Implications of Foot Ulceration in Hemodialysis Patients: A 5-Year Observational Study

Journal of Diabetes Research (Impact Factor: 2.16). 03/2014; 2014(12):945075. DOI: 10.1155/2014/945075
Source: PubMed


Foot ulceration (FU) remains a serious concern for patients worldwide. We analyzed the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of FU in hemodialysis (HD) patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted for 252 HD patients who were followed up for 5 years. Patients were categorized according to whether they developed FU or not. The FU group (17%) was older and had significantly higher incidence of nephropathy, retinopathy, peripheral (PAD), coronary artery disease (CAD), and diabetes mellitus (DM) as compared to no-FU group. FU group had higher frequency of major amputation (P = 0.001) and HD vascular access (P = 0.01). Patients with combined DM and PAD had a 10-fold increased risk of FU in comparison to those who had DM alone. Presence of PAD was the main independent predictor for development of FU in HD with an adjusted odd ratio (aOR) of 16.0 (95% CI: 4.41-62.18; P = 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and CAD, predictors for mortality were PAD (aOR 4.3), FU (aOR 3.6), and DM (aOR 2.6). FU is common in HD patients regardless of DM. However, the presence of PAD is significantly associated with more FU and mortality in HD. HD patients need intensive foot care and warrant progressive modification of vascular risk factors.

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Available from: Ayman El-Menyar, Mar 05, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Patients on hemodialysis (HD; n = 210) were examined for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) using ankle-brachial index (ABI) and toe-brachial index (TBI). The prevalence of PAD was 38.1%. Among patients with PAD, 87.5% were newly diagnosed with PAD, 42.5% were diagnosed with TBI <0.6 despite ABI ≥ 0.9, and 68.7% had no lower limb symptoms. In patients with PAD, the prevalence rate of cerebrovascular disease was 36.3%, coronary artery disease was 42.5%, spinal stenosis was 33.2%, and vertebral fracture 15.0% and was significantly higher than those of the non-PAD patients. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was the most important biomarker among patients with PAD. PAD has been underdiagnosed and untreated in patients on HD because most patients do not have symptoms that could be due to diabetic neuropathy or have insufficient daily activity to experience exertional leg symptoms. Screening for PAD using the ABI and TBI increased diagnostic efficiency in patients on HD and may lead to effective early treatments, including pharmacotherapy, revascularization therapy, and exercise rehabilitation to avoid the worst possible scenario such as lower limb amputation, cardiovascular event, and death. © The Author(s) 2015.
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