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Recovery from job stress: The stressor-detachment model as an integrative framework

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Abstract

This paper reviews empirical evidence on psychological detachment from work during nonwork time. Psychological detachment as a core recovery experience refers to refraining from job-related activities and thoughts during nonwork time; it implies to mentally disengage from one's job while being away from work. Using the stressor-detachment model as an organizing framework, we describe findings from between-person and within-person studies, relying on cross-sectional, longitudinal, and daily-diary designs. Overall, research shows that job stressors, particularly workload, predict low levels of psychological detachment. A lack of detachment in turn predicts high strain levels and poor individual well-being (e.g., burnout and lower life satisfaction). Psychological detachment seems to be both a mediator and a moderator in the relationship between job stressors on the one hand and strain and poor well-being on the other hand. We propose possible extensions of the stressor-detachment model by suggesting moderator variables grounded in the transactional stress model. We further discuss avenues for future research and offer practical implications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... The outcomes indicate that individuals' personal responses to existing strain factors and avoidance or oppositional behaviors are recognized as corresponding consequences [10,11]. In earlier studies, the underlying principles of the SSO paradigm have been extensively utilized to understand job-related stressors in typical workforces or physical commercial circumstances [26,27]. In the era of the swift development of social media technology, the overuse of communication technologies, social comparation, and social overload are stressor variables affecting young people's emotions and practices (strain, such as emotional tiredness, depression, or unsatisfaction) towards SNS, which ultimately result in diverse negative psychological or physiological consequences, consisting of declined academic achievement or users' discontinuous usage behaviors. ...
... Additionally, many researchers have claimed that the application of the SSO theoretical paradigm framework could offer deeper interpretations, which are vital for comprehending the antecedents and consequences of negative behaviors [10,26,29]. Further, using the SSO framework is beneficial as it makes a distinction between general psychological strain and related behavioral consequences, instead of treating different psychological and behavioral consequences as an overall concept of strain [16,27]. ...
... Prior research has also highlighted that the proliferation of the Internet and SNS leads to some harmful outcomes, such as depression, mental health issues, as well as decreased performance when users experience social media overload [6,13]. The phenomenon of social media overload can be described as users being exposed to vast quantities of content and interaction needs through social media that might demand inner energy and psychological processing beyond their abilities [26,31,32]. Additionally, previous investigations have theorized and empirically demonstrated the different dimensions of perceived overload [16,20]. ...
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Although social networking sites have emerged as the primary source of information for young people, there is a dearth of knowledge concerning the underlying associations between differential aspects of social media overload and whether social media overload ultimately influenced people’s negative coping strategies during the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic. In order to fill this gap in existing knowledge, the current research employed the stressor–strain–outcome (SSO) theoretical paradigm to explicate social media fatigue and negative coping strategies from a technostress perspective. The study used cross-sectional methodology, whereby 618 valid questionnaire responses were gathered from WeChat users to assess the conceptual model. The obtained outcomes demonstrated that information overload and communication overload positively impacted young people’s fatigue. Furthermore, these two patterns of perceived overload heighten social media fatigue, which ultimately leads to young people’s negative coping with the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings would extend the present social media fatigue and technical stress literature by identifying the value of the SSO theoretical approach in interpreting young people’s negative coping phenomena in the post-pandemic time.
... In view of its importance to employee well-being, scholars have recently begun to propose solutions and to develop interventions to facilitate psychological detachment (e.g., joint partner activities during weekends: Hahn et al., 2012;mindfulness: Hülsheger et al., 2015;Hülsheger et al., 2014;and volunteering: Mojza et al., 2010). This article focuses on one specific well-being outcome, fatigue, because it is one of the main complaints resulting from a lack of psychological detachment (Meijman & Mulder, 1998;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). In relation to this outcome, we examine the effectiveness of another solution that has been proposed, namely behavioral planning. ...
... In relation to this outcome, we examine the effectiveness of another solution that has been proposed, namely behavioral planning. Making plans for the next working day, for instance in the form of to-do lists, has been suggested to free cognitive resources and thereby to contribute to the recovery process (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Similar recommendations can be found in the practitioner and popular self-help literature (e.g., Allen, 2015;Cooper, 2014). ...
... To complicate matters, it is unclear from the literature which type of planning will be most effective in promoting psychological detachment. Some advocated the use of goal setting (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015), which arguably coincides with research showing positive linkages between goal setting and employee well-being (MacLeod et al., 2008;Nezlek, 2001). However, findings from experimental psychology research also suggest that when wrongly applied, the activation of unfulfilled goals may trigger intrusive thoughts (Masicampo & Baumeister, 2011). ...
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Several types of interventions to help people detach from work have been tested, but so far, no tests of different types of planning have been conducted. This field experiment tested the effects of goal setting combined with making implementation intentions on psychological detachment in the evening, and its effect on fatigue the next day, compared to an only goal setting condition and a control group without an intervention. The effects of the interventions were measured by means of a daily diary for a period of two weeks. We hypothesized a stronger effect on detachment in the evening and fatigue the next day of the implementation intention intervention for those not habitually planning. Contrary to our expectation, neither intervention had a positive effect in comparison to the control group. The daily effects on psychological detachment of the combined goal-setting implementation intention condition were negative for individuals who had a high general tendency to plan, as shown by the significant cross-level interactions of the moderated mediation model. We discuss these results in light of future interventions.
... According to the JD-R model (Bakker and Demerouti, 2007), higher levels of job demands (such as CN) should increase WFC and FWC due to depletion of employees' personal (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and physical) resources (ten Brummelhuis and Bakker, 2012). Moreover, employees facing job demands able to intrude into their personal lives, such as CN, will need to devote a lot of time, effort, and energy to their work during their free time to be able to successfully address, and recover from, these intrusive types of demands (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). As a result, these employees not only experience a drain of their personal resources when working, but this drain also occurs outside of their normal work hours, thus also interfering with their ability to properly recover (e.g., high levels of problem-solving pondering and affective rumination; Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). ...
... Moreover, employees facing job demands able to intrude into their personal lives, such as CN, will need to devote a lot of time, effort, and energy to their work during their free time to be able to successfully address, and recover from, these intrusive types of demands (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). As a result, these employees not only experience a drain of their personal resources when working, but this drain also occurs outside of their normal work hours, thus also interfering with their ability to properly recover (e.g., high levels of problem-solving pondering and affective rumination; Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). ...
... This dual consideration makes it possible to consider the potential benefits of a finer-grained analysis of two ways in which work can interfere with the family domain: one driven by negative thoughts (affective rumination) and one oriented toward solutions (problem-solving pondering). Prior research has shown that job demands tended to increase the likelihood of engaging in both types of processes (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015), as well as the undesirable impact of these two types of interference with work recovery for employees' functioning (Jimenez et al., 2022;Junker et al., 2021). ...
Article
Purpose: Research has shown that colleagues’ norms promoting the need to respond quickly to work-related messages (CN) have a negative effect on work recovery experiences. In the present study, we examine the direct and indirect –through affective rumination and problem-solving pondering– effects of these norms on work-family conflict, family-work conflict, and job satisfaction, and verify whether and how these associations differ between employees working onsite (n = 158) or remotely (n = 284). Design/methodology/approach: A total of 442 employees completed an online survey that covered measures on CN, affective rumination, problem-solving pondering, work-family conflict, family-work conflict, and job satisfaction. Findings: As hypothesized, our results revealed that CN were positively related to work-family conflict and family-work conflict, but not to job satisfaction. Moreover, the indirect effects of CN on work-family conflict and job satisfaction were significantly mediated by affective rumination and problem-solving pondering, whereas the indirect effects of these norms on family-work conflict were significantly mediated by affective rumination. Finally, the relations between CN and the mediators (affective rumination and problem-solving pondering) were stronger among employees working onsite than among employees working remotely. Originality: These results revealed that working remotely buffered the detrimental effects of CN on affective rumination and problem-solving pondering. Keywords: Colleagues’ pressure; communication technologies; recovery; work-family interface; job satisfaction; mediation; moderation; remote working
... Debate has ensued, however, over whether personal agency and the strong and persistent engagement-fueled by motivation processes-could also come at significant psychological costs for entrepreneurs, such as high stress/burnout (Baron et al., 2016;Fernet et al., 2016;Hessels et al., 2017;Kollmann et al., 2019; see also Lerman et al., 2021). In the occupational health literature, overengagement and strong, persisting work passion have been linked to the risk of burnout, for instance due to conflict with other life activities and a lack of recovery (Sonnentag et al., 2022;Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015;Vallerand et al., 2010). Since such work engagement requires significant self-regulation, the psychological resources driving such self-regulation deplete over time (Muraven and Baumeister, 2000), thereby potentially impeding entrepreneurs' ability to function psychologically (Nikolaev et al., 2020). ...
... Since such work engagement requires significant self-regulation, the psychological resources driving such self-regulation deplete over time (Muraven and Baumeister, 2000), thereby potentially impeding entrepreneurs' ability to function psychologically (Nikolaev et al., 2020). Moreover, the detrimental effect of stressors that might be prevalent in entrepreneurial work (Lerman et al., 2021;Stephan, 2018) may be amplified through strong and persistent work engagement, particularly if recovery processes are impaired (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). Indeed, some studies indicate that "entrepreneurs have stressful jobs-high work demands that require intense effort and concentration" (Stephan, 2018, p. 296; see also Lerman et al., 2021;Palmer et al., 2021;Wei et al., 2015). ...
... Work engagement helps individuals to be goal-oriented, to focus on the task at hand, and to bring more energy and enthusiasm to the job, thereby typically enabling them to perform better and achieve higher levels of well-being compared with individuals who are less engaged (Hopstaken et al., 2015). Very high work engagement can also have negative consequences; for example, over-engagement and workaholism can lead to psychological ill-being in at-risk occupations and job settings (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015;Toth-Kiraly et al., 2021). Therefore, the presence of healthy work engagement contributes to psychological utility in our model. ...
