Article

Objectivity, Reliability, and Validity for a Revised Push-Up Test Protocol

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Abstract

When executing a push-up an individual lowers the body to a down position and then raises it to an up position. A down position often used in recent years is a 90° angle at the elbows (90° push-up) as in FITNESSGRAM. Several researchers have found the interscorer objectivity and stability reliability for 90° push-up scores to be low. The purpose of this study was to (a) estimate the interscorer objectivity and stability reliability for scores from a revised push-up test protocol and (b) obtain evidence concerning the validity of interpretations based on revised push-up test scores. Interscorer objectivity was estimated for a score of one scorer and stability reliability was estimated for a score obtained on 1 day. Four studies were conducted. In the first study, pilot study, the revised push-up test protocol was developed and refined. In the second study, objectivity study, the push-up test was administered once to 49 female and 31 male college-aged students. Two scorers independently scored each student. Interscorer objectivity coefficients of·75 for women and ·88 for men were obtained. In the third study, objectivity and reliability study, the push-up test was administered on each of 2 days to 89 female and 63 male college-aged students. Two scorers independently scored each student on each day. Interscorer objectivity coefficients of ·97 and ·95 for women and ·98 and ·99 for men were obtained. Stability reliability coefficients of ·90 and ·93 for women and ·95 and ·95 for men were obtained. In the fourth study, validity study, validity was estimated using a logical approach, group difference approach, and criterion approach. There were 58 male and 48 female college students in the validity study. The revised push-up test protocol is very similar to protocols presently used and as expected the men scored significantly (p < .01) better than the women on the revised push-up test. The correlation between revised push-up scores and number of bench press executions with a percentage of the body weight was·80 for women and ·87 for men. The interscorer objectivity and stability reliability coefficients are very acceptable. Sufficient validity evidence was provided that the revised push-up scores relate to the amount of arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance a person has to move the body weight.

