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Educating Second Language Children: The Whole Child, the Whole Curriculum, and the Whole Community (Fred Genesee)

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... Barnen börjar svenskt språkbad i åldern 4-5 för att det år de fyller 6 gå vidare från språkbadsdaghemmet till språkbadsförskola och året därpå vidare till grundläggande utbildning med språkbadsinriktning. Det här innebär att barnen så småningom tillägnar sig svenska som andraspråk eftersom personalen i daghem och förskola alltid talar svenska med dem och använder olika strategier för att främja barnens andraspråksutveckling (Met, 1994;Södergård, 2002). Målet är att barnen ska bibehålla sina färdigheter i finska samtidigt som de lär sig svenska så pass bra att de kan betraktas som funktionellt tvåspråkiga (Buss och Laurén, 2007;Bergroth, 2015). ...
... Samtidigt ska pedagogerna formulera innehållsliga mål för bokstunderna och stödja barnen så att de kan nå det djupare lärande som kan utveckla deras förmåga att analysera och förhålla sig till olika texter. Typiskt för pedagogernas språkliga strategier inom språkbad är att öka barnens förståelse genom att tala tydligt och tillräckligt långsamt, använda visuellt och konkret material samt redundant kommunikation som synonymer, upprepningar, parafraser och exempel (Met, 1994). Vad beträffar barnens andraspråksproduktion har Södergård (2002) sett att pedagogerna exempelvis använder olika typer av frågor, erbjuder färdiga svar, ger signaler om att använda svenska i stället för finska, ger positiv feedback samt upprepar och utvidgar barnens yttranden. ...
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Denna artikel undersöker pedagogers och barns agenda under tre bokstunder med högläsning av bilderböcker i en språkbads-förskolegrupp. Samtliga barn har en finskspråkig bakgrund och lär sig svenska i förskolan. Analyser av de videofilmade bokstunderna har gjorts med en sociokulturell och diskursanalytisk infallsvinkel. Resultaten visar att pedagogerna fokuserar på barnens språkförståelse och språkutveckling, medan barnen på eget initiativ och genom estetiska förhållningssätt riktar sin uppmärksamhet mot den egna upplevelsen av bokens innehåll. Barnens handlingar visar också att det är centralt för dem att uppfylla vissa förväntningar på hur bokstunder ska gå till. De bidrar därmed till att upprätthålla bokstunden på ett bestämt sätt. Pedagogernas koncentration på språk kan ses som naturlig eftersom språkstödjande handlingar främjar barnens förståelse av boken. Däremot får barnen knapphändigt stöd för sin läslust och få utmaningar när det gäller att utgående från sina egna tankar, föreställningar eller tolkningar förhålla sig till bokens innehåll. Nyckelord: andraspråksutveckling, barnlitteratur, högläsning, språkbad
... So, from the Language Arts and second language perspectives, a less than perfect communication of one's understanding of a mathematics concept, for example, would indicate both a need to develop the language and content skills. Met (1994) supports this in saying, "Classroom-based language assessments are authentic in that they measure student proficiency in the real contexts in which language use occurs. ...
... However, it is also possible to have a competent understanding but to struggle in expressing it effectively. Met (1994) explains that "the more effectively one can express one's thoughts through language, the more clear and precise thinking becomes" (p. 176). ...
... Como assinala Met (2006), os professores que inserem a cultura aos objetivos do currículo escolar podem enriquecer a educação, porque, dessa forma, a aprendizagem dos alunos se torna integrada, ao invés de fragmentada. ...
... Como assinala Met (2006), os professores que inserem a cultura aos objetivos do currículo escolar podem enriquecer a educação, porque, dessa forma, a aprendizagem dos alunos se torna integrada, ao invés de fragmentada. ...
... Como assinala Met (2006), os professores que inserem a cultura aos objetivos do currículo escolar podem enriquecer a educação, porque, dessa forma, a aprendizagem dos alunos se torna integrada, ao invés de fragmentada. ...
... Teoretična izhodišča za vsebinsko in jezikovno integrirano učenje TJ se naslanjajo na konstruktivizem in kognitivne teorije učenja. Kot najpoglavitnejše argumente za vsebinsko in jezikovno integrirano učenje zasledimo prihranek časa, kognitivni izziv, osredotočanje na jezik in vsebino hkrati, dejansko in osmišljeno rabo ciljnega jezika, stimuliran jezikovni iznos (Coyle, Hood in Marsh, 2010;Cummins in Swain, 1986;Met, 1994;, samostojno učenje z raziskovanjem, učiteljevo nenehno oporo pri izgradnji jezikovnega in vsebinskega znanja (Skehan, 1998;Snow, Met in Genesee, 1989), izboljšanje splošne jezikovne zmožnosti ciljnega jezika, razvijanje govorne in komunikacijske zmožnosti, poglabljanje zavedanja o maternem in ciljnem jeziku, razvijanje plurilingvalnih interesov, intenzivnejši razvoj besedišča (Dalton-Puffer, 2007), višjo motivacijo za učenje, razvijanje medkulturne zmožnosti, večjo avtonomijo učenja in boljšo pripravljenost na vseživljenjsko učenje (Stryker in Leaver, 1997), večjo samozavest učencev in intenzivnejšo rabo ciljnega jezika pri pouku ter boljše razumevanje ciljnega jezika (Wiesemes, 2009). ...