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What is the real value of entrepreneurship? We propose a framework of psychological utility by integrating Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory with a recovery approach from a personal agency perspective. We hypothesize that personal agency together with the positive JD-R pattern of entrepreneurship generates outstanding psychological utility, which maintains and rewards a healthy, strong work engagement that spills over to off-work time. This benefits entrepreneurs, but also their businesses reliant on strong work engagement that avoids burnout. We validate our framework by means of panel data comprising four waves (348 entrepreneurs and 1,002 employees), where we also analyze different types of entrepreneurs.
... Based on the aforementioned theoretical propositions, we expect profiles showing both convergence 1989). Thus, although work withdrawal behaviors might emerge as a result of insufficient work recovery, in the long run, they might also be associated with an improved work recovery process, by allowing employees to progressively disconnect from a stressful work context (Sonnentag, 2015). ...
... Although our objective is not to further document these reciprocal associations, these considerations support the value of considering sleeping difficulties and psychological detachment as correlates in documenting the construct validity of the work behaviors profiles. More precisely, support for the following hypothesis would be aligned with theoretical assumptions of the stressor-detachment model (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015) and conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989), while demonstrating that different combinations of work behaviors do indeed share well-differentiated associations with the work recovery process. ...
... Work Recovery. Work recovery denotes the process via which workers replenish their emotional resources to better cope with work-related concerns and with the energy expended as a result of their work behaviors (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015), and encompass a variety of psychological processes sharing associations with work behaviors (Sonnentag, 2015). Psychological detachment is conceptualized as a core driver of work recovery, and entails the ability to switch off from, or stop thinking about, job during nonwork time (Sonnentag & Bayer, 2005). ...
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This study aims to identify profiles of employees characterized by different configurations of performance, presenteeism, absenteeism, and counterproductive work behaviors and their generalizability within two distinct samples of workers. To assess the construct validity of the profiles, this research then investigates their association with two correlates related to the work recovery process (Sample 1: Sleeping difficulties and psychological detachment) and two other correlates related to employees’ psychological well-being at work (Sample 2: Job satisfaction and work engagement). Finally, this study also considers the role played by employees’ perceptions of colleagues, supervisor, and organizational support as well as emotional dissonance as predictors of profile membership (Sample 1). Latent profile analyses led to the identification of five profiles corresponding to a an Involved, Average (Maladaptive), Deviant-Presenteeism, Withdrawn (Presenteeism), and Problematic configuration of workplace behaviors. Low emotional dissonance and high perceived supervisor support, but not organizational or colleagues support, were generally associated with a higher likelihood of membership into the most desirable profiles, which also tended to display more desirable work recovery processes, and higher levels of job satisfaction and work engagement.
... Research about recovery from work can help to understand how employees can become energetic, engaged, and healthy, even when confronting poor work environments. In addition, recovery can moderate the daily effect of spillover from work to home (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015;Trougakos et al., 2008). This mechanism refers to the process of decreasing or eliminating physical and psychological symptoms of strain produced by job demands and job stressors (Craig & Cooper, 1992;Meijman & Mulder, 1998), by distancing oneself from these negative emotions in one's personal life. ...
... Therefore, this process is important to keep an inner balance and energy in other personal areas, and also to distancing oneself from a problem to better understand it and choose the best actions to resolve a toxic situation. Sonnentag and Fritz (2015) consider psychological detachment as a core recovery experience. For example, in Spanish workers, experiences of relaxation have produced important benefits in the intensification of positive emotions (Garrosa et al., 2013). ...
... Equivalently, workplace incivility was more strongly associated with NA at night on days when people experienced less psychological detachment. These results support the stressor-detachment model (Sonnentag, 2010), which states that psychological detachment from work during nonworking time is not only a direct predictor of increased well-being and energy but could also buffer the negative impact of job stressors (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Thus, our study extends previous research by revealing that the effect of psychological detachment can moderate the daily effect of role stress and work incivility. ...
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The present study seeks to build on burnout research by examining daily fluctuations of role stress and work incivility, and their impact on employees’ energy loss. Optimism and recovery (i.e., psychological detachment and relaxation), two mechanisms that allow workers’ self-care and self-defence from these toxic conditions when faced by these job stressors, were included. In a daily study, 117 service sector workers completed surveys three times a day, over a period of one working week. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed work incivility as predictor of daily emotional exhaustion. Optimism and recovery play different roles in protecting workers from daily energy loss. Daily optimism increased employees’energy and decreased emotional exhaustion and negative affect at night. It also moderated the relationship between work incivility and positive affect at night. The results on psychological detachment supported the stressor-detachment model (Sonnentag, 2010), in which psychological detachment from work during nonworking time is not only a direct predictor of increased energy, but could similarly buffer the negative impact of role stress and work incivility. Relaxation basically showed main effects in predicting emotional exhaustion (inversely) and positive affect (directly). Our findings suggest two main implications: (1) the necessity for implemention of workplace policies to prevent role stress and work incivility in reducing daily loss of energy. (2) Training workers in self-care programmes focusing on optimism and recovery can provide early steps toward organizational change and employee daily well-being.
... In this research, we address the question of whether an age advantage in dealing with work-related availability and response expectations exists. Specifically, we hypothesize that older employees-compared to younger employeesare better at mentally switching off and not thinking about work after work (i.e., psychological detachment from work; Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015) when facing high availability expectations. Further, we expect that older employees will show more adaptive reactions to response expectations during working hours, namely more functional responsiveness (i.e., response time to ICT messages; Hu,Park,et al.,2 L. Venz and A. M. Wöhrmann 2021;Sonnentag et al., 2018). ...
... Whereas recovery from work stress is especially important when job demands are high, for employees who face high demands it is particularly difficult to recover from work (Sonnentag, 2018). Regarding psychological detachment from work, the notion that recovery is impaired when 3 Always on Call demands are high is theoretically explicated in the stressordetachment model (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). There is striking meta-analytic evidence that work-related demands are indeed negatively related to psychological detachment from work (Bennett et al., 2018), especially those demands that encroach upon employees' home domain (Wendsche & Lohmann-Haislah, 2017), such as availability expectations. ...
... However, external availability expectations might be less internally stressful for some employees than for others, meaning that availability expectations might hinder successful psychological detachment from work more strongly for some employees than for others. This could have to do with different perception and appraisal processes (Karabinski et al., 2021;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). This suggestion is in line with key theories of work stress, such as the transactional stress model (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984), which poses that the individual effect of any external demand is always the result of the interplay (i.e., transaction) between the situation and the person who encounters the situation. ...
Article
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This research challenges the technology-related age stereotype that older employees might be disadvantaged in dealing with work-related information communication technology (ICT) demands. Rather, we hypothesize an age advantage in this regard. Based on theorizing on aging at work, we suggest that older employees are better at psychologically detaching from work under high availability expectations and that they show more adaptive responsiveness to response expectations. We examined a potential age-related mechanism underlying this effect, namely internal workplace telepressure. We pursued a two-study approach. Study 1 examined data from 5,938 individuals who participated in a large-scale survey of employees in Germany just before the COVID-19 pandemic, testing age as moderator of the relationship between availability expectations and psychological detachment from work. Results supported the hypothesized age advantage effect showing that for older employees, availability expectations were less strongly related to impaired psychological detachment. Study 2, a diary study with 106 participants answering more than 500 daily surveys during the pandemic, supported lower telepressure as explanation for this age advantage effect. Study 2 further extended this finding to the relationship of response expectations with responsiveness, identifying both age and telepressure as predicted by age to moderate this relationship. This research shows age advantage effects in dealing with ICT demands, enhancing understanding of the intersection between age and technology use at work.
... Reasons for this include, for example, the employee's own interest, expectations from managers or colleagues, or demands by customers [5,24]. In this context, work-related ICT use has been suggested as obstructing the recovery processes due to difficulties in psychologically disengaging from work tasks [26,27]. Second, employees can also work longer hours. ...
... A recent study found that work which is flexible in time and location was associated with low well-being and suggested that both stress due to ICT use and NFR may be important mediators of this association [12]. Work-related ICT use may increase NFR, for example, by hindering the psychological detachment from work and thus prolonging the exposure to working demands [25,27,36]. Prolonged exposure to work inevitably leads to reduced time remaining for recovery [15,33]. ...
Article
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Work time control may offer opportunities, but also implies risks for employee recovery, influenced by increased work-related ICT use and overtime work. However, this risk-opportunity tradeoff remains understudied. This study aimed to test two different models of associations between work time control, work-related ICT use, overtime work, and the need for recovery. These models were constructed based on data on office workers with flexible work arrangements. Cross-sectional data were obtained with questionnaires (n = 2582) from employees in a Swedish multi-site organization. Regression models treated the three determinants of the need for recovery either as independent, or as linked in a causal sequence. The test of independent determinants confirmed that more work time control was associated with less need for recovery, whereas more ICT use and overtime work were associated with a higher need for recovery. In a test of serial mediation, more work time control contributed to a greater need for recovery through more ICT use and then more overtime work. Work time control also had a competitive, indirect effect through a negative association with overtime work. Our results suggest that work time control is beneficial for employee recovery, but may for some be associated with more work-related ICT use after regular working hours, thus increasing recovery needs. Policies that support work time control can promote recovery, but employers must attend to the risk of excessive use of ICT outside of regular working hours.
... The reason is that people with high self-efficacy view difficult obstacles as surmountable [103] and have confidence (self-efficacy) to take on, and put in, the necessary effort to succeed at challenging tasks [75]. Moreover, employees with high occupational self-efficacy generally worry less about work-related issues in their free time and find it easier to mentally detach and rest more effectively [104,105]. Apart from generating benefits like general health [106] or lower psychological distress [107], self-efficacy has been shown to have a negative association with emotional exhaustion in general surgery residents [108]. In a meta-analysis study, a significant self-efficacy-burnout relationship was observed across countries [109]. ...
