Article

Prevalence of faecal incontinence in community-dwelling older people in Bali, Indonesia: Faecal incontinence in Bali elderly

Authors:
  • Institute of Health Sciences of Bali
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Abstract

AimTo explore the prevalence rate of faecal incontinence in community-dwelling older people, associated factors, impact on quality of life and practices in managing faecal incontinence.Method Using a cross-sectional design, 600 older people aged 60+ were randomly selected from a population of 2916 in Bali, Indonesia using a simple random sampling technique. Three hundred and three participants were interviewed (response rate 51%).ResultsThe prevalence of faecal incontinence was 22.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 18.0–26.8). Self-reported constipation (odds ratio (OR) 3.68, 95% CI 1.87–7.24) and loose stools (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.47–4.78) were significantly associated with faecal incontinence. There was a strong positive correlation between total bowel control score and total quality-of-life score (P < 0.001, rs = 0.61) indicating significant alterations in quality of life. The current management practices varied from changing diet, visiting health-care professionals, and using modern and traditional medicines.Conclusion Faecal incontinence is common among community-dwelling older people in Bali.

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... The prevalence of FI is higher in the elderly, particularly among the frail elderly [2][3][4]. In previous studies, FI prevalence among the elderly in a community dwelling [5][6][7] or in a residential facility [8,9] varies 8-22 and 42-50%, respectively. FI is associated with significant increases in psychosocial problems [10], functional insufficiency [11], cognitive decline [12], a need for nursing home care [13], and healthcare costs [14,15] in these. ...
... The prevalence of FI in the community dwelling elderly varies 8-22% [5][6][7]. Similarly, it was 9.9% in our study. In a study by Aslan E et al., elderly patients (≥60 years) residing in a nursing home were included, and FI prevalences were 14 and 6% for males and females, respectively. ...
... and soft stools (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.47-4.78) [7]. In another study, an elderly Korean population of advanced age (OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 1.9-5.2; ...
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Background Data on the prevalence of fecal incontinence in elderly patients admitted to outpatient clinics in Turkey are scarce. AimsThe aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of fecal incontinence and the associated risk factors in the elderly outpatients. Methods Patients 60 years and older admitted to a geriatrics outpatient clinic between October 2013 and March 2014 were included. Demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, marital status, educational status, parity (for females), fecal incontinence (FI), urinary incontinence (UI), constipation, comorbid conditions, and medications were recorded. FI assessment was based on the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI). ResultsA total of 364 patients (64.8% female, n = 236) with a mean age of 73.2 ± 8.1 years were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of FI was 9.9% (10.2% female, 9.4% male). UI was 42.6%. Co-occurrence of FI and UI was 7.4%. According to the FISI, the most frequent type of defecation was liquid stool (61.1%). While the predictive factors for FI were polypharmacy (standardized coefficient, [r] = 0.203, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.009–0.040, p = 0.002), UI (r = 0.134, 95% CI = 0.006–0.156, p = 0.035), and being married (r = 0.200, 95% CI = −0.088 to −0.020, p = 0.002) in females, those were UI (r = 0.306, 95% CI = 0.093–0.309, p < 0.001) and polypharmacy (r = 0.251, 95% CI = 0.009–0.043, p = 0.003) in males. Conclusions In both genders, urinary incontinence and polypharmacy seem to be the most important risk factors for fecal incontinence. Fecal incontinence should be questioned in detail and evaluated using FISI in elderly outpatients.
... POP negatively affects approximately 41% of women worldwide (Chapple & MacNeil, 2019). The FI prevalence is 14.4% in the United States and 22.4% in Indonesia (Menees et al., 2018;Suyasa et al., 2015). Previous studies also reported that the prevalence of sexual dysfunction ranges from 16.9% and 85% among women globally (Chapa et al., 2020;Guo et al., 2012). ...
