environment. The first section presents a version of the situative perspective that draws on studies of social interaction, philosophical situation theory, and ecological psychology. Framing assumptions and concepts are proposed for a synthesis of the situative and cognitive theoretical perspectives, and a further situative synthesis is suggested that would draw on dynamic-systems theory. The second section discusses relations between the situative, cognitive, and behaviorist theoretical perspectives and principles of educational practice. The third section discusses an approach to research and social practice called interactive research and design, which fits with the situative perspective and provides a productive, albeit syncretic, combination of theory-oriented and instrumental functions of research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
Written in readable, vivid, non-technical prose, this book, first published in 2007, presents the highly respected scholarly research that forms the foundation for Deborah Tannen's best-selling books about the role of language in human relationships. It provides a clear framework for understanding how ordinary conversation works to create meaning and establish relationships. A significant theoretical and methodological contribution to both linguistic and literary analysis, it uses transcripts of tape-recorded conversation to demonstrate that everyday conversation is made of features that are associated with literary discourse: repetition, dialogue, and details that create imagery. This second edition features a new introduction in which the author shows the relationship between this groundbreaking work and the research that has appeared since its original publication in 1989. In particular, she shows its relevance to the contemporary topic 'intertextuality', and provides a useful summary of research on that topic.
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This article focuses on mathematical tasks as important vehicles for building student capacity for mathematical thinking and reasoning. A stratified random sample of 144 mathematical tasks used during reform-oriented instruction was analyzed in terms of (a) task features (number of solution strategies, number and kind of representations, and communication requirements) and (b) cognitive demands (e.g., memorization, the use of procedures with [and without] connections to concepts, the “doing of mathematics”). The findings suggest that teachers were selecting and setting up the kinds of tasks that reformers argue should lead to the development of students’ thinking capacities. During task implementation, the task features tended to remain consistent with how they were set up, but the cognitive demands of high-level tasks had a tendency to decline. The ways in which high-level tasks declined as well as factors associated with task changes from the set-up to implementation phase were explored.
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A major hurdle in implementing project-based curricula is that they require simultaneous changes in curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices-changes that are often foreign to the students as well as the teachers. In this article, we share an approach to designing, implementing, and evaluating problem- and project-based curricula that has emerged from a long-term collaboration with teachers. Collectively, we have identified 4 design principles that appear to be especially important: (a) defining learning-appropriate goals that lead to deep understanding; (b) providing scaffolds such as "embedded teaching," "teaching tools," sets of "contrasting cases," and beginning with problem-based learning activities before initiating projects; (c) ensuring multiple opportunities for formative self-assessment and revision; and (d) developing social structures that promote participation and a sense of agency. We first discuss these principles individually and then describe how they have been incorporated into a single project. Finally, we discuss research findings that show positive effects on student learning and that show students' reflections on their year as 5th graders were strongly influenced by their experiences in problem- and project-based activities that followed the design principles.
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In order to develop students' capacities to "do mathematics," classrooms must become environments in which students are able to engage actively in rich, worthwhile mathematical activity. This paper focuses on examining and illustrating how classroom-based factors can shape students' engagement with mathematical tasks that were set up to encourage high-level mathematical thinking and reasoning. The findings suggest that when students' engagement is successfully maintained at a high level, a large number of support factors are present. A decline in the level of students' engagement happens in different ways and for a variety of reasons. Four qualitative portraits provide concrete illustrations of the ways in which students' engagement in high-level cognitive processes was found to continue or decline during classroom work on tasks.
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This paper describes a research and development project in teaching designed to examine whether and how it might be possible to bring the practice of knowing mathematics in school closer too what it means to know mathematics within the discipline by deliberately altering the roles and responsibilities of teacher and students in classroom discourse. The project was carried out as a regular feature of lessons in fifth-grade mathematics in a public school. A case of teaching and learning about exponents derived from lessons taught in the project is described and interpreted from mathematical, pedagogical, and sociolinguistic perspectives. To change the meaning of knowing and learning in school, the teacher initiated and supported social interactions appropriate to making mathematical arguments in response to students’ conjectures. The activities students engaged in as they asserted and examined hypotheses about the mathematical structures that underlie their solutions to problems are contrasted with the conventional activities that characterize school mathematics.