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... The eyes look forward, the hips are definitely not lifted, the body smoothness is not deteriorated. With the starting position, the chest is touched to the ground and the first position is taken by stretching the elbows again [31][32][33]. ...
... In any case, the accomplishment outcomes about the diverse genotypes in comparable preparing loads may not surrender the anticipated alter. In each genotype, preparation of boosts or behaviors offered to people will progress, but the improvement observed in genotypes that provide proper adjustment will be a little more advanced [30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43]. ...
... In terms of military wellbeing and commercial execution productivity, it is critical to determine which officer is faster, more grounded and has a better persistence ability. In order to achieve significant results by considering genotype contrasts and sporting execution improvement, working with officers (homogenous) is a must [30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43]. ...
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Background The aim of this study is to determine the effect of ACE gene polymorphism on the parameters studied (push-up & sit-up) in a long-term study, which has been carried out for many years and to find out whether the differences in ACE gene's metabolism due to the influence of parameters such as outside impacts and lifestyle (active or sedentary life) have a role in the development of strength endurance or not. Main text 59 male army officers made up the research team. A follow-up study of strength endurance (push-up and sit-up) test was conducted in the gym. The exam took two minutes to complete, and each application was tested separately. In both 2004 and 2019, persons with genotype ID had the best mean sit-up and push-up outcomes, followed by participants with genotype DD, and finally participants with genotype II ( P 0.05). Compared to the original rates in 2004, all genotype groups showed a significant reduction in push-up and sit-up scores in the test. Conclusion The findings of this study may reveal if strength and lifestyle choices affect the metabolic implications of the genetic polymorphism in the body. Particular varieties actuated by genes, on either hand, don’t result in significant improvements without any changes in individuals’ practices or ways of living, as per the conclusions.
... Assessing proper push-up technique can be problematic (accurately judging the proper "up" position with arms fully extended and "down" position with the elbow at 90°). Hand placement and body position are easily defined, but observing and evaluating the complete extension of the elbows in the up-position and accurately judging the down position 9,10 are especially difficult when the test subject is moving rapidly, as in the 2-minute APFT test; for example, military personnel typically attempt to accomplish as many push-up as possible in the first minute approaching a frequency of 1/second. Inter-rater reliability, 11 or the agreement in scores between two or more raters, does not appear to be consistent with reported correlations ranging from 0.22 to 0.88. ...
... Inter-rater reliability, 11 or the agreement in scores between two or more raters, does not appear to be consistent with reported correlations ranging from 0.22 to 0.88. 10,12,13 A number of studies comparing push-up assessment within the same rater across 2 or more trials (intra-rater reliability) suggest a high degree of agreement (r = 0.85-0.97). 7,14,15 However, in other studies, intra-rater agreement has been found to be highly variable (r = 0.22-0.87). ...
... 7,14,15 However, in other studies, intra-rater agreement has been found to be highly variable (r = 0.22-0.87). 10,13,16 Some research was conducted using a 90°push-up such as used in the Fitnessgram 10,12,16 while others used a modified bent-knee push-up. 15 Based on the research, the scoring appears to be somewhat rater-dependent. ...
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The purpose of this study was to assess inter-rater reliability and intra-rater reliability of the 2-minute, 90° push-up test as utilized in the Army Physical Fitness Test. Analysis of rater assessment reliability included both total score agreement and agreement across individual push-up repetitions. This study utilized 8 Raters who assessed 15 different videotaped push-up performances over 4 iterations separated by a minimum of 1 week. The 15 push-up participants were videotaped during the semiannual Army Physical Fitness Test. Each Rater randomly viewed the 15 push-up and verbally responded with a "yes" or "no" to each push-up repetition. The data generated were analyzed using the Pearson product-moment correlation as well as the kappa, modified kappa and the intra-class correlation coefficient (3,1). An attribute agreement analysis was conducted to determine the percent of inter-rater and intra-rater agreement across individual push-ups.The results indicated that Raters varied a great deal in assessing push-ups. Over the 4 trials of 15 participants, the overall scores of the Raters varied between 3.0 and 35.7 push-ups. Post hoc comparisons found that there was significant increase in the grand mean of push-ups from trials 1-3 to trial 4 (p < 0.05). Also, there was a significant difference among raters over the 4 trials (p < 0.05). Pearson correlation coefficients for inter-rater and intra-rater reliability identified inter-rater reliability coefficients were between 0.10 and 0.97. Intra-rater coefficients were between 0.48 and 0.99. Intra-rater agreement for individual push-up repetitions ranged from 41.8% to 84.8%. The results indicated that the raters failed to assess the same push-up repetition with the same score (below 70% agreement) as well as failed to agree when viewed between raters (29%). Interestingly, as previously mentioned, scores on trial 4 increased significantly which might have been caused by rater drift or that the Raters did not maintain the push-up standard over the trials. It does appear that the final push-up scores received by each participant was a close approximation of actual performance (within 65%) but when assessing physical performance for retention in the Army, a more reliable test might be considered.
... 3 Although the relationship between the bench press and pushup has been examined, variability in upper body strength between sexes produces different relationships. 4 Even relative to bodyweight, women may be at a physiological disadvantage when performing upper body movements, such as the pushup. 5 Previous studies have shown that women have lower force output but have faster recovery ability after performing high intensity exercise. ...
... Differences in pushup repetitions have also been seen in previous studies where men performed more repetitions in bodyweight exercises. 4,19 Eurich et al. concluded that women may be at a disadvantage when compared to men when producing peak performance in upper body movements, which is most likely related to women's lack of upper body muscle mass. 5 This mass disparity also probably explains differences in repetitions in the current study. ...
... The current study demonstrated that repetitions to failure with an equated load relative to body mass resulted in a strong positive correlation between exercises, which is similar to Baumgartner et al. who also demonstrated a high correlation between number of repetitions performed relative to body mass. 4 In comparison to the present study, Baumgartner el al. equated the load based on the up position of the pushup; however, men performed at 70% of their bodyweight, while women performed at 40%. 4 Also, their results demonstrated that men had a stronger positive correlation than women. 4 McManis et al. observed that college women lacked upper-body strength to hold the down position of a pushup. ...
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The bench press and pushup are commonly used for training upper body muscular strength and endurance. Although they are often used interchangeably, differences between the two relative to body mass load are unknown. Furthermore, sex differences may exist due to anthropometric body mass specificity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the pushup and bench press when performing repetitions to failure with an equated load. On day 1, 25 recreationally trained subjects (16 men, age = 23.00 ± 2.36 years, height = 178.19 ± 9.61 cm, mass = 74.80 ± 13.44 kg; 9 women, age = 23.11 ± 2.71 years, height = 160.78 ± 5.95 cm, mass = 53.63 ± 5.60 kg), performed a one repetition maximum bench press and an isometric pushup on a force plate to determine bodyweight load supported in both the up and down positions. Grip width on the bench press was measured as the distance between middle fingers and was used for hand placement during pushups. For the down position, a safety squat device was placed on the right triceps to signal that the upper arms were parallel to the ground, while for the up position, triceps were perpendicular to the floor. Days 2 and 3 consisted of performing repetitions to failure for either the bench press or pushup exercise with a load that was equal to the average relative bodyweight force of the up and down pushup positions. For the pushup, subjects followed a 60 beats per minute tempo and the test was terminated if they failed to complete a full repetition; they could not maintain cadence or there were three faults in form. For the bench press, they followed the same 60 s tempo and the test was terminated if they failed to complete a full repetition or could not maintain cadence. A 2 (exercise: bench press, pushup) × 2 (sex: men, women) mixed factor ANOVA demonstrated no interaction, but there were significant (P < 0.05) main effects for exercise and sex where more repetitions were performed in the pushup (19.36 ± 11.68 reps) than the bench press (11.40 ± 8.38 reps) exercise. Also, men performed significantly more repetitions to failure (men =20.22 ± 8.20 reps, women = 6.78 ± 5.69 reps). For combined sexes, there was a significant (P < 0.05), strong relationship (r = 0.82) between bench press and pushup repetitions to failure. For men, there was a significant (P < 0.05), strong relationship (r = 0.81), while for women, there was a moderate relationship (r = 0.76). Men had significantly (P < 0.05) greater bench press one repetition maximum (men = 99.29 ± 23.98 kg, women = 42.17 ± 8.88 kg), percentage of body mass supported as an average of the up and down positions (men = 74.33 ± 2.57%, women = 69.70 ± 2.63%) and bench press one repetition maximum relative to their body mass (men = 1.32 ± 0.22%, women = 0.79 ± 0.13%). The bench press and pushup are two distinct upper body exercises for repetitions to failure due to upper body musculature and body position sex differences. Choice of the pushup or bench press exercise should be based on training goal and sex.
... In light of these findings, [4] developed a 90° push-up test, defining the down position as the body from the chest to the knees contacts the floor. This 90º push-ups test protocol is a full-body push-ups test . ...
... For the measurement of arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance, a standard measure or criterion is the bench press. [4] used the bench press as the criterion to estimate the validity for the 90º push-ups test. [7] and [9] also used the bench press to provide evidence of criterion validity for the 90º push-ups test . ...
... Because the 90º push-ups test requires moving a person's body weight up and down, the bench press should also require moving a percentage of a person's body weight. [4] used 70% of body weight for men and 40% of body weight for women for the bench press test. Each person executed as many repetitions as possible for the bench press. ...
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- This study was conducted to determine the objectivity, reliability and validity of the 90º