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Relationships of Body Fat to Motor Fitness Test Scores

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between per cent body fat and selected motor fitness tests. Significant negative correlations of from −0.29 to −0.68 were found between per cent body fat and the selected motor fitness tests. The test items most affected by fat were those which involved running and jumping. Weight did not significantly affect the performance of any of the test items except the 220-yard dash.

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... Among the factors that interfere in the desired motor performance in non-disabled athletes is body composition. Riendeau et al. 5 reported that there is a positive correlation between high levels of fat-free mass and sports performance in activities of resistance, strength, power and speed, while increased adiposity has a negative impact on performance. This is in agreement with Cyrino et al. 6 , who reported that lower body fat values can favor the maximum performance representing a lower energy consumption and favoring the process of recovery after effort. ...
... Strong and significant relationship of % body fat with speed was observed in females, indicating that increased fat will increase the time of travel in speed, which corroborates the study by Riendau et al. 5 , who observed a negative impact of increased body fat on sports performance (strength, power and speed). It is noteworthy that this physical capacity is important for the sport performance in WH, since the modality has as characteristics accelerations, changes of direction and sprints. ...
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The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between body composition and motor performance in Wheelchair Handball players (WH). Overall, 21 athletes composed the sample (13 males and 8 females). To analyze motor performance, the following tests were used: ball driving, block performance, 20 m velocity and zigzag agility for individuals on wheelchair. Body mass, height, body perimeter and skinfold thickness (tricipital, subescapular, bicipital and supra-iliac) were used to establish body composition profile. Data was presented through descriptive statistics and inference was performed by Spearmans’ and Kruskal-Wallis correlation coefficient (non-parametric). Therefore, strong and significant correlations between body composition and motor performance were detected within different functional class and also according to sex, whereas male athletes showed significant correlation between body fat percentage and agility (r=0.70, p≤0.01) and, in the case of female athletes, body fat percentage is strongly related with speed (r=0.81, p≤0.01) and agility (r=0.74, p≤0.05). As conclusion, it was verified that apparently, increased body fat in body composition profile negatively influences motor performance in wheelchair handball players.
... For this reason, handball referees must be conditionally and mentally prepared to a level that allows them to properly follow those aspects of the game. In several scientific studies [3][4][5], a negative correlation was found for higher body fat levels with the level of motor or functional abilities such as speed, explosive power (the ability to overcome resistance with a high contraction rate [6]), coordination, agility (rapid whole-body movement with a change in velocity or direction in response to a stimulus [7]) and aerobic (low-intensity exercise activity) and anaerobic capabilities (anaerobic power is power used in high-intensity exercise activities lasting fewer than ten seconds which is the peak amount of time for phosphocreatine reserves to empty as a primary fuel source [8]). ...
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The purpose of the study was to determine the correlation of quality of the refereeing in handball with the morphological characteristics of referees, along with their age and experience. Subjects are 16 pairs (N=32) of top-level handball referees in Croatia (age 34.66±6.44, height 184.02±5.87 cm, body mass 91.14±10.61 kg, body fat 19,20±3,94% and body mass index 26.91±2.47 kg/m²) which have conducted morphological measures and tests for determination of their morphological status in the first part of the study. In the second part of the study, referees were evaluated in top-level handball matches to determine if their morphological status had an influence on the quality of refereeing. The correlation of quality of the refereeing with body fat was tested and there is no significant correlation (p=0.75). Pearson's correlation coefficient proves that total experience in refereeing does not have an influence on the quality of refereeing (r=0.30), and neither does the age of referees (r=0.23). Experience of refereeing in the highest rank has a statistically significant in-fluence on the quality of refereeing (r=0.62). Existing elimination criteria (measurement of morphological characteristics and functional abilities at official tests) that referees must satisfy at official seminars before the beginning and in the middle of the season make the selection of ref-erees. Based on these facts, it is concluded that the existing selection of referees is good and there is no great variability among them, considering their morphological characteristics. Experience in refereeing is significant for the quality of refereeing, especially experience in the highest level of competition.