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This descriptive study was designed to investigate the pelvic floor muscle strength (PFMS) of women aged 18 to 49 years and to examine the factors that may have an effect on PFMS. The study was conducted on 258 women who visited a gynecology outpatient clinic between January 2019 and January 2020, who met the research criteria, and who agreed to participate in the study. The data were collected using the Sociodemographic Characteristics Information Form. The Modified Oxford Scale (MOS) and a perineometer were used to evaluate the PFMS of the women. The mean PFMS value measured using the perineometer was 31.56 ± 12.17 cmH2O (moderate pressure). The PFMS values were 20.00 to 29.9 cmH2O (weak pressure) and 30.00 to 39.9 cmH2O (moderate pressure) in 23.6% of the women, respectively. The PFMS values measured with MOS were of grade 3 strength (moderate pressure) in 23.6% of the women and grade 2 strength (weak pressure) in 23.3%. A statistically significant strong correlation was found between the perineometer measurement and the women’s MOS values. Moreover, a statistically significant difference was found between the PFMS values measured with the perineometer, MOS scores, and women’s age groups, educational status, marital status, employment status, income status, persistent cough, use of nicotine, alcohol and coffee consumptions, chronic constipation, history of frequent urinary tract infections, regular exercise, body mass index, history of pregnancy, mode of delivery, use of episiotomy at birth, perineal rupture at birth, use of forceps vacuum at birth, multiple pregnancies, delivery of a baby weighing ≥4,000 g, treatment during pregnancy, hysterectomy, menopause, frequency of sexual intercourse, and pain during sexual intercourse (p < .05). We conclude that most of the women in the study had weak to moderate PFMS, that the evaluation of PFMS with the MOS positively overlapped with the perineometric measurements, and that a number of sociodemographic and obstetric variables act as risk factors that affect PFMS. The PFMS of all women should be assessed as part of their routine gynecological examinations.
... [3] We found a high prevalence of FI in some specific samples, such as old people in Japan (6.6%) and Taiwan, China or residents of Bali, Indonesia (22.4%). [4][5][6] Although some regional studies have been published, there is still no national population-based epidemiology research about the prevalence of and risk factors for FI in Chinese women. [7] The aims of this study were to identify the prevalence of and risk factors for FI in adult Chinese women living in urban areas. ...
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Background: Fecal incontinence (FI) has been shown to be a common symptom in Western countries; however, there is few researches focusing on its epidemic condition in Chinese women. We conducted this national population-based epidemiology study to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of FI among adult Chinese women living in urban regions. Methods: This is a subgroup analysis of a national population-based epidemiology study of FI. Total 28,196 adult women from urban regions of six provinces and municipalities participated in this research from 2014 to 2015. They finished the questionnaire under the direction of trained interviewers. FI was defined as accidental leakage of flatus and/or liquid or solid stool at least once in the past. The FI prevalence trend and risk factors were identified by the Cochran-Armitage test, Chi-square test, and multivariable logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of FI in adult females in urban China was 0.43% (95% confidence interval: 0.35%-0.51%). Among women with FI, 42.96%, 82.96%, and 42.22% reported having leakage of solid, liquid stool, and gas, respectively. The overall FI prevalence and the incidence rate of solid stool/liquid stool/gas leakage increased with age. The mean Wexner score was 4.0% and 12.0% FI patients reported Wexner score ≥9. Body mass index ≥24 kg/m, pelvic organ prolapses, chronic constipation, chronic cough, alcohol consumption, physical diseases including chronic bronchitis and cancer, gynecological diseases like gynecological inflammation are risk factors for FI. Vaginal delivery was the risk factor for FI in females with labor history. Conclusions: FI was not a common symptom in adult Chinese women living in urban areas and there were some potential modifiable risk factors. Trial registration: Chinses Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-OCS-14004675; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=4898.
... Other than that, findings from a study conducted in Bali, Indonesia, displayed that conditions such as fecal incontinence in older people will affect their quality of life. [12] Reduction in quality of life was reported with increased embarrassment, increased awareness in location of toilets, plan according to bowels, and staying at home more often than those without fecal incidence. In contrary with the previous studies in Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand, herbal medicines were stated as ineffective in treating fecal incontinence in older people and thus unable to improve the quality of life of the patients. ...
