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This paper considers the application of natural games mechanics within higher education as a vehicle to encourage student engagement and achievement of desired learning outcomes. It concludes with desiderata of features for a learning environment when used for assessment and a reflection on the gap between current and aspired learning provision. The context considered is higher (tertiary) education, where the aims are both to improve students’ engagement with course content and also to bring about potential changes in the students’ learning behaviour. Whilst traditional approaches to teaching and learning may focus on dealing with large classes, where the onus is frequently on efficiency and on the effectiveness of feedback in improving understanding and future performance, intelligent systems can provide technology to enable alternative methods that can cope with large classes that preserve the cost benefits. However, such intelligent systems may also offer improved learning outcomes via a personalised learning experience. This paper looks to exploit particular properties which emerge from the game playing process and seek to engage them in a wider educational context. In particular we aim to use game engagement and flow as natural dynamics that can be exploited in the learning experience. Read More: http://journals.heacademy.ac.uk/doi/abs/

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...  Προσαρμοστικότητα: Εξατομικευμένες εμπειρίες, προσαρμοσμένος βαθμός δυσκολίας, προκλήσεις που ανταποκρίνονται στο επίπεδο του κάθε παίκτη, με αυξανόμενη δυσκολία καθώς διευρύνονται οι ικανότητες του παίκτη (Gordon et al., 2013;Simões et al., 2013). ...
...  Ανατροφοδότηση: άμεση ανατροφοδότηση ή βραχείς ανατροφοδοτικοί κύκλοι, άμεση επιβράβευση αντί για μακροπρόθεσμα βραβεία/οφέλη/benefits (Gordon et al., 2013;Nah et al., 2014). ...
...  Ελευθερία αποτυχίας: Μικρό ρίσκο από την υποβολή των παραδοτέων, δυνατότητα πολλαπλών προσπαθειών (Gordon et al., 2013). Οι μαθητές που δεν αποδίδουν καλά δεν "τιμωρούνται", αλλά έχουν τη δυνατότητα να επανελέγξουν και να επανυποβάλουν τα παραδοτέα, ή να ξανακάνουν κάποιο κουίζ. ...
Article
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SARS CoV 2, αποτέλεσε πρόκληση για εκπαιδευτικούς και μαθητές καθώς όλοι κλήθηκαν να προσαρμοστούν σε νέα μαθησιακά περιβάλλοντα. Η παιχνιδοποίηση και η χρήση παιχνιδιών στη διδασκαλία είναι τεχνικές που χρησιμοποιούνται όλο και πιο συχνά, και μπορούν να βοηθήσουν αποτελεσματικά στην εκπαιδευτική διαδικασία (δια ζώσης και εξ αποστάσεως). Ταυτόχρονα, μεσούσης της υγειονομικής κρίσης λόγω της πανδημίας, γίνεται όλο και πιο επιτακτική η ανάγκη για βιολογικό γραμματισμό. Στην παρούσα εργασία διερευνάται η στάση των μαθητών δευτεροβάθμιας εκπαίδευσης απέναντι στην χρήση παιχνιδιών και εργαλείων παιχνιδοποίησης κατά τη διδασκαλία της βιολογίας. Συγκεκριμένα αναλύεται ο τρόπος με τον οποίο αντιδρούν οι μαθητές γυμνασίου και λυκείου σε εργαλεία παιχνιδοποίησης όπως το Edmodo, το Γριφομπότ, το Kahoot! και άλλα. Τα αποτελέσματα είναι πολύ ενθαρρυντικά και κρίνεται ότι είναι απαραίτητη η συνέχιση της έρευνας πάνω στα εκπαιδευτικά παιχνίδια, και η συστηματική καταγραφή και αξιολόγησή τους. Λέξεις κλειδιά: Παιχνιδοποίηση, Παιχνίδι, Διδασκαλία της βιολογίας, στάση μαθητών, επείγουσα εξ αποστάσεως εκπαίδευση. Abstract: The journey from traditional teaching to the emergency remote teaching imposed by the COVID 19 outbreak, has been a challenge for teachers and students as they all had to adjust to new learning environments. Gamification and games are frequently used in teaching and they can effectively help the educational process (direct or remote). At the same time, in the middle of this health crisis due to the pandemic, the need for biological literacy is becoming even more imperative. In this paper the attitude of high school students towards games and gamification tools during the teaching of biology is investigated. More precisely the focus is on the way students react to gamificational tools such as Edmodo, Grifobot, Kahoot! and others. The results are promising, therefore further research on educational games, and their tracing, classification and evaluation is necessary.
... In the game-context, experiential learning theory, flow theory and game design have been combined to formulate a model for understanding the relationship between game design and learning [31]. Building on top of these theoretical frameworks to formulate an understanding of what constitutes a pedagogically effective math game, we review literature on two central aspects that have been shown to impact the pedagogical quality of math games: (1) the type of mathematical practise [38] and (2) how learning attributes are situated in the gameplay [4], [24]. ...