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Mastering at least one foreign language was an important skill in the past. Nowadays we face the necessity of not only mastering several foreign languages but also achieving high proficiency levels. However, the proficient use of foreign language in everyday situations does not necessarily enable the use of foreign language for educational and professional purposes. This need in particular is a big pedagogical challenge. It encourages us to search for new ways of teaching in order to help students to transcend the level of basic language knowledge and successfully master a foreign language, as well as to prepare them to use foreign language for educational and professional purposes. The biggest challenge is the development of lexical competence because vocabulary is the segment that should be developed more effectively. One of the possibilities to achieve a higher level of foreign language competence is content and language integrated learning or CLIL approach. In this article we present the results of an empirical study, which revealed that the CLIL approach enables a higher level of lexical competence than the well-established communicative approach. At the end we offer some guidelines for the implementation of this approach in foreign language teaching.
... Here we focus mainly on decisions made after a program has adopted a curriculum, on the unit-and lesson-level decisions an ESL teacher makes about what to focus on in a given instructional unit or lesson. It is clear from research and our work from the field alike that what distinguishes successful ESL teachers from others are the following features related to this decision-making about what to teach (e.g., Echevarria, J., Voft, M. E., & Short, 2007;Met, 1994): ...
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Differentiated Instruction is a relatively widely used instructional approach across instructional contexts. It has proven to be successful in the general education context where studies have found that students exposed to Differentiated Instruction strategies consistently outperform other students (Tomlinson, 2001). Yet, there is a huge gap in professional literature that addresses the use of Differentiated Instruction in the ESL context. It is the aim of this paper to provide the reader with practical Differentiated Instruction strategies and tools for the use in the ESL classroom as well as the mainstream classroom with ELLs. We suggest three steps in implementing Differentiated Instruction, a) beginning with ensuring high quality curriculum that clearly articulates meaningful learning outcomes, both language and content, without which differentiation is not possible, b) moving onto carefully understanding student needs, their readiness, interests and learning profiles, based on systematic pre-and formative assessment, and finally c) implementing effective Differentiated Instruction strategies in the classroom to maximize the learning of all students. We provide multiple examples and useful tools to clarify each of the three steps.
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Academic Literacy (AL) or English for Academic Purposes (EAP) courses have been initiated at various South African Institutions of Higher Education to assist English Second Language students in their tertiary studies. This article presents the choices that may confront course or materials designers when developing such courses for mainly rural students. The choices mainly lie between English for general purposes or for specific purposes; whether to focus on academic literacy or on study skills; which approach or method is most appropriate for teaching English in an academic literacy course to speakers of vernaculars particularly in a rural context. Whether to adapt the level of complexity of the course and the materials to the level of language skills and proficiency with which rural students enter the university or to expect them to cope with a set standard, also needs to be considered. The choices made for the context of this study were based on the findings of a study of the development of evaluation criteria for tertiary in-house EAP materials for first-entering students at the University of Limpopo (UL), but could also apply to any institution hosting learners from impoverished English input contexts such as rural Limpopo.
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Spanish's future as a foreign language subject is closely linked to its development in regulated teaching curriculums for elementary and high schools. It is precisely in those two areas where a significant development is expected to happen. Consequently, our aim is twofold: a) to provide authors and editors with reference points for the creation of didactic materials and b) to help teachers, supervisors and educational managers in analysing and assessing already existent materials. For this purpose we have ascertained a number of criteria, based on a critical revision of four key texts in the field of language teaching: Marco Común Europeo, Orientaçiões curri-culares para o ensino médio, National Standards in Foreign Language Education and Plan Curricular from Instituto Cervantes. Thus, using these criteria and the methodolo-gical proposals developed by various authors in recent decades as a landmark, we have a created an analytical tool for assessing and creating didactic materials. KEY WORDS. School context, didactic materials, analysis and assessment.
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Core curriculum and multicultural education are two major approaches advocated in the current school reform movement. This article argues that neither of these approaches adequately addresses the problem of those minority groups who have not traditionally done well in the public school. Core curriculum advocates falsely assume that as a result of instituting a core curriculum, demanding higher standards, and patching up supposed individual deficiencies, all students will perform as expected. Multicultural education advocates inadequately design their program to focus on cultural differences in content and form. This article contends that the crucial issue in cultural diversity and learning is the relationship between the minority cultures and the American mainstream culture. Minorities whose cultural frames of reference are oppositional to the cultural frame of reference of American mainstream culture have greater difficulty crossing cultural boundaries at school to learn. Core curriculum and multicultural advocates have yet to understand and take this into account.
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Soviet psychologists' views of the relationship between psychology and Pavlovian psychophysiology (or the study of higher nervous activity, as it is referred to in the Soviet literature) has long been a matter of curiosity and concern in the United States. Not accidentally, it has also been a matter of concern and dispute within the USSR. The following is an excerpt from a work by one of the Soviet Union's most seminal psychological theorists on this issue. Written in the late 1920s, this essay remains a classic statement of Soviet psychology's commitment to both a historical, materialistic science of the mind and the study of the unique characteristics of human psychological processes.
Hold your tongue: Bilingualism and the politics of "English only
  • J Crawford
Crawford, J. 1992. Hold your tongue: Bilingualism and the politics of "English only". Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Culture and language as factors in learning and education Education if immigrant students: Issues and answers
  • W E Lambert
Lambert, W. E. 1975. Culture and language as factors in learning and education. In A. Wolfgang (Ed.), Education if immigrant students: Issues and answers. (pp. 55-83). Toronto: The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.