Driving Errors, Driving Violations and Accident Involvement

Ergonomics (Impact Factor: 1.56). 10/2007; 38(5):1036-1048. DOI: 10.1080/00140139508925170


A survey of over 1600 drivers is reported, the results of which are consistent with those reported in an earlier study (Reason et al. 1990), which identified a three-fold typology of aberrant driving behaviours. The first type, lapses, are absent-minded behaviours with consequences mainly for the perpetrator, posing no threat to other road users. The second type, errors, are typically misjudgements and failures of observation that may be hazardous to others. The third type, violations, involve deliberate contraventions of safe driving practice. In the present study the survey instrument used, the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire, was also shown to be reliable over time. Each type of behaviour was found to have different demographic correlates. Most importantly, accident liability was predicted by self-reported tendency to commit violations, but not by tendency to make errors or to have lapses. The implications for road safety are discussed.

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    • "The original DBQ contains 50 items (Reason et al., 1990). There have been several attempts to reduce the number of items since then such as a 24-item version that used the eight highest loading items on the 3 factors of ordinary violations, errors and lapses from the original 50-item version (Parker et al., 1995), and a 27-item version that included 3 additional items on aggressive violations previously identified as distinguishable from ordinary violations (Lawton et al., 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) is a self-report measure of driving behavior that has been widely used over more than 20 years. Despite this wealth of evidence a number of questions remain, including understanding the correlation between its violations and errors sub-components, identifying how these components are related to crash involvement, and testing whether a DBQ based on a reduced number of items can be effective. We address these issues using a bifactor modeling approach to data drawn from the UK Cohort II longitudinal study of novice drivers. This dataset provides observations on 12,012 drivers with DBQ data collected at .5, 1, 2 and 3 years after passing their test. A bifactor model, including a general factor onto which all items loaded, and specific factors for ordinary violations, aggressive violations, slips and errors fitted the data better than correlated factors and second-order factor structures. A model based on only 12 items replicated this structure and produced factor scores that were highly correlated with the full model. The ordinary violations and general factor were significant independent predictors of crash involvement at 6 months after starting independent driving. The discussion considers the role of the general and specific factors in crash involvement. (c) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Accident Analysis & Prevention
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    • "Age, gender, and driving frequency were controlled in the analysis as these factors may be related to responses of everyday violations and high risk driving and its correlates (e.g., Palk et al. 2011; Parker et al. 1995; Reason, et al. 1990). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Attitudes and individual difference variables of car and racing enthusiasts regarding high-risk behaviors of street racing and stunt driving have recently been investigated. Positive attitudes toward high-risk driving, personality variables such as driver thrill seeking, and other self-reported risky driving acts were associated with these behaviors. However, probable relationships among high-risk driving tendencies, everyday driving behaviors, and negative road safety outcomes have remained largely unexamined. This study aimed to investigate the associations among car and racing enthusiasts' high-risk driving attitudes, self-reported everyday driving violations (i.e., ordinary and aggressive violations), and self-reported negative outcomes (i.e., collisions and driving offense citations). Method: A web-based survey was conducted with members and visitors of car club and racing websites in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from 366 participants. The questionnaire included 4 attitude measures-(1) attitudes toward new penalties for Ontario's Street Racers, Stunt and Aggressive Drivers Legislation; (2) attitudes toward new offenses of stunt driving under the same legislation; (3) general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving; (4) comparison of street racing with other risky driving behaviors-self-reported driving violations (i.e., ordinary and aggressive violations); self-reported collisions and offense citations; and background and driving questions (e.g., age, driving frequency). Results: Results revealed that attitudes toward stunt driving offenses negatively and general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving positively predicted ordinary violations, which, in turn, predicted offense citations. Moreover, general attitudes toward street racing and stunt driving positively predicted aggressive violations, which, in turn, predicted offense citations. Conclusion: The findings indicate that positive high-risk driving attitudes may be transferring to driving violations in everyday traffic, which mediates driving offense citations.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Traffic Injury Prevention
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    • "The role of driver errors (e.g. using the wrong car equipment) seems more unclear. One study found that errors were correlated with accident involvement (Parker et al. 1995) while Rimmö and Åberg (1999) did not find significant positive associations between error conduct and accident involvement. Previous studies showed that risky self-reported driver behaviour in the DBQ correlated positively with observed risk-taking driver behaviour (West et al. 1993). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Few studies have examined differences in self-reported driver behaviour between drivers of one nationality who live in their country of origin (domestic drivers) or abroad (expatriate drivers). This study aimed to explore differences in self-reported driver behaviour among domestic and expatriate Iranian drivers. In addition we explore factors associated with self-reported accident involvement including personal injuries between these groups. Methods: A web-based questionnaire with a Persian version of the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) measuring self-reported driver errors and violations was distributed to respondents by availability sampling in social networks and by bulk email services. About 1000 individuals living in all provinces in Iran were invited to participate in the survey. We also invited Iranians living in more than 20 countries. A total of 634 domestic Iranians and 135 expatriate Iranians responded to our enquiry. The measure of driving behaviour asked respondents about violations and error conduct during the last two years on any kind of roads. The sample of domestic and expatriate drivers did not differ significantly in gender, age, education and driving hours per day. Domestic drivers were more likely to have experienced an accident in their life time. Both samples were relatively young of age (Domestic M integer= 28.53, SD = 6.85, Expatriate M integer= 29.21, SD = 7.71). Results: The results suggested that emotional violations were more common among the drivers living in Iran. Emotional violations and driver errors were related to self-reported accident involvement among domestic drivers, while ordinary rule violations were associated with such accidents in the expatriate group. Conclusions: Iranian expatriate drivers reported less emotional violations than domestic drivers. A potential reason is that the road traffic infrastructure and regulation enforcement in high-income developed countries do not facilitate emotional violations. Implications for road traffic safety and methodological limitations of the study are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Risk Research
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