... In the context of math games, the core gameplay should involve mathematics in a natural way, offering challenges that require the use of mathematics or at least some type of mathematical thinking. Studies have suggested that educational games where the learning content and gameplay are disconnected, are not only pedagogically ineffective, but might even be harmful for learning and motivation [24]. ...
... Similarly, transforming existing teaching materials to a mobile game format can lead to the same outcome. The resulting gamified set of math exercises that are nothing more than routine math tasks with superficial gamification elements are discussed in academia as chocolate-dipped broccoli [19], referring to player's experience when playing those games [24]. Thus, in order to communicate to the players that mathematics is needed in the real world and is not only there to interrupt the fun (the main gameplay), mathematics needs to be included as part of the central game mechanics. ...
Conference Paper
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The number of available educational games has enormously grown and it is difficult for users to identify which games are pedagogically effective among the multitude of options in app marketplaces. Recent studies on math games have highlighted the importance of (1) linking learning attributes and gameplay and (2) game design that supports students' deliberate practise. Using these as a measure for pedagogical quality, we investigated 109 math games found on Google Play Store (n=61) and iOS App Store (n=48). Furthermore, monetization solutions, data use permissions, target age group and type of mathematical content were retrieved from the apps. The analysis showed that only 11,0% of the games integrated learning attributes with gameplay and 12,0% of the games contained tasks which support learners' deliberate practice. The most commonly featured math subject was arithmetic and the games were targeted mostly to early childhood (6-12 years). Finally, games following curricula content and recommended design principles were difficult to locate using the search tools of the app marketplaces.
... The main future work includes the construction of a framework for online courses without tutor. We intend to provide training for the team so that more complex features in Moodle and Storyline can be designed and students can go through the whole content and activities by themselves as they would do if playing a game, with the possibility of failure and immediate feedback to try again, according to what has been mapped by studies (DICHEVA et al., 2015;GORDON;BRAYSHAW;GREY, 2013) about the main educational gamification design principles. ...
... The main future work includes the construction of a framework for online courses without tutor. We intend to provide training for the team so that more complex features in Moodle and Storyline can be designed and students can go through the whole content and activities by themselves as they would do if playing a game, with the possibility of failure and immediate feedback to try again, according to what has been mapped by studies (DICHEVA et al., 2015;GORDON;BRAYSHAW;GREY, 2013) about the main educational gamification design principles. ...
... The main future work includes the construction of a framework for online courses without tutor. We intend to provide training for the team so that more complex features in Moodle and Storyline can be designed and students can go through the whole content and activities by themselves as they would do if playing a game, with the possibility of failure and immediate feedback to try again, according to what has been mapped by studies (DICHEVA et al., 2015;GORDON;BRAYSHAW;GREY, 2013) about the main educational gamification design principles. ...
Article
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This paper is part of a master‘s thesis which dealt with implementation of gamification in an online course offered by Judicial School at São Paulo Regional Labour Court. The question of this paper is to review relevant literature about benefits and pitfalls of gamification in learning contexts to propose a framework for implementing gamification in Moodle 2.5. The objective of this paper is to compare the creation of a framework of an online course without game elements with its gamified version with elements that can motivate and engage people in online learning contexts, such as activity completion, restricted access, progress bar block, badges, and jeopardy-like quizzes. After implementing these features in an existing online course without gamification, the main results are that it is feasible to implement simple game mechanics in Moodle 2.5, although it takes a long time to create some of them, such as badges, and it is mandatory to have knowledge of development if the course demands Moodle documentation to create a more complex gamification block.
... The main future work includes the construction of a framework for online courses without tutor. We intend to provide training for the team so that more complex features in Moodle and Storyline can be designed and students can go through the whole content and activities by themselves as they would do if playing a game, with the possibility of failure and immediate feedback to try again, according to what has been mapped by studies (DICHEVA et al., 2015;GORDON;BRAYSHAW;GREY, 2013) about the main educational gamification design principles. ...
... The main future work includes the construction of a framework for online courses without tutor. We intend to provide training for the team so that more complex features in Moodle and Storyline can be designed and students can go through the whole content and activities by themselves as they would do if playing a game, with the possibility of failure and immediate feedback to try again, according to what has been mapped by studies (DICHEVA et al., 2015;GORDON;BRAYSHAW;GREY, 2013) about the main educational gamification design principles. ...
... The main future work includes the construction of a framework for online courses without tutor. We intend to provide training for the team so that more complex features in Moodle and Storyline can be designed and students can go through the whole content and activities by themselves as they would do if playing a game, with the possibility of failure and immediate feedback to try again, according to what has been mapped by studies (DICHEVA et al., 2015;GORDON;BRAYSHAW;GREY, 2013) about the main educational gamification design principles. ...
... The main future work includes the construction of a framework for online courses without tutor. We intend to provide training for the team so that more complex features in Moodle and Storyline can be designed and students can go through the whole content and activities by themselves as they would do if playing a game, with the possibility of failure and immediate feedback to try again, according to what has been mapped by studies (DICHEVA et al., 2015;GORDON;BRAYSHAW;GREY, 2013) about the main educational gamification design principles. ...