... Our results completed previous research regarding the role of resilience, optimism, and self-efficacy in reducing burnout [27,73,85,87,88,95], or in buffering the distress from job demands on burnout [74]. In accordance with other studies [1,104] our results showed that job crafting had a positive relationship with future personal resources and buffered the impact of job demands on job strain through job and personal resources. Consequently, we observed that cognitive crafting and personal resources acted as a buffer when included as serial mediators between role ambiguity and emotional exhaustion. ...
Article
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Based on Job Demands-Resources (JD-R), Conservation of Resources (COR) and self-regulation theories integration, this study investigated the association between role ambiguity and emotional exhaustion among 191 Romanian dentists, as well as the chain mediating role of cognitive crafting and three personal resources (resilience, optimism, and self-efficacy). Three conceptual models which included, separately, the three personal resources were proposed. PROCESS macros were used to verify the hypotheses related to the testing of the path mediation models. The results indicated that role ambiguity was directly and positively associated with dentists’ burnout. More importantly, the sequential indirect effect of role ambiguity on burnout via mediators in chains (cognitive crafting and resilience for the first model; cognitive crafting and optimism for the second model; cognitive crafting and self-efficacy for the third model) was significant. The findings provide a direction for dentists’ health intervention because it reveals how the negative impact of role ambiguity on emotional exhaustion increasing can be buffered by the cumulative effect of cognitive crafting and different personal resources, as a result of their chain reinforcement.
... Additionally, the work demands encountered at home continue to cause strain before the body functions get back to the baseline level (Meijman & Mulder, 1998), which may impair well-being. Previous studies have supported this notion by showing that work-home integration can undermine detachment from work and result in a higher level of exhaustion (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015;Wepfer et al., 2018). Therefore, we expect that frequently engaging in home-to-work transitions results in a higher level of exhaustion. ...
... Employees who still engage in home-to-work transitions because they prefer to integrate work and home might develop individual strategies to buffer the potential downsides of work-home integration. We propose that these strategies could facilitate detachment from work and thereby improve employees' well-being (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). ...
Article
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The necessity to actively manage the work–home boundaries has drastically increased. We postulate that work–home integration may affect individuals' subjective career success via its positive effects on work goal attainment and exhaustion. Furthermore, we study perceived supervisor expectation for employee work–home integration as a boundary condition. Our three‐wave online survey with 371 employees showed support for the two hypothesized moderated mediation effects. Work–home integration preference is indirectly related to subjective career success: (1) positively via home‐to‐work transitions and work goal attainment and (2) negatively via home‐to‐work transitions and exhaustion. Perceived supervisor expectation constrained work–home integration preference's direct effect on home‐to‐work transitions and indirect effects on subjective career success. Exploratory analysis revealed that exhaustion negatively affected all career success dimensions, whereas work goal attainment was only related to some. Our results indicate that supervisor expectation can override the effect of employee's work–home integration preference on home‐to‐work transitions which have a double‐edged sword effect on subjective career success. Our study contributes to integrating the careers and work–life interface literature and incorporating contextual factors. Furthermore, with the exploration of differential effects on subjective career success, we advance our understanding of this outcome's nomological network.
... Therefore, when workers sense moderate levels of job insecurity, those with high psychological detachment will channel more resources toward self-scrutinizing their work behaviors, thereby engaging in fewer unsafe behaviors. In contrast, individuals with low levels of psychological detachment will struggle to disconnect from work issues when they are away from work, further depleting their self-regulatory resources (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Therefore, even with the stimulus of job insecurity, they will not be able to allocate more self-regulatory resources to manage their working behaviors and increase their safety awareness, and subsequently maintain their behavioral patterns. ...
... Managers should also realize that unrealistic deadlines may prevent many employees from "switching off" from work during non-work hours. Furthermore, managers should role model specific detachment-related behaviors, which would help to create a climate that encourages workers to practice detachment (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). ...
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There are two conflicting opinions regarding job insecurity in current literature: that it exacerbates unsafe behaviors, and that it discourages unsafe behaviors. This demonstrates the theoretical confusion over the exact nature of the relationship between job insecurity and unsafe behaviors. To clarify this confusion, this study proposes a curvilinear relationship between job insecurity and unsafe behavior, and situates the study among frontline workers in high-risk industries. Drawing from conservation of resources theory, we develop hypotheses that explain safety-related behaviors among workers with different levels of job insecurity. We collected data from coal miners in China at three different time points in two independent field studies, and obtained 209 and 248 valid questionnaires, respectively. We find support for a U-shaped relationship between job insecurity and unsafe behavior. Furthermore, we find that psychological detachment, but not self-control, moderates the curvilinear relationship, such that the curvilinear relationship is weaker among workers with higher psychological detachment. We also discuss some theoretical and practical implications of this research.
... It requires the individual to complete this transformation at both the physical and psychological levels. 46 Therefore, psychological detachment may experience when an individual leaves the workplace. An individual's role conflict is affected by whether he or she detach from a certain role. ...
... Such individuals can maintain distance from their work during nonworking hours and can put their work aside during their leisure time without thinking about it, resulting in higher levels of psychological detachment. 46 When individuals have a high degree of psychological detachment, they are less disturbed by their work. They can spend time and energy on personal leisure activities and experience less WLC. ...
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Purpose: Some studies have shown that job autonomy can reduce individual work-leisure conflict (WLC). However, some individuals show that WLC is stronger in situations of greater job autonomy. In light of these inconsistent findings, this study explores the relationship between job autonomy and WLC as well as the mediating role of psychological detachment and the moderating role of boundary flexibility willingness based on the fit perspective of person-job. Methods: The daily diary research method was used to investigate 97 employees for five consecutive working days, and a multilevel model was established. Results: The results show that job autonomy is negatively related to WLC. Psychological detachment plays a mediating role in the relationship between job autonomy and WLC. Boundary flexibility willingness can significantly moderate not only the relationship between job autonomy and psychological detachment but also that between job autonomy and WLC. Conclusion: In light of the inconsistent results of past work, this study explored the relationship between job autonomy and WLC as well as the possible mediating and moderating mechanisms involved. Job autonomy, psychological detachment and WLC are characterized by daily changes occurring at the individual level. Job autonomy is negatively related to WLC, and psychological detachment plays a mediating role in the relationship between job autonomy and WLC. The fit of boundary flexibility willingness and job autonomy will cause a change in boundary permeability, which will lead to the relationship between job autonomy and WLC to varying degrees. The results of this study are helpful for understanding boundary theory and provide guidance for enterprise management.
... Eine mangelnde Erholungsfähigkeit ist als ein Frühindikator für ein Burnout-Syndrom anzusehen [31]. Erholung kann jedoch nur gelingen, wenn eine gute Distanzierungsfähigkeit von der Arbeit gegeben ist [32]. Schlechte Distanzierungsfähigkeit kann zu langen Arbeitstagen mit diversen Überstunden führen, die wiederum mit negativen gesundheitlichen Effekten wie allgemein erhöhte Mortalität, Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen, Diabetes mellitus, metabolisches Syndrom und auch psychische Beeinträchtigungen assoziiert sind [2]. ...
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Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Erzieherinnen und Erzieher aus Kindertagesstätten sind während ihrer Tätigkeit diversen Belastungen ausgesetzt, die zu gesundheitlichen Beeinträchtigungen führen können. Diese Studie untersucht, welche konkreten Belastungen die psychische Gesundheit der Erzieherinnen negativ beeinflussen. Methoden An der Studie nahmen 194 Erzieherinnen im Alter von 43,4 ± 12,5 Jahren freiwillig teil. Die Belastungsfaktoren, die unmittelbare Beanspruchung und das Burnout-Risiko als langfristige Beanspruchungsfolge wurden mit Fragebögen erfasst. Ergebnisse Als häufigste Belastungsfaktoren stellten sich viele Arbeitsaufgaben (96 %), Lärm (95 %) und viele Kinder in der Gruppe (91 %) heraus. Bei über 80 % der Erzieherinnen kamen körperliche Belastungen hinzu. Bedeutsame Beanspruchungen ließen sich aufgrund sozialer und organisationaler Faktoren feststellen. Bei 9 Erzieherinnen bestand ein Burnout-Risiko. Schlussfolgerung Organisationale Prozesse sollten optimiert und Lärm reduziert werden. Diskutiert wird, welche Präventionsmaßnahmen durchgeführt werden könnten, um die Gesundheit der Erzieherinnen zu erhalten.
... However, we acknowledge that we may find simultaneous support for both propositions in our data. If the empirical relationship between sleep quality and psychological reattachment is not too strong, there may be evidence for both mediation and moderation at the same time, as in the stressor-detachment model (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). ...
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Psychological reattachment means mentally tuning into one's work before starting work in the morning. In this daily diary study, we investigated whether psychological reattachment may be beneficial not only for work engagement but also for proactivity during the day. We moreover considered two competing theoretical propositions regarding the role of psychological reattachment in the effect of sleep quality on work engagement and proactivity. The first proposition assumes a cognitive, self-regulatory perspective in which psychological reattachment serves as a moderator, buffering the detrimental effect of poor sleep quality on work engagement and proactivity. The second proposition assumes an energetic process in which psychological reattachment may benefit from a good night's sleep and thus serve as a mediator for the beneficial effect of sleep quality on work engagement and proactivity. We conducted a daily diary study over ten consecutive workdays. Altogether, we collected data from 171 employees on 1186 days. The results indicated that on days with good sleep quality and higher psychological reattachment, work engagement and proactivity were higher. Day-specific psychological reattachment buffered the negative effects of a poor night's sleep on work engagement, supporting the first of our competing hypotheses. Finally, we present ideas on how to foster psychological reattachment in practice.
