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Abstract

The use of domestic animals to protect livestock was reviewed through visits to actual users, discussions with experts and a thorough literature search. Costs and benefits were analysed in terms of reduced livestock losses. The most common guardian animals are dogs, which have been shown to reduce predation (documented mostly for coyote) by 11?100%. Livestock guardian dogs have also been used effectively against bear, wolf and cheetah. Donkeys are also used as guardian animals, and their effectiveness lies in their natural herding behaviour and aggression, especially against canids. The effectiveness of donkeys varies considerably dependent upon the predator species and the temperament of the individual donkey. Llamas are also used as a guardian animal, with approximately the same characteristics as the donkeys, and will defend themselves against most predators. The use of guardian animals appears to be an effective tool for reducing livestock depredation and should be evaluated in areas with high predation losses against the cost of changing production systems.
... The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has advocated that wildlife management staff should be equipped with bear spray when patrolling in the wild. Bear spray is an effective bear deterrent and can correct their behavior of harming people [32,34]. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in Washington mitigated HBCs by forcibly relocating bears that frequently wandered near community dump sites [35]. ...
... It effectively protects people in a close encounter with a bear, and may alter the behavior of bears in terms of their boldness and propensity to approach people in the future. [32,34] Diversionary feeding Diversionary feeding is commonly used in some European countries to mitigate bear conflicts. The concept is to provide a readily available food that substitutes the food bears seek in and around human dwellings. ...
Article
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Personal injury and property damage caused by wildlife can worsen the relationship between humans and wildlife. In recent years, conflicts between herders and Tibetan brown bears (Ursus arctos pruinosus) (human–bear conflicts; HBCs) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau have increased dramatically, severely affecting community motivation for the conservation of brown bears and other species. Understanding the types, effectiveness, and flaws of current HBC mitigation measures is critical to develop effective strategies to alleviate HBC. From 2017 to 2019, we conducted a systematic field survey regarding HBCs on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. In addition, we invited bear specialists and multiple interest groups to hold an HBC seminar and proposed some potential mitigation strategies. We surveyed 312 families via semi-structured interviews and documented 16 types of HBC mitigation measures. A total of 96% of respondents were using more than two mitigation measures simultaneously. The effectiveness evaluation of HBC mitigation measures showed that: (1) removing food from winter homes while herders were at their summer pastures and asking people to keep watch of winter homes were effective at protecting food and houses; (2) traditional grazing methods (human guarding of livestock all day) and solar soundboxes (attached to livestock) were effective at protecting free-range livestock; (3) solar street lights had a deterrent effect on brown bears and were effective in protecting livestock, houses, and people; and (4) due to the unstable power supply of photovoltaic cells and improper installation of ground wires, electric fences were not ideal in practice. Evaluation of the potential mitigation measures at the seminar showed that upgrading electric fence technology, expanding electric fence pilot areas, installing diversionary feeders, and introducing bear spray were the most optimal solutions. This study provides a scientific basis for creating human–bear coexistence plans on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
... Pastoralists have utilized LGDs to mitigate depredation of livestock for at least 5000 years (Gehring et al., 2010;Ivaşcu and Biro, 2020). Contemporary research on LGDs indicates they are effective for reducing livestock loss (Green et al., 1984;Andelt, 1992;Andelt and Hopper, 2000;Smith et al., 2000;van Bommel and Johnson, 2012;Kinka and Young, 2019). However, one recent meta-analysis found that their effectiveness may be weak relative to other non-lethal methods, at least when protecting lambs from coyotes, cougars, and black bears (Eklund et al., 2017). ...
... This displacement may be related to the association between dogs and humans (Hansen, 2014;Støen et al., 2015;Piédallu et al., 2017); a scenario similar to LGDs with shepherds. Further, while LGDs can successfully defend livestock from black bears (Smith et al., 2000) and cougars (González et al., 2012), it is unclear whether this is accomplished via displacement or more direct interactions. There has been an emergence of research to understand effects of dogs (Canis familiaris) and humans on wildlife (e.g., Hansen, 2014, Lescureux and Linnell, 2014, Young et al., 2011, Parsons et al., 2016, Gehr et al., 2017, Gaynor et al., 2018, which has recently extended to livestock guardian dogs (Drouilly et al., 2020;Smith et al., 2020;Whitehouse-Tedd et al., 2020). ...