... The main future work includes the construction of a framework for online courses without tutor. We intend to provide training for the team so that more complex features in Moodle and Storyline can be designed and students can go through the whole content and activities by themselves as they would do if playing a game, with the possibility of failure and immediate feedback to try again, according to what has been mapped by studies (DICHEVA et al., 2015;GORDON;BRAYSHAW;GREY, 2013) about the main educational gamification design principles. ...
... The main future work includes the construction of a framework for online courses without tutor. We intend to provide training for the team so that more complex features in Moodle and Storyline can be designed and students can go through the whole content and activities by themselves as they would do if playing a game, with the possibility of failure and immediate feedback to try again, according to what has been mapped by studies (DICHEVA et al., 2015;GORDON;BRAYSHAW;GREY, 2013) about the main educational gamification design principles. ...
... Gamification and serious games have been shown to be appropriate tools to illustrate learning potentials at a current stage (Klock et al., 2020), e.g., through knowledge maps (Borges et al., 2016) and skill trees (Barata et al., 2017). Moreover, challenges in gamification and game-based learning systems can be tailored to the learner's current skill level (Dicheva et al., 2015), e.g., by tying the difficulty of the challenge to levels (Gordon et al., 2013;Simões et al., 2013) or by using machine learning algorithms (Gordon et al., 2013). In this respect, educational games surpass traditional teaching methods (Davis et al., 2018). ...
... Gamification and serious games have been shown to be appropriate tools to illustrate learning potentials at a current stage (Klock et al., 2020), e.g., through knowledge maps (Borges et al., 2016) and skill trees (Barata et al., 2017). Moreover, challenges in gamification and game-based learning systems can be tailored to the learner's current skill level (Dicheva et al., 2015), e.g., by tying the difficulty of the challenge to levels (Gordon et al., 2013;Simões et al., 2013) or by using machine learning algorithms (Gordon et al., 2013). In this respect, educational games surpass traditional teaching methods (Davis et al., 2018). ...
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Despite increasing scientific interest in explaining how gamification supports positive affect and motivation, behavior change and learning, there is still a lack of an overview of the current theoretical understanding of the psychological mechanisms of gamification. Previous research has adopted several different angles and remains fragmented. Taking both an observational and explanatory perspective, we examined the theoretical foundations used in research on gamification, serious games and game-based learning through a systematic literature review and then discussed the commonalities of their core assumptions. The overview shows that scientists have used a variety of 118 different theories. Most of them share explicitly formulated or conceptual connections. From their interrelations, we derived basic principles that help explain how gamification works: Gamification can illustrate goals and their relevance, nudge users through guided paths, give users immediate feedback, reinforce good performance and simplify content to manageable tasks. Gamification mechanics can allow users to pursue individual goals and choose between different progress paths, while the system can adapt complexity to the user's abilities. Social gamification elements may enable social comparison and connect users to support each other and work towards a common goal.
... In the education sector, previous research found a successful implementation of gamification in blended learning [21,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37]. Other research indicates a similar success in conventional learning [38,39], elearning [40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50], and learning through massive open online courses [51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59]. ...
... In general, research related to the implementation of gamification in learning are more focused on the research of how the impact of gamification in changing student behavior, so they are motivated to learn [27,35,50,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67], and more engaged in learning activities [20,21,25,28,31,32,60,62,63,65,68,69]. Through the improvement in motivation and engagement, student learning outcomes was proven empirically to be improved [70,71]. ...
Article
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OpticalGamification (OG) is an information and communication technology (ICT)-based gamification-application that applies the elements of game design in a serious context of optics. Through setting for the variations in pre-service physics teachers’ (PPTs) access to the topics presented in this application, two OG application models are generated, namely: 1) serial model; designed to facilitate PPTs who study sequentially, and 2) random models; designed to facilitate PPTs who study randomly depends on their choices. This research is quasi-experimental with pretest posttest nonequivalent multiple group design involving 48 PPTs enrolled in wave and optics course, specifically on the topics of interference and diffraction. The results of this research indicate that there is no significant difference in the improvement of PPTs’ concept mastery in the serial and random group. Both of these models can be used as references in designing ICT-based gamification-applications for a more effective and efficient learning in the future.
... An alternative to extrinsic motivation is to utilise approaches that are perceived as more positive. One such approach is Gamification: Gamification (Gordon et al, 2013) is the practice of using game like mechanics in a non-game context. Often gamification is reliant upon a layer of intrinsic motivators. ...
... One such approach is Gamification, which is growing in popularity (Dicheva et al, 2015, Deterding et al), 2012. Gamification (Gordon et al, 2013) is the practice of using game like mechanics in a nongame context, often relying upon a layer of intrinsic motivators. This section will briefly consider what a game is, the impact of play on learning, and the distinction between gamification and game based learning. ...
Chapter
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This chapter will consider what we mean by student engagement, and how students may be motivated through appropriate pedagogy-that is through teaching approaches and related assessment. We will focus in particular on the way that technology enhanced learning – and techniques that utilise Computer Science concepts and techniques-can be used to monitor and measure engagement, as well as how such technology and techniques can potentially be used to improve the motivation of students and thereby improve their engagement. As part of the background to this we will explore what we mean by engagement and motivation, with different approaches to both. This will be followed by an overview and then some description of how we may measure engagement through technology, considering aspects around Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics. Having established the approaches, we will then describe some examples of how we can utilise technology, to complement appropriate pedagogic methods, to enable approaches to learning that improve engagement, including extrinsic motivation through assessment, and intrinsic motivators by adopting and applying gamification techniques and utilising social learning.