... These resources, in turn, promote engagement at work through vigor, dedication and absorption (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004;Xanthopoulou et al., 2009). When employees stop thinking about work and psychologically disengage from work, recovery from work effort and strain occurs (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). By disengaging from work issues and problems, employees stop using the resources that were being consumed by actively engaging at work. ...
Article
The long-term benefits of physical activity (PA) on both physical and psychological well-being are well proven (see meta-analysis by Reed & Ones, 2006). The association between PA and important organizational variables as employees’ psychological detachment from work during leisure time, next day’s work engagement, productivity, and cognitive ability, however, has not been sufficiently examined in the context of organizations. The aim of this study was to compare adult groups that engaged in PA after work to those who did not in order to study daily dynamics of these variables. In this study, 42 participants, aged 21 to 52, 33 women and nine men - took part over the duration of 5 days. Between groups, there were no significant differences found in any of the organizational variables, however, a significant day effect of the measurement was observed in daily (state) work engagement (SWE) and its subscale vigor, as well as in productivity and cognitive ability. The effect of the interaction between the measurement day and the group was significant for psychological detachment measure.
... However, high job stressors predict low detachment, and detachment is crucial for the recovery process (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Sonnentag et al. (2014) showed that time pressure intensifies the negative relationship between exhaustion and detachment. ...
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The aim of this study is to investigate whether short, live-streaming activity and relaxation lunch breaks have positive associations with office workers’ mood (calmness, valence, and energetic arousal), back pain, and attention after break and whether these associations are mediated by better break recovery. Additionally, we considered the two respite interventions as resources possibly buffering the effects of elevated situational job demands. Ten-minute break exercises were conducted during lunch breaks via Zoom live-stream, and data on those days were compared with data on days on which participants spent their breaks as usual. Our sample of 34 office workers provided data for 277 work days (209 in the home office and 68 on site at the company). Multilevel path models revealed positive total associations of both respite interventions with the mood dimension of calmness. Activity breaks additionally showed a positive association with the energetic arousal dimension of mood, while relaxation breaks were positively related to objectively measured cognitive performance. Interestingly, activity breaks moderated the relationships of job demands with calmness and valence, indicating their function as a stress-buffering resource. There were no significant associations between the two respite interventions and back pain. Supplemented by participants’ feedback, the findings of this study suggest that offering short virtually guided break exercises may represent a feasible and office-compatible approach to promote break recovery, mood and functionality at work, especially regarding home-office work. Possible advantages and disadvantages of the live-streaming format are discussed.
... Work-related thinking in off-job time has been theorized as a variable that prolongs occupational stress into periods of rest [1][2][3]. The perseverative cognition hypothesis states that stressor-related thinking may be as stressful as experiencing the stressors themselves [3]. ...
Preprint
Work-related thoughts in off-job time have been studied extensively in occupational health psychology and related fields. We provide a focused review of research on overcommitment – a component within the effort-reward imbalance model – and aim to connect this line of research to the most commonly studied aspects of work-related rumination. Drawing on this integrative review, we analyze survey data on ten facets of work-related rumination, namely (1) overcommitment, (2) psychological detachment, (3) affective rumination, (4) problem-solving pondering, (5) positive work reflection, (6) negative work reflection, (7) distraction, (8) cognitive irritation, (9) emotional irritation, and (10) inability to recover. First, we leverage exploratory factor analysis to self-report survey data from 357 employees to calibrate overcommitment items and to position overcommitment within the nomological net of work-related rumination constructs. Second, we leverage confirmatory factor analysis to self-report survey data from 388 employees to provide a more specific test of uniqueness vs. overlap among these constructs. Third, we apply relative weight analysis to quantify the unique criterion-related validity of each work-related rumination facet regarding (1) physical fatigue, (2) cognitive fatigue, (3) emotional fatigue, (4) burnout, (5) psychosomatic complaints, and (6) satisfaction with life. Our results suggest that several measures of work-related rumination (e.g., overcommitment and cognitive irritation) can be used interchangeably. Emotional irritation and affective rumination emerge as the strongest unique predictors of fatigue, burnout, psychosomatic complaints, and satisfaction with life. Our study assists researchers in making informed decisions on selecting scales for their research and paves the way for integrating research on effort-reward imbalance and work-related rumination.
... Ego-depletion theory points out that the individuals need to invest a lot of resources and efforts at work. Long-term high-intensity work significantly increases the work requirements of employees, and fulfilling higher work requirements often accelerates the loss of employees' own resources [18], resulting in a reduction in their emotional resources or even exhausted [22]. In a work environment that continuously requires the consumption of psychological energy, it is possible that the previous state of ego-depletion has not recovered, and a new round of depletion has begun. ...
... For example, organizations may offer training sessions to improve employees' sleep-related habits (Barnes, 2011). Organizations can also foster a well-rested workforce by ensuring workers can leave the work at work, as employees tend to recover better when they detach from work during an off-job time (Bennett et al., 2018;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015;Sonnentag et al., 2008). To do so, organizations may discourage the use of work-related emails and calls outside work hours. ...
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Unlabelled: Although breaks can help employees stay energized and maintain high levels of performance throughout the day, employees sometimes refrain from taking a break despite wanting to do so. Unfortunately, few studies have investigated individuals' reasons for taking and for not taking a break at work. To address this gap, we developed a model for predicting employees' break-taking behaviors. We developed hypotheses by integrating theories of work stress, self-regulation, and the results of a qualitative survey conducted as part of the current research (Study 1). Specifically, we predicted that high workloads would be positively related to the desire to detach from work, but that at the same time, high workloads would also deter employees from actually taking breaks. Furthermore, we predicted that employees would be less likely to act upon their desire to take a break within an environment where breaks are frowned upon by supervisors and coworkers, relative to an environment where breaks are allowed and encouraged. The results of a daily diary study of full-time employees (Study 2) provided general support for these predictions. Altogether, this research provides insights into the manner in which employees' psychological experiences and characteristics of the work environment combine to predict break-taking. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10869-022-09866-4.
... Self-efficacy is a crucial motivator for employees to participate in activities that aim to achieve settled goals, learn new required skills, and establish a connection with colleagues. Sonnentag & Fritz (2015) argue that through leisure crafting, individuals experience new things, add skills, and progress through different challenges that develop a sense of mastery. In remote work, expectations of rapid responsiveness and connectivity are also greater despite the greater flexibility than in regular work. ...
... While Jolly et al. (2020) revealed that the level, i.e. the quantity of offered benefits can significantly influence talent attraction in the hospitality industry, Berthon et al. (2005) stressed that it is vital that employees envision organizational benefits as an employer value proposition, i.e. as a personal advantage for them. Due to increasing recreational needs of employees observed in many industries attributed to the accelerating pace and demands of the workplace arising in the context of global competition (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015), employees might now view leisure as more important (Snir and Harpaz, 2002;Cheng et al., 2021). Consequently, one can assume that particularly organizational leisure offerings might be viewed as advantageous from the employees' perspective. ...
Article
With employees’ leisure pursuit increasing, this study assesses the potential of organizational leisure benefits in hospitality job advertisements as a signal for otherwise non-observable attributes, like organizational leisure support and staff appreciation. Drawing upon signaling theory, a fictional job advertisement was created. A total of 210 job seekers were randomly assigned to different treatment versions. Higher perceptions of organizational attractiveness and increased intentions to apply were observed for versions including leisure benefits, confirming their role as a signaling device in the applicant attraction stage. The findings encourage human resource managers to exploit leisure benefits better to attract the brightest talent.
... Study 3 used a two-wave study design with a time lag of 1 month to retest the three-factor structure of the WHIQ and to further establish the nomological network and address concerns about common method bias. We decided on a 4-week interval as previous research on related constructs used a similar time frame (i.e. between 2 and 5 weeks; Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). ...
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The boundaries between work and private life are gradually blurring. More and more employees are involved in work during leisure time through cognitions, emotions, or behaviors, in both negative and positive ways. This so‐called work‐home integration (WHI) can, on the one hand, hamper the necessary recovery from work and result in strain, but on the other hand, also restore resources and result in beneficial outcomes. In order to enhance our understanding of WHI and capture all its different forms, we suggest a new conceptualization and measure of WHI. We therefore developed and validated the Work‐Home Integration Questionnaire (WHIQ) in English, German, and Slovene simultaneously using two cross‐sectional studies (Study 1: N=848; Study 2: N=555) and a two‐wave longitudinal study with a time lag of one month (Study 3: N=379). Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a three‐factor structure with (1) negative cognitive‐affective involvement, (2) positive cognitive‐affective involvement, and (3) behavioral involvement. Moreover, the WHIQ showed measurement invariance across the three languages and the results provide evidence for convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity. Overall, the WHIQ is a reliable, valid, and short measure to assess the extent to which employees are involved in work during leisure time.
... While Jolly et al. (2020) revealed that the level, i.e. the quantity of offered benefits can significantly influence talent attraction in the hospitality industry, Berthon et al. (2005) stressed that it is vital that employees envision organizational benefits as an employer value proposition, i.e. as a personal advantage for them. Due to increasing recreational needs of employees observed in many industries attributed to the accelerating pace and demands of the workplace arising in the context of global competition (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015), employees might now view leisure as more important (Snir and Harpaz, 2002;Cheng et al., 2021). Consequently, one can assume that particularly organizational leisure offerings might be viewed as advantageous from the employees' perspective. ...