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Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are an attractant to carnivores; however, sheep are often accompanied by humans and livestock guardian dogs (LGDs; Canis familiaris), which defend sheep from depredation. Sheep also compete directly with wildlife for grazing resources. Although practiced for millennia in much of the world outside North America, the effect that transhumance has on wildlife is poorly understood. To test the effect of sheep bands (sheep, humans, and LGDs) on wildlife, we modeled the detection probability of wild mammals relative to the presence of sheep bands in the Northwestern United States. Sheep band presence was associated with a reduction of about half in the likelihood of detecting large carnivores (Ursus americanus, Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, and Puma concolor, p < 0.05) and deer (Odocoileus spp., p < 0.01), both while the band was present and after it left the area. Contrastingly, coyotes (Canis latrans) were more than three times as likely to be detected when sheep bands were present (p < 0.001), and twice as likely after sheep bands left (p < 0.01). Coyotes were the only species we modeled that was more likely to be detected when a sheep band was present. It is unclear how long these effects persist after a sheep band has moved through an area, but our results suggest that transhumance temporarily displaces many large mammals, which results in mesopredator release of coyotes. This study suggests there is a tradeoff between the conservation benefits provided by LGDs and humans protecting sheep and the costs of displacement to some wild mammals.
... Perhaps the most effective means of reducing grizzly bear predation on livestock is to remove sheep and cattle from depredation hotspots, as has been done to great effect in the Greater Yellowstone region through retirement of targeted grazing allotments on Forest Service jurisdictions (Wells et al. 2019, https://www.grizzlytimes.org/landscapes-ofconflict). Guardian dogs and electrically-charged fences around calving areas or sheep pastures have also proven to be effective (Huygens & Hayashi 1999, Smith et al. 2000, DeBolt 2001, Andelt 2004, Miller et al. 2016, Scasta et al. 2017, Smith et al. 2018, Kinka et al. 2019, although with the important proviso that applications in practice are limited to productive rangelands where livestock can be concentrated and entailing the expense and logistical difficulties of supervising guardian animals, closely surveilling livestock, and deploying fencing. Intuitively, increased oversight by human caretakers also has a role to play in reducing depredations (e.g., Barnes 2015), although the extent of this benefit has not been conclusively demonstrated by research. ...
Technical Report
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For perhaps 30,000 years grizzly bears ranged throughout the mountains and riparian areas of what would eventually become the southwestern United States. But in a remarkably short 50-year period between 1860 and 1910 Anglo-Americans killed roughly 90% of the grizzly bears in 90% of the places they once lived. Most of the remaining grizzlies had been killed by the 1930s. This report provides a detailed account of natural history, relations with humans, and current and future prospects for grizzly bears of the Southwest, emphasizing the millennia prior to ascendance of Anglo-Americans. The report’s narrative is essentially chronological, starting with deep history spanning the late Pleistocene up through arrival of European colonists (Section 3.1); the period of Spanish and Mexican dominance (Section 3.2); and then the period of terminal grizzly bear extirpations that began with the political and military dominance of Anglo-Americans (Section 3.3). Section 4 examines current environmental conditions and related prospects for restoring grizzly bears to the Southwest. Section 5 completes the chronological arc by forecasting some of what the future might hold, with implications for both grizzly bears and humans. The background provided in Section 2 offers a synopsis of grizzly bear natural history as well as a summary of foods and habitats that were likely important to grizzlies. Throughout the Holocene there was a remarkable concentration of diverse high-quality bear foods in highlands of the Southwest, notably in an arc from the San Francisco Peaks of Arizona southeast along the Coconino Plateau and Mogollon Rim to a terminus in the White, Mogollon, and Black Range Mountains in New Mexico. Additional high-quality habitat existed in the Sacramento, San Juan, Jemez, and Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico and adjacent Colorado. Grizzlies in the Southwest survived remarkable extremes of climate and habitats for perhaps as long as 100,000 years. They also survived substantial variation in human-propagated impacts that culminated in the Crisis of 875-1425 C.E.—a period typified by episodic drought and the highest human population densities prior to recent times. In contrast to relatively benevolent attitudes among indigenous populations, there is little doubt that the terminal toll taken on grizzly bears by Anglo-Americans after 1850 C.E was driven largely by a uniquely lethal combination of intolerance and ecological dynamics entrained by the eradication or diminishment of native foods and the substitution of human foods, notably livestock, that catalyzed conflict. More positively, the analysis presented here of current habitat productivity, fragmentation, and remoteness—as well as regulations, laws, and human attitudes—reveals ample potential for restoration of grizzlies to the Southwest, including three candidate Restoration Area Complexes: the Mogollon, San Juan, and Sangre de Cristo, capable of supporting around 620, 425, and 280 grizzlies each. Major foreseeable challenges for those wishing to restore grizzly bears to these areas include sanitation of human facilities, management of livestock depredation, education of big game hunters, coordination of management, and fostering of accommodation among rural residents. Climate change promises to compound all of these challenges, although offset to an uncertain extent by prospective increases in human tolerance. But the evolutionary history of grizzly bears also provides grounds for optimism about prospective restoration. Grizzly bears have survived enormous environmental variation spanning hundreds of thousands of years, including many millennia in the Southwest. Grizzlies survived not only the inhospitable deeps of the Ice Ages in Asia and Beringia, but also the heat and drought of the Altithermal on this continent. It was only highly-lethal Anglo-Americans that drove them to extinction in the Southwest, which is why human attitudes—more than anything else—will likely determine prospects for restoring grizzly bears.