... Approaches that can be effective include allowing for multiple attempts, giving immediate feedback, and providing some form of reward (such as points, badges and leader boards). For a more complete analysis of how games mechanics map onto Higher Education teaching practices, see [7]. ...
Conference Paper
Teaching Software Engineering students raises a number of challenges; in particular that student developers typically demonstrate behaviours that run counter to good software development. These include failing to plan properly, failing to develop their software in a structured manner, and failing to meet specified deadlines (so called “student syndrome”). Consequentially, students exhibiting these behaviours are more likely to disengage from their studies. Even where submissions are made, they tend to be lower in quality, and may not demonstrate the true capabilities of the individual. Such alienation and disengagement is amplified by the current context of learning in a pandemic, with a wall of digital communication technology coming between teachers and learners. In this paper, the authors will identify how gamification approaches can be applied to software development education, and how they can help to better motivate and educate future software developers through computer managed delivery and assessment. As motivation is a key factor, motivational properties known in computer gaming are applied within the new context of a software engineering lifecycle. The role of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for developers is considere. The gamified techniques identified are further enhanced with an Agile type approach. This has been particularly critical during 2020/21 where the shift to fully online learning for previously face to face taught students has placed new pressures on students and staff. A feedback-led rapid prototyping style of teaching that allows for adaptive and effective teaching practices is also described. Finally, complimentary case studies on the use of approaches within a university environment are evaluated.
... These examples of game designers in pursuit of the flow state are indicative of the importance of the concept. In particular, Miyamoto's description of the need to follow failure with the opportunity for the player to regain control and further improve their skills has parallels with both self-determination theory (through feelings of competence) (Ryan and Deci 2000;Ryan, Rigby et al. 2006;Rigby and Ryan 2011) and flexible personalized learning (Gordon 2013). ...
Chapter
This chapter will consider the role of games, game-based learning, and gamification in higher education. It will discuss how encouraging student engagement is of increasing importance in higher education, and the power of successful games to engage players is something that is highly sought after in higher education. This has led to the introduction of games for teaching and the adoption of game related teaching strategies. This adoption of game-based approaches is an area of ongoing research, in terms of the appropriateness, effectiveness and applicability of games and game-based strategies to teaching. The authors will present definitions of the related but distinct terms “game”, “game-based learning” and “gamification” and will consider the underlying psychological factors that motivate players to play. The issue of engagement for higher education is a significant one, with retention and attainment seen as key challenges for the sector globally. The chapter demonstrates how the concepts of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation drive engagement with both with games and with teaching and proposes that engagement with both games and learning are driven by these same types of motivations. This blurs the line further between what can be considered gamification and leads to the proposal of the concept of explicit and implicit gamification. To illustrate this concept a visualisation of the relationship between game and game like artefacts associated with learning, charted in a conceptual space based on their membership of explicit or implicit gamification. To further bolster these ideas, a taxonomy of mechanics and attributes that frequently manifest in gamification is proposed. Finally, an example of the relative alignment of game-like mechanics with desired outcomes or goals is presented – highlighting the need for careful consideration when attempting to incentivize specific behaviour.
... The content of Natural Sciences is expected to be a vehicle for students to learn themselves and the environment, as well as further development on their application in daily life. Seeing the importance of science learning to be learned by students, then in the learning process, science materials must be explained systematically so that it is easy to understand by students and can support the achievement of educational objectives (Anif et al., 2020;Gordon et al., 2013). ...
Article
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The lack of use of video media in the learning process causes students to have difficulties in learning. This research aims to develop audiovisual learning media tailored to the needs of today's learning. The test subjects in this study consisted of several experts and students. The experts consist of learning content experts, learning design experts and learning media experts and involve grade V students to conduct individual trials and small group trials. This development research uses ADDIE development model (analyze, design, development, implementation, evaluation) as systematic steps in the product development process. The data collection method in this study consists of observations, questionnaires and interviews. The data analysis techniques used are quantitative and qualitative descriptive data analysis techniques. Based on the results of product trials, the instructional video was declared feasible by the test subjects, namely learning content experts, learning design experts, learning media experts and students. The results of the evaluation of the learning content expert obtained a percentage (95.83%) with very good qualification, the results of the learning design expert's assessment obtained a percentage (94.23%) with very good qualification, the results of the learning media expert's assessment obtained a percentage (85.00%) with good qualifications and the results of student assessments through individual tests obtained a percentage (94.00%) with very good qualification, and the results of student assessments through small group tests obtained a percentage (95.83%). Based on the results of the product trial, it is concluded that the developed learning videos in very good qualifications and suitable for use in the learning process.
... When a compilation errors, or of the test cases which failed. When a problem results in the correct output students are rewarded explicit feedback with a golden star icon for that problem, and a progress bar is filled, adding further gamified layer of extrinsic motivation [18]. ...