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Purpose Using the job demands-resources (JD-R) model as a theoretical foundation, this study aims to explore the potential of organizational leisure benefit programs in the interplay of job demands and perceived work-life balance. Design/methodology/approach This article is based on qualitative data collected from semi-structured interviews with 24 hospitality industry employees in Austria. Findings Thematic analysis revealed that organizational leisure benefits can play different roles in the context of job demands depending on the individual’s perceptions of work-life balance. Three major themes were identified, showing that organizational leisure benefits can be a multifaceted organizational resource (1) to facilitate employees’ leisure participation, (2) to boost employees’ recovery or (3) to meet the employees’ need for workplace fun. The results also demonstrated the limitations of organizational leisure benefits, showing that in case employees are constantly experiencing private duties that interfere with recovery during leisure time, leisure benefits do not play any role regarding their perception of work-life balance. Originality/value This study contributes to the scare literature on organizational leisure benefits and clarifies their potential, and limitations, as an emerging organizational resource. In particular, findings broaden existing research in the context of the JD-R model by showing that the notion of job resources can stretch beyond workplace resources and can also encompass organizational leisure support.
... of positive employee outcomes including higher job satisfaction and increased job performance (Montano et al., 2017). While examining the relevance for employee work-related experiences in depth, it is also important to understand how leadership at work can be associated with employee recovery from work demands during nonwork time given its importance for employee well-being and performance (Bennett et al., 2018;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015Steed et al., 2021). ...
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Building on Affective Events Theory (AET), this study examined within-person relationships between employee perceptions of day-level leader-member exchange (LMX) and day-level positive affect as well as between positive affect and recovery from work in the evening (i.e., relaxation, mastery, control, and psychological detachment from work). In addition, LMX variability was examined as a moderator of these within-person relationships. Employees (N = 160) completed surveys at the end of the workday and in the evening across five consecutive workdays. Results indicate direct relationships between perceptions of LMX and employee positive affect at work. In addition, positive affect was positively associated with two of the four recovery experiences (mastery and relaxation). Furthermore, LMX variability across the workweek moderated these positive indirect effects such that the indirect associations between the perceptions of LMX and employees' recovery experiences during the evening via positive affect was only positive when LMX variability was low. The indirect effects, however, were nonsignificant when LMX variability was moderate or high. The present study expands LMX research by adopting a dynamic within-person perspective and by connecting the literature on workplace leadership with the literature on recovery from work, indicating that perceptions of LMX can potentially impact employees' nonwork time.
... Our own research showed that team conflict has a negative relationship with job stress (H1). It contradicts previous research, which found a significant between team conflict and job stress (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). The employees' perceptions of job stress were associated with their perceptions of team conflict and closeness. ...
Article
Since the beginning of time, we have had to deal with stress. Stress has been reported to be on the rise in the public sector because of new work strategies and a demand for excellence. According to the Congress of Unions of Employees in the Public and Civil Service of Malaysia (CUEPACS), nearly 400,000 civil servants in Malaysia have been identified as experiencing many types of stress. This study investigated the influence of team conflict and personality on job stress, as well as the mediating role of job demands in the context of stress in public service organizations (PSOs). The data for this study was gathered using a questionnaire survey administered to 656 public officials in seven PSOs in Putrajaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The findings suggested a statistically significant association between personality and job demands and job stress. Additionally, this research exposes the mediating role of task demands in the relationship between team conflict, personality, and employee job stress in the public sector.
... Moral / occupational stress is in fact the interaction between the working conditions and the characteristics of the employed person, so that the demands of the workplace and the consequent pressure associated with it are greater than that of the individual it can cope (D. S. Ross & Vasantha, 2014;J. Ross, Jones, Callaghan, Eales, & Ashman, 2009;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Signs of occupational stress include: psychological, physical and behavioral symptoms. ...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between ethical climate and moral stress with job satisfaction among public school teachers. The research method was correlational and 2000 subjects were selected by simple random sampling. The statistical population of the study consisted of all the secretaries of public schools. The data gathering tool was three questionnaires: ethical climate, moral stress and job satisfaction, which were cross-sectional for statistical samples of the research. In analyzing data, descriptive statistical methods such as mean, standard deviation and charts as well as inferential statistics methods of Pearson and Regression tests were used to test the research hypotheses. Analysis of statistical data showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between moral stress and ethical climate components, except for the criteria. Also, there is a positive and significant relationship between the components of the ethical climate (except for instrumental scale) and job satisfaction, and the relationship between job satisfaction and moral stress. The results of Regression analysis indicate that job satisfaction and moral stress are predictable from the components of the ethical climate.
... Estudos recentes de revisão e metanálise têm evidenciado relações negativas entre estresse e bem-estar no trabalho -(BET), mas apontam também efeitos moderadores de fatores individuais e situacionais nessa relação, que exacerbam ou minimizam os impactos nocivos do estresse no BET (p. ex., Ilies, Aw, & Pluut, 2015;Schaufeli & Taris, 2014;Sonnentag, 2015;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Entre os moderadores destacam-se as competências emocionais e as estratégias de regulação emocional funcionais, que reduzem os efeitos prejudiciais dos estressores (Kinman & Grant 2011;Lawrence, Troth, Jordan, & Collins, 2011). ...
Article
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Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a moderação de estratégias de regulação emocional ascendente e descendente nas relações entre estresse percebido e bem-estar no trabalho. Participaram 480 trabalhadores da indústria que res-ponderam à escala de estresse no trabalho, à medida de regulação emocional adaptada para o contexto de trabalho e à escala de bem-estar no trabalho. Os resultados apontaram correlações entre estresse, regulação emocional e bem-estar. O estresse foi preditor negativo de bem-estar no trabalho (BET), e as estratégias adaptativas (regulação ascendente) e funcionais (regulação descendente) foram preditoras positivas de BET. Os resultados ainda sugerem que a percepção de estresse elevada está associada a maior uso de estratégias de regulação desadaptativas e disfun-cionais. Uma das conclusões é que o controle do nível de estresse no ambiente laboral pode ajudar o trabalhador a preservar o bem-estar no trabalho fazendo melhor uso de seus processos regulatórios. Abstract The objective of this study was to test the moderation of up and down emotion regulation strategies in the relationships between perceived stress and well-being at work. Participants included 480 industry workers who completed the work stress scale, the emotion regulation measure adapted to the work context, and the well-being at work scale. The results showed correlations between stress, emotional regulation, and well-being. Stress was a negative predictor, and adaptive (up regulation) and functional (down regulation) strategies were positive predictors of well-being at work. The results also suggest that the perception of high stress is associated with greater use of maladap-tive and dysfunctional regulation strategies. One of the conclusions is that controlling the level of stress in the work environment can help the worker preserve well-being, making better use of regulation processes. Estrés y bienestar en el trabajo: el papel moderador de la regulación emocional Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue probar la moderación de estrategias de regulación emocional ascendente y descen-dente en las relaciones entre estrés percibido y bienestar en el trabajo. Participaron 480 trabajadores de la industria, quienes respondieron a la escala de estrés en el trabajo, a la medida de regulación emocional adaptada al contexto de trabajo y a la escala de bienestar en el trabajo. Los resultados apuntaron correlaciones entre estrés, regulación emocional y bienestar. El estrés fue predictor negativo de bienestar en el trabajo (BET), y las estrategias adaptativas (regulación ascendente) y funcionales (regulación descendente) fueron pronosticadoras positivas de BET. Los re-sultados sugieren, además, que la percepción de estrés elevada está asociada con un mayor uso de estrategias de regulación no adaptativas y disfuncionales. Una de las conclusiones es que el control del nivel de estrés en el ambi-ente laboral puede ayudar al trabajador a preservar el bienestar en el trabajo haciendo mejor uso de sus procesos regulatorios. 532 Palavras-chave: estresse ocupacional; regulação emocional; bem-estar.
... If you find yourself running through all the different uncompleted tasks during your free hours, a very easy tool for better detachment is making a list at the end of your working day of things that are still 'open' (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Alden, for example, practices the 'Bullet Journal' method. ...
Chapter
Being an early career researcher often means having to work intensely on projects and articles. Periods with heavy workloads are common, and proper recovery during breaks or after work can sometimes not take place because of limited time. As prolonged periods of intense work with little rest may lead to long-term negative effects, this chapter discusses the importance of recovery and several actionable tips to consider for early career researchers. We begin with a brief personal example that illustrates why sufficient rest is needed. Next, we introduce recovery from work concepts. We explain that optimal recovery from work on a daily basis is necessary to offset negative long-term effects such as fatigue and burnout. Based on research in occupational health psychology, we provide several practical tips on how to recover well and overcome challenges related to recovery from work. The aim is to help early career researchers in preventing exhaustion or eventually burnout, so they can keep doing their work in a sustainable way.KeywordsRecovery from workRecovery experiencesSleepEarly career researcherMental health
... Psychological detachment emphasizes that individuals not only leave the workplace in terms of time and space but also need to temporarily stop thinking about work. Therefore, to reduce their WCBAH, individuals need to take the initiative to leave the workplace and reduce their thinking about work matters after leaving work and allow themselves rest and be free from work (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2014). ...
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With the rapid development of information technology, the problems caused by work connectivity behaviour after hours (WCBAH) have attracted attention. WCBAH is caused by work matters penetrating the boundary of the nonworking domain. Therefore, reducing the permeability of the boundary through segmentation is the key to reducing WCBAH. However, in the past, the characteristics of WCBAH were rarely explored from the perspective of segmentation supply and segmentation preference integration. Based on boundary theory, this study explores the joint effects of organizational segmentation supply and individual segmentation preference on WCBAH, as well as the role of psychological detachment in this relationship. Eighty-eight employees were tracked for 5 consecutive working days, and the data were analysed using a multilevel model. The results show that daily segmentation supply has a significant negative impact on employee WCBAH. Individual segmentation preferences moderate the relationship between segmentation supply and WCBAH; that is, with the enhancement of individual segmentation preferences, the negative relationship between segmentation supply and WCBAH is enhanced. Psychological detachment mediates the joint effect of segmentation supply and segmentation preference on WCBAH. The results help in the understanding of boundary theory, and corresponding management suggestions on how to reduce employee WCBAH are provided.
