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Recovery from job stress: The stressor-detachment model as an integrative framework

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Abstract

This paper reviews empirical evidence on psychological detachment from work during nonwork time. Psychological detachment as a core recovery experience refers to refraining from job-related activities and thoughts during nonwork time; it implies to mentally disengage from one's job while being away from work. Using the stressor-detachment model as an organizing framework, we describe findings from between-person and within-person studies, relying on cross-sectional, longitudinal, and daily-diary designs. Overall, research shows that job stressors, particularly workload, predict low levels of psychological detachment. A lack of detachment in turn predicts high strain levels and poor individual well-being (e.g., burnout and lower life satisfaction). Psychological detachment seems to be both a mediator and a moderator in the relationship between job stressors on the one hand and strain and poor well-being on the other hand. We propose possible extensions of the stressor-detachment model by suggesting moderator variables grounded in the transactional stress model. We further discuss avenues for future research and offer practical implications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... The purpose of this article is to therefore elucidate the role of calling intensity on the stress process for high-risk employees who frequently encounter emotionally disturbing work events. Integrating identity theory (Burke, 1991) with theories of psychological detachment and rumination (Brosschot et al., 2006;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015), we present and test a theoretical framework to show how perceiving a strong calling intensity makes one susceptible to negative, acute strain in the wake of emotionally disturbing work events by triggering negative work-related rumination. In doing so, this study contributes to the literature in several ways. ...
... This also aligns with work-specific theories, which suggest a lack of psychological detachment from work (e.g., ruminating about work even after the workday is over) accounts for the relationship between work stressors and strain (e.g., Meijman & Mulder, 1998;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). For instance, the stressor-detachment model (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015) theorizes that when we encounter work events that we appraise as stressors, we immediately experience affective (e.g., anxiety, anger) and physiological (e.g., increased cortisol and epinephrine) strain responses. ...
... This also aligns with work-specific theories, which suggest a lack of psychological detachment from work (e.g., ruminating about work even after the workday is over) accounts for the relationship between work stressors and strain (e.g., Meijman & Mulder, 1998;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). For instance, the stressor-detachment model (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015) theorizes that when we encounter work events that we appraise as stressors, we immediately experience affective (e.g., anxiety, anger) and physiological (e.g., increased cortisol and epinephrine) strain responses. In order to reduce, or recover from, these heightened affective and physiological levels, one must have the opportunity to psychologically detach, or in other words mentally disengage, from work-related thoughts during nonwork time. ...
Article
The burgeoning occupational callings literature has shown that feeling called to a job is associated with an array of positive job-, career-, and health-related outcomes. However, recent studies have begun to indicate that there may also be a "negative side" of callings. The present study builds on this emerging perspective to examine whether feeling called to a job makes helping professionals more vulnerable to the negative effects of acute stressors. Specifically, we integrated identity, cognitive rumination, and psychological detachment theories to explain how feeling called to one's job (i.e., the strength of one's calling intensity) might bolster the negative, indirect relationship between emotionally disturbing work and strain (i.e., mental exhaustion, sleep quality, and alcohol consumption) through negative work rumination. Results from a 10-week diary study with a national U.S. sample of 211 paramedics revealed that on weeks that paramedics experienced more emotionally disturbing work, they engaged in greater levels of negative work rumination, which in turn was associated with greater mental exhaustion and worse sleep quality, but not greater alcohol consumption. In addition, calling intensity moderated the indirect effect of emotionally disturbing work on both mental exhaustion and sleep quality, such that these indirect effects were stronger among those with higher (vs. lower) levels of calling intensity. These results provide evidence that employees who feel most called to their jobs may be particularly vulnerable to short-term negative outcomes associated with emotionally disturbing work. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Wendsche et al., 2021); however, the exact mechanism remains unclear. The stressor-detachment model (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015) offers one approach, which can be further connected (cf. Wendsche et al., 2021) to the recovery paradox phenomenon (Sonnentag, 2018). ...
... Wendsche et al., 2021) to the recovery paradox phenomenon (Sonnentag, 2018). The original stressor-detachment model refers to psychological detachment, which refers to being mentally disengaged and distanced from work during non-work time (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). The model proposes that work-related stressors reduce psychological detachment during leisure time and increase the possibility of negative workrelated thoughts, which subsequently increase strain reactions (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). ...
... The original stressor-detachment model refers to psychological detachment, which refers to being mentally disengaged and distanced from work during non-work time (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). The model proposes that work-related stressors reduce psychological detachment during leisure time and increase the possibility of negative workrelated thoughts, which subsequently increase strain reactions (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). The recovery paradox expands this assumption and contends that work-related stressors can cause higher negative activation, higher fatigue, and lower levels of energy resources. ...
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The present diary study was conducted for the purpose of bridging and integrating empirical research on the antecedents and consequences of work-related ruminative processes in the evening. Based on the control theory, unfinished tasks and fatigue in the afternoon were considered as antecedents of affective rumination, while vitality was investigated as the outcome observed in the next morning to test for cyclical processes. During a 5-day diary study (including 3 weekdays and the weekend), 74 beginning teachers completed three diary entries per day. A total of 795 diary entries were obtained. Using multilevel structural equation modeling, the study supported that both fatigue and unfinished tasks explained unique shares of variance of affective rumination in the evening at the between- and within-person levels. Furthermore, affective rumination mediated the relationship between unfinished tasks and vitality as well as fatigue and vitality. However, this only held true at the between- and not the within-person level, as neither affective rumination nor fatigue and unfinished tasks predicted the following morning’s vitality at this level. The results offer insights into the antecedents of affective rumination and add to extant research on the negative consequences of affective rumination considering vitality as an outcome.
... Teacher stress as a negative emotion is accompanied by other response correlates, called stress reactions or strains (Griffin & Clarke, 2011;Kyriacou & Sutcliffe, 1978). Stress reactions can be classified as physiological (e.g., increased adrenaline/cortisol levels and heart rate), psychological (e.g., fatigue and job dissatisfaction), and behavioral (e.g., absenteeism and friction with colleagues) responses to the job demands (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015;van Dick & Wagner, 2001). Recurrent and extended stress reactions can result in negative physical, psychological, and vocational consequences for teachers, such as burnout (Guglielmi & Tatrow, 1998), low self-efficacy (Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2017), job dissatisfaction (Ouellette et al., 2017), absenteeism (Troman & Woods, 2001), and even attrition (Harmsen et al., 2018). ...
... Therefore, a large class size is not necessarily negative, but the acute stress reactions resulting from teaching in a large class may turn into chronic reactions if teachers have no chance to adequately recover from the stressful situations (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007;Meijman & Mulder, 1998). Sonnentag and Fritz (2015) recently suggested that avoiding work-related activities and thoughts during non-work hours may be an effective recovery strategy. ...
... A longitudinal measurement of stress reactions, especially physiological ones, is also missing in the field. The use of a daily diary design has already shed light on the mechanism of stress recovery (e.g., Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015), but the reliance on subjective self-reports has prevented the researchers from investigating the long-term effects of physiological activation due to the stressors. ...
Article
Teachers frequently express stress associated with teaching in large classrooms. Despite the time-honored tradition in teacher stress research of treating class size as a job-related stressor, the underlying premise that class size directly impacts teachers' stress reactions remains untested. In this randomized controlled experiment targeted at preservice teachers, we utilized a standardized virtual reality (VR) classroom to examine whether class size (number of student avatars) directly affected physiological (heart rate) or psychological (subjective rating) stress reactions among 65 preservice teachers. Results from linear mixed-effects modeling (LMM) showed that class size significantly predicted both their physiological and psychological stress reactions in the simulated environment: Average heart rate and subjective stress ratings were both significantly higher in the large class size condition. Further investigations into the causes of this association has been proposed. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the effects of classroom features on preservice teachers’ emotional experiences and well-being.
... Recovery from work refers to the process of reducing or eliminating the physical and psychological strain symptoms that were caused by job demands and stressful events at work [26]. It includes the ability to mentally disengage from work during time offthe-job. ...
... The well-being of individuals in the workplace is made up of innumerable factors, most of which are inextricably linked [1,2,4]. Job experiences affect people's well-being even when they return home [26]. A widely recognized stressor in research is emotional dissonance [8,15]. ...
... Increases in the levels of work-related fatigue have repercussions for people's general quality of life in. Those who report higher levels of fatigue associated with work also report difficulties in relaxing, engaging in leisure activities and even spending quality time with their families [26,28]. Therefore, it can be concluded that the burden of emotional labor can generate chain reactions that lead to individuals feeling too tired to take corrective actions that could be beneficial to his or her well-being. ...
Article
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The aim of the study was to verify whether the frequency of face-to-face interactions with the public at work can reveal differences in how people react to emotional regulation demands. In particular, we investigated the mediating role of surface acting (a strategy of dealing with emotional dissonance) in the relationship between two typical job stressors (workload and mental load) and two outcomes closely related to work-related well-being: employees’ general health and the need for recovery. Prior studies investigating the detrimental effects of emotional dissonance mostly focused on service workers. However, in light of a survey conducted by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (2016) highlighting the growing psycho-social risk constituted by intense human interactions in the workplaces, even in unexpected categories of workers, we hypothesize that emotional demands may also be a concern for those who do not specifically interface with clients as part of their job duties. The results of the multi-group analysis of front-office (N = 734) and back-office (N = 436) Italian workers showed that surface acting fully mediates the relationship between workload and general health among back-office workers, while it only partially mediates this relationship among front-office workers. Furthermore, surface acting is positively associated with the need for recovery and negatively with general health, with higher values for back-office workers. The findings support the hypothesis that the emotional demands are not only a service worker issue and highlight the need to address emotional regulation strategies to enhance the quality of life in and outside the workplace for all employees.