Conference Paper
This paper considers issues around the teaching of programming, a critical yet challenging part of the computing education at all levels. This paper begins by outlining some of the key concerns around computing education from secondary school, through further education, and in higher education. The paper describes some of the practical problems with teaching programming, through two case studies that identify some of the difficulties in learning to program. The case studies outline some approaches to supporting and scaffolding the learning of programming, with programming tutors and more specialized programming environments. The paper considers ways in which novice programmer behaviour can be tracked by appropriate technologies, e.g. via tools such as source control, or through additions to a development environment). Whilst this is within the context of English education, many issues are common elsewhere, and the paper provides some suggestions on addressing these problems. The paper concludes with some suggestions on ways to adapt and use these approaches in the teaching of programming.
... In addition to providing context, perspective, and salience for individual students, AVR technologies could facilitate interaction and competition between students through gamification, that is, applying game design in a non-game context (Dicheva et al., 2015). Gamification increases student engagement and motivation by fostering more complex problem-solving through interaction with different "characters" and within different contexts or scenarios (Gordon et al., 2013;Jagger et al., 2016). In this regard, the immersive experiences of AVR technologies not only permit increasing student engagement and empathy but also facilitates multiple iterations, immediate feedback, customization, and freedom of choice, thus allowing applying several game principles for educational purposes (Simões et al., 2013). ...
Article
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In this paper, we explore the system-level challenges found in sustainability-focused education and consider how the intersections of design thinking and emerging technologies in augmented and virtual reality (AVR) can help address these. More specifically, we highlight the role of experiences across the design thinking process for generating novel solutions to the types of “wicked” problems with which students engage in sustainability education. We then use this as motivation, along with concepts from experiential learning and design thinking research, to develop a conceptual model in which AVR can integrate with more established instructional methods to help make sustainability-related challenges more salient, proximate, and tractable to students. Our conceptual model suggests that AVR holds promise for facilitating and democratizing access to the design thinking process for sustainability-related challenges, but that it is also not a standalone solution for enabling students to engage with such complex challenges.
... Böckle et al. proposed a design framework for adaptive gamification, with one of its many design principles being "design multiple paths (choices) to achieve end-user goals and support their believe and motivation" [31]. Gordon et al. [32] conducted a longitudinal study on mathematics assessment with several game-like features, one of them being adaptive difficulty. Jagušt et al. [33] utilized a personalized adaptive algorithm to match the presented questions to each student's skill level. ...
Article
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Gamifying activities to make them more game-like is one of the hottest trends in various fields, including education. Among the factors influencing the success of gamification for education are the participants' sense of autonomy and competence, which can be facilitated with the incorporation of multiple learning paths. However, the use of multiple question paths in gamified assessment tests is still under-studied. This mixed-method study was aimed at exploring the matter through a paper-based and gamified assessment test in higher education. A controlled experiment was conducted in a calculus course in an informatics department. The experimental group (n = 38) undertook a gamified written test, and the control group (n = 37) undertook a regular one. The gamified test consisted of several Hard and Medium Questions, and each participant would choose a question path containing some of the questions. Nine question paths were available with varying ratios between Hard and Medium Questions, and the participants were allowed to ask for two hints on the Hard ones. A questionnaire, based on the EGameFlow model, was used to assess the gamified test. The results show that the gamified test was able to facilitate the participants' sense of autonomy but not their sense of competence, which was due to flaws of the test. Two additional positive effects of the test on the participants' knowledge improvement and Flow experience are identified. The path selection pattern among the participants and the flaws of the gamified test are also discussed.
... However, literature produced mixed results on the impact of gamification on student engagement and motivation (Alsawaier, 2018) and learning performance (Ortiz-Rojas et al., 2017). As a way to improve engagement and achievement, Gordon et al. (2013) suggested that when designing activities, game mechanics should encourage and preserve Csikszentmihalyi's state of flow through appropriate challenges and immediate feedback. These elements may be considered by textbook writers when crafting game-based activities that can be used by teachers as part of their instruction or deployed as remediation for low achievers. ...
Article
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As major sources of information, curriculum materials (CMs) have generally served teachers and students by providing instructional and learning support. The impact of CMs on teachers’ pedagogical practice and learners’ engagement and success had been fairly documented. However, just as the use of CMs is influenced by teachers’ orientations and learners’ identity with the subject matter, the same can be said for textbook writers who attend, interpret and respond to curriculum content and standards. Guided by Dietiker, Males, Amador and Earnest (2018)’s curriculum noticing construct, this study examined the epistemological features of Philippine secondary school mathematics textbooks of the Department of Education. Four textbooks, one from each grade level, were analyzed via a directed qualitative content analysis. Following the inductive approach, significant statements from the texts were culled and organized through coding, categorizing and abstraction using a repertory grid. Member checking was done to validate the findings of the study. Interestingly, the study afforded the development of the Onion Model of Curricular Noticing Dynamics in Mathematics Textbooks. The model reveals how CM writers frame the mathematics curriculum in the design and development of textbooks. Specifically, the encountering frame lays emphasis on their interaction with the mandated curriculum through an examination of curricular elements. In the sense-making frame, writers reflect on four curricular questions leading to an understanding of the curriculum and the context in which it operates. Finally, the operationalizing frame captures the unique moves observed by textbook writers in developing the materials. The emerged model can serve as a valuable means in achieving heightened consciousness among textbook writers as they develop materials that promote teacher learning and respond to learners’ needs, interests and orientations.