... Rather, since workers who initiate self-paid upskilling need to invest their own resources (e.g., money, time, energy) into it, we expect they may experience a drain of valuable resources when they are already threatened with a loss of important job features. For example, workers need to recover from work during nonwork hours in order to replenish their energy back to the pre-stressor levels [35]. However, work-related nonwork time activities (i.e., self-paid training) would further prevent employees' recovery (e.g., psychological detachment from work, relaxation), when they are already experiencing rumination because of Qual JI [36,37]. ...
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While technological advancements have proliferated in our daily lives, they also pose threats to the job security of employees. Despite these growing concerns about technology-related job insecurity, little research has been carried out on the antecedents and outcomes of tech-related job insecurity. Using a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey sample of 28,989 Korean workers drawn from the Korean Working Conditions Survey, we examined the impacts of technology advancements on employee perceptions of technology-related qualitative job insecurity (i.e., perceived technology-related threat to the continued existence of valued job features) and subsequent effects on employees' work (i.e., work engagement, job satisfaction), health (i.e., sleep), and life (i.e., work-to-family conflict) outcomes. Furthermore, we investigated the extent to which employer-provided (versus self-funded) training buffers the adverse impacts of technology advancements and associated job insecurity. The path analysis results showed more technology changes were associated with higher job insecurity, which subsequently related to adverse outcomes. While employer-provided training helped workers to reduce the negative impacts of tech changes on job insecurity, workers who paid for their training reported more adverse outcomes in face of job insecurity. We discuss these results in light of the job demands-resources theory and practical implications to buffer the adverse impacts of technology advancements.
... Secondly, hindrance stressors are stressors that can lead to the enhancement of negative emotions such as tension, higher negative mood atmosphere will reduce employee satisfaction (Joseph and Ryan, 2019), which may affect the creativity enthusiasm of employees, and have a negative impact on their innovation performance (Jackson and Schuler, 1985;Nathan et al., 2007). Finally, hindrance stressors will lead employees to enter a state of psychological stress (Tong et al., 2021), which enhances the negative emotional atmosphere (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015;Zhang et al., 2015). However, this negative emotional atmosphere will break the work-life balance of employees, makes it difficult for them to meet the performance requirements required by their work, which will lead to the reduction of individual work performance and innovation performance (Weiss and Cropanzano, 1996;Niebusch and Moran, 2019). ...
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Based on the conservation of resource theory, this manuscript explores the impact mechanism of the challenge and hindrance stressors on innovation performance, introduces emotional atmosphere as a mediation variable, and on this basis, it examines the moderating role of organizational climate on emotional atmosphere and innovation performance. A two-wave survey of 263 subordinates and 29 supervisors who come from multisource field offered support for our model. Results showed that challenge stressors have a positive effect on innovation performance, positive emotional atmosphere mediates the relationship between challenge stressors and innovation performance; hindrance stressors have a negative effect on innovation performance, and negative emotional atmosphere mediates the relationship between hindrance stressors and innovation performance. Organizational climate strengthens the positive relationship between positive emotional atmosphere and innovation performance and weakens the negative relationship between negative emotional atmosphere and innovation performance. This study enriches the existing literature by identifying the impact of stressors on employee innovation performance and has certain practical significance for optimizing the management of enterprises and improving employee innovation performance.
... From a salutogenic perspective, the ability to detach from work-related thoughts can be considered a GRR supporting employees' capacity to deal with workrelated challenges. For example, in their ground-breaking work, Sonnentag and Fritz (2015) developed the "stressor-detachment model", showing psychological detachment to act both as a mediator and moderator in the relationship between stressors and burnout. However, their findings also show that employees detach less from work when facing many work-related stressors, reflecting a context where detachment would be particularly needed to recover from stress (Sonnetag & Fritz, 2015). ...
... A high workload can serve as a passageway that undermines resource conservation by limiting the number of resources individuals have to cope with stressors. As a result, a high workload can exacerbate resource loss associated with a given stressor as individuals have fewer resources to cope with the stressor and recover (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Empirical evidence supports the notion of this exacerbation effect, whereby environmental conditions can increase stressor-strain relationships. ...
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Humanity will mount interplanetary exploration missions within the next two decades, supported by a growing workforce operating in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) conditions of space. How will future space workers fare in a closed social world while subjected to persistent stressors? Using a sample of 32 participants operating in ICE conditions over the course of 30-45 days, we developed and tested a dynamic model of conflict and strain. Drawing on conservation of resources (COR) theory, we investigated reciprocal relationships between different forms (i.e., task and relationship) of conflict, and between conflict and strain. Results demonstrated evidence for a resource threat feedback loop as current-day task conflict predicted next-day relationship conflict and current-day relationship conflict predicted next-day task conflict. Additionally, results indicated support for a resource loss feedback loop as current-day relationship conflict predicted next-day strain, and current-day strain predicted next-day relationship conflict. Moreover, we found that job conditions affected these associations as current-day relationship conflict was more associated with next-day task conflict when next-day workload was high, but not when next-day workload was low. Similarly, current-day relationship conflict was more associated with next-day strain when next-day workload was high; however, this association decreased when next-day workload was low. Therefore, the results suggest that workload plays a critical role in weakening the effect of these spirals over time, and suggests that targeted interventions (e.g., recovery days) can help buffer against the negative impact of relationship conflict on strain and decrease the extent that relationship conflict spills over into task disputes.
... The research on team conflict focuses on two aspects: dimension division and internal transformation of team conflict. Guetzkow and Gry [25] divided team conflict into task conflict and relationship conflict. The former is caused by team members' task-related differences in work content and results, while the latter is caused by team members' task-irrelevant differences in personal interests and personality. ...
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Workload overload has gradually become the norm in the workplace, and the platform transformation of organizational structure emphasizes the division of labor and cooperation but also accompanies the conflict within team members. Based on the conservation of resources theory, this paper proposes a model for how employee workload affects individual interactions with colleagues. We argue that employees’ workload will increase their conflict with their team members, the two dimensions of inter-team conflict -- task conflict and relationship conflict. Furthermore, we propose that team trust will moderate these relationships. This paper broadens the research perspective focusing on the formation mechanism of conflict with team members and provides an action guide for management practice.
Article
To optimise the performance and health of elite athletes, there has been an increase in the development of athlete monitoring systems to measure if athletes perceive themselves to be adequately recovered. While these monitoring systems have been instrumental in describing athlete recovery states, little research has been conducted to establish why and how athletes engage in recovery behaviours or to identify barriers that prevent athletes from initiating the recovery process. As such, the purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an assessment that will allow practitioners and researchers to measure and monitor the recovery activities an athlete engages in to enhance performance and health. This purpose was achieved through two studies. In Study 1, physical, psychological, and social recovery activity items were generated and content evaluated first by experts (N = 3) and second by elite athletes (N = 8). Results of Study 1 yielded the retention of 71 items. In Study 2, the recovery activity items were distributed to elite athletes (N = 265) and the factor structure, convergent validity, and reliability were tested. Results of Study 2 revealed a 56-item, 10-factor model with support for convergent validity and reliability. Overall, the Assessment of Recovery Activities for Athletes (ARAA) provides practitioners and researchers with a valid and reliable instrument from which to monitor recovery activities engaged in by elite athletes.
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Background. Mental health in adolescence are highly related to life-stressors exposure and difficulties in adjusting to stressors. Research reveals a high prevalence of stressors in adolescence. Therefore, interventions for recovery from stress are in high demand. The study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the internet-based stress recovery intervention for adolescents. Methods: A two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the efficacy of the FOREST-A – an internet-based stress recovery intervention for adolescents – will be conducted. The FOREST-A is an adapted version of stress recovery intervention initially developed for healthcare workers. FOREST-A is a third-wave cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness-based internet-delivered 4-week psychosocial intervention, which comprises six modules: Introduction, Relaxation, Psychological detachment, Mastery, Control, and Summary. The intervention will be evaluated using the two-arm RCT with intervention and care as usual (CAU) condition at pre-test, post-test, and 3-month follow-up. The measured outcomes will be stress recovery, adjustment disorder, generalized anxiety and depression symptoms, psychological well-being, and perceived positive social support. Discussion: The study will contribute to the development of internet interventions – easily and broadly accessible tools – for the enhancement of adolescents' recovery from stress skills. Based on the study's findings, further development of the FOREST-A, including upscaling and implementation, is foreseen. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05688254. Registered on January 6, 2023.
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Este estudo tem como objetivo testar um modelo de moderação dupla – coping e compaixão do líder – sobre o bem-estar e o desempenho do professor universitário diante a pandemia da Covid-19. A pesquisa empírica foi realizada com 251 docentes do Ensino Superior, de diferentes cursos e titulação. Os dados coletados foram analisados por meio de análise fatorial confirmatória (AFC) e regressões múltiplas. Os dados confirmam as hipóteses de moderação dupla – das estratégias de coping de reavaliação positiva e - da compaixão do líder – nessa relação. Os resultados sugerem que as estratégias de coping de reavaliação positiva e a compaixão do líder podem abafar os efeitos deletérios em decorrência dos estressores, mantendo os níveis de bem-estar estabilizados, proporcionando para o docente a possibilidade de cumprir com suas atividades diárias no trabalho. Conclui-se que as correlações exploradas neste estudo fornecem novas discussões teóricas e práticas que podem contribuir nos modelos já existentes, ampliando os estudos sobre os consequentes do bem-estar de professores de ensino superior. As descobertas contribuíram para a compreensão e a identificação de medidas que podem minimizar os impactos causados pela pandemia.
Article
Work–leisure conflict (WLC) can have a series of negative effects on individuals. Against the backdrop of the rapid development of communication equipment, does individuals' use of communication equipment to handle work during nonworking hours lead to WLC? Previous studies have failed to discuss this relationship. Therefore, based on boundary theory, this study explored the possible effect of work connectivity behavior after hours (WCBAH) on WLC as well as the roles played by psychological detachment and individual segmentation preferences in this relationship. In this study, 82 employees were investigated via daily diary research for a period of 5 continuous working days, and a multilevel model was developed. The results indicated that daily WCBAH is positively related to WLC and that psychological detachment plays a mediating role in this relationship. Individual segmentation preferences can significantly moderate not only the relationship between WCBAH and psychological detachment but also the indirect effect of WCBAH on WLC via psychological detachment. This study increases our understanding of boundary theory and provides management suggestions regarding ways of reducing WLC.