... LGD are generally large-bodied breeds (35-45 kg, 65 cm or higher at the shoulders; Smith et al. 2010). They are bonded to livestock from an early age, have been bred to be calm and inoffensive around livestock in their behaviour and appearance, and do not engage in stalking or intimidation towards livestock, as would be expected from herding dogs (van Bommel 2010). ...
Article
Context Predation of layer chickens is a major issue for free-range egg producers. Using livestock guardian dogs (LGD) to protect free-ranging poultry is a possible option for producers, although there is little published literature regarding how the dogs protect chickens. Aims This case study was conducted at a free-range egg production farm in Western Australia, where red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were a common predator of chickens prior to introducing Maremma LGD. We investigated LGD responses to experimental cues that might indicate fox incursion (fox urine and calls). Methods Four dogs were GPS tracked and monitored using camera traps. Over the first week, experimental fox cues were set out around the paddock boundaries, alternating with ‘non-cue’ experimental control nights. We recorded whether the LGD altered (1) their space use, (2) activity patterns (movement speed), or (3) behaviour in response to these cues. We also recorded (4) distances between LGD from known sightings of foxes. Key results The Maremmas appeared to work independently of each other, covering separate areas. There was no significant difference in overnight home range area by experimental fox cue treatment, but there was a significant (P < 0.001) treatment × dog interaction term for distance moved. Three dogs spent most of their time at night around the chicken shelters and generally increased distances moved on experimental fox cue nights. The fourth dog was more bonded to people and did not alter its movements. Paradoxically, dogs rested more and barked less on experimental fox cue nights; however, we recorded foxes on camera traps placed around the chicken shelters on 17 of the 23 nights of monitoring, and the high background activity level of foxes on this property compromised our experimental control (nights without experimental fox cues). The dogs did not move towards known fox sightings. Conclusions The Maremmas in this trial closely guarded the chicken shelters rather than maintaining the entire paddock as a predator-exclusion zone. Implications Understanding how guardian dogs behave when challenged by potential predators will help increase producers’ confidence in the efficacy of these dogs as a viable method to protect livestock from predation threat.
... Eventhough, there are a number of measures that have shown to be useful to reduce the damages of large carnivores in general (Eklund et al. 2017;van Eeden et al. 2018). Proposed measures include the use of fences (Ambarlı and Bilgin 2008; Foggin and Rabden 2010) or livestock guarding dogs (Andelt and Hopper 2000;Eklund et al. 2017;Gillin et al. 1997;Karamanlidis et al. 2011;Linnell and Lescureux 2015;Otstavel et al. 2009;Rigg 2004;Smith et al. 2000). However, still the use of these two Table 2 Goodness-of-fit statistics and estimated parameters of the proportional probability models in which an influence of the variables "Bear presence" and "Regions" appears in the distribution of answers in the different questions (Palazón et al. 2018). ...
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During 2017, we studied knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards brown bears by extensive mountain sheep farmers in the Western Pyrenees, using a structured questionnaire, specifically, whether the scarce bear presence, or the administrative region, was influential. Livestock raising practices are mainly family properties and have suffered a strong decline in the last decades. Despite its low abundance (only 2 bear individuals during the study period in the area), there was a generalized negative attitude towards the presence of bears. Farmers considered bear presence as incompatible with sheep mountain herding. One third of them have experienced bear damages, although this was not the main difficulty for the viability of farming practices. They were able to change husbandry practices after wildlife and dog’s damages, increasing vigilance, hiring shepherds, and using livestock guarding dogs, whose work is perceived as satisfactory. Farmers considered that information available about bear and compensation systems for damages was insufficient, and should be improved.