... First, research has suggested that individuals' ability to manage the boundaries between their work and other life areas is relevant to psychological detachment (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Indeed, boundary theory (Ashforth et al., 2000) proposes that workers resort to personal strategies to create a balance between their work and personal roles, ranging from integration strategies (i.e., no physical, temporal, and behavioral distinction between work and personal matters) to segmentation strategies (i.e., clearly separating work and other domains through the creation of impermeable physical, temporal, and behavioral boundaries). ...
... Because of the importance of such individual characteristics (e.g., boundary creation around ICT, performance-based self-esteem), a recent review of empirical evidence on psychological detachment has argued that individual differences should be integrated into the stressor-detachment model (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Precisely, researchers have suggested that workers may differ in the degree to which they experience stressors and consequent psychological detachment. ...
... The stressor-detachment model originally proposes that job characteristics -particularly stressorsare the core antecedents of psychological detachment (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Indeed, the stressors that employees have to face at work may lead to high levels of negative psycho-biological activation (Ilies et al., 2010;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2006) and negative affect (Rodell & Judge, 2009;Volmer et al., 2012), which linger after work. ...
Article
This study examined how individual strategies (boundary creation around information and communication technology; ICT) and job stressors (work‐related extended availability) relate to psychological detachment, and how the latter associates with employees' behaviors (presenteeism) and attitudes (family life satisfaction). This research also explored the moderating role of performance‐based self‐esteem in these relationships. Questionnaire surveys were collected among 321 teachers in Sample 1 and 283 workers in Sample 2. Results from Sample 1 revealed that boundary creation surrounding ICT was positively linked to psychological detachment but only among employees with low performance‐based self‐esteem. Results from Sample 2 indicated that work‐related extended availability negatively related to psychological detachment but only among employees with high performance‐based self‐esteem. In addition, psychological detachment was associated with lower levels of presenteeism (Samples 1 and 2) and higher levels of family‐life satisfaction (Sample 2). More generally, these results confirm performance‐based self‐esteem to be a maladaptive individual characteristic, adding up to a negative cycle of stressors to decrease psychological detachment, in turn leading to maladaptive functioning.
... Psychological detachment implies abstaining from work tasks and mentally disconnecting from work-related thoughts leading to reduced strain reactions and faster recovery. Although psychological detachment is not the only experience associated with the recovery from work, previous research has shown it to be related to various aspects of employee well-being, including lower work-family conflict (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). ...
... Thus, the importance of various individual skills that help manage home and work interfaces has only increased. Second, previous research showed that psychological detachment is affected by a myriad of individual and work factors that are not directly related to boundary issues, such as high workload, interpersonal conflicts, emotion regulation, mindfulness (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015;Wendsche & Lohmann-Haislah, 2017;Karabinski et al., 2021). Thus, even before the pandemic had struck, there were individual differences in the ability to detach from work due to unequal skills or working conditions. ...
... The employees who were better able to abstain from work-related tasks and thoughts during the nonworking time reported a lower inter-domain conflict four months later. These results are in agreement with other studies, showing that being able to detach from work after working hours allows for replenishing depleted resources, protects from exhaustion, and allows to direct such limited resources as time and attention to fulfil the requirements of other roles (Dettmers, 2017;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Most importantly, pre-pandemic research highlights that permeable boundaries can expose workers to more disruption from work in their spare time, which negatively affects their ability to function in the family (Dettmers, 2017;Hyland & Prottas, 2017;Jostell & Hemlin, 2018). ...
Article
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The challenges posed by the urgent demand of the lockdown to start working from home and successfully manage work-family interface have also triggered the increased boundary permeability, difficulties detaching from work and work-home conflict. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics between these challenges, therefore more research-based data could facilitate not only a better understanding of the risks for employee well-being but also finding the best practices to counteract work-home conflict when working from home. Our study aimed to examine the direction of cross-lagged effects among family boundary permeability, psychological detachment, and work-home conflict in the context of the pandemic. In all, 375 employees participated in a two-wave study. We used structural equation modelling to test and compare several models that were deployed for describing the hypothesised temporal relationships. The results of our study revealed that psychological detachment predicted boundary permeability and work-family conflict four months later, but not vice versa. Thus, the ability to detach from work should not be considered a consequence of low family boundary permeability. Instead, it seems to serve as a strategy to keep work and non-work spheres separate, eventually, to avoid work-family conflict. As a result, practical efforts should focus on helping remote workers to detach from work when they are not working rather than on the prevention of boundary-blurring. Finally, the discussion of the results of the impact of both, the context of the pandemic and the nature of the mandatory transition to working from home is presented and practical guidelines on how organisations may help employees better manage the work and home interface in telework settings are offered.
... To what extent can SNS use promote psychological detachment and help individuals to cope with To answer this question, we applied the stressor-detachment model (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015) to the COVID-19 pandemic and SNS use. This contextualisation includes work-family conflict (Boswell and Olsen-Buchanan, 2007) and perceived isolation (Marshall et al., 2007) as key stressors created by COVID-19, psychological detachment through SNS use as the recovery process and psychological well-being as the outcome. ...
... We focus on psychological well-being as the outcome because detachment research frequently utilises it as a manifestation of reduced strain (Sonnentag et al., 2010;Sonnentag and Kruel, 2006). Following the stressors-detachment model (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015), we suggest that psychological detachment through SNS use has both mediating and moderating roles in the relationships between stressors and strain. ...
... In the current study, we explore whether SNS use can serve as a means of psychologically detaching oneself from stressors wrought by the COVID-19 pandemic. To this end, we employ the stressordetachment model (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015; see Fig. 1) from work and organisational psychology as the theoretical backbone of the study. Drawing on the cognitive activation theory of stress (Ursin and Eriksen, 2004) and the allostatic load model (Ganster and Rosen, 2013), Sonnentag and Fritz (2015, p. S75) asserted that "'it is not primarily the acute stress reaction that is detrimental for an organism but rather the sustained activation, even when the stressor is no longer present". ...
Article
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Prior research has often portrayed information technology (IT) as a stressor. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate that IT can also be an effective means of coping with life stressors, including those induced by pandemics such as COVID-19. We thus deviate from the common IT-as-a-stressor perspective and adopt an IT-as-a-coping-mechanism viewpoint. To this end, we apply the stressor-detachment model from organisational psychology to the use of social network sites (SNSs) in coping with stressors wrought by the COVID-19 pandemic. We examine psychological well-being as our dependent variable and introduce psychological detachment through SNS use as a mediator and moderator of the associations between psychological well-being and two COVID-19 stressors: work–family conflict and perceived isolation. We used structural equation modelling and tested this model with survey data collected from 398 professionals who were in lockdown and working from home during the pandemic. The results indicated that psychological detachment through SNS uses increased psychological well-being and that heightened work–family conflict motivated this detachment strategy. In contrast, consistent with helplessness and motivation–opportunity theories, perceived isolation as a stressor did not influence psychological detachment through SNS use. While perceived isolation directly reduced individual well-being, the effect of work–family conflict on well-being was contingent upon users' levels of psychological detachment through SNS use. These findings suggest that while psychological detachment through SNS use is an effective means of improving one's well-being, it can be positively or negatively affected by stressors. Our study contributes to research on technology-mediated strategies for coping with stress and the psychosocial implications of global pandemics.
... Specifically, we focus on key variables used in the recovery literature (i.e., fatigue, sleep quality, and state of recovery) that have been previously shown to be affected by work-related cognitions (e.g., Querstret & Cropley, 2012). These variables are an important barometer of employees' day-to-day subjective well-being (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015) and they are indicative of workplace functioning, including motivation, work engagement, working memory, and social behaviour at work (e.g., Austin et al., 2020;Brose et al., 2012;Daniels & Harris, 2000;Sonnentag, 2003). ...
... Psychological detachment -not thinking about work during non-work time (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2007) -is an important determinant of recovery after work (cf., Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). As psychological detachment involves not thinking about work, it appears to be an antipode to work prospection. ...
... Cognitive work prospection involves thinking about future work without a salient affective connotation. According to the stressor-detachment model (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015), any type of thinking about work should hinder successful recovery, as it prevents psychological detachment. However, previous research on other non-affective types of thinking about work has yielded mixed findings concerning their effects on employee well-being. ...
Article
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Findings from adjacent literatures suggest that thinking about the future may have implications for employee health, especially when such thoughts are affectively toned. However, existing constructs targeting work-related thinking are predominantly time-unspecific, possibly overlooking a substantial portion of work-related cognitions that occur on a daily basis. We therefore develop a comprehensive, multidimensional conceptualization of work prospection, as well as an instrument (Work Prospection Scale; WPS) that allows the measurement of three types of work prospection (cognitive, positive affective, and negative affective). We place work prospection in its wider nomological network and evaluate its validity across three cross-sectional studies (total N = 825) and a 5-day diary study (N = 199). Psychometric properties of the scale were supported across studies, and the WPS was related to, yet empirically distinct from related constructs. Criterion-related results showed that positive affective work prospection during the evening was associated with less fatigue and more recovery in the next morning. Conversely, negative affective work prospection was related to more evening fatigue, as well as less next morning recovery. Cognitive work prospection had no significant relationship with recovery indicators. Additionally, our findings show that targeting future-oriented cognitions adds to the prediction of employee recovery beyond time-unspecific measures.