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Work stressors are related to poor psychological detachment (i.e., mentally switching off) from work during nonwork time, which in turn is related to low levels of recovery and health. This article examines two general personality orientations, attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety, and one vocation-specific personality tendency, overcommitment, as buffers of the work stressors-psychological detachment relationship. Survey data were collected from a sample of Israeli employees (N = 210) and their significant others (N = 109) to avoid same-source bias of psychological detachment assessments. Analyses showed that attachment avoidance moderated the negative association between workload and psychological detachment (self-reported), but attachment anxiety did not moderate the associations of role conflict and role ambiguity with psychological detachment. Overcommitment was a full mediator between job stressors (workload and role conflict) and psychological detachment. This study demonstrates the importance of personality, especially vocational personality, in the work stressor-psychological detachment relationship.
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We investigated the mediating versus moderating role of psychological detachment in the relationship between job stressors and psychological strain. Our sample consisted of 173 university students invested in challenging programs of advanced professional studies, who could find it difficult to detach from work. Hierarchical regression analyses of cross-sectional survey data affirmed the role of psychological detachment as a mediator in the relationship between job demands and perceived stress. Detachment also mediated the relationship between job demands and satisfaction with life, although the association disappeared when controlling for negative affectivity. Detachment did not mediate relationships between job demands and cognitive failures. Psychological detachment did not moderate any of the investigated relationships. The study contributes to a view of psychological detachment as less subject to individual differences than to the imposition of stressors in the given context.
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This is one of the first studies to empirically examine the relationship between wireless communications technology and work interference with family, and results shed light on the motivating factors that influence individuals to continuously engage with mobile technologies, sometimes to their personal detriment. We draw from Conservation of Resources (COR) theory to examine the relationship between using mobile communications technologies during non-work time (e.g., evenings, weekends, vacation) and psychological variables related to work-family conflict and well being, and whether this relationship is mediated by perceptions of job control and detachment from work. We collected data from 139 full-time working adults from a large media organization and analyzed it by conducting two multiple mediation regression models using bootstrapping procedures (Preacher & Hayes, 2008). Results revealed that higher levels of mobile technology use during evenings, weekends and vacations were directly related to higher levels of work-family conflict, operationalized as work interference with family. Technology use was also related to both resource enhancing and resource depleting variables. Specifically, technology use was positively related to job control and negatively related to detachment from work. Job control and detachment from work, in turn, were negatively related to work interference with family. Findings suggested that the mediating effect of detachment on the relationship between technology use and work interference with family was greater than the mediating effect of job control, thus providing evidence to support the COR theory principle that resource loss is more salient than resource gain.
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In 1999, van der Doef and Maes published a systematic review focusing on the Job-Demand–Control (JDC) model (Karasek, 1979) and the Job Demand–Control (-Support) (JDCS) model (Johnson & Hall, 1988) in relation to psychological well-being. Their review covered the period from 1979 to 1997. The present paper updates and extends this review. Covering research from 83 studies published between 1998 and 2007, our review revealed three major results: First, support for additive effects of demands, control, and social support on general psychological well-being is almost always found if the sample size is sufficient. Second, although there was consistent evidence for additive effects in relation to job-related well-being in cross-sectional studies, support rates were lower in longitudinal data. Thus, reciprocal or reversed causation might account for part of the association between JDC/JDCS dimensions and job-related well-being. Finally, evidence for interactive effects as predicted by the buffer hypotheses of the JDC/JDCS model was very weak overall. However, the pattern of results indicates that this is due neither to spurious evidence for such interactions nor to small effect sizes. Instead, our results suggest that buffering effects depend on whether or not demands and control are based on qualitatively identical JDC/JDCS dimensions (matching principle).
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The current study investigates workplace aggression and psychological detachment from work as possible antecedents of work-family conflict. We draw upon Conservation of Resources theory and the Effort-Recovery Model to argue that employees who fail to psychologically detach from stressful events in the workplace experience a relative lack of resources that is negatively associated with functioning in the nonwork domain. Further, we extend prior research on antecedents of work-family conflict by examining workplace aggression, a prevalent workplace stressor. Utilizing multisource data (i.e., employee, significant other, and coworker reports), our findings indicate that self-reported psychological detachment mediates the relationship between coworker-reported workplace aggression and both self- and significant other-reported work-family conflict. Findings from the current study speak to the value of combining perspectives from research on recovery from work stress and the work-family interface, and point toward implications for research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time contributes to the increase in employee exhaustion over time. This study examines the reverse causal path from exhaustion to lack of psychological detachment, suggesting that this reverse process may operate within a relatively short time frame. Specifically, we examine if exhaustion predicts a decrease in psychological detachment from work during off-job time within several weeks. We propose that time pressure at work intensifies and that pleasurable leisure experiences reduce this association between exhaustion and the decrease in psychological detachment. We tested our hypotheses in a short-term prospective study (time lag: 4 weeks) with a sample of 109 employees. Ordinary least square regression analysis indicates that exhaustion predicted a decrease in psychological detachment from work over the course of 4 weeks. This decrease was particularly strong for employees working under time pressure and for employees who did not engage in pleasurable leisure experiences. Our findings suggest that exhausted employees find detachment from work increasingly difficult and therefore might suffer from insufficient recovery-although they need it most. The situation is particularly severe when exhausted employees face high time pressure and a lack of pleasurable leisure experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Leisure is a key life domain and a core ingredient for overall well-being. Yet, within positive psychology, its definition and the psychological pathways by which it evokes happiness are elusive (Diener and Biswas-Diener 2008). In this paper, we seek to address these issues by delineating leisure and presenting a conceptual framework linking leisure to subjective well-being (SWB). Leisure is defined as a multidimensional construct, encompassing both structural and subjective aspects. Respectively, it is the amount of activity/time spent outside of obligated work time and/or perceived engagement in leisure as subjectively defined. To explain the effects of leisure on SWB, a quantitative summary of theories from 363 research articles linking leisure and SWB was conducted. Based on our findings, we propose five core psychological mechanisms that leisure potentially triggers to promote leisure SWB: detachment-recovery, autonomy, mastery, meaning, and affiliation (DRAMMA). These psychological mechanisms promote leisure SWB which leads to enhanced global SWB through a bottom-up theory of SWB. We discuss how future research can use this conceptual model for understanding the interplay between leisure and SWB.
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Research examining the relationship between work stress and well-being has flourished over the past 20 years. At the same time, research on physiological stress processes has also advanced significantly. One of the major advances in this literature has been the emergence of the Allostatic Load model as a central organizing theory for understanding the physiology of stress. In this article, the Allostatic Load model is used as an organizing framework for reviewing the vast literature that has considered health outcomes that are associated with exposure to psychosocial stressors at work. This review spans multiple disciplines and includes a critical discussion of management and applied psychology research, epidemiological studies, and recent developments in biology, neuroendocrinology, and physiology that provide insight into how workplace experiences affect well-being. The authors critically review the literature within an Allostatic Load framework, with a focus on primary (e.g., stress hormones, anxiety and tension) and secondary (e.g., resting blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index) mediators, as well as tertiary disease end points (e.g., cardiovascular disease, depression, mortality). Recommendations are provided for how future research can offer deeper insight into primary Allostatic Load processes that explain the effects of workplace experiences on mental and physical well-being.
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Most vacations seem to have strong, but rather short-lived effects on health and well-being (H&W). However, the recovery-potential of relatively long vacations and the underlying processes have been disregarded. Therefore, our study focused on vacations longer than 14 days and on the psychological processes associated with such a long respite from work. In the present study, we investigated (1) how health and well-being (H&W) develop during and after a long summer vacation, (2) whether changes in H&W during and after vacation relate to vacation activities and experiences and (3) whether changes in H&W during and after vacation relate to sleep. Fifty-four employees reported their H&W before, three or four times during and five times after vacation. Vacations lasted 23 days on average. Information on vacation experiences, work-related activities and sleep was collected during vacation. Vacation activities were assessed immediately after vacation. H&W increased quickly during vacation, peaked on the eighth vacation day and had rapidly returned to baseline level within the first week of work resumption. Vacation duration and most vacation activities were only weakly associated with H&W changes during and after vacation. Engagement in passive activities, savoring, pleasure derived from activities, relaxation, control and sleep showed strong relations with improved H&W during and to a lesser degree after vacation. In conclusion, H&W improved during long summer vacations, but this positive effect was short-lived. Vacation experiences, especially pleasure, relaxation, savoring and control, seem to be especially important for the strength and persistence of vacation (after-) effects.
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Past behavior guides future responses through 2 processes. Well-practiced behaviors in constant contexts recur because the processing that initiates and controls their performance becomes automatic. Frequency of past behavior then reflects habit strength and has a direct effect on future performance. Alternately, when behaviors are not well learned or when they are performed in unstable or difficult contexts, conscious decision making is likely to be necessary to initiate and carry out the behavior. Under these conditions, past behavior (along with attitudes and subjective norms) may contribute to intentions, and behavior is guided by intentions. These relations between past behavior and future behavior are substantiated in a meta-analytic synthesis of prior research on behavior prediction and in a primary research investigation.
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In this diary study, we tested the recovery potential of exercise activities during leisure time and examined the psychological mechanisms underlying the relation between exercise activities and affect. We hypothesized that spending time on exercise activities after work will be related to subsequent affect in the evening, and that psychological detachment from work, sense of belonging, and physical self-perceptions explain why exercise activities are related to subsequent affect. One-hundred and twenty-six participants from diverse occupations completed a diary twice a day over five consecutive work days. Multilevel analyses showed that exercise activities after work were related to positive, but not to negative affect in the evening. As proposed, psychological detachment, sense of belonging, and physical self-perceptions mediated the relation between exercise activities after work and positive affect in the evening.