Article
Evolution of Learning and Memory Mechanisms is an exploration of laboratory and field research on the many ways that evolution has influenced learning and memory processes, such as associative learning, social learning, and spatial, working, and episodic memory systems. This volume features research by both outstanding early-career scientists as well as familiar luminaries in the field. Learning and memory in a broad range of animals are explored, including numerous species of invertebrates (insects, worms, sea hares), as well as fish, amphibians, birds, rodents, bears, and human and nonhuman primates. Contributors discuss how the behavioral, cognitive, and neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory have been influenced by evolutionary pressures. They also draw connections between learning and memory and the specific selective factors that shaped their evolution. Evolution of Learning and Memory Mechanisms should be a valuable resource for those working in the areas of experimental and comparative psychology, comparative cognition, brain–behavior evolution, and animal behavior.
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Farming with more than one livestock species has been discussed as being more sustainable compared to specialised production systems. Some potentially positive effects of multi-species livestock farming can only occur when different species share space, e.g. by co-grazing. To date there is limited research on the behaviour of animals in multi-species livestock groups. If co-grazing is adopted more widely, it is important to investigate its effect on the animals’ behaviour and subsequently their welfare. One of the most prevalent species combinations in a survey of 126 multi-species livestock farms was cattle and poultry. Therefore, we aimed to describe and quantify inter-species interactions between young cattle and broiler chickens when co-grazing and descriptively compare intra-species interactions as well as maintenance, comfort and social behaviours between single- and multi-species groups of cattle and broilers on pasture. Additionally, we assessed fearfulness in broilers co-grazing with or without cattle as measured by Tonic Immobility (TI), an Inversion test and a Novel Object test. Across five replicates we observed three groups in each six-week cycle: One single-species group of ten cattle, one single-species group of 54 to 61 broilers, and one multi-species group of ten cattle and 54 to 61 broilers. Once per week the multi-species group was observed for 120 min using behaviour sampling to quantify the occurrence of inter- and intra-species interactions. On two other days per week, single- and multi-species groups were observed in a balanced order using continuous focal animal sampling to assess frequency and duration of maintenance, comfort and social behaviours for ten animals per species for 6 min each. During all observations scan sampling was performed every 6 minutes to count the number of visible animals per pasture sector. Across observation methods, two independent observers achieved high agreement for most behaviours. Inter-species interactions occurred two to three times per hour and ten animals per species, whereas intra-species interactions occurred between 18 and 28 times per hour and ten cattle or broilers. The most frequently observed inter-species interactions were cattle displacing broiler and broiler approaching cattle. More generally, maintenance, comfort and social behaviours as well as measures of fearfulness did not differ between animals in single- and multi-species groups, but the variation was high across observations. These findings should be verified with a greater number of animals and groups to be more applicable to commercial settings, but we conclude tentatively that co-grazing did not affect cattle or broilers negatively.
Thesis
p>The present study is an effort towards the international and multidisciplinary approach to conservation of European biodiversity. The main aim was to map the distribution of suitable areas for the conservation of bears, lynx and wolves in the Carpathian Mountains. It was done applying a distance classifier, the Mahalanobis distance, over a set of environmental variables representing the region. The results suggested that 41, 58 and 65% of the Carpathian Ecoregion is highly suitable for bear, lynx and wolf, respectively. Considering the three carnivores at once, 20% of the area is highly suitable. Suitable areas are fragmented, but interspersed with areas of less suitability value, without being isolated, and spatially distributed all along the Mountain range. The results were validated with an independent data set and results suggest that the model produced an acceptable estimate of the areas effectively occupied by the carnivores. The comparison between suitability maps obtained with the two independent data sets showed that they were consistent, always reaching values of K-statistics > 0.5. The development of human activities over the land poses problems of how to integrate land exploitation and biodiversity conservation. The outputs of the environmental modelling exercise were used for estimating the distribution of potential conflicts between the presence of carnivores and livestock husbandry practices. Results suggested an effective management would avoid the summer grazing of livestock in carnivore areas and the use of damage prevention measures. The actual effect of currently protected areas in the region was assessed and the need of an increased portion of protected land, particularly in Romania and Ukraine emerged after analysing the proportion of highly suitable areas for large carnivores under any kind of legal protection.</p
Chapter
Evolution of Learning and Memory Mechanisms is an exploration of laboratory and field research on the many ways that evolution has influenced learning and memory processes, such as associative learning, social learning, and spatial, working, and episodic memory systems. This volume features research by both outstanding early-career scientists as well as familiar luminaries in the field. Learning and memory in a broad range of animals are explored, including numerous species of invertebrates (insects, worms, sea hares), as well as fish, amphibians, birds, rodents, bears, and human and nonhuman primates. Contributors discuss how the behavioral, cognitive, and neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory have been influenced by evolutionary pressures. They also draw connections between learning and memory and the specific selective factors that shaped their evolution. Evolution of Learning and Memory Mechanisms should be a valuable resource for those working in the areas of experimental and comparative psychology, comparative cognition, brain–behavior evolution, and animal behavior.