... The absence of psychological detachment is harmful concerning teachers' job stress (Gluschkoff et al., 2016) but there remains a lack of research concerning the mediating role of psychological detachment among teachers (see Türktorun et al., 2020). Hence, the current study tested the mediational model in which teachers' higher job stress would hinder their psychological detachment from work (see Sonnentag and Kruel, 2006;Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015) and hindered psychological detachment would result in more negative affect (see Virtanen et al., 2021) and job stress (see Gluschkoff et al., 2016) on the subsequent day. Thus, we were interested in whether psychological detachment would mediate the effect of previous days' job stress on subsequent day's negative affect and job stress. ...
... It refers to the absence of work-related tasks and thoughts and is one of the four possible recovery experiences introduced by Sonnentag and Fritz (2007). Previous research has indicated the central position of psychological detachment as a means of recovering from job stress and protecting an employee from possible ill-health outcomes deriving from job stress (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). In addition, a higher level of psychological detachment also decreases the overall need for recovery . ...
... A multitude of previous research regarding people working in different occupational fields, measured on both between and within levels and reviewed by Sonnentag and Fritz (2015), have shown that the stressors experienced at work lead to a lower level of psychological detachment. According to previous research among teachers, the stressors teachers experience at work, such as workload, are indeed related to lower levels of psychological detachment (Sonnentag and Kruel, 2006). ...
Article
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The study investigated the mediating role of teachers' psychological detachment between successive days' job stress and negative affect. Fifty-seven Finnish teachers answered to a mobile diary four times a day on two successive workdays assessing their negative affect, three times a day assessing their job stress and once a day after work assessing their psychological detachment from work. Two-level modeling on both the between individual level and within day level was used to test the mediational model. The data supported the mediational model where teachers' job stress hinders their psychological detachment, which again increases their negative affect and job stress on the subsequent day. On the basis of our results teachers' occupational health interventions intended to reduce their job stress and support their psychological detachment from work are desirable. In addition, robust work-home segmentation norms within schools are suggested to support teachers' psychological detachment from work.
... For shift and night work, different correlations are known regarding cardiovascular (12,14,(16)(17)(18)(19)(20) and psychological health indicators (11,15), health behavior (14,(23)(24)(25) and recreational behavior (20,26,27). The health behavior of shift workers compared to day workers is characterized by unfavorable eating habits (14,28,29), more smokers (14,29) and fewer sporting activities (23,24,29,30). ...
... It can be assumed that psychosocial work stress with excessive commitment of those affected also has an unfavorable effect on the psychological recovery processes in the non-working period. Psychological detachment from work during rest period is seen as a central component of individual relaxation (20,26,27). It is regarded as a link between working conditions and strain-related outcomes (including symptoms of fatigue and exhaustion) and is discussed as an early indicator of work-related impairments (27,55). ...
... In recent times, research results show how important it is for the regeneration process to be able to "switch off " (20,26,27,55,94). According to the results from a representative survey among employed persons in Germany (n = 4,511, age range: 31-60 years) (94), 12% of shift workers can be expected to have insufficient recovery. ...
Article
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Purpose: Psychosocial work stress, and shift and night work are considered risk indicators for impaired health. Using the effort-reward (ER) model, it was possible to examine which relationships exist for shift workers between clusters (CL) of different levels of psychosocial work stress and overcommitment (OC) and cardiovascular or psychological health indicators, and which predictive value is evident in individual health indicators to explain the clusters. Methods: The data were collected as part of an occupational health prevention program. The analysis sample consisted of 199 shift workers from alternating shift systems with and without night work (43%) (average age: 40±12 years, men: 47%). Psychosocial work stress was recorded using the ER imbalance (ERI) questionnaire. To determine the clusters, ERI and OC were entered into a cluster analysis. Blood pressure, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, PROCAM score (risk of a heart attack within the next 10 years), sporting activity, and smoking were included as cardiovascular indicators, psychological wellbeing (GHQ-12) and inability to recovery (IR) (FABA) as psychological health indicators. Shift system, sex, and age were entered into the statistical analyses as control variables. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to identify health-related predictors to explain the ER-OC clusters. Results: Three different ER-OC clusters emerged: low-stress: 36%, normal: 44%, risk: 20%. While normal psychosocial work stress is present in the low-stress and the normal CL, in the risk CL 28% of the shift workers show a health-endangering ERI and 48% show an excessive OC. No significant cluster-specific differences were determined for the cardiovascular health indicators. Rather, the known sex and age effects were confirmed and the shift system had no significant effect. Significantly more shift workers in the risk CL had impaired psychological health (18% vs. 1/6%) and an IR (52% vs. 0/12%) than in the low-stress and normal CL. IR turned out to be the strongest predictor of the explanation for the ER-OC clusters (49%). Conclusion: IR could be assigned an independent diagnostic value for the assessment of psychosocial work stresses and discussed as a new component of occupational health screening concepts for shift workers. Independently of this, the health indicators signal an urgent need for occupational health prevention and care.
... These employees must also be in optimal physical and mental states in order to obtain and maintain high levels of alertness, vigilance and situational awareness (Bakker, 2011), and thus able to fulfill their tasks effectively in dangerous situations, like during hurricanes or when confronted with an aggressive fire (Flin, 1996). Notably, several studies have identified recovery from work as an important mechanism behind employees' cognitive and physical functioning over time, by revitalizing depleted cognitive and physical resources (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). Indeed, Shimazu et al. (2012) have shown that lack of rest and detachment from work (i.e., lack of recovery) coincides with reduced work engagement, psychological distress, and physical complaints. ...
... Whereas previous research has established relationships of daily work pressure with wellbeing (e.g., Hetland et al., 2021), we focus on task performance in the current study. We use effortrecovery (Meijman and Mulder, 1998) and stressor-detachment (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015) models to argue that effort expenditure at work is associated with acute load reactions (e.g., accelerated heart rate, fatigue) which demand compensatory effort in order to perform adequately at work. Specifically, we propose that recovery experiences and sleep can prevent an accumulation of strain and thus facilitate performance in response to daily work pressure. ...
... Another explanation for the null findings offered by the current study is that not all cadets recovered sufficiently inbetween the shifts to be able to respond to work pressure with excellent performance. According to both the effortrecovery model (Meijman and Mulder, 1998) and the stressordetachment model (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015), recovery experiences can buffer the link between job demands and strain. The model proposes that psychological detachment from work offers opportunities to recover from work-related stress and build new physical and psychological resources (e.g., vitality). ...
Article
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Whereas previous research has focused on the link between (mental and physical) workload and task performance, less is known about the intervening mechanisms influencing this relationship. In the present study, we test the moderating roles of daily recovery and total sleep time in the relationship between work pressure and daily task performance. Using performance and recovery theories, we hypothesized that (a) work pressure relates positively to daily task performance, and that both (b) daily recovery in the form of psychological detachment and relaxation, and (c) total sleep time independently enhance this relationship. Our hypotheses were tested in a 30-day diary study with 110 officer cadets on a cross-Atlantic voyage on a Naval sail ship. The results of multilevel modeling lend support to all three hypotheses. Taken together, our findings suggest that recovery and sleep duration between shifts play a key role in the relationship between daily work pressure and task performance. We discuss the implications of these findings for the stressor-detachment model.
... As a result, emotional exhaustion may make it much harder for employees to successfully navigate the dual requirements of their personal and professional lives. Exhausted employees thus often feel worried and stressed, and display an increased tendency to think about work-related problems during off-job time (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015), which increases their likelihood of being in a state of over-activation and of experiencing sleep difficulties (Yan et al., 2018). More generally, emotional exhaustion also contributes to focus workers' attention on the negative aspects of their life, making them less psychologically available to fully engage in their family role (Brenning et al., 2021). ...
... Moreover, social psychologists have long demonstrated that individuals were less likely to conform to the influence of a powerful source (e.g., one's supervisor) when this source is at a greater distance (Haslam et al., 2014). As a result, it might be easier for these employees (relative to those working onsite) to reduce the negative pressures from their work present in the family domain (Kreiner, 2006;Windeler et al., 2017), allowing them to better restore their resources (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015), making them less prone to emotional exhaustion. Likewise, because employees exposed to SE experience depletion of their personal resources in an effort to conform to these expectations, they may come to adopt defensive strategies to protect their remaining resources (Hobfoll, 2011). ...
... Indeed, when working onsite, employees tend to have a stronger connection with their supervisor, which makes it easier for their supervisor to put pressure on them (e.g., setting deadlines). In such powerful situations, where the source of influence is at closer distance, it may be more difficult for exposed employees to emancipate themselves from these norms (Haslam et al., 2014) and to switch-off from work requirements (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015), in turn increasing their risk of emotional exhaustion (Fouquereau et al., 2019). ...