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Purpose A body of research evidence has shown that job stressors are associated with lower levels of satisfaction and psychological well‐being. It has been suggested that recovery after the work day may reduce fatigue, restore mood and improve well‐being. The purpose of this paper is to examine predictors and consequences of four recovery experiences (psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery, and control) identified by Sonnentag and Fritz, to replicate and extend their work. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 887 men and women managers and professionals working in the manufacturing sector in Turkey using anonymously completed questionnaires (a 58 percent response rate). Findings Respondents at higher organizational levels made more use of both mastery and control. Personality factors (need for achievement and workaholism components) were also positively correlated with use of mastery and control. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling both personal demographic and work situation characteristics showed generally positive relationships with use of recovery experiences and more favorable work and well‐being outcomes. Psychological detachment, however, was found to have negative relationships with some of these outcomes suggesting more complex relationships with use of this recovery experience. Research limitations/implications Questions of causality cannot be addressed since data were collected at only one point in time. Practical implications Individuals, through practice, and organizations, through training efforts, can encourage employees to practice recovery while off the job to improve their work satisfaction and individual well‐being. Originality/value The paper presents the first study of recovery experiences in Turkey.
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The aim of this chapter is to provide a literature review on daily recovery during non-work time. Specifically, next to discussing theories that help us understand the process of recovery, we will clarify how recovery and its potential outcomes have been conceptualized so far. Consequently, we present empirical findings of diary studies addressing the activities that may facilitate or hinder daily recovery. We will pay special attention to potential mechanisms that may underlie the facilitating or hindering processes. Owing to the limited research on daily recovery, we will review empirical findings on predictors and outcomes of a related construct, namely need for recovery. We conclude with an overall framework from which daily recovery during non-work time can be understood. In this framework, we claim that daily recovery is an important moderator in the process through which job characteristics and their related strain may lead to unfavorable states on a daily basis.
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The aim of this study is to investigate the moderating effect of matching job resources as well as matching off-job recovery (i.e., detachment from work) on the relation between corresponding job demands and psychological outcomes. Using the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) Model as a theoretical framework, we conducted a cross-sectional survey study with 399 employees from three Dutch organizations. Results showed that (1) cognitive demands, resources, and lack of detachment are predictors of cognitive outcomes (i.e., active learning and creativity), (2) emotional demands and lack of detachment are predictors of emotional outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion), and (3) physical demands, lack of detachment, and lack of resources are predictors of physical outcomes (i.e., physical health complaints). Specifically, cognitive detachment from work might have negative effects on learning and creativity, whereas emotional and physical detachment from work might have positive effects on employees' health, and even on creativity. In conclusion, in order to cope with specific job demands, employees need corresponding job resources and detachment from work to balance health and performance-related outcomes.
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This study examined the role of partners and children for employees' psychological detachment from work during off-job time. Building on boundary theory, we hypothesized that not only employees' own work-home segmentation preference but also their partners' work-home segmentation preference is associated with employees' psychological detachment. In addition, partners' psychological detachment should influence employees' psychological detachment. We hypothesized that the presence of children in the household moderates partners' influence on employees' psychological detachment. Further, we expected both employees' and their partners' psychological detachment to contribute to employees' well-being. Participants were 114 dual-earner couples who responded to Web-based questionnaires. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analyses, using the actor-partner interdependence model. Results confirmed our hypotheses. Employees' and their partners' work-home segmentation preferences were associated with employees' psychological detachment. The presence of children moderated the relation between partners' work-home segmentation preference and employees' psychological detachment. The relation was weaker when there were children in the household. Moreover, employees' and their partners' psychological detachment were positively associated. Again, the relation was weaker when there were children in the household. Finally, both employees' and their partners' psychological detachment contributed to employees' well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls completed measures of resource gain, resource loss, and well-being before, during, and after the sabbatical. Among the sabbatees, resource loss declined and resource gain and well-being rose during the sabbatical. The comparison group showed no change. Moderation analysis revealed that those who reported higher respite self-efficacy and greater control, were more detached, had a more positive sabbatical experience, and spent their sabbatical outside their home country enjoyed more enhanced well-being than others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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[the terms ruminative thoughts or rumination] refer to a class of conscious thoughts that revolve around a common instrumental theme and that recur in the absence of immediate environmental demands requiring the thoughts / propose a formal definition of rumination and a theoretical model / the model addresses [goals and other] factors that initiate and terminate rumination as well as those that influence its content / the model also outlines some of the consequences of rumination for a variety of cognitive, affective, and behavioral phenomena / believe the model not only suggests a way in which to integrate what are currently separate yet related literature on ruminative phenomena (e.g., meaning analysis, daydreaming, problem solving, reminiscence, anticipation) but also suggests directions for future research / present evidence for some of the model's assumptions and then discuss some consequences of rumination varieties of conscious thought / the mechanisms of rumination / additional considerations [the relation between affect and rumination, individual differences, is the model falsifiable] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Acutely stressful job events were compared to routine work and to vacation among 29 workers measured four times. Critical job events were perceived as more stressful, and aroused greater strain, than chronic stress. Vacation was perceived as less stressful than work, but strain was as high during vacation as on the job.
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Occupational stress is a problem that can negatively impact individual workers and their employers. Fortunately, there are several interventions that can be used to combat employee stress. The current chapter provided a review of these interventions and it discussed how best to implement and study them. The focus was on treatments that have been shown to be the most successful in reducing harmful effects of stress at work. It should be noted that there are still major gaps in our knowledge about such treatments, but directions for further research are provided. Much of the best research specifically on interventions (as opposed to wholly nonexperimental studies) is relatively recent, which means the rate of progress in accumulating knowledge about the topic may increase. Furthermore, another positive note is that one recent study suggests that occupational stress interventions might have the potential to be more successful than results of the average study suggested. The typical evaluation study accepts volunteers or assigns organizational units to treatment, but it is probably more sensible and cost-efficient to focus the intervention on people who need it (based on some sort of diagnosis). The effectiveness of a treatment group versus a control group that both "need" the intervention is likely to be more apparent, as indicated in a recent study (Flaxman & Bond, 2010).
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In this chapter, we review empirical research evidence on the relationship between stressors and catecholamines (i.e., adrenaline and noradrenaline) and cortisol. With respect to acute stressors, both laboratory and field research have shown that the exposure to stressors leads to an increase in catecholamine and cortisol levels. With respect to more chronic stressors, research evidence is less consistent. Chronic mental workload was found to be related to elevated adrenaline levels. With respect to cortisol responses the interaction between workload and other variables seems to play a role. Empirical studies suggest that chronic stressors affect the responsivity to acute stressors. Research showed that after the exposure to stressors catecholamine and cortisol recovery is delayed.
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Reports an error in "Sources of social support and burnout: A meta-analytic test of the conservation of resources model" by Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben ( Journal of Applied Psychology , 2006[Sep], Vol 91[5], 1134-1145). There were errors in transcribing the ρ values from Table 2 to the results section. In the second paragraph of page 1138, the second and third sentences should read “In the present study, work-related support was more strongly related to exhaustion (ρ = -.26) than depersonalization (ρ = -.23) and personal accomplishment (ρ = .24; F (2, 111) = 24.13, p > .01). On the other hand, non-work support was more strongly related to depersonalization (ρ = -.16) and personal accomplishment (ρ = .19) than exhaustion (ρ = -.12; F(2, 38) = 3.83, p > .05).” The values in Table 2 are correct and the substantive conclusions have not changed. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2006-11397-012 .) The Conservation of Resources (COR) model of burnout (Hobfoll & Freedy, 1993) suggests that resources are differentially related to burnout dimensions. In this paper, I provide a meta-analysis of the social support and burnout literature, finding that social support, as a resource, did not yield different relationships across the 3 burnout dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment), challenging the COR model. However, when considering the source of the social support (work vs. nonwork) as a moderator, I found that work-related sources of social support, because of their more direct relationship to work demands, were more closely associated with exhaustion than depersonalization or personal accomplishment; the opposite pattern was found with nonwork sources of support. I discuss the implications of this finding in relation to the COR model and suggest future research directions to clarify the relationship between resources and burnout dimensions.
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This three-week longitudinal field study with an experimental intervention examines the association between daily events and employee stress and health, with a specific focus on positive events. Results suggest that both naturally occurring positive work events and a positive reflection intervention are associated with reduced stress and improved health, though effects vary across momentary, lagged, daily, and day-to-evening spillover analyses. Findings are consistent with theory-based predictions: positive events, negative events, and family-to-work conflict independently contribute to perceived stress, blood pressure, physical symptoms, mental health, and work detachment, suggesting that organizations should focus not only on reducing negative events, but also on increasing positive events. These findings show that a brief, end-of-workday positive reflection led to decreased stress and improved health in the evening.
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Many major theories of organizational stress (OS) reflect basic principles of cybernetics, most notably the negative feedback loop. However, these principles are rarely examined in empirical OS research, which focuses predominantly on simple bivariate relationships embedded in OS theories. This problem may reflect an implicit rejection of cybernetic principles on conceptual grounds, the absence of specific propositions regarding these principles, methodological difficulties, or some combination of these factors. In any case, the result is a gap between theoretical and empirical OS research, which severely hinders the accumulation of knowledge in this area. This article is intended to narrow this gap by presenting an integrative cybernetic theory of stress, coping, and well-being in organizations, deriving propositions from this theory, and discussing methodological issues in testing this theory.
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This diary study examines the impact of daily recovery experiences on daily work–home interference (WHI) and daily burnout symptoms within a group of smartphone users. A to