... However, if a student initially answers a question incorrectly, the question decreases in point value over multiple attempts. Including the adaptive elements in conjunction with the gamification elements is theorized to increase student affect and performance within the classroom (Gordon et al., 2013). ...
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Preclass reading quizzes (RQs) have been shown to enhance student performance. Many instructors implementing evidence-based teaching assign preclass RQs to ensure their students are prepared to engage in class activities. Textbook companies now offer a gam-ified, adaptive-learning RQ format. In these RQs, students answer point-valued questions until they reach a threshold. If students answer incorrectly, the question decreases in point value on the next attempt. These RQs also give students who answer questions incorrectly more questions on that topic and direct students to sections of a textbook they need to review. We assessed the impact of gamified, adaptive preclass RQs compared with more traditional preclass RQs on in-class RQs and course exam performance as well as students' perceptions of RQs. Students in the gamified, adaptive treatment performed equally compared with students in the traditional, static treatment on in-class RQs and course exams. While students in the gamified, adaptive treatment did have a more positive perception of preclass RQs, this factor explained less than 3% of the variation in RQ perception. Our findings suggest that instructors should verify that gamified, adaptive technologies impact student learning in their course before integrating them into their course and asking students to pay for them.
... Games offer children a low-risk environment in which decisions and actions are executed, and the failure to successfully solve a problem allows the learner to identify gaps in knowledge or skills while applying creative solutions over iterative learning attempts. [46][47][48][49][50] The child is free to experiment and explore within the setting of the game, and the interactions that lead to learning are executed at the child's own pace. [47,49,51,52] The child has the option to repeatedly play the game, and thus engage in iterations of practice that continuously reinforce their knowledge and skills. ...
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Objective: Misuse of over-the-counter (OTC) medications among children is a growing public health and medication safety problem. Serious games are increasingly being used to foster healthy self-management behaviors and decision-making among children. We developed and pilot-tested using a serious game to educate children about OTC medication safety. Methods: Students (aged 15–17) at a public school serving grades 6–12 in Western Pennsylvania were recruited to play the game. Open-ended questions were asked following gameplay to obtain participants’ feedback about ease of play and additional changes that would be needed to improve the game. Gameplay was video recorded using a screen recording software to observe participants’ behaviors while playing the game. Participants OTC medication safety knowledge was assessed before and after gameplay using pre/post questionnaires. Key Findings: All the participants liked the game, reporting that it was easy to navigate and fun to play. Gameplay screen recordings revealed at least three areas that would need to be redesigned for the game to be more engaging and effective. Seven out of the nine participants (78%) changed their answer to at least one question on the OTC medication safety post-test survey compared to their pre-test answers. There was an increase in the percentage of correct answers in the post-test survey for questions asking about correct dosing and active ingredients. Three responses remained unchanged and the percentage of correct answers for the post-test survey decreased for questions about the drug facts label and side effects. Conclusion: This pilot suggests that a serious game may influence participants’ knowledge and attitude about OTC medication safety. Further research is needed to examine the potential of using serious games to teach children about safe medication use and negative consequences of inappropriate use.
... Second, when a leaderboard is used, unpleasant competitions among students should be prevented. One way is to diminish students' compulsive sense of competition by displaying only a few top scores (Gordon, Brayshaw, & Grey, 2013;O'Donovan, Gain, & Marais, 2013). Another way could be introducing several leaderboards that focus on different knowledge domains (Todor & Piticǎ, 2013), which allows more students to be recognized. ...
... The use of game mechanics in learningknown as gamification [6] is becoming more established, with options such as multiple attempts at tests (akin to lives in a game), immediate feedback and reward (marks as a substitute for game scores) illustrate how game mechanics can reflect established and novel approaches to instruction [5]. Such mechanics are increasingly prevalent in modern Virtual Learning Environments (VLE), though these VLE systems are primarily web based 2-dimension information repositories along with some assessment engine and other learning tools. ...
Conference Paper
The availability of Virtual Reality (VR) and Virtual Environment (VE) equipment - with the launch of domestic technologies such as the Oculus Rift, Microsoft Hololens and Sony Playstation VR) - offer new ways to enable interactive immersive experiences [16]. The opportunities these create in learning and training applications are immense: but create new challenges. Meanwhile, current virtual learning environments are typically web or app based technologies, sometimes perceived as having little value added from a user perspective beyond improved User Interfaces to access some content [6]. The challenge is how the human computer interaction features of such VE platforms may be used in education in a way that adds value, especially for computer mediated instruction. This paper will outline some of the issues, and opportunities, as well as some of the open questions about how such technologies can be used effectively in a higher education context, along with a proposed framework for embedding a learning engine within a virtual reality or environment system.