... At the sound of the clapper the subjects started running. The time recorded to the nearest 1/10 th of a second was the individuals score [12]. ...
... There is a positive correlation between higher levels of FFM and sports performance (eg, endurance, strength, power, speed), whereas increased adiposity has a negative impact on this regard. 4 In addition, higher levels of fat mass (FM) have been related to increased metabolic disorders (eg, dyslipidemias, 5 insulin resistance, 6 cardiovascular diseases 7 ). ...
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Objective To investigate the longitudinal effects of Wheelchair Rugby (WR) training on body composition of tetraplegic subjects. Design Subjects were evaluated at baseline (T1) and after WR training (T2). Setting Faculty of Physical Education Settings. Participants Thirteen tetraplegic individuals (26.6±6.0 years). Interventions Four sessions per week of WR training composed by aerobic and anaerobic activities, and technical and tactical aspects of WR. The average time of intervention was 8.1 ± 2.5 months. Main Outcome Measures body composition assessed by Dual-energy W-ray Absorptiometry. Results After training, fat mass was significantly reduced in the whole body (15,191±4,603 vs. 13,212±3,318 grams, p=0.016), trunk (7,058±2,639 vs. 5,693±1,498 grams, p=0.012) and legs (2,847±817 vs. 2,534±742 grams p=0.003). Conversely, increased bone mass content (BMC) (183±35 vs. 195±32 grams, p=0.010) and fat-free mass (2,991±549 vs. 3,332±602 grams, p=0.016) in the arms and reduced BMC in the trunk (553±82 vs. 521±86 grams, p=0.034) were observed after training. Furthermore, no significant correlation between the duration of training and changes in body composition was detected. Conclusions Regular WR training increased lean mass and bone mass content in the arms and decreased total body fat mass. Conversely, WR training was associated with decreased BMC in the trunk. These results suggest that regular WR training improves body composition in tetraplegic subjects. Key words: Spinal Cord Injury, Physical Fitness, Tetraplegia Abbreviations: SCI (Spinal Cord Injury), WH (Wheelchair Rugby), FM (Fat Mass), FFM (Fat-Free Mass), BMD (Bone Mineral Density), BMC (Bone Mineral Content), DXA (Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry), T1 (Baseline), T2 (Post-assessment)
... Each anxiety measure (STAI or FIQR-anxiety) was included as dependent variable, and the different fitness tests as independent variables in separate models. The models were adjusted for age, body fat percentage [17] and anxiolytics intake [18], since these variables are potential confounders of the above-mentioned relationship. ...
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Purpose: To assess the independent associations of individual physical fitness components with anxiety in women with fibromyalgia and to test which physical fitness component shows the greatest association. Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study included 439 women with fibromyalgia (age 52.2 ± 8.0 years). Anxiety symptoms were measured with the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the anxiety item of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR). Physical fitness was assessed through the Senior Fitness Test battery and handgrip strength test. Results: Overall, lower physical fitness was associated with higher anxiety levels (all, p < 0.05). The coefficients of the optimal regression model (stepwise selection method) between anxiety symptoms and physical fitness components adjusted for age, body fat percentage and anxiolytics intake showed that the back scratch test (b = -0.18), the chair sit-and-reach test (b = -0.12; p = 0.027) and the 6-min walk test (b = -0.02; p = 0.024) were independently and inversely associated with STAI. The back scratch test and the arm- curl test were associated with FIQR-anxiety (b = -0.05; p < 0.001 and b = -0.07; p = 0.021, respectively). Conclusion: Physical fitness was inversely and consistently associated with anxiety in women with fibromyalgia, regardless of the fitness component evaluated. In particular, upper-body flexibility was an independent indicator of anxiety levels, followed by cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength.
... Many researchers have reported that body composition was significantly related to both submaximal and maximal VO2 (Barry & Cureton, 1961; Kireilis & Cureton. 1947: Riendeau & Welch, 1958 Wilmore, 1970). Even though total bodv weight is not an important factor in determining physical performance as described by Cooper (1968). ...