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Previous studies have described urinary and fecal incontinence in nursing homes and their separate effects on healthcare utilization. However, little is known about those who are incontinent of both. Retrospective chart review. Twenty sites in three states A total of 413 nursing home residents were categorized as having neither fecal nor urinary incontinence (C, n = 114), urinary incontinence only (UI, n = 53), fecal incontinence only (FI, n = 9), or were dually incontinent (DI, n = 237). Charts were abstracted for sociodemographic information and health status information as well as utilization for the year before the date of abstraction. We then compared these characteristics across groups using ANOVA with pairwise comparisons and multiply adjusted regression. Almost all patients with DI were cognitively and mobility impaired. However, there were no significant differences between the groups with respect to age and number of diagnoses. A diagnosis of stroke was also more common among those with DI compared with C. When examining healthcare utilization in multiply adjusted regression, dually incontinent residents received significantly fewer days of hospital care than those with UI. Dual incontinence in NH residents is likely to have an important functional component. These residents seem to be treated less aggressively with respect to hospitalization compared with those with UI alone. The reasons for these differences need to be explored further.
Article
faecal incontinence affects quality of life and causes caregiver strain. Patients are often reluctant to seek help because of embarrassment and perceived lack of effective treatment. Persisting faecal soiling may lead to unwanted and premature institutionalization. to ascertain the prevalence of faecal incontinence and to identify health and socio-demographic characteristics of patients with this problem. a sample of 3000 older people, living at home in the UK, randomly selected from three Family Health Service Authorities. we interviewed 2818 men and women aged > or =65 years in their own homes: a response rate of 94%. 78 respondents (3%) reported faecal incontinence. There was a small but non-significant association with increasing age: 38 (2%) of those reporting incontinence were aged 65-74 years; 40 (3%) were aged > or =75 years. Faecal incontinence was significantly associated with sex, with reports from 15 men (1%) versus 63 women (4%; P<0.0005). It was also significantly associated with anxiety and with depression (P<0.00001) and very significantly associated with increasing disability (P<0.00001). Forty-six (59%) of those who had faecal incontinence had severe disability, compared with 426 (16%) of those who did not (P<0.00001). The association with urinary incontinence was also strong: 54 (69%) of those with faecal incontinence (2% of the total sample) had coexistent urinary incontinence. Over 50% had not discussed their problems with a healthcare professional. a reluctance to report symptoms and a significant association between faecal incontinence and symptoms of anxiety, depression and disability suggest that older people should be asked about faecal incontinence. Increasing the awareness of the scale of the problem among health- and social-care professionals, older people and their carers may lead to more appropriate management and effective provision of care.
Article
The aim was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported symptom of urinary, faecal, and double incontinence (UI, FI, and DI) in men and women 75+ and to identify how other health complaints and Quality of Life (QoL) relate to incontinence symptoms. A randomised sample, stratified for age, of eligible men and women from the population were included in the study and 4,277 out of 8,500 completed a postal questionnaire (61.6% women). The questions focused on difficulties in controlling urine and faeces, other health complaints, socio-economic background, and social relations. Among all respondents 39% reported symptom of UI (more so among women P < 0.001), symptom of FI in 16.9% (ns between sexes), DI, i.e., a combination of UI and FI, was reported among 14.5% (ns between sexes). Incontinence increased with age, and persons reporting incontinence also had significantly more of all other health complaints compared with persons without incontinence. Those reporting DI comprised an especially vulnerable group. Health complaints associated with UI were communicative and mobility problems, other urinary complaints, dizziness, cough, and fatigue. FI was associated with diarrhoea, stomach pain, fatigue, and other pain. Risk factors for DI were diarrhoea, communication, and mobility problems. UI and FI were common among elderly men and women and increased with age. Furthermore, incontinence was associated with many other co-existing health complaints, and the most frail were those with DI.
Article
An anonymous survey containing questions about the severity of fecal incontinence (FI)--frequency, amount, and type--and its correlates was distributed to community-living elderly at four managed-care clinics. Completed surveys were received from 1,352 respondents whose mean (+/-standard deviation) age was 75 +/- 6 years and 60% of whom were female. Approximately 19% reported having FI one or more times within the past year. Incontinence that soiled underwear or was of loose or liquid consistency was most common. More frequent FI and a greater amount of FI were significantly associated with loose or liquid stool consistency, defecation urgency, bowel surgery, and chronic health conditions. Therapies aimed at normalizing stool consistency or reducing urgency may be beneficial in lessening FI severity.