Article
Purpose: Research suggests that supervisor expectations regarding the need to respond quickly to work-related messages (SE) tend to be positively related to employees’ levels of emotional exhaustion. In the present research paper, we examine the indirect –through emotional exhaustion– effects of these expectations on employees’ levels of family satisfaction, life satisfaction and sleep quality. We also explore whether and how these associations differ between employees working onsite (n = 158) or remotely (n = 284). Design/methodology/approach: A total of 442 employees completed an online survey that covered measures on SE, emotional exhaustion, family and life satisfaction, and sleep quality. Findings: As hypothesized, our results revealed that the indirect effects of SE on family satisfaction, life satisfaction, and sleep quality were significantly mediated by emotional exhaustion. Finally, the relations between SE and the mediator (emotional exhaustion) were stronger among employees working onsite than among employees working remotely. Practical implications: SE prevention could be encouraged to decrease employees’ emotional exhaustion, in turn increasing their sleep quality, family satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Originality: These results revealed that working remotely helped buffer the undesirable effects of SE on emotional exhaustion. Keywords: Supervisor pressure; communication technologies; burnout; satisfaction; sleep; mediation; moderation; remote working
... While a growing number of studies have explored the ramifications of over-reliance on social media and other information and communications technologies (ICTs) for work (e.g., Boswell & Olson-Buchanan, 2007;Büchler, ter Hoeven, & van Zoonen, 2020;Fonner & Roloff, 2012;Park, Liu, & Headrick, 2020;van Zoonen et al., 2020;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015), research to date has largely taken a limited view on the role of after-hours work-related social media use (WRSMU). Specifically, existing research tended to provide either a positive or negative discourse with regard to the effect of after-hours WRSMU and overlook key nuances represented by opposing mechanisms (van Zoonen, Verhoeven, & Vliegenthart, 2017). ...
... Increased accessibility makes some workers feel obligated to respond during off-hours (van Zoonen et al., 2017). A growing body of research shows that the use of ICTs after regular work hours makes employees feel mentally connected with their jobs and cause anxiety, stress, burnout, increased work to life conflict, and decreased work satisfaction (e.g., Boswell & Olson-Buchanan, 2007;Diaz et al., 2012;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015;Yue, 2022). Notably, the current study focuses on investigating personal social media accounts instead of ICTs, which encompass a wider group of technologies. ...
Article
This study examined employees’ after-hours work-related social media communication through the lens of their consumption, contribution, creation, and conversation, and it explored in great depth the paradoxes inherent in how employees use public social media for professional purposes outside of normal working hours. Specifically, this study investigated the effect of work-related social media use (WRSMU) outside regular work hours on various employee outcomes. An online survey was conducted with 815 employees in the U.S. The findings revealed two opposing mechanisms through which after-hours WRSMU affected employees’ work engagement. On the one hand, WRSMU was positively related to organizational identification, which in turn positively affected work engagement. On the other hand, after-hours WRSMU also led to more work-family conflict, which in turn decreased work engagement.
... In addition to exploring the mediating role of job role stress, this paper also explores the moderating role of psychological detachment between empowering leadership and work-family conflict. Psychological detachment is a subjective experience that reflects employees' detachment from work at the psychological level (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). Psychological detachment is one important way for employees to recover after work, helping them regain physical and psychological "energy" and maintain a positive working mood (Johannes and Andrea, 2017;Ma et al., 2021). ...
... As Xu (2016) pointed out, from the perspective of responsible research, a future study should focus on mining the boundary conditions of the negative effects of positive leadership, especially the factors that can avoid these negative effects. Psychological detachment is an important strategy of resource management and an effective means of halting the continuous loss of resources, in turn saving resources for the next period of work (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015;Johannes and Andrea, 2017;Ma et al., 2021). According to a previous summary of the internal mechanism driving the negative effects of empowering leadership, the role conflict of employees could be the negative outcome of empowering leadership. ...
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After experiencing the COVID-19 pandemic, the status and mechanisms of leadership, and the challenges for medical workers in terms of family–work conflicts, have caused widespread concern. In the post-pandemic era, based on role theory and the stressor-detachment model, this paper seeks to break the “black box” of negative effects that can be caused by leadership, research the mechanism and boundary conditions of those negative effects, and explore factors to reduce those negative effects. We recruited 1,010 Chinese medical workers fighting COVID-19 on the frontline. Our study results showed that there was a significant negative correlation between empowering leadership and work–family conflict, and this relationship was completely mediated by role stress, while psychological detachment moderated the relationship between role stress and work–family conflict. Moreover, psychological detachment moderated the mediating effect of empowering leadership on work–family conflict through role stress. Therefore, higher levels of psychological detachment were less conducive to medical workers' family–work conflict. This study has important theoretical significance and practical value for revealing the negative effects and mechanisms of empowering leadership and for medical workers to better deal with work–family relations.
... However, SDM states that not all job stressors significantly influence employee behaviours. According to this model, only the most current, pressing stressors that employees face and those most closely related to them significantly affect their behaviours (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). Whether QNJI and QLJI are important stressors affecting employee behaviours in the context of human-machine collaboration, as well as the role of PD in regulating the two types of job insecurity and employee behaviours, is another question that we investigated. ...
... Given the uniqueness of employees' unsafe behaviours in the context of human-machine collaboration, it is especially important to explore the mechanisms of employees' unsafe behaviours in this context. The SDM suggests that job stressors can influence employees' work-related behaviours and states, causing adverse effects for them (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). Based on the SDM, we consider job insecurity an important job stressor and view employees' unsafe behaviours as an important outcome variable for the influence of stressors. ...
Article
Purpose This study aimed to explore the relationship between job insecurity and unsafe behaviour in human–machine collaboration, as well as investigating the mediating roles of emotional exhaustion and moderating roles of psychological detachment. Design/methodology/approach The authors followed the stressor-detachment model to build our research model. The authors selected manufacturing and service industry employees as samples, and designed three independent studies using the time-lagged method for SPSS and AMOS to test the hypotheses. Findings The results indicated that emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between the two types of job insecurity and unsafe behaviours among service industry employees, while psychological detachment moderated the effect of qualitative job insecurity on emotional exhaustion. In manufacturing, psychological detachment moderated the effect of quantitative job insecurity on emotional exhaustion, while emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between quantitative job insecurity and unsafe behaviours. Research limitations/implications The authors enhance understandings of how individual employee characteristics and the work environment jointly influence employees' levels of emotional exhaustion and likelihood of engaging in unsafe behaviours under the stressor-detachment model. Practical implications The authors suggest an important role of psychological detachment in human–machine collaboration. The authors also that organisations and managers could encourage employees not to check work-related emails on weekends to achieve full detachment. Originality/value This study contributes to both the stressor-detachment model and job insecurity literature. In addition, it investigates the role of detachment and emotional exhaustion by employees in human–machine collaboration.
... Teachers with more complex combination of roles, such as coordinators of subject teaching, fully responsible persons for students' learning, health, and life, as well as class organizers and leaders, tend to experience more heightened job demands and thus more likely to suffer from role strain (Shi, 2021). Moreover, consistent with a stress response system theory (Maslach et al., 2001;Schaufeli & Taris, 2014;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015), prolonged experiences of job stress may incur a disequilibrium of the cognitive-emotional-environmental system and increase the vulnerabilities to physiological/psychological problems, and then result in job exhaustion. Empirical evidence: Teachers' job stress and exhaustion Teachers' job stress as a contributor to job exhaustion has been widely examined (Ho, 2017;Pogere et al., 2019;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2016). ...
... Empirical evidence: Teachers' job load and exhaustion Teachers' job load can be primarily indexed by the time they typically spend in performing various daily tasks (Higton et al., 2017;Philipp & Kunter, 2013). When high levels of job overload extend over a long period of time, teachers are likely to suffer from chronic stress and display physical and mental health issues, such as emotional fatigue, which in turn may foreshadow job exhaustion in the long run (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015;Steinhardt et al., 2011). A number of studies have indicated that teachers' job load was a vital antecedent of job exhaustion. ...
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Job exhaustion is not uncommon among Chinese middle school teachers, but the key antecedents of job exhaustion and the underlying mechanisms in this historically underrepresented population remain poorly understood. This study examined the association between job demand and exhaustion, and tested the mediating role of job satisfaction and the moderating role of teachers’ role (i.e., homeroom versus subject) in this association. The two-wave, China Education Panel Survey data from 701 Chinese junior middle school teachers (Mage = 30.05 years old, SDage = 7.86; 78.75% females) were used. Primary hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling. Results indicated that job load rather than job stress at Wave 1 was positively associated with job exhaustion at Wave 2 indirectly through its negative association with job satisfaction at Wave 2 only among subject teachers; in contrast, for homeroom teachers, job satisfaction at Wave 2 was the only factor that was identified to be negatively associated with job exhaustion at Wave 2. Notably, all significant associations emerged after controlling for a number of covariates, including job exhaustion at Wave 1. Such findings shed initial light on the complexity inherent within the phenomena of middle school teachers’ occupational health in a Chinese cultural context. Reducing teachers’ work load associated with long working hours and promoting teachers’ job satisfaction may be effective ways to relieve and prevent job exhaustion, especially for Chinese subject teachers.
... Since helplessness cannot be easily resolved in the work setting and that it depletes resources fundamental to individuals, this study pays much attention to resource replenishment outside of the work domain. Given that social support and psychological detachment were both found to moderate relationships between job-related constructs and non-work experiences (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015), we argue that both of them may serve as buffers against employees' helplessness at work (Hobfoll, 2018). ...
... It is the continuous cycle of resource depletion and replenishment (Meijman et al., 1998), which drives occupational well-being, health, motivation and work performance (Hülsheger, 2016). Previous studies showed that disengagement from work issues and thoughts during non-work time facilitates recovery (Liu et al., 2021;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). ...