Article
Thesis (M.S.)--Texas Tech University, 2001. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 41-45).
... This is particularly evident for sports, where active (fat-free) mass with the right levels of body fat, are considered essential ingredients to optimize performance. While in general higher levels of %BF have been associated to poorer performance on tests of speed, endurance, agility and jumping ability (Riendeau et al. 1958), in disciplines where the body mass must be transported for a distance (e.g. dance, gymnastics and distance running) a lean physique and low %BF can offer competitive advantage (Tittel et al. 1988). ...
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A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the University of Wolverhampton for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Dance has attracted little scientific interest on the effects of physical fitness improvements on performance and injury severity, particularly with respect to contemporary dance. The main aims of the current work were: a) to observe the physical demands of dance performance; b) to develop a reliable dance-specific performance tool; c) to assess the association between selected physical fitness parameters and performance in contemporary dance by using a new reliable method (AC test); d) to assess selected physical fitness parameters in relation to injury severity in contemporary dance; e) to study the effects of increased fitness parameters on performance through a randomized controlled trial. A total of 50 performances, performed by 20 dancers, were monitored by using a portable accelerometers (SWA armbands) and heart rate monitors while 45 performances in DVDs were video analysed. Six dancers and two dance teachers were recruited to test a newly developed performance tool. A sample made of 41 dancers were recruited and assessed for aerobic fitness (DAFT), lower body muscular power (jump height test), upper body muscular endurance (press-ups test), flexibility (active and passive hip ROM), body composition (skinfolds), performance (n=17) and injury severity (n=16). In order to investigate the effects of the supplementary fitness training on performance, 24 of the total 41 dancers, were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n=12) or control (n=12) group. The intervention group undertook a specifically designed exercise-training programme (circuit and WBV training) lasting six weeks. Both groups were re-tested for physical fitness levels and performance at the end of the intervention period. Results revealed that performance intensities varied from light to moderate while these were observed with the use of pliés and jumps as well as lifting other dancers. Based on the seven most frequently used criteria by selected pre-professional contemporary dance institutions and companies, a novel performance tool (AC tool) was developed with an inter-rater reliability of r=0.96. There was a significant correlation between aesthetic competence (AC) scores and jump ability (r=0.55) and press-ups (r=0.55), respectively. Stepwise backward multiple regression analysis revealed that the best predictor of AC was press-ups (R2=0.30, p=0.03, 95% confidence intervals=0.11–1.34). Univariate analyses also revealed that the interaction of press-ups and jump ability improved the prediction power of AC (R2=0.44, p=0.004, 95% confidence intervals=0.009–0.04). Pearson’s correlation coefficients detected significant negative correlations between the mean score recorded for injury severity (expressed as TDO) and lower body muscular power (r=-0.66; p=0.014); backward regression analysis also revealed that, from all studied parameters, the strongest predictor of TDO was lower body muscular power (p=0.014). For the intervention group repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant increases (pre vs. post) in aerobic fitness (p<0.05), lower body muscular power (p<0.05), upper body muscular endurance (p<0.05) and performance (p<0.05). Linear regression analyses indicated that the only significant predictor of AC was aerobic capacity (F=7.641; p=0.03); the interaction of press-ups and aerobic capacity (F=6.297; p=0.036), and lower body muscular power with aerobic capacity (F=5.543; p=0.05) demonstrated an improved prediction power. These results show that the observed contemporary dance performance is an intermittent type of activity of moderate intensity. Given the reliability of the AC tool, it is concluded that upper body muscular endurance and jump ability best predict AC of contemporary dancers. Reduced lower body muscular power is associated with increased severity of injuries. Finally, supplementary exercise training significantly increases lower body muscular power, upper body muscular endurance and aerobic fitness, which in turn are beneficial to improve AC of contemporary dancers.