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Livestock guarding dogs (LGDs) are used all over the world to help in carnivore conservation by mitigating human-wildlife conflict. In Namibia, LGDs are used in cheetah conservation to prevent depredation of stock and reduce retaliatory killings. However, behavioral problems in the dogs, such as chasing wildlife and harassing livestock, exist leading to poor dog performance and farmer dissatisfaction. In most other types of working dogs, behavior tests for suitability are reported and/or validated within the scientific literature. To date this has not been done for LGDs. In this paper, we design a composite behavioral test and a questionnaire to rate the dogs’ effectiveness as an LGD. This test was used on 14 LGDs, seven of which were operational and seven of which were being used as breeding stock. In total, 16 behavioral variables were measured. A Principal Components Analysis reduced these to five underlying personality traits: ‘Playfulness’, ‘Trainability’, ‘Independence’, ‘Sociability with people’ and ‘Reactivity’. When 14 dogs were tested three times, 20 days apart, the traits ‘Playfulness’, ‘Trainability’ and ‘Independence’ were found to be consistent. ‘Trainability’ was negatively correlated to dog age. Dogs with a higher ‘Trainability’ and lower ‘Reactivity’ showed a tendency to be rated as more effective by their herdsman. Dogs scoring higher for ‘Playfulness’ were more likely to be reported to harass stock, and dogs that chased a moving object under experimental conditions were generally rated higher for tendency to chase predator wildlife when working. This study suggests that there are personality attributes which can be measured and are consistent across time in LGDs. Several of these are linked to better performance in trained dogs. Whether these are predictive of later performance in untrained dogs, is yet to be ascertained.
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Livestock-guarding dogs are an effective way of protecting rangeland sheep from predators. However, open mountain/forest range and widely ranging sheep are factors that may make adaptation to Norwegian conditions difficult. This paper focuses on the dogs' working patterns and effectiveness under different working regimes. A 3,500 ha. unfenced forest/mountain range pasture in bear habitat comprised the research area in which 624 sheep from 2 herds grazed. The field trial lasted 3 months, and a total of 10 Great Pyrenees participated for various time intervals. Three different working regimes were evaluated: 1) loose dogs without the command of a dog handler (Method A); 2) loose dogs under the command of a dog handler (Method B); and 3) loose dogs guarding sheep inside a fenced, 1 km2 forest pasture (Method C). Nocturnal behavioural activity patterns and data on predation were recorded. Method A proved too uncontrolled for Norwegian conditions, because sheep dispersed too widely and dogs ranged too far, causing conflicts in nearby settlements with wildlife, and with livestock. Pasture dogs (C) were >3 times less active and were engaged in guarding activities < 50% as often as patrol dogs (B). However, they barked >15 times more frequently, and no sheep carcasses were found inside the fence. Therefore, Method C probably had the best preventive effect.
Article
Results from a ten-year study of livestock guarding dogs show that the dogs are an effective tool for reducing predation. Average reduction attained by five strains of dogs (Anatolian Shepherds, Maremmas, Shar Planinetz, Anatolian/ Shars, Maremma/Shars) was 64%, with predation reduced to zero for 53% of reporting producers in 1986. Variations in trustworthy, attentive and protective behavior of the dogs were breed-specific, and offer mechanisms for improving the system.
Article
Dogs that perform best for guarding and herding livestock have different behavioural profiles, as stated by the authors: 'herding dogs are selected to show hunting behaviours, such as eye, stalk, grip or heel. Guarding dogs are selected to show more of the wild ancestor's puppy-like or juvenile behaviour, preferring to stay with the "litter" of livestock to which they are bonded, and to react to novelty by barking an alarm'. In addition, the chase and bite behaviours are absent in guarding dogs. Ranchers in the western USA have reported that cattle located in areas of high wolf predation learn to react to Border Collie herding dogs by attacking them and so they are no longer useful for herding. The guarding dog that does not perform threatening movements towards cattle is tolerated. Ranchers have observed that the reintroduction of wolves has made mother cows more aggressive towards domestic dogs. Previously, the presence of smaller coyotes did not cause mother cows to be aggressive towards herding dogs. The protection of sheep against wolves will require two to five guard dogs.