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This paper contrasts the most popular current business‐oriented approach to educational reform in the USA‐Total Quality Management‐with an alternative that calls for the establishment of learning communities at the classroom and school levels. These two approaches differ dramatically in the role they assign to variables like rational problem solving, control, and commitment. In fact, they represent different ideologies. The learning community approach highlights the importance of connectedness and inventiveness. It is the development of commitment that allows individuals to reconcile these two conflicting demands. The implications of these ideas for the educational reform movement in the USA are discussed.
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Ideas like "understanding," "authenticity," and "community" are central in current debates about curriculum, instruction, and assessment. Many believe that teaching and learning would be improved if classrooms were organized to engage students in authentic tasks, guided by teachers with deep disciplinary understandings. Students would conjecture, experiment, and make arguments; they would frame and solve problems; and they would read, write, and create things that mattered to them. This article examines the challenge of creating classroom practices in the spirit of these ideals. With a window on her own teaching of elementary school mathematics, the author presents three dilemmas-of content, discourse, and community-that arise in trying to teach in ways that are, in Bruner's terms, "intellectually honest." These dilemmas arise reasonably from competing and worth-while aims and from the uncertainties inherent in striving to attain them. The article traces and explores the author's framing of and response t...
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This paper explores a form of classroom discourse, organized around student argumentation, that brings into focus an alternative view of science and science education as socially and culturally constituted, meaning-making activities. To elaborate the differences between this emerging discourse practice and conventional practice, two examples are considered in which students and teachers grapple with the accountability of theories, facts, or claims to evidence. A key aspect of this analysis is the examination of the implications of Mikhail Bakhtin's core notion of dialogism for understanding student learning in science. This analysis illustrates how a perspective on learning in science emerges through contact with socioculturally based theoretical perspectives and with the everyday experiences of teachers and students as they work to build sense-making communities in their classrooms. (Author/JRH)
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A study examined the relationship between science learning and literacy development in two language minority classrooms: a self-contained, combined grade 7-8 class of Haitian students and a multilingual basic skills class within a large high school bilingual education program. In particular, the investigation analyzed the ways in which a model of scientific inquiry was interpreted in the classrooms and the effects of those interpretations on both science and literacy practices. The investigation focused on how the model and the teachers' goals interacted to produce, even within the same classroom, different interpretations of science, which in turn influenced the forms and functions of literacy in the classroom. In both classrooms, the model effectively transformed the kinds of science and literacy practiced from traditional worksheet-based exercises to authentic, communicative, sense-making practices through very different processes. The two case studies are based on the first year of a multiyear project, Cheche Konnen (meaning "search for knowledge in Hawiian Creole"), in which researchers and teachers are collaborating to develop an investigation-based approach to science for language minority students. Sources of data include classroom observation, audio- and videotapes of classroom activity, teacher-researcher meeting notes, teacher interviews, and teacher- and student-produced texts. A 45-item bibliography and program materials are appended. (MSE)
Article
The overall aim of this study was to examine the complex interrelations among stu- dent engagement, scientific thinking practices, and student role taking and social interaction in the context of school-based science lessons. Typically, elementary hands-on science classes are organized with 3 main parts to every lesson: (a) teacher introduction, (b) small group investigation time, and (c) whole class reporting time in which students report about their small group investigations to the class. In this study, 2 classroom interventions, based in part on this standard format, were designed to guide students in constructing scientific understanding. Both interventions involved instruction in the same set of intellectual roles that could be applied during small group investigation time. These roles included (a) predicting and theorizing; (b) summarizing results; and (c) relating predictions, theories, and results. The difference between the intervention classes was that 1 class received specific audience role assignments during reporting that corresponded to the intellectual roles and required students to check other students' work (ROLES + AUD ROLES). The other intervention class did not receive audience role assignments during reporting, although the students were still using the intellectual roles during the small group investigation time (ROLES). The purpose of such a design was to examine if the intellectual roles and corresponding audience roles would encourage student engagement more effectively than the use of the intellectual roles alone. Transcripts of whole class reporting time were coded using 4 engagement categories based on the work of Hatano and Inagaki (1991): (a) negotiating understanding of classroom procedures and standards, (b) monitoring comprehension of content, (c) challenging, and (d) coordinating theories and evidence. Students in the ROLES + AUD ROLES class were more active in initiating engagement episodes of every type than students in the ROLES class. Teacher-initiated engagement episodes demonstrated a different pattern, with the teacher initiating more negotiating and monitoring comprehension episodes in the ROLES + AUD ROLES class and more coordinating theories and evidence episodes in the ROLES class. Findings are discussed in terms of the importance of combining guidance in the social as well as intellectual norms associated with scientific thinking and discourse.