... Correlatiori coefficients between % fat and the scores on the four physical performance tests were similar in males and fernales, although all correlations were somewhat higher in males. For each test except the 12-minute run, the direction and magnitude of the correlations were in agreement with those reported in previous studies in which the relationship between % fat and performance in tasks that tested the maximum ability to move the body weight has been investigated in groups of adult males and females (Johnson, 1978; Kireilis & Cureton, &apos;1947; Leedy et al., 1965; Reindeau et al., 1958). Correlations of % fat with the 12-minute run were somewhat lower than in other reports (Katch et al.,.1973; Wilmore, 1970). ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the mean difference in performance between men and women on selected physical performance tests was related to the sex difference in body fatness. Percent total body fat (% fat) estimated from skinfold thickness measures and performances on the modified pull-up, vertical jump, 50-yard dash, and 12-minute-run tests were measured on 55 male and 55 female college students. Males had significantly less fat and performed significantly better than females on each of the performance tests. Mean differences were 8.2% fat, 20.0 modified pull-ups, 20.8 cm on the vertical jump, 1.3 seconds on the 50-yard dash, and 590 m on the 12-minute run. Linear regression equations predicting performance scores from % fat within the groups of men and women indicated that if body fatness in men and women were similar, performance differences would be reduced, on the average, by 7 modified pull-ups, 4 cm on the vertical jump, .5 seconds on the 50–yard dash, and 146 m on the 12-minute run. These expected changes in performance were 36%, 19%, 38%, and 25% of the mean sex difference in performance on the four physical performance tests, respectively. It was concluded that greater body fatness is one characteristic that partly explains why women, on the average, do not perform as well as men on strenuous tasks requiring movement of the body weight. The sex-specific difference in body fatness should be one factor considered in establishing separate occupational and athletic performance expectations for men and women.
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The aim of this study was to determine physiological loads in handball referees during the game, explore the impact of motor and functional abilities and morphological characteristics on quality of refereeing, and also to determine whether there is a relationship between physiological loads during the game and quality of the refereeing. The sample consisted of all 16 referee pairs which are 32 handball referees who are on the Croatian „Premijer liga― handball league list. Before the start of testing each participant sign a voluntary statement for testing and attached confirmation of the doctor confirming proper state of health. Handball referees measurements were divided into three parts. First and second measurement (laboratory) was performed in Dignostic center of Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb. The first two measurements were carried by competent and educated experts in field, employees of the Diagnostic Center. The third part was observed during matches of Croatian „Premijer liga― handball league as field measurements also by competent and educated expert. Laboratory measurements started with measuring kinanthropometric measures to identify morphological characteristics. After that referees spent 20 minutes warming up by protocol and then they conducted selected motor tests of agility, coordination and explosive power sprint type. After the break referees were tested for functional abilities with spyroergometric progressive load test on the treadmill. The third part of the measurements was observed during matches of Croatian „Premijer liga― handball league where referees were monitored for physiological loads during matches. During the match referees wore a telemetry system for monitoring the heart rate below the jersey and on wrist they had a wristwatch which recorded heart rate during the match. Data processing was carried out by statistical package STATISTICA 8. Multiple regression analysis determined the dependence of functional and motor abilities and morphological characteristics (independent variables) and average referees score (dependent variable) which is estimated during handball matches by supervisors. Statistical significance was estimated for time spent in anaerobic zone during the match with the quality of refereeing. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to establish correlations between age, total refereeing experience, refereeing experience in highest rank and average referees score. The average age of referees was 34,29 ± 6,20 years with an average experience of 13 ± 4,99 years in handball refereeing in total. Average years of refereeing in highest level of handball leagues was 7,03 ± 4,00 years. Measured morphological characteristics of referees indicates average body height of 184,46 ± 5,78 centimeters and weight of 91,73 ± 10,57 kilograms. The calculated average percentage of body fat was 19,20 ± 3,94 which indicates the optimal balance of body fat by referees. Body mass index was 26,91 ± 2,47 kg / m². From five motor abilities tests only test 93639 with turn for 180 degrees was statistically significant with a variable average referees score with standard regression coefficient of od -0,57 with significance level p = 0,00. Significant was also the whole regression model of tested motor abilities with coefficient of multiple correlation of 0,81, and determination coefficient of 0,66 with significance level p = 0,00. Non of the functional abilities variables, not functional ability as a whole were obtained with statistically significant difference with average referees score. Morphological characteristics of body weight percentage is also not statistically significantly associated with average referees score. Monitoring physiological loads during a match there wasn't statistically significant difference between percentage of time spent above the anaerobic threshold and average referees score. With correlation analysis there was statistically significant link between the experience in refereeing at the highest level and average referees score with r = 0,62. Average relative maximum oxygen uptake was measured for referees 45,35 ± 6,12 ml/min/kg. Poor anaerobic capacity was determined for handball referees, but there is satisfactory aerobic capacity. Looking at physiological requirements during handball games where is domination of aerobic energy use existing physical fitness of referees is optimal. Due to certain parts of the game with anaerobic energy consumption there is recommendation that referees work on physical fitness during their individual training and incorporate training for development of anaerobic capacity . Given the current elimination criteria that judges must meet during official seminars before start of the season and in the middle of the season there is no big variability between referees and they are homogeneous selection group. When there would be no elimination criteria in the official seminars there would be a greater variability between referees and it is possibility that all the assumed hypotheses would be confirmed, and all of tested abilities and characteristics would have significant effect on average referees score. Due to these facts, it is concluded that the existing selection of referees is good and there is no big variability among them when looking at their motor and functional abilities and morphological characteristics. Their functional capacity, percentage of body fat and percentage of time spent above the anaerobic threshold in that variability in which they do not discriminate one referee in the way that some referees are more successful in the average referees scores.
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Estudar a composição corporal de jogadores de futebol em relação a idade cronológica e anos de treinamento são importantes indicadores na avaliação, diagnóstico, prescrição e controle do treinamento. Objetivo: Analisar a composição corporal de jogadores profissionais de futebol em relação à idade cronológica. Métodos: A amostra foi composta por 95 jogadores profissionais que atuavam na primeira divisão do campeonato do futebol Peruano. Foram avaliadas as variáveis: Idade cronológica, anos de treinamento, peso, estatura, 6 dobras cutâneas, % de gordura, massa gorda (MG) e massa livre de gordura (MLG ). A idade cronológica foi classificada em 5 grupos de idade (18-21, 22-25, 26-29, 30-33 e 34-37 anos). Utilizou-se estatística descritiva e ANOVA (Tukey) par as comparações entre grupos. Resultados: Não houve diferença na estatura, percentual de gordura e massa gorda (p> 0,05). Houve aumentos significativos no peso corporal (5,4 kg) e massa magra (4,7 kg) em relação à idade cronológica. Os aumentos significativos de ambas as variáveissão atingidos no rango dos 26-29 anos com uma média de 12,6±2,2 anos de treinamento. Conclusões: A massa corporal total e massa magra aumentaram significativamente em relação a idade cronológica, observando-se valores mais elevados em idades mais avançadas. Estes resultados sugerem que nos programas de treinamento, os jogadores de futebol devem ser classificados por grupos de idade.
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The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between age, aerobic capacity (VO2 max) and other health indicators among 3 rescue groups. The type of training and the subjective perception of physical fitness obtained via the Assessment Questionnaire of Physical Fitness were also analysed. To obtain VO2 max, 37 firefighters, 22 lifeguards and 59 mine rescue workers had a treadmill test. Their body mass index and body fat percentage were also calculated. The results show a significant decline in VO2 max of the older participants, which affects the effectiveness of rescue work. Furthermore, the training of all groups was inconsistent and based on individual needs. Variable training and the decline in VO2 max with age affected the effectiveness of the rescue tasks of each group.
