The present study evaluated the growth performance, immune responses, disease resistance and intestinal microbiota in Penaeus vannamei fed diets supplemented with three strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The basal diet (control, CO) supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum W2 (LA), Pediococcus acidilactici Nj (PE), Enterococcus faecium LYB (EN) and florfenicol (FL), respectively, formed three LAB diets (1 × 1010 cfu kg-1) and a florfenicol diet (15 mg kg-1, positive control), were fed to shrimp for 42 days. Results indicated that speciﬁc growth rate, feed efficiency rate, and disease resistance of shrimp against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the treatment groups were significantly improved versus the control (P < 0.05). Compared with the control, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, phenonoloxidase, total nitric oxide synthase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase activities, total antioxidant capacity, and lysozyme content in the serum and the relative expression levels of SOD, LZM, proPO, LGBP, HSP70, Imd, Toll, Relish, TOR, 4E-BP, eIF4E1α and eIF4E2 genes in the hepatopancreas of LAB groups were enhanced to various extents. Intestinal microbiota analysis showed that the LA and EN groups significantly improved microbial diversity and richness, and LAB groups significantly altered intestinal microbial structure of shrimp. At the phylum level, the Verrucomicrobiota in the LA and PE groups, the Firmicutes in the EN group, and the Actinobacteriota in the PE and EN groups were enriched. Moreover, the CO group increased the proportion of potential pathogens (Vibrionaceae and Flavobacteriaceae). The potential pathogen (Vibrio) was reduced, and potential beneficial bacteria (Tenacibaculum, Ruegeria and Bdellovibrio) were enriched in response to dietary three strains of LAB. When the intestinal microbiota homeostasis of shrimp is considered, L. plantarum and E. faecium showed better effects than P. acidilactici. However, due to the concerns on the possible potential risks of E. faecium strains to human health, L. plantarum W2 is more suitable for application in aquaculture than E. faecium LYB. Considering collectively the above, Lactobacillus plantarum W2 could be applied as better probiotic to improve the growth performance, non-speciﬁc immunity, disease resistance and promote intestinal health of P. vannamei.