PORT (Programme of Recognition and Therapy): The first Polish recognition and treatment programme for patients with an at-risk mental state
AimTo present the activities of the first early intervention centre in Poland and the Programme of Recognition and Therapy (PORT) run by the centre.Methods
An overview of the admission process, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic interventions offered to individuals with an at-risk mental state.ResultsThe PORT programme, developed in 2010, included 81 individuals, aged 15–29 years so far. The diagnostic procedures consists of evaluation of symptoms with the use of the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State (CAARMS), assessment of premorbid and current personality traits and the evaluation of cognitive functions. Therapeutic interventions include cognitive behavioural therapy, diet supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and pharmacological treatment. Overall rate of conversion into psychosis within the years 2010–2103 was 18.5%. The programme has also been a source of research in the field of early psychosis.Conclusions
The PORT programme enables young people with an ARMS an easy access to the specialized service offering treatment tailored to their specific needs.
Available from: Mark van der Gaag
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this guidance paper of the European Psychiatric Association is to provide evidence-based recommendations on the early detection of a clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis in patients with mental problems. To this aim, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting on conversion rates to psychosis in non-overlapping samples meeting any at least any one of the main CHR criteria: ultra-high risk (UHR) and/or basic symptoms criteria. Further, effects of potential moderators (different UHR criteria definitions, single UHR criteria and age) on conversion rates were examined. Conversion rates in the identified 42 samples with altogether more than 4000 CHR patients who had mainly been identified by UHR criteria and/or the basic symptom criterion 'cognitive disturbances' (COGDIS) showed considerable heterogeneity. While UHR criteria and COGDIS were related to similar conversion rates until 2-year follow-up, conversion rates of COGDIS were significantly higher thereafter. Differences in onset and frequency requirements of symptomatic UHR criteria or in their different consideration of functional decline, substance use and co-morbidity did not seem to impact on conversion rates. The 'genetic risk and functional decline' UHR criterion was rarely met and only showed an insignificant pooled sample effect. However, age significantly affected UHR conversion rates with lower rates in children and adolescents. Although more research into potential sources of heterogeneity in conversion rates is needed to facilitate improvement of CHR criteria, six evidence-based recommendations for an early detection of psychosis were developed as a basis for the EPA guidance on early intervention in CHR states.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Available from: Agnieszka M Pawelczyk
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism abnormalities have been long implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. Although several randomized clinical trials have been carried out to assess the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA as add-on therapy in reducing psychopathology in populations of chronic patients with schizophrenia, only a few concern first-episode schizophrenia. The majority of these studies used a 12-week intervention based on ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (ethyl-EPA), however, with conflicting results. An intervention based on docosahexaenoic acid plus EPA has not been used in first-episode schizophrenia studies so far. No add-on supplementation studies have been carried out in medicated first-episode schizophrenia patients to assess the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in preventing relapses.
A randomized placebo-controlled one-center trial will be used to compare the efficacy of 26-week intervention, composed of either 1320 mg/day of EPA and 880 mg/day of DHA, or olive oil placebo with regard to symptom severity and relapse rate in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Eighty-two patients (aged 16-35) will be recruited for the study. Eligible patients will be randomly allocated to one of two intervention arms: an active arm or a placebo arm (olive oil). The primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation is schizophrenia symptom severity measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Other outcomes include depressive symptoms, patient functioning and the level of insight. Correlates of change measured during the study will include structural brain changes, oxidative stress and defense, as well as neuroplasticity indicators. Metabolic syndrome components will also be assessed throughout the study.
By comparing 26-week administration of EPA + DHA or (placebo) olive oil as add-on therapy in reducing symptom severity and one-year relapse rate in patients with first episode schizophrenia, it is intended to provide new insights into the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA and correlates of change, and contribute to the improvement of mental health care for individuals suffering from schizophrenia.
This study has been registered at Clinical Trials.gov with the following number: NCT02210962 .
Available from: Pawełczyk Tomasz
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Telomere shortening is strongly associated with higher mortality rates and has been shown in a number of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, and psychiatric disorders. Oxidative stress is known to induce DNA breaks and genome instability. Telomeric DNA rich in guanosine is particularly sensitive to such oxidative damages. Psychosis is associated with a disequilibrium between free radical production and antioxidative defense. Although telomere attrition has been demonstrated in schizophrenia, no relationship has been reported between telomere length and severity of schizophrenia.
The aim of the present study was to identify differences in telomere length in peripheral blood cells between patients with chronic schizophrenia (C-SCZ) and early schizophrenia (E-SCZ) and to identify any relationship between telomere length and disease chronicity and severity.
Relative average telomere lengths were determined using qPCR assay in patients with E-SCZ (n=42) and C-SCZ (n=44) hospitalized due to schizophrenia exacerbation. E-SCZ was diagnosed when less than 2 years had passed since the beginning of psychotic symptoms. The severity of symptoms was assessed using appropriate scales.
The severity of schizophrenia symptoms, as well as the number of psychotic episodes and hospital admissions, correlated significantly with telomere length in univariate analyses. Regression analysis revealed that a model incorporating study group (E-SCZ or C-ECZ), sex, and age, as well as the combined number of documented psychotic episodes and hospital admissions, can significantly predict the length of telomeres in patients with schizophrenia, with over 50% of variance in telomere length explained by the model (adjusted R (2)=0.512).
The results of the current study indicate that the recurrence of psychotic symptoms as well as their intensity and chronicity may be correlated with telomere attrition, which is well known to contribute to the development of premature senescence and age-related diseases.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.