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ZET Bu araştırmada, osteoartriti olan yaşlı bireylerde, kronik ağrının bilişsel işlev, beden kütle indeksi, fiziksel aktivite, kol ve bacak esnekliğine etkisi değerlendirildi. Eklem şekil bozukluğu olmayan, anket sorularına yanıt verebilecek bilişsel işleve sahip, fiziksel fonksiyon yönünden bağımsız, testlere katılmasına engel olabilecek düzeyde ağır hastalığı bulunmayan, öykü, klinik muayene ve radyolojik değerlendirmeyle osteoartrit tanısı konulan, 60 yaş üzerindeki 51 gönüllü birey(25 bayan, 26 erkek) araştırmaya katıldı. Bireylere yaş, cins, ağrı, ağrının yeri, ağrı süresi hakkında bilgi veren bir anket formu uygulandı. Ağrısı olanlar araştırma grubunu, ağrısı olmayanlar kontrol grubunu oluşturdu. Tüm bireylerde; boy, vücut ağırlığı, BKİ, Standardize Mini Mental Muayene Testi, Fiziksel Fonksiyon Skalası, Sandalyede Otur Eriş Testi, Sırt Kaşıma Testi; ağrılı olanlarda Görsel Ağrı Cetveli(VAS) ve Western Ontario ve McMaster Universitesi Osteoartrit İndeksi(WOMAC) değerlendirildi. İstatistik analiz Mann-Whitney U testiyle yapıldı(p=0.05). Ağrısı olan bayanlar ile olmayanlar arasında, bilişsel işlev puanı, BKİ, fiziksel aktivite puanı, sırt kaşıma testi ve sandalyede otur-eriş testi puanları yönünden fark saptanmadı(p>0.05). Ağrısı olan erkeklerin BKİ değeri, ağrısı olmayan erkeklerden daha yüksek; fiziksel aktivite puanı, sırt kaşıma testi ve sandalyede otur-eriş testi puanları daha düşüktü(p<0.05). Bilişsel işlev puanı yönünden, ağrılı ve ağrısız iki erkek grubu arasında istatistiksel fark saptanmadı(p>0.05). Ağrısı olan bayanlarla, erkekler arasında WOMAC puanı yönünden anlamlı fark belirlenmedi(p>0.05) Ağrısı olan bayanlarda VAS değeri, sırt kaşıma testi ve sandalyede otur eriş test sonucu ağrısı olan erkeklerden daha yüksekti(p<0.05). Osteoartrite bağlı ağrı, özellikle yaşlı erkeklerde, fiziksel aktivite, BKİ, alt ve üst ekstremite esneklik değerlerini olumsuz etkilemektedir. SUMMARY In this resarch, the effects of pain dependent to osteoarthritis in older people on cognitive function, body mass index(BMI),physical activity,upper and lower extremity flexibility were evaluated.51 volunteered subjects(25 females, 26 males) participated to the study.Inclusion criterias were:a)older than 60 years,b)without joint deformity,c)sufficient cognitive function to communicate,d)independent,e)hadn't severe diseases,f)diagnosed as osteoarthritis(OA) according to medical history, clinical examination and radiologic evaluation. A questionnaire form which consists of information about age,sex,pain,pain localization, and pain duration was applied to the subjects. The subjects with pain were in Research Group, and the others who hadn't pain were in Control Group.Height,weight,BMI,Standardized Mini Mental Examination Test,Physical Function Scale,Chair sit and reach test,Back scratch tests were evaluated in all subjects and Visual Analogue Scale(VAS),Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index(WOMAC) were applied in the subjects with pain.Mann-Whitney U test was made for statistical analysis(p=0.05).Statistical difference was not found between female subjects with pain and without pain in cognitive function,BMI,physical function scale,back scratch and chair sit and reach tests(p>0.05).BMI index was higher, physical function scale, back scratch,chair sit and reach test results were lower in male subjects who had pain than the subjects who had no pain(p<0.05).There was no statistical significance according to cognition between the male subjects with pain and without pain(p>0.05). WOMAC score difference wasn't obtained between male and female subjects who had pain(p>0.05).VAS, back scratch, chair sit and reach test scores were higher in female subjects than male subjects with pain(p<0.05).The pain dependent to OA affected physical function,BMI,upper and lower extremity flexibility especially older males.