Article
To determine prevalence and correlates of fecal incontinence in older community-dwelling adults. A cross-sectional, population-based survey. Participants interviewed at home in three rural and two urban counties in Alabama from 1999 to 2001. The University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging enlisted 1,000 participants from the state Medicare beneficiary lists. The sample was selected to include 25% black men, 25% white men, 25% black women, and 25% white women. The survey included sociodemographic information, medical conditions, health behaviors, life-space assessment (mobility), and self-reported health status. Fecal incontinence was defined as an affirmative response to the question "In the past year, have you had any loss of control of your bowels, even a small amount that stained the underwear?" Severity was classified as mild if reported less than once a month and moderate to severe if reported once a month or greater. The prevalence of fecal incontinence in the sample was 12.0% (12.4% in men, 11.6% in women; P=.33). Mean age+/-standard deviation was 75.3+/-6.7 and ranged from 65 to 106. In a forward stepwise logistic regression analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with the presence of fecal incontinence in women: chronic diarrhea (odds ratio (OR)=4.55, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.03-10.20), urinary incontinence (OR=2.65, 95% CI=1.34-5.25), hysterectomy with ovary removal (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.06-3.54), poor self-perceived health status (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.01-3.50), and higher Charlson comorbidity score (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.07-1.55). The following factors were significantly associated with fecal incontinence in men: chronic diarrhea (OR=6.08, 95% CI=2.29-16.16), swelling in the feet and legs (OR=3.49, 95% CI=1.80-6.76), transient ischemic attack/ministroke (OR=3.11, 95% CI=1.30-7.41), Geriatric Depression Scale score greater than 5 (OR=2.83, 95% CI=1.27-6.28), living alone (OR=2.38, 95% CI=1.23-4.62), prostate disease (OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.04-5.02), and poor self-perceived health (OR=2.18, 95% CI=1.13-4.20). The following were found to be associated with increased frequency of fecal incontinence in women: chronic diarrhea (OR=6.39, 95% CI=2.25-18.14), poor self-perceived health (OR=5.37, 95% CI=1.75-16.55), and urinary incontinence (OR=4.96, 95% CI=1.41-17.43). In men, chronic diarrhea (OR=5.38, 95% CI=1.77-16.30), poor self-perceived health (OR=3.91, 95% CI=1.39-11.02), lower extremity swelling (OR=2.86, 95% CI=1.20-6.81), and decreased assisted life-space mobility (OR=0.73, 95% CI=0.49-0.80) were associated with more frequent fecal incontinence. In community-dwelling older adults, fecal incontinence is a common condition associated with chronic diarrhea, multiple health problems, and poor self-perceived health. Fecal incontinence should be included in the review of systems for older patients.
Article
Little is known about the ways in which community-dwelling elderly individuals manage fecal incontinence (FI) in their daily lives. In this study, community-dwelling elderly individuals were surveyed at clinics of a health maintenance organization (HMO) to describe the self-care practices used to manage FI and to examine factors that influenced the number of self-care practices used and the reporting of FI to a health care practitioner. Responses of 242 elderly individuals who reported that they had FI several times per year were analyzed. The self-care practices used most commonly were changing diet, wearing a sanitary pad/brief, and reducing activity or exercise. Elderly women and those with a greater severity of FI and more chronic health problems engaged in more self-care practices. Factors associated with reporting FI to a clinician were considering FI to be a problem, uncertainty about the cause of FI, and changing diet to avoid FI. There is a need to promote effective management strategies for FI to older individuals living in the community.
Article
Employing a consensus approach, our working team critically considered the available evidence and multinational expert criticism, revised the Rome II diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders, and updated diagnosis and treatment recommendations. Diagnosis of a functional bowel disorder (FBD) requires characteristic symptoms during the last 3 months and onset > or =6 months ago. Alarm symptoms suggest the possibility of structural disease, but do not necessarily negate a diagnosis of an FBD. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional bloating, functional constipation, and functional diarrhea are best identified by symptom-based approaches. Subtyping of IBS is controversial, and we suggest it be based on stool form, which can be aided by use of the Bristol Stool Form Scale. Diagnostic testing should be guided by the patient's age, primary symptom characteristics, and other clinical and laboratory features. Treatment of FBDs is based on an individualized evaluation, explanation, and reassurance. Alterations in diet, drug treatment aimed at predominant symptoms, and psychotherapy may be beneficial.