Article
Critical incidents, defined as traumatic time-limited events, often happen unexpectedly, and have largely impacted employees in many ways. In this study, we apply the Conservation of Resources Theory as our overarching framework to examine whether and when employees involved in a critical work incident would experience helplessness at work, which may consequently spill over into the life domain and negatively impact their wellbeing. Taking the COVID-19 as a typical example of critical incidents, we collected multi-wave data from 765 Chinese doctors. The results showed that perceived COVID-19 event strength is positively related to doctors’ helplessness at work, which further negatively impacts their presence of meaning in life. Besides, meaningful work exacerbates the effect of perceived COVID-19 event strength on doctors’ helplessness, while social support and psychological detachment reduce the negative impact of helplessness on their presence of meaning in life. Our study calls attention to protection of the mental health and psychological wellbeing of employees faced with critical incidents at work and their psychological recovery, sheds light on the effectiveness of social support and psychological detachment as resource replenishing mechanisms, while cautions against further emphasizing work meaningfulness to employees confronted with a highly novel, disruptive and critical work event.
... The PC hypothesis explains why rumination is linked to exhaustion: The act of rumination does not allow for recovery during non-working time (Berset et al., 2011;Eggli et al., 2021;Jimenez et al., 2021;Kinnunen et al., 2017;Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 2008;Weigelt et al., 2019). In the stressor-detachment model, Sonnentag and Fritz (2015) propose that harm to the organism is not mainly the acute stress response but rather the persistent activation, even when the stressor is no longer present (p. 75). ...
... Mobile-flexible employees especially were associated with work stressors such as high workload, and this, in turn, predicts rumination (Höge & Hornung, 2013;Krause et al., 2015;Kvande, 2007). These findings are significant, as they indicate possible interference with employees' recovery processes after post-stress events (Kinnunen et al., 2017;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). ...
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The present study examines the effect of extended work hours on experienced exhaustion in the evening in mobile-flexible employees who work in activity-flexible offices. In a seven-day diary study, it was anticipated that daily rumination is a mediator, linked to additional daily exhaustion in individuals. In a morning questionnaire, mobile-flexible employees completed daily questions about the link between extended work hours and exhaustion. Thirty-three employees completed daily questions on the extension of working hours, rumination, and exhaustion. Multilevel analyses of up to 238 daily measurements revealed that more intense extension of working hours predicted more rumination as well as exhaustion. Extended work hours and rumination both predicted more exhaustion. A test of the indirect effects showed no mediation from the extension of working hours via rumination to exhaustion. When designing mobile-flexible work models, overtime is a risk. Occupational prevention of exhaustion should promote recovery processes, especially as new work models may lead to increased rumination due to more personal responsibility of employees.
... It is suggested that psychological detachment and relaxation experiences are the most beneficial experiences, especially for personal outcomes, such as exhaustion and well-being (Sonnentag et al., 2017). In particular, according to a qualitative review of the literature, psychological detachment has strong negative relationships with strain and positive relationships with well-being (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Regarding work-related outcomes, weak and mixed results have emerged. ...
... In an early attempt to incorporate recovery experiences into the JD-R model, Kinnunen et al. (2011) drew upon theoretical work by Demerouti et al. (2009) to propose and show that recovery experiences mediated the effects of job resources and job demands on work engagement and exhaustion, respectively. Additionally, according to the recovery paradox (Sonnentag, 2018a, b) and the stressor-detachment model (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015), job demands predict low levels of recovery experiences. Moreover, the meta-analysis by Bennett et al. (2018) demonstrated similar mediation pathways: job demands/resources → recovery experiences → fatigue/vigor. ...
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Recovery experiences (i.e., psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery, and control; Sonnentag and Fritz (Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 12, 204–221, 2007)) are thought to enhance both work and health outcomes, though the mechanisms are not well understood. We propose and test an integrated theoretical model in which work engagement and exhaustion fully mediate the effects of recovery experiences on job performance and health complaints, respectively. Meta-analytic associations (k = 316; independent samples; N = 99,329 participants) show that relaxation and mastery experiences positively predict job outcomes (work engagement, job performance, citizenship behavior, creativity, job satisfaction) and personal outcomes (positive affect, life satisfaction, well-being), whereas psychological detachment reduces negative personal outcomes (negative affect, exhaustion, work-family conflict), but does not seem to benefit job outcomes (work engagement, job performance, citizenship behavior, creativity). Control experiences exhibit negligible incremental effects. Path analysis largely supports the theoretical model specifying separate pathways by which recovery experiences predict job and health outcomes. Methodologically, diary and post-respite studies tend to exhibit smaller effects than do cross-sectional studies. Finally, within-person correlations of recovery experiences with outcomes tend to be in the same direction, but smaller than corresponding between-person correlations. Implications for recovery experiences theory and research are discussed.
... Indeed, the large scale of empirical evidence shows that inability to detach oneself from work might increase strain and deteriorate well-being, such as impaired mood, fatigue and lower life satisfaction (e.g. Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). Impaired psychological detachment is especially likely when information and communication technologies are used. ...
... For example, employees would benefit from relaxation exercises (Carlson and Holye, 1993), mindfulness practices (Althammer et al., 2021) or engaging in off-job activities different from one's work (Sonnentag, 2012). This way, employees will reduce the cues that might prime them to think about their work (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). Employees might also benefit from short breaks during the working day that helps to enhance psychological detachment (Hunter and Wu, 2016) and take care of various family matters. ...
Article
This study aims to longitudinally investigate the undesirable effect of overwork climate and its underlying mechanism in the context of telework. Teleworkers have been known for intensive working and even overwork. Moreover, although some empirical evidence shows the adverse effects of overwork climate, its longitudinal effects and mechanism have been underexplored thus far. Consequently, this study expected overwork climate to be related to lower levels of psychological detachment that eventually leads to higher exhaustion, with this effect being more profound among full-time teleworkers. The authors base their analyses on a two-wave study with four-month time intervals, with a sample of 375 teleworkers. The results show that an overwork climate led to exhaustion four months later due to impaired ability to detach from work. Notably, this effect was more substantial among those teleworkers who worked from home full-time.
... In the existing domestic and foreign literature, although some scholars have proposed workload as an important "challenging" stressor, it can play a role in motivating individuals to work hard (Cavanaugh et al., 2000). Empirical studies have shown that workload has a negative impact on the level of an individual's cognition and organizational growth (Sonnentag and Fritz, 2014). From the perspective of an individual's work attitude and wellbeing, the impact of workload on work performance, job satisfaction (Nirel and Feigenberg, 2008;Häusser et al., 2010), and work engagement all have negative effects (Weigl et al., 2016). ...
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In this study, the research objective of psychological resilience refers to the emerging professional group of Internet marketers under the background of the COVID-19 pandemic environment. This paper studies the effect of the psychological resilience of Internet marketers on their subjective career success. The result shows that Internet marketers’ psychological resilience has a positive impact on their subjective career success. The work engagement of Internet marketers plays a mediating role in the relationship between psychological resilience and subjective career success. Meanwhile, Internet marketers’ workload positively moderates the mediating effects of work engagement. This study starts from the perspective of positive psychology to investigate the psychological resilience of Internet marketers and broadens the scope of application of positive organizational behavior and psychology.
... Employees who endure unfavorable circumstances, such as emotional problems and heavy workloads, often require substantial recovery time [14,15] because they need to expend extra effort and regulate their emotions to perform their duties [16]. An especially important requirement is for employees to psychologically disconnect themselves from their jobs during nonwork hours [17]. Sonnentag [18] offered that recovery experiences were positively connected to ensuing on-the-job behavior. ...
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This study was aimed at establishing whether loneliness among hotel employees in the workplace affects their psychological and emotional experiences by empirically investigating their perceptions of negative situations. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 300 hotel employees, after which confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to reassess the reliability and validity of the measured questionnaire items. A model of workplace loneliness, psychological detachment, and emotional exhaustion was developed and examined through structural equation modeling. The results showed that the hotel employees experienced workplace loneliness and expressed a desire to be psychologically detached from their jobs for recovery. Workplace loneliness also contributed to emotional exhaustion. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as limitations and future research directions, are discussed.
... This concurs with the findings that individuals who were well recovered in the morning experienced flow more often during the day than individuals who had not recovered [65]. At the same time, studies show that individuals who do not detach from work have a higher risk of developing burnout symptoms (for an overview, see Sonnentag & Fritz [66]). Accordingly, sufficient recovery could serve as a moderator of the effects of flow experience on burnout. ...
Article
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Background: In today's performance-oriented society, burnout symptoms, defined as consequences of chronic work stress, are an increasing problem. To counteract this development, the important aims are (1) to find protective and modifiable factors that reduce the risk of developing and harboring burnout symptoms and (2) to understand the underlying mechanisms. A phenomenon potentially furthering both aims is flow experience. Based on the earlier literature, we developed a psycho-physiological "Flow-Burnout-Model", which postulates positive or negative associations between flow and burnout symptoms, depending on the prevailing situational and personal conditions. Methods: To test our Flow-Burnout-Model, we conducted a systematic literature search encompassing flow and burnout symptoms. Eighteen empirical studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Results: The findings of the systematic review as a whole suggest a negative association between flow and burnout symptoms, both cross-sectional and longitudinal. According to the findings from longitudinal studies, flow can be interpreted as a protective factor against burnout symptoms, and burnout symptoms can be interpreted as a factor inhibiting flow. In our conclusion, we maintain the assumption of a bidirectional association between flow and burnout symptoms in the Flow-Burnout-Model but modify the initially suggested positive and negative associations between flow and burnout symptoms towards a predominantly negative relationship. Discussion: Mindful of the heterogeneous findings of earlier studies, the resulting comprehensive Flow-Burnout-Model will lay the foundations for future hypothesis-based research. This includes physiological mechanisms explaining the relationship between flow and burnout symptoms, and likewise, the conditions of their longitudinal association.