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Cross-sectional. To compare relative body fatness (%Fat) estimates from field methods (skinfold thickness measurement (SKF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)) with measures by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA. Field methods used both three- and seven-site SKF prediction equations and BIA generalized, spinal cord injury (SCI)-specific and athlete-specific equations. DXA was used as the reference method. College-aged varsity athletes with SCI (women=8, men=8; time since injury 16.2+/-5.7 years; injury level range T5-L5) were recruited. Mean BMI was 20.8+/-2.6 and 22.5+/-2.1 kg m(-2), and mean DXA %Fat was 31.9+/-3.8 and 20.6+/-8.4%, for women and men, respectively. All field methods under-predicted the %Fat when compared with DXA (ranges in mean differences: SKF women 2.9-8.2%, SKF men 6.9-12.4%; BIA women 0.5-3.9%, BIA men 0.3-7.0%). None of the field methods accurately predicted the %Fat compared with DXA (total error (TE): SKF women 7.4-12.1%, SKF men 8.4-15.2%; BIA women 5.1-9.3%, BIA men 6.7-10.7%). Of the SKF and BIA prediction equations, Evans et al.'s three-site SKF (r=0.95, P<0.001, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=2.8 %Fat) prediction equation provided the best fit for this population. Further studies with larger samples are necessary to develop appropriate prediction equations for field methods in the athletic SCI population.
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The components of body composition were studied in 56 second class rugby union football players: 28 forwards and 28 backs. Fowards were found to have 19.5% TBF (TOTAL BODY FAT) and 80.5% LBM (LEAN BODY MASS); backs 12.2% TBF and 87.8% LBM. It was felt that greater attention should be given to the ratio of TBF to LBM in determining body weight and that there should be an increased emphasis of the LBM at the expense of TBF.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether neural and/or muscular factors contributed to the inferior strength-related motor performances of obese adolescents. Subjects were 10 non-obese (14.6% fat) and 11 obese (32.3% fat) males matched for age (15-18 years), level of maturity (Tanner stages IV and V), lean body mass, and height. Peak torque (PT) was measured during maximal voluntary isometric (IS) and isokinetic (IK) knee extension (KE). Peak twitch torque (TT), time to peak torque (TPT), and half-relaxation time (HRT) of the knee extensors were elicited by percutaneous electrical stimulation. The interpolated twitch technique was used to determine the extent of motor unit activation (% MUA) during maximal voluntary IS KE. Knee extensor cross-sectional area (CSA) was determined by computed axial tomography taken at the mid-thigh. All strength and area measurements were made on the right side of the body. Obese subjects had significantly (P less than 0.05) lower maximal voluntary IS and IK KE strength normalized for body weight, and significantly lower % MUA during IS KE. There were no significant differences (P greater than 0.05) between groups for absolute or normalized (for the product of muscle CSA and height) ISPT, IKPT, and TT, knee extensor CSA, or TPT and HRT. These results suggest that reduced MUA and a lower strength per mass ratio (due to excess fat) are probably important contributing factors to the poorer motor performances of the obese, especially for complex motor tasks involving large muscle groups and the support or moving of body weight.
Anaerobic power output was measured by the staircase climb test in 14 obese, 16 lean, and 21 ordinary men aged from 18--22 years. Fat storage rate (%fat) was estimated by densitometry. The obese group ranked highest with an average power output of 1,012 W. This value was significantly higher than those of the other two groups, 890 W for lean subjects and 855 W for ordinary subjects. The power output per kilogram of lean body mass of the obese group was the highest also. However, the vertical velocity was the lowest although the difference among the three average values was not statistically significant. To investigate the effect of excess fat, eight non-obese subjects engaged in an added-weight experiment. The value obtained was almost the same as for the obese group. The added weights made the vertical velocity decrease but the power output increase. Consequently, it was obvious that the excess fat of an obese man played a role only as an inert mass in the power output measurement. A significantly higher power output of the obese group might be due to more excess fat, and obesity itself was an advantage in the staircase climb test.