Article
Fecal incontinence is a common health problem for older people and is associated with significant morbidity and cost. In this study, we report on the association of fecal incontinence with physical disability and impaired cognitive function in a large bi-racial population of individuals aged 65 yr and older. Study subjects are participants of the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), an ongoing study of older Chicago residents. A total of 6,099 participants completed the baseline in-home interview and assessments used in this analysis. Physical disability was assessed using a performance-based measure of basic physical functions and three commonly used self-report measures. Impaired cognitive function was assessed using a global measure of the averaged scores of four cognitive tests. The question used to determine the presence of fecal incontinence was: "In the past few months have you ever lost control of your bowels when you didn't want to?" In multiple logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and race, fecal incontinence was correlated with the presence of physical disability and impaired cognitive function on every measure. For example, using the performance-based measure of physical function, the odds of prevalent fecal incontinence were higher by 20% (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.2-1.2) for each additional unit higher on the performance score, indicating a lower physical performance. The prevalence odds ratio for fecal incontinence was decreased by 51% for each one-point increase in the global cognitive score, indicating higher cognitive function. We found a statistically significant interaction between both race and physical disability and race and impaired cognitive function, such that the associations were stronger in blacks than in non-blacks. These associations remained after further adjustment for diabetes and stroke, and the intake of psychoactive medications. In urban, community-dwelling, older adults, fecal incontinence may be more common among persons with physical disability and impaired cognitive function.
Article
Many patients with faecal incontinence (FI) are prescribed a constipating agent concurrently with either fibre supplementation or a low-residue diet. Clinician opinion varies as to which initial approach is best. This study compared these treatments in routine clinical practice. Design: Double-blind randomized cross-over trial. Participants: Patients referred for FI. Intervention: Six weeks of low-residue diet, placebo fibre supplement and loperamide followed by 6 weeks of fibre supplement, neutral diet and loperamide or the reverse order. Sixty-three patients were randomized. At baseline the mean Faecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) was 31. After low-residue diet, placebo fibre supplement and loperamide the FISI was 18.4 (standard deviation, SD 13.2). After fibre supplementation and loperamide the FISI was 18.8 (SD 14.1). The mean difference between the treatment arms was not significant (-0.8; 95% CI: -4.9 to 3.3). There was also no difference between the treatments for the SF-36 and the Faecal Incontinence Quality of Life scale. There was marked variability in individual responses, some favouring more fibre and some less. This study provides evidence that treatment with more or less fibre in addition to loperamide has similar clinical effectiveness overall, however individual tailoring of treatment seems important to achieve the best outcome.
Article
Fecal incontinence can have a profound effect on quality of life. Its prevalence remains uncertain because of stigma, lack of consistent definition, and dearth of validated measures. This study was designed to develop a valid clinical and epidemiologic questionnaire, building on current literature and expertise. Patients and experts undertook face validity testing. Construct validity, criterion validity, and test-retest reliability was undertaken. Construct validity comprised factor analysis and internal consistency of the quality of life scale. The validity of known groups was tested against 77 control subjects by using regression models. Questionnaire results were compared with a stool diary for criterion validity. Test-retest reliability was calculated from repeated questionnaire completion. The questionnaire achieved good face validity. It was completed by 104 patients. The quality of life scale had four underlying traits (factor analysis) and high internal consistency (overall Cronbach alpha = 0.97). Patients and control subjects answered the questionnaire significantly differently (P < 0.01) in known-groups validity testing. Criterion validity assessment found mean differences close to zero. Median reliability for the whole questionnaire was 0.79 (range, 0.35-1). This questionnaire compares favorably with other available instruments, although the interpretation of stool consistency requires further research. Its sensitivity to treatment still needs to be investigated.
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