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Canis lupus depredation on C. familiaris was not a common problem. The persistence of some wolves in seeking dogs, prolonged attacks locally, and the fact that 75% of carcasses found were fed upon suggested that interspecific aggression alone may not explain why wolves kill dogs. -from Authors
Article
Healthy adult male Panthera onca can range close to livestock without causing problems. Prior injuries sustained by problems jaguars and poor management of livestock may influence jaguar predation on livestock. Translocation of problem jaguars is probably not feasible. -from Author
Article
Intra- and interspecific association of cattle and bonded or non-bonded sheep was observed under free-ranging conditions preceding, during and following the approach of a trained border collie dog. A bonded sheep is one which consistently stays in close proximity to cattle as a result of a continuous close association between the two species, which began when the sheep was a young lamb. The dog treatment provided insight into the response of livestock to an aggressive, threatening canine. Sheep bonded to cattle remained together as one interspecific group when threatened by the dog. Interspecific space decreased and the sheep positioned themselves among the cattle and away from the dog. Cattle aggression, i.e. kicking and charging the dog, was only observed when the dog approached the heifers. Non-bonded sheep and cattle reacted as two distinctly independent intraspecific groups. The non-bonded sheep reduced their intraspecific space and moved away from the cattle when threatened by the dog. The protection that bonded sheep receive from cattle appears to result from the close association with the cattle, which poses a threat to predators.
Article
We assessed causes of pre-senile mortality among working guarding dogs, and its effects on their management and cost. A population of 449 livestock guarding dogs in 31 states showed no differences in mortality due to breed or sex, but dogs working on open rangelands died more frequently (p<.001) than those working on farms or fenced ranches. Half of the farm dogs died before they reached 38 months of age, by which time nearly three-quarters of the open rangelands dogs had succumbed. Accidents accounted for over half the deaths, culling for inappropriate behavior accounted for one-third, and diseases for 9%. High accident and culling rates in young dogs substantially increased the cost of this predator control technique. However, we found 2 main areas where corrective measures can be applied: (1) increasing the awareness among producers that accidents are a main cause of deaths especially during the dogs' first 30 months of age; and (2) reducing the number of culls by improving the genetics of the dogs and by training producers to manage them.
Article
We documented behaviors of Great Pyrenees livestock-guarding dogs toward people, livestock, dogs, horses, reindeer, and bear to determine if they might be suitable for protecting livestock in Norway. None out of 13 dogs showed aggressive behavior towards unfamiliar people, and aggressiveness towards dogs and livestock was also low. However, 91% of the dogs tested chased reindeer. A willingness to chase bears was apparent in all 3 dogs tested. Although the Norwegian strains of the Great Pyrenees are bred mainly for exhibition, they obviously have retained some behavioral patterns important for the livestock-guarding function. Their nonaggressive behavior towards people, dogs, and livestock, and their active reaction towards bears suggest that this breed could be suitable for use as livestock-guardians in Norway. However, the dogs' tendency to chase reindeer is a trait that may cause conflicts in reindeer-herding areas. /// Documentamos el comportamiento de los perros guardianes de ganado de raza "Great Pyrenees" hacia la gente, ganado, perros, caballos, renos y osos para determinar si ellos pudieran ser apropiados para proteger el ganado en Noruega. Ninguno de los 13 perros mostraron comportamiento agresivo hacia la gente desconocida y la agresividad hacia perros y ganado también fue baja. Sin embargo, 91% de los perros bajo prueba persiguieron los renos. La disponibilidad para perseguir osos fue aparente en los 3 perros probados. Aunque la líneas noruegas de la raza "Great Pyrenees" son criados para exhibición, ellos obviamente han retenido algunos patrones de comportamiento importantes para la función de proteger el ganado. Su comportamiento no agresivo hacia la gente, perros y ganado y su reacción hacia los osos suguieren que esta raza pudiera ser apropiada para usarla en Noruega como perros guardianes de ganado. Sin embargo, la tendencia de los perros a perseguir renos es una característica que pudiera causar conflicto en áreas donde hay manadas de renos.