... Whilst the games may be based on human-to-human interaction, card or other activity based, the arrival of computer video games in the 1960's onwards has enabled the richer and more varied set of interaction and automatic gameplay to enable different approach. A variant of utilising games to teach is to utilise game mechanics in other areassuch gamification [13] can offer benefits in designing learning material. In this paper, serious games will focus on computer-based games for teaching. ...
Conference Paper
Two fast growing areas for technology-enhanced learning are serious games and mobile instruction (M-instruction or M-Learning). Serious games are ones that are meant to be more than just entertainment. They have a serious use to educate or promote other types of activity. Immersive Games frequently involve many players interacting in a shared rich and complex – perhaps web-based - mixed reality world, where their circumstances will be multi and varied. Their reality may be augmented and often self-composed, as in a user-defined avatar in a virtual world. M-instruction and M-Learning is learning on the move; much of modern computer use is via smart devices, pads, and laptops. People use these devices all over the place and thus it is a natural extension to want to use these devices where they are to learn. This presents a problem if we wish to evaluate the effectiveness of the pedagogic media they are using. We have no way of knowing their situation, circumstance, education background and motivation, or potentially of the customisation of the final software they are using. Getting to the end user itself may also be problematic; these are learning environments that people will dip into at opportune moments. If access to the end user is hard because of location and user self-personalisation, then one solution is to look at the software before it goes out. Heuristic Evaluation allows us to get User Interface (UI) and User Experience (UX) experts to reflect on the software before it is deployed. The effective use of heuristic evaluation with pedagogical software [1] is extended here, with existing Heuristics Evaluation Methods that make the technique applicable to Serious Immersive Games and mobile instruction (M-instruction). We also consider how existing Heuristic Methods may be adopted. The result represents a new way of making this methodology applicable to this new developing area of learning technology.
... An alternative approach is to design a bespoke game that focuses on an educational outcome -such serious games (Bergeron 2006) being used in a variety of contexts. A final approach utilises game mechanics through a variety of means (Gordon, Brayshaw and Grey 2013) and may not necessarily explicitly use a game itself. For the last example, one tactic is to vary assessment, moving away from the high stakes approach mentioned earlier, to a number of smaller (sub) components that can provide students with feedback more rapidly. ...
Technical Report
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This report follows earlier work on undergraduate retention and attainment across the disciplines (Woodfield 2014), which considered how students perform differently depending on their discipline. Computer Science was identified by Woodfield as being atypical in a number of factors related to success, and in particular identified areas of concern around attainment and retention. Regarding attainment, Computer Science appears to perform poorly include the relatively low number of upper degrees awarded (joint second worst of all the discipline groups), and the comparatively low continuation/retention rate (the worst for students leaving with no award, or with a lower award than the original qualification aimed for). Other aspects of the cohort reflect a distinct profile, such as the male bias (second largest). This report investigates such issues of attainment and success for Computer Science students through a synthesis of existing literature, exploring the distinct curricula, culture and practices of Computer Science, and how these affect the experiences and success of students in computing. A key element of the report is to identify areas for further exploration, along with suggestions on how to address some of the problematic ones. https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/resource/issues-retention-and-attainment-computer-science
... The few published case studies on applying gamification in education have reported creating plugins for LMSs (e.g. for BlackBoard [5] and Moodle [8]), using third party software that supports certain aspects of gamification (e.g. [9,10]), or developing standalone applications for supporting certain aspect of gamification (e.g. [11,12]). ...
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Gamification - the use of game design elements in non-game contexts - has seen rapid adoption in various areas in recent years. Its application in education is particularly promising, due to its potential to shape user behavior in desirable directions through increasing user motivation and engagement. This work-in-progress paper presents a course gamification platform aimed at supporting instructors to gamify courses that target skill development, such as computing-related courses.
...  Third party software used to support some aspect of gamification. Examples include using Moodle , the Diagnosys tool for assessment of basic mathematical skills, which includes lives, time limits and adaptive difficulty (Gordon, Brayshaw, & Grey, 2013), the collaborative learning environment Curatr (Curatr, 2014) that uses gamification principles (Betts, Bal, & Betts, 2013), BadgeVille (http://badgeville.com/) and WordPress (http://wordpress.org/) with its Achievements plug-in (Achievements plug-in, 2014) (Werbach & Johnson, 2012), and the free hosted online platform CourseSites (CourseSites, 2014) which provides an integration of Mozilla Open Badges . ...
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While gamification is gaining ground in business, marketing, corporate management, and wellness initiatives, its application in education is still an emerging trend. This article presents a study of the published empirical research on the application of gamification to education. The study is limited to papers that discuss explicitly the effects of using game elements in specific educational contexts. It employs a systematic mapping design. Accordingly, a categorical structure for classifying the research results is proposed based on the extracted topics discussed in the reviewed papers. The categories include gamification design principles, game mechanics, context of applying gamification (type of application, educational level, and academic subject), implementation, and evaluation. By mapping the published work to the classification criteria and analyzing them, the study highlights the directions of the currently conducted empirical research on applying gamification to education. It also indicates some major obstacles and needs, such as the need for a proper technological support, for controlled studies demonstrating reliable positive or negative results of using specific game elements in particular educational contexts, etc. Although most of the reviewed papers report promising results, more substantial empirical research is needed to determine whether both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation of the learners can be influenced by gamification.