Article
It has been postulated that additional adiposity has a negative effect on performance in heterogeneous groups of runners. Previous studies have not tested this hypothesis in homogeneous groups of elite runners. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sum of skinfold thicknesses and specific single skinfold sites were related to competitive running performance in homogeneous groups of male and female elite athletes. In total, 184 top-class runners (130 males and 54 females) volunteered to participate in the study. Skinfolds were measured at the following sites: biceps, triceps, subscapular, pectoral, iliac crest, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf. Runners were classified into groups in accordance with their best performance times. Correlation analysis and partial correlation coefficients that controlled for age and weight were applied to each single skinfold, the sum of six skinfolds (excluding biceps) and the extremity (sum of triceps, front thigh, medial calf) to trunk (sum of subscapular, iliac crest, abdominal) ratio and performance. Performance was rated by the scoring procedures of the International Amateur Athletics Federation. In male runners, the pectoral, iliac crest, abdominal, biceps, triceps, subscapular skinfolds and the sum of six skinfolds were not associated with performance score for any of the distances. High correlations were found between the front thigh (r = 0.78, P = 0.000) and medial calf (r = 0.55, P = 0.018) skinfolds and 1500 m run time, and between the front thigh (r = 0.59, P = 0.014) and medial calf (r = 0.57, P = 0.017) skinfolds and 10,000 m run time. In female runners, the front thigh and medial calf skinfolds were highly correlated with 400 m run time (r = 0.71, P = 0.022 and r = 0.81, P = 0.005, respectively). The results of this study indicate that skinfold thicknesses in the lower limb are positively associated with running time over several distances, and may be a useful predictor of athletic performance.
Article
The aim of this study was to compare the validity of the leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method with that of anthropometry using hydrostatic weighing (HW) as the criterion test. A secondary objective was to cross-validate previously developed anthropometric regression equations as well as to develop a new regression equation formula based on the anthropometric data collected in this study. Three methods for assessing body composition (HW, BIA, and anthropometric) were applied to 60 women university athletes. The means and standard deviations of age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) of athletes were as follows: age, 20.70 +/- 1.43; weight, 56.19 +/- 7.83 kg; height, 163.33 +/- 6.11 cm; BMI, 21.01 +/- 2.63 kg x m(-2). Leg-to-leg BIA (11.82 +/- 2.39) has shown no statistical difference between percentage body fat determined by HW (11.63 +/- 2.42%) in highly active women (p > 0.05). This result suggests that the leg-to-leg BIA and HW methods were somewhat interchangeable in highly active women (R = 0.667; standard error of estimate [SEE] = 1.81). As a result of all cross-validation analyses, anthropometric and BIA plus anthropometric results have generally produced lower regression coefficients and higher SEEs for highly active women between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The regression coefficients (0.903, 0.926) and SEE (1.08, 0.96) for the new regression formulas developed from this study were better than the all the other formulas used in this study.
Article
To investigate the association of anthropometric parameters to race performance in ultra-endurance runners in a multistage ultra-endurance run. Descriptive field study. The Deutschlandlauf 2006 race in Germany, where athletes had to run 1200 km within 17 consecutive days. There were no interventions. In total, there were 19 male Caucasian ultra-endurance runners (mean (SD) 46.2 (9.6) years, 71.8 (5.2) kg, 179 (6) cm, BMI 22.5 (1.9) kg/m(2)). Determination of body mass, body height, length of lower limbs, skin-fold thicknesses, circumference of limbs, body mass index (BMI), percentage skeletal muscle mass (%SM), and percentage body fat (%BF) in 19 successful finishers in order to correlate anthropometric parameters with running performance. A significant association of upper arm circumference with the total running time was found (p<0.05, r2 = 0.26). No significant association was found with the directly measured anthropometric properties body height, body mass, average skin-fold thickness and the circumference of thigh and calf (p>0.05). Furthermore, no significant association was observed between the running time and the calculated parameters BMI, %BF, and %SM (p>0.05). In an ultra-endurance run over 1200 km within 17 consecutive days, circumference of the upper arm was the only factor associated with performance in well-experienced ultra-endurance runners. Body mass, BMI, body height, length of limbs, skin-fold thicknesses, circumference of limbs and the calculated percentage body composition of skeletal muscle mass and body fat showed no association with running performance.