Article
examine two important questions in constructive group interaction: how a collective attempt to acquire knowledge takes place, and how such knowledge comes to be shared (acquired in common) through this attempt / concerned particularly with the generation, revision, and elaboration of explanations for a set of facts, a rule, or a procedure / focus is collective comprehension activity and the sharing of its product by group members (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The situative perspective shifts the focus of analysis from individual behavior and cognition to larger systems that include behaving cognitive agents interacting with each other and with other subsystems in the environment. The first section presents a version of the situative perspective that draws on studies of social interaction, philosophical situation theory, and ecological psychology. Framing assumptions and concepts are proposed for a synthesis of the situative and cognitive theoretical perspectives, and a further situative synthesis is suggested that would draw on dynamic-systems theory. The second section discusses relations between the situative, cognitive, and behaviorist theoretical perspectives and principles of educational practice. The third section discusses an approach to research and social practice called interactive research and design, which fits with the situative perspective and provides a productive, albeit syncretic, combination of theory-oriented and instrumental functions of research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
describe the theoretical bases of an instructional program, Fostering Communities of Learners (FCL) / set in the inner city elementary schools, FCL is designed to promote the critical thinking and reflection skills underlying multiple forms of higher literacy: reading, writing, argumentation, technological sophistication / although billed as a thinking curriculum . . . the FCL program is embedded in deep disciplinary content / a major part of [the authors'] research agenda has been to contribute to a theory of learning that can capture and convey the essential features of the learning environments that [they] design / aspects of the design, implementation, and evaluation of the FCL program, from its inception to the present day, have been guided by the development of a situated learning theory, one grounded in the day-to-day milieu of regular schools / this theory, or more precisely, set of learning principles . . . has evolved over the course of the project the components of FCL: the simple system / FCL: activity structures that support the system [research activities, children teaching children, sharing information, the consequential task] / principles of learning [systems and cycles, a metacognitive environment, the centrality of discourse, deep content knowledge, distributed expertise, instruction and assessment, community of practice] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes the "jigsaw technique," an alternative to conventional classroom teaching methods. Rather than grouping a whole class around a teacher, the students are taught to work in smaller interdependent groups; each child is given a part of a topic to be studied, and when finished, the students fit their pieces of the subject area together to form a complete "jigsaw" picture. Examples of the use of the method, suggested projects, and research findings are included. (40 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present article begins with an examination of where collective knowledge construction is likely to occur. After a brief discussion of the conditions necessary for inventing rather than simply reproducing knowledge through social interaction (horizontal information flow, prior domain knowledge, and availability of intellectual tools), a prototype of such interaction is offered – a class taught using the Hypothesis-Experiment-Instruction method. Experimental data are then presented on the effects of discussion on college students’ ability to learn the concept of buoyancy. Finally, it is proposed that conceptual acquisition or change is induced through social interaction, such as a science activity, although the acquisition or change occurs in the individual’s mind. The role that meta-cognitive beliefs play in scientific knowledge is emphasized.
Article
This research investigates the rational quality of students' discussion of literary texts. An ideal model of dialogue contexts is presented and compared with 12 fourth-grader peer discussions of literature at 2 different periods during the course of 1 academic year. Six groups consisting of 3 students each were videotaped while they discussed a novel previously read aloud and discussed with their teacher in class. The collabora-tive reasoning capabilities of these students were analyzed using a graphical coding system coupled with an analysis of the literary content of the students' argumentation. The 2 analyses were matched with the dialogue contexts and used to identify some im-portant features that foster productive dialogue in children's discussions of literature. There has been much recent emphasis on the role that classroom discourse can have in fostering students' cognitive development. Talk, many researchers now believe, constitutes the most important means by which children are induced into a cul-ture—an induction that occurs at first on an interpsychological and only second on an intrapsychological level (Vygotsky, 1978; Wertsch, 1985). A number of cogni-tive researchers have applied this theoretical insight to the analysis of instructional dialogues and classroom interactions (Brown et al.. An often repeated claim is that it is only by exposure to collaborative or conversational dialogue that stu-dents learn to think critically and independently about important issues and con-COGNITION AND INSTRUCTION, 18(1), 53–81 Copyright © 2000, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.