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One of the most important outcomes of pre-service teacher education is the transition from assignment-oriented students to service-oriented education professionals. Faculty can assist in this process by cultivating professional educator dispositions within their courses. Gamification strategies can be an effective way to provide students with timely feedback regarding their progress toward professional educator dispositions. This study investigated the effectiveness of points, timely feedback, and leaderboards on cultivating and measuring specific professional educator dispositions among pre-service teachers. Data was collected in four domains - personal responsibility, intellectual engagement, professional ethics and stewardship, and supportive interactions- where gamification strategies were additively implemented over five semesters. Results from this study indicate gamification strategies, when bundled together to leverage motivating factors such as competition and personalization led to increased gains in the four domains of professional educator dispositions.
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This research is a survey that describes the profile of pre-service physics teachers (PPTs)' thinking styles and critical thinking skills when they learning interference and diffraction. This survey involved 46 PPTs of fifth semester at one of the universities in Ternate city. Data related to PPTs' thinking styles were collected through the Yanpiaw Creative-Critical Styles Test, while the data related to PPTs' critical thinking skills were collected through tests of critical thinking skills. Data were analyzed by using quantitative descriptive technique. Based on the results of the data analysis, it was concluded that generally the PPTs' critical thinking skills for the group of superior critical, critical and balance thinking styles can be categorized as low, while for the group of creative thinking style can be categorized as high. The map of thinking styles and critical thinking skills will be used as a reference in developing a model of gamification in the physics learning context.
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One of the most important outcomes of pre-service teacher education is the transition from assignment-oriented students to service-oriented education professionals. Faculty can assist in this process by cultivating professional educator dispositions within their courses. Gamification strategies can be an effective way to provide students with timely feedback regarding their progress toward professional educator dispositions. This study investigated the effectiveness of points, timely feedback, and leaderboards on cultivating and measuring specific professional educator dispositions among pre-service teachers. Data was collected in four domains - personal responsibility, intellectual engagement, professional ethics and stewardship, and supportive interactions- where gamification strategies were additively implemented over five semesters. Results from this study indicate gamification strategies, when bundled together to leverage motivating factors such as competition and personalization led to increased gains in the four domains of professional educator dispositions.
Conference Paper
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The Wumpus Advisor program offers advice to a player involved in choosing the best move in a game for which competence in dealing with incomplete and uncertain knowledge is required. The design and implementation of the advisor explores a new paradigm in Computer Assisted Instruction, in which the performance of computer-based tutors is greatly improved through the application of Artificial Intelligence techniques. This report describes the design of the Advisor and outlines directions for further work. Our experience with the tutor is informal and psychological experimentation remains to be done.
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Overlay modelling is a technique for describing a student's problem solving skills in terms of modular program designed to be an expert for the given domain. The model is an overlay on the expert program in that it consists of a set of hypotheses regarding the student's familiarity with the skills employed by the expert. The modelling is performed by a set of P rules that are triggered by different sources of evidence, and whose effect is to modify these hypotheses. A P critic monitors these rules to detect discontinuities and inconsistencies in their predictions. A first implementation of overlay modelling exists as a component of WUSOR-II, a CAI program based on artificial intelligence techniques. WUSOR-II coaches a student in the logical and probability skills required to play the computer game WUMPUS. Preliminary evidence indicates that overlay modelling significantly improves the appropriateness of the tutoring program's explanations.
Article
I shall describe a model of the evolution of the rule-structured knowledge that serves as a cornerstone of our development of computer-based coaches. The key idea is a graph structure whose nodes represent rules, and whose links represent various evolutionary relationships such as generalization, correction, and refinement. This graph guides both student modelling and tutoring as follows: the coach models the student in terms of nodes in this graph, and selects tutoring strategies for a given rule on the basis of its genetic links. It also suggests a framework for a theory of learning in which the graph serves as a memory structure constructed by the student by means of processes corresponding to the various links. Given this framework, a learning complexity measure can be defined in terms of the topology of the graph.
Article
Digital Game-Based Learning, by Marc Prensky, is a strategic and tactical guide to the newest trend in e-learning - combining content with video games and computer games to more successfully engage the under-40 "Games Generations," which now make up half of America's work force and all of its students. The book fully explores the concept of Digital Game-Based Learning, including such topics as How Learners Have Changed, Why Digital Game-Based Learning Is Effective, Simulations and Games, How Much It Costs, and How To Convince Management. With over 50 case studies and examples, it graphically illustrates how and why Digital Game-Based Learning is working for learners of all ages in all industries, functions and subjects.
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The Higher Education Academy
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© 2013 S. Hagan, ITAL, Vol 12, Issue 1 (November 2013) The Higher Education Academy
The Higher Education Academy doi:10.11120/ital
The Higher Education Academy doi:10.11120/ital.2013.00004