... We illustrate the negative effect of telecommuting on psychological detachment from work, as well as the buffering effects of family interfering with work and family-work enrichment. In contrast to the notion that psychological detachment from work is solely determined by work factors (Sonnentag et al., 2012;Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015), our research indicates that it is a vital recovery experience providing an interactive outcome between work and family. ...
Article
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Meta-analytical research has demonstrated the benefits brought by telecommuting to wellbeing. However, we argue that such a setup in the course of the coronavirus disease pandemic exerts negative effects. On the basis of conservation of resources theory, this study determined how telecommuting depletes wellbeing (defined by job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion) through obstructing psychological detachment from work. Moreover, we incorporated family interfering with work and family–work enrichment as moderators that can buffer the negative effect of telecommuting on psychological detachment from work. Time-lagged field research was conducted with 350 Chinese employees, and findings largely supported our theoretical hypotheses. The elevated level of telecommuting results in minimal psychological detachment from work, which then leads to low wellbeing. Meanwhile, the negative effect of the extent of telecommuting on psychological detachment from work is reduced by family interfering with work. These findings extend the literature on telecommuting and psychological detachment from work through revealing why teleworkers present negative feelings during the pandemic.
... Prior studies have found that the amount of time spent on activities with a high-duty profile, such as job-related activities, task-related activities, and household activities has a negative impact on an individual's well-being (Sonnentag, 2001), whereas leisure time may offer an opportunity for the individual to recover from these routine demands and enhance his or her quality of life. Scholars have found that sociopsychological mechanisms (e.g., relaxation, tranquility, achievement, autonomy, relatedness, and interest) of leisure time contribute to generating happiness (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015;Liu & Da, 2020). With respect to the effects of different categories of leisure time activities on SWB, the results were inconsistent with each other. ...
Article
Previous studies have documented the correlations between leisure time, perceived stress, and subjective well-being (SWB), yet the extent to which the amount of leisure time impacts the effect of perceived stress on SWB has rarely been studied. The current study focuses on this under researched topic among young and middle-aged working adults in the Chinese context. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that perceived stress had a negative correlation with SWB. Engagement in active leisure time activities contributed to SWB. Leisure time spent playing sports significantly impacted the effect of perceived stress on SWB in the young and middle-aged groups. The study contributes to the identification of the complicated interactive relationships among leisure time, perceived stress, and SWB based on empirical evidence and has implications for the design of intervention strategies to promote quality of life in China.
... Work pressure and economic ups and downs are making professions very demanding and employment in contemporary world is becoming more and more complicated where outside factors play their roles in performance outcomes (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Role of the factors such as professionals' capacity to meaningfully engage in civic activities outside their work domain and its impact as benefit to their well-being is widely acknowledged in previous literature (Sonnentag, Kuttler, & Fritz, 2010;Booth, Park, & Glomb,2009;Meuris & Leana, 2015;Ryan, Huta, & Deci 2008;Ollier-Malaterre, 2010). ...
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Civic engagement is among some most demanded skills of the decade for all professionals and there are some measures for assessing civic engagement among individuals. However, a valid measure for assessing journalist's civic engagement is still missing in the literature. Therefore, the effort has been made to develop journalist's civic engagement scale. Owing to the purpose, 22 items was initially constructed based on seven point Likert scale. The items were reduced to 16 after content validity estimated based on judgment of fourteen experts. The retained items were administered on 182 working journalists. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were employed for construct validation of the scale and it resulted in one factor solution with 09 items. The item loads were above 0.60. Alpha reliability of the scale was estimated at 0.927. Model fit indicators such as SRMR, RMSEA, RMR, CFI, NFI, AGFI, and specifically CMIN/df were found satisfactory. The journalist's civic engagement scale is ready and available for use.
... As a way of providing employees with external resources, HPL is effective in alleviating health complaints that are caused by OCB via citizenship fatigue. Specifically, HPL helps employees improve their health in multiple ways: (1) creating healthy working conditions, including avoiding unilateral posture and providing sufficient space and bright working environment [56,57], (2) supporting and encouraging employees to participate in the activities that improve their occupational health, such as shoulder and neck training, relaxation, and stress management [58,59], and (3) leading them to have a healthier lifestyle, such as having a healthy diet, quitting smoking, and taking physical exercise [30,52]. These methods can help employees replenish their physical and psychological resources in time after performing OCB and experiencing exhaustion [54], so as to reduce the risk of employees' making health complaints [55]. ...
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Previous research has mainly focused on the positive effects of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study questions the positive impact of OCB, arguing that there is a health cost of OCB. Based on the conservation of resource theory, this study expects that OCB triggers citizenship fatigue, which, in turn, negatively affects employees’ health and results in health complaints. This study also seeks to find a moderator (health-promoting leadership) that could mitigate the negative effects of citizenship fatigue (caused by engaging in OCB) on health complaints. To test our predictions, we collected three-wave data from 207 leader–subordinate dyads. The results of regression analyses show that OCB is positively related to employees’ health complaints, which is mediated by citizenship fatigue. Health-promoting leadership weakens the positive relationship between citizenship fatigue and health complaints, thus negatively moderating the indirect relationship between OCB and health complaints via citizenship fatigue. This study provides theoretical and practical implications for future research directions.
... Emotional exhaustion refers to the fatigue caused by excessive consumption of mental and emotional resources (McDowell et al., 2019;Yao et al., 2020). Some studies have found that W_ICTs will make employees consume their resources to deal with the work, which will exert a negative impact on their psychological detachment (Lee et al., 2021;Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). By physically and mentally "switching off" from work after hours, employees can restore their depleted resources from job stressors and maintain their health and well-being (Lee et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Time theft is a prevalent, costly, and generally discreet employee activity in firms; nonetheless, very limited research is available on it. To explore why, how, and when employees exhibit time theft, we investigate the influence mechanism of work-related use of information and communication technologies after hours (W_ICTs) on time theft from the perspective of resource gain and loss. Our study found that W_ICTs significantly promotes employee time theft. Emotional exhaustion and moral disengagement play a mediating role in the relationship between W_ICTs and time theft, respectively, and these two variables have a chain-mediating role in the relationship above. Perceived organizational support moderates this chain mediation by moderating the positive effect of W_ICTs on emotional exhaustion. Overall, the findings have important theoretical and managerial implications for research on W_ICTs and time theft.
... Leave from work, as a prolonged episode of recovery from work and mental disengagement from work, enables employees' psychobiological systems to return to baseline levels and reestablish full working capacities and well-being (Meijman and Mulder, 1998;Sonnentag and Fritz, 2015). Numerous empirical studies in occupational health psychology have indeed shown that recovered workers are healthier, more committed to their work, and perform better (e.g., De Bloom et al., 2008;Binnewies et al., 2010;Kühnel et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Unlimited paid time off policies are currently fashionable and widely discussed by HR professionals around the globe. While on the one hand, paid time off is considered a key benefit by employees and unlimited paid time off policies (UPTO) are seen as a major perk which may help in recruiting and retaining talented employees, on the other hand, early adopters reported that employees took less time off than previously, presumably leading to higher burnout rates. In this conceptual review, we discuss the theoretical and empirical evidence regarding the potential effects of UPTO on leave utilization, well-being and performance outcomes. We start out by defining UPTO and placing it in a historical and international perspective. Next, we discuss the key role of leave utilization in translating UPTO into concrete actions. The core of our article constitutes the description of the effects of UPTO and the two pathways through which these effects are assumed to unfold: autonomy need satisfaction and detrimental social processes. We moreover discuss the boundary conditions which facilitate or inhibit the successful utilization of UPTO on individual, team, and organizational level. In reviewing the literature from different fields and integrating existing theories, we arrive at a conceptual model and five propositions, which can guide future research on UPTO. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical and societal implications of UPTO.
... Research findings show associations between high O and increased experiences of fatigue (De Vries & Van Heck, 2002), and reduced psychological detachment from work (Naseer et al., 2012), considered a core element in the recovery process. Low levels of detachment from work have been associated with increased job stress and workload, and have predicted high strain and poor well-being (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). Although some findings are mixed and to some extent contradictory (Hildenbrand et al., 2018;Lü et al., 2016), it is not unreasonable to expect that elevated O is related to increased NFR. ...
Article
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The need for recovery after work (NFR) is an important warning of work-related fatigue. NFR is linked to prolonged work-related efforts and depletion of resources, creating a need for temporary respite from work demands. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationships between NFR and the five-factor model (FFM), comprising the personality traits of emotional stability (ES), extraversion (E), agreeableness (A), conscientiousness (C), and openness to experience (O). Perceived job pressure and perceived social support were included as mediators. The study was conducted using structural equation modelling (SEM) on cross-sectional data from a sample of 681 participants from several work sectors (N females = 376, N males = 305; M age = 46.9 years; SD = 11.1). The results showed that NFR was affected both directly and indirectly by FFM traits. High ES and high O contributed directly to reduced and increased NFR, respectively. High perceived social support contributed to reduced NFR, while high perceived job pressure contributed to increased NFR. High ES contributed indirectly to reduced NFR through perceived job pressure and social support, high O contributed indirectly to increased NFR through perceived social support, and high E contributed indirectly to increased NFR through perceived job pressure. A and C were not related to NFR. The findings demonstrate that personality traits, especially ES, are firmly related to NFR and highlight the importance of incorporating personality factors into studies of work environmental factors on NFR. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-02950-1.
... In the present research, we expand 322 notions on ego depletion by examining the spillover of evening ego depletion to next-day 323 employee effectiveness. We argue that this spillover occurs because bedtime ego depletion 324 represents a baseline for employees' next-day availability of regulatory resources 325 notwithstanding recovery processes in the evening or during the night (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). recovery processes restore one's regulatory resources starting from a baseline. ...
Article
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Our study seeks to contribute to scholarly understanding of the antecedents and consequences of the crucial, but so far overlooked within-person daily fluctuations in presenteeism. Drawing on theoretical frameworks of presenteeism, which conceptualize presenteeism as an adaptive behavior to deliver work performance despite limitations due to ill-health, we develop a within-person model of daily presenteeism and examine somatic complaints and work-goal progress as crucial joint determinants of daily fluctuations in presenteeism. We further integrate the aforementioned theoretical frameworks with ego-depletion theory to argue that presenteeism requires self-regulation to suppress cognitions, emotions, and behavioral responses associated with ill-health and instead focus on completing one's work tasks. Accordingly, we predict that presenteeism depletes employees' regulatory resources and impairs employees' next-day work engagement and task performance. The results of a daily-diary study across 15 workdays with N = 995 daily observations nested in N = 126 employees show that daily work-goal progress attenuates the daily relation between somatic complaints and presenteeism, thereby also reducing the indirect effect of somatic complaints on employees' next-day work engagement and task performance through presenteeism and ego depletion. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of shifting presenteeism research from the macro- to the micro-level. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... This duration can range from a few minutes (e.g., Abdelrahman et al., 2017) to hours (e.g., González Chapela, 2015). Further, the pattern of recovery opportunities may vary for individuals (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015). As such, employees may engage in work breaks with varying frequency. ...
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In this chapter, we argue that state and trait mindfulness and mindfulness-based practices in the workplace should enhance employee outcomes. First, we review the existing literature on mindfulness, provide a brief history and definition of the construct, and discuss its beneficial effects on physical and psychological health. Second, we delineate a model of the mental and neurobiological processes by which mindfulness and mindfulness-based practices improve self-regulation of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors, linking them to both performance and employee well-being in the workplace. We especially focus on the power of mindfulness, via improved self-regulation, to enhance social relationships in the workplace, make employees more resilient in the face of challenges, and increase task performance. Third, we outline controversies, questions, and challenges that surround the study of mindfulness, paying special attention to the implications of unresolved issues for understanding the effects of mindfulness at work. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our propositions for organizations and employees and offer some recommendations for future research on mindfulness in the workplace.
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The EWCS aims to measure in a comparable perspective working conditions of workers across European countries and beyond. This allows for the analysis of relationships between different aspects of working conditions together, the identification of groups at risk and issues of concern, as well as areas of progress and the monitoring of trends over time. These analyses contribute to European policy development, in particular on issues with regard to the quality of work and employment. It does so by gathering information on “real” work experience by workers. results from the 5th edition carried out in 2010, with almost 44,000 workers interviewed in their homes in the EU27, Norway, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey are presented.
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Orientation: Although work characteristics and recovery strategies are associated with work- family interference, the influence on specific types of work-nonwork interference (W-NWI) has not been investigated. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of work characteristics and recovery strategies on four types of W-NWI.Motivation for the study: It is clear from the literature that job characteristics and W-NWI have adverse effects on employees’ health and well-being. It is therefore important to identify work characteristics and recovery strategies associated with W-NWI.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used in this study. The target population was married employees with children working at a Tertiary Education Institution (TEI) in the North West Province (N = 366).Main findings: Work pressure and emotional demands significantly predicted all the work-nonwork role interference dimensions. A lack of autonomy predicted work-parent interference and work-religion and/or spirituality interference, whilst a lack of development possibilities predicted work-religion and/or spirituality interference. Relaxation and mastery recovery experiences significantly predicted lower work-parent interference. A lack of psychological detachment and relaxation were significantly associated with lower work- spouse interference. Relaxation and control significantly predicted lower work-domestic interference, whilst psychological detachment significantly predicted lower work-religion and/or spirituality interference.Practical/managerial implications: The results give managers insight into the specific work characteristics and recovery experiences that play a role in W-NWI, upon which interventions can be based to address these issues.Contribution/value-add: This study provides information on the relationship between work characteristics, recovery experiences and the effect on different types of W-NWI.
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Work stressors are related to poor psychological detachment (i.e., mentally switching off) from work during nonwork time, which in turn is related to low levels of recovery and health. This article examines two general personality orientations, attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety, and one vocation-specific personality tendency, overcommitment, as buffers of the work stressors-psychological detachment relationship. Survey data were collected from a sample of Israeli employees (N = 210) and their significant others (N = 109) to avoid same-source bias of psychological detachment assessments. Analyses showed that attachment avoidance moderated the negative association between workload and psychological detachment (self-reported), but attachment anxiety did not moderate the associations of role conflict and role ambiguity with psychological detachment. Overcommitment was a full mediator between job stressors (workload and role conflict) and psychological detachment. This study demonstrates the importance of personality, especially vocational personality, in the work stressor-psychological detachment relationship.
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We investigated the mediating versus moderating role of psychological detachment in the relationship between job stressors and psychological strain. Our sample consisted of 173 university students invested in challenging programs of advanced professional studies, who could find it difficult to detach from work. Hierarchical regression analyses of cross-sectional survey data affirmed the role of psychological detachment as a mediator in the relationship between job demands and perceived stress. Detachment also mediated the relationship between job demands and satisfaction with life, although the association disappeared when controlling for negative affectivity. Detachment did not mediate relationships between job demands and cognitive failures. Psychological detachment did not moderate any of the investigated relationships. The study contributes to a view of psychological detachment as less subject to individual differences than to the imposition of stressors in the given context.
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Work recovery research has focused mainly on how after-work break activities help employees replenish their resources and reduce fatigue. Given that employees spend a considerable amount of time at work, understanding how they can replenish their resources during the workday is critical. Drawing on ego depletion (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000) and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), we employed multi-source experience sampling methods to test the effects of a critical boundary condition, employee lunch break autonomy, on the relation between lunch break activities and end-of-workday fatigue. Although specific energy-relevant activities had a main effect on end-of-workday fatigue, each of these was moderated by the degree of autonomous choice associated with the break. Specifically, for activities that supported the psychological needs of relatedness and competence (i.e., social and work activities, respectively), as lunch break autonomy increased, effects switched from increasing fatigue to reducing fatigue. To the extent that lunch break activities involved relaxation, however, lunch break autonomy was only important when levels of relaxation were low. We conclude that lunch break autonomy plays a complex and pivotal role in conferring the potential energetic benefits of lunch break activities. Contributions to theory and practice are discussed.
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This is one of the first studies to empirically examine the relationship between wireless communications technology and work interference with family, and results shed light on the motivating factors that influence individuals to continuously engage with mobile technologies, sometimes to their personal detriment. We draw from Conservation of Resources (COR) theory to examine the relationship between using mobile communications technologies during non-work time (e.g., evenings, weekends, vacation) and psychological variables related to work-family conflict and well being, and whether this relationship is mediated by perceptions of job control and detachment from work. We collected data from 139 full-time working adults from a large media organization and analyzed it by conducting two multiple mediation regression models using bootstrapping procedures (Preacher & Hayes, 2008). Results revealed that higher levels of mobile technology use during evenings, weekends and vacations were directly related to higher levels of work-family conflict, operationalized as work interference with family. Technology use was also related to both resource enhancing and resource depleting variables. Specifically, technology use was positively related to job control and negatively related to detachment from work. Job control and detachment from work, in turn, were negatively related to work interference with family. Findings suggested that the mediating effect of detachment on the relationship between technology use and work interference with family was greater than the mediating effect of job control, thus providing evidence to support the COR theory principle that resource loss is more salient than resource gain.
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Recently, Pfeffer (2010) called for a better understanding of the human dimension of sustainability. Responding to this call, we explore how individuals sustain an important human resource-their own energy-at work. Specifically, we focus on strategies that employees use at work to sustain their energy. Our findings show that the most commonly used strategies (e.g., switching to another task or browsing the Internet) are not associated with higher levels of human energy at work. Rather, strategies related to learning, to the meaning of one's work, and to positive workplace relationships were most strongly related to employees' energy.
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In 1999, van der Doef and Maes published a systematic review focusing on the Job-Demand–Control (JDC) model (Karasek, 1979) and the Job Demand–Control (-Support) (JDCS) model (Johnson & Hall, 1988) in relation to psychological well-being. Their review covered the period from 1979 to 1997. The present paper updates and extends this review. Covering research from 83 studies published between 1998 and 2007, our review revealed three major results: First, support for additive effects of demands, control, and social support on general psychological well-being is almost always found if the sample size is sufficient. Second, although there was consistent evidence for additive effects in relation to job-related well-being in cross-sectional studies, support rates were lower in longitudinal data. Thus, reciprocal or reversed causation might account for part of the association between JDC/JDCS dimensions and job-related well-being. Finally, evidence for interactive effects as predicted by the buffer hypotheses of the JDC/JDCS model was very weak overall. However, the pattern of results indicates that this is due neither to spurious evidence for such interactions nor to small effect sizes. Instead, our results suggest that buffering effects depend on whether or not demands and control are based on qualitatively identical JDC/JDCS dimensions (matching principle).
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The current study investigates workplace aggression and psychological detachment from work as possible antecedents of work-family conflict. We draw upon Conservation of Resources theory and the Effort-Recovery Model to argue that employees who fail to psychologically detach from stressful events in the workplace experience a relative lack of resources that is negatively associated with functioning in the nonwork domain. Further, we extend prior research on antecedents of work-family conflict by examining workplace aggression, a prevalent workplace stressor. Utilizing multisource data (i.e., employee, significant other, and coworker reports), our findings indicate that self-reported psychological detachment mediates the relationship between coworker-reported workplace aggression and both self- and significant other-reported work-family conflict. Findings from the current study speak to the value of combining perspectives from research on recovery from work stress and the work-family interface, and point toward implications for research and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Lack of psychological detachment from work during off-job time contributes to the increase in employee exhaustion over time. This study examines the reverse causal path from exhaustion to lack of psychological detachment, suggesting that this reverse process may operate within a relatively short time frame. Specifically, we examine if exhaustion predicts a decrease in psychological detachment from work during off-job time within several weeks. We propose that time pressure at work intensifies and that pleasurable leisure experiences reduce this association between exhaustion and the decrease in psychological detachment. We tested our hypotheses in a short-term prospective study (time lag: 4 weeks) with a sample of 109 employees. Ordinary least square regression analysis indicates that exhaustion predicted a decrease in psychological detachment from work over the course of 4 weeks. This decrease was particularly strong for employees working under time pressure and for employees who did not engage in pleasurable leisure experiences. Our findings suggest that exhausted employees find detachment from work increasingly difficult and therefore might suffer from insufficient recovery-although they need it most. The situation is particularly severe when exhausted employees face high time pressure and a lack of pleasurable leisure experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Leisure is a key life domain and a core ingredient for overall well-being. Yet, within positive psychology, its definition and the psychological pathways by which it evokes happiness are elusive (Diener and Biswas-Diener 2008). In this paper, we seek to address these issues by delineating leisure and presenting a conceptual framework linking leisure to subjective well-being (SWB). Leisure is defined as a multidimensional construct, encompassing both structural and subjective aspects. Respectively, it is the amount of activity/time spent outside of obligated work time and/or perceived engagement in leisure as subjectively defined. To explain the effects of leisure on SWB, a quantitative summary of theories from 363 research articles linking leisure and SWB was conducted. Based on our findings, we propose five core psychological mechanisms that leisure potentially triggers to promote leisure SWB: detachment-recovery, autonomy, mastery, meaning, and affiliation (DRAMMA). These psychological mechanisms promote leisure SWB which leads to enhanced global SWB through a bottom-up theory of SWB. We discuss how future research can use this conceptual model for understanding the interplay between leisure and SWB.
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Research examining the relationship between work stress and well-being has flourished over the past 20 years. At the same time, research on physiological stress processes has also advanced significantly. One of the major advances in this literature has been the emergence of the Allostatic Load model as a central organizing theory for understanding the physiology of stress. In this article, the Allostatic Load model is used as an organizing framework for reviewing the vast literature that has considered health outcomes that are associated with exposure to psychosocial stressors at work. This review spans multiple disciplines and includes a critical discussion of management and applied psychology research, epidemiological studies, and recent developments in biology, neuroendocrinology, and physiology that provide insight into how workplace experiences affect well-being. The authors critically review the literature within an Allostatic Load framework, with a focus on primary (e.g., stress hormones, anxiety and tension) and secondary (e.g., resting blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index) mediators, as well as tertiary disease end points (e.g., cardiovascular disease, depression, mortality). Recommendations are provided for how future research can offer deeper insight into primary Allostatic Load processes that explain the effects of workplace experiences on mental and physical well-being.
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Most vacations seem to have strong, but rather short-lived effects on health and well-being (H&W). However, the recovery-potential of relatively long vacations and the underlying processes have been disregarded. Therefore, our study focused on vacations longer than 14 days and on the psychological processes associated with such a long respite from work. In the present study, we investigated (1) how health and well-being (H&W) develop during and after a long summer vacation, (2) whether changes in H&W during and after vacation relate to vacation activities and experiences and (3) whether changes in H&W during and after vacation relate to sleep. Fifty-four employees reported their H&W before, three or four times during and five times after vacation. Vacations lasted 23 days on average. Information on vacation experiences, work-related activities and sleep was collected during vacation. Vacation activities were assessed immediately after vacation. H&W increased quickly during vacation, peaked on the eighth vacation day and had rapidly returned to baseline level within the first week of work resumption. Vacation duration and most vacation activities were only weakly associated with H&W changes during and after vacation. Engagement in passive activities, savoring, pleasure derived from activities, relaxation, control and sleep showed strong relations with improved H&W during and to a lesser degree after vacation. In conclusion, H&W improved during long summer vacations, but this positive effect was short-lived. Vacation experiences, especially pleasure, relaxation, savoring and control, seem to be especially important for the strength and persistence of vacation (after-) effects.
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Past behavior guides future responses through 2 processes. Well-practiced behaviors in constant contexts recur because the processing that initiates and controls their performance becomes automatic. Frequency of past behavior then reflects habit strength and has a direct effect on future performance. Alternately, when behaviors are not well learned or when they are performed in unstable or difficult contexts, conscious decision making is likely to be necessary to initiate and carry out the behavior. Under these conditions, past behavior (along with attitudes and subjective norms) may contribute to intentions, and behavior is guided by intentions. These relations between past behavior and future behavior are substantiated in a meta-analytic synthesis of prior research on behavior prediction and in a primary research investigation.
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In this diary study, we tested the recovery potential of exercise activities during leisure time and examined the psychological mechanisms underlying the relation between exercise activities and affect. We hypothesized that spending time on exercise activities after work will be related to subsequent affect in the evening, and that psychological detachment from work, sense of belonging, and physical self-perceptions explain why exercise activities are related to subsequent affect. One-hundred and twenty-six participants from diverse occupations completed a diary twice a day over five consecutive work days. Multilevel analyses showed that exercise activities after work were related to positive, but not to negative affect in the evening. As proposed, psychological detachment, sense of belonging, and physical self-perceptions mediated the relation between exercise activities after work and positive affect in the evening.
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Purpose – A body of research evidence has shown that job stressors are associated with lower levels of satisfaction and psychological well-being. It has been suggested that recovery after the work day may reduce fatigue, restore mood and improve well-being. The purpose of this paper is to examine predictors and consequences of four recovery experiences (psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery, and control) identified by Sonnentag and Fritz, to replicate and extend their work. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected from 887 men and women managers and professionals working in the manufacturing sector in Turkey using anonymously completed questionnaires (a 58 percent response rate). Findings – Respondents at higher organizational levels made more use of both mastery and control. Personality factors (need for achievement and workaholism components) were also positively correlated with use of mastery and control. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling both personal demographic and work situation characteristics showed generally positive relationships with use of recovery experiences and more favorable work and well-being outcomes. Psychological detachment, however, was found to have negative relationships with some of these outcomes suggesting more complex relationships with use of this recovery experience. Research limitations/implications – Questions of causality cannot be addressed since data were collected at only one point in time. Practical implications – Individuals, through practice, and organizations, through training efforts, can encourage employees to practice recovery while off the job to improve their work satisfaction and individual well-being. Originality/value – The paper presents the first study of recovery experiences in Turkey.
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The aim of this chapter is to provide a literature review on daily recovery during non-work time. Specifically, next to discussing theories that help us understand the process of recovery, we will clarify how recovery and its potential outcomes have been conceptualized so far. Consequently, we present empirical findings of diary studies addressing the activities that may facilitate or hinder daily recovery. We will pay special attention to potential mechanisms that may underlie the facilitating or hindering processes. Owing to the limited research on daily recovery, we will review empirical findings on predictors and outcomes of a related construct, namely need for recovery. We conclude with an overall framework from which daily recovery during non-work time can be understood. In this framework, we claim that daily recovery is an important moderator in the process through which job characteristics and their related strain may lead to unfavorable states on a daily basis.
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The aim of this study is to investigate the moderating effect of matching job resources as well as matching off-job recovery (i.e., detachment from work) on the relation between corresponding job demands and psychological outcomes. Using the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) Model as a theoretical framework, we conducted a cross-sectional survey study with 399 employees from three Dutch organizations. Results showed that (1) cognitive demands, resources, and lack of detachment are predictors of cognitive outcomes (i.e., active learning and creativity), (2) emotional demands and lack of detachment are predictors of emotional outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion), and (3) physical demands, lack of detachment, and lack of resources are predictors of physical outcomes (i.e., physical health complaints). Specifically, cognitive detachment from work might have negative effects on learning and creativity, whereas emotional and physical detachment from work might have positive effects on employees' health, and even on creativity. In conclusion, in order to cope with specific job demands, employees need corresponding job resources and detachment from work to balance health and performance-related outcomes.
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This study examined the role of partners and children for employees' psychological detachment from work during off-job time. Building on boundary theory, we hypothesized that not only employees' own work-home segmentation preference but also their partners' work-home segmentation preference is associated with employees' psychological detachment. In addition, partners' psychological detachment should influence employees' psychological detachment. We hypothesized that the presence of children in the household moderates partners' influence on employees' psychological detachment. Further, we expected both employees' and their partners' psychological detachment to contribute to employees' well-being. Participants were 114 dual-earner couples who responded to Web-based questionnaires. The hypotheses were tested with multilevel analyses, using the actor-partner interdependence model. Results confirmed our hypotheses. Employees' and their partners' work-home segmentation preferences were associated with employees' psychological detachment. The presence of children moderated the relation between partners' work-home segmentation preference and employees' psychological detachment. The relation was weaker when there were children in the household. Moreover, employees' and their partners' psychological detachment were positively associated. Again, the relation was weaker when there were children in the household. Finally, both employees' and their partners' psychological detachment contributed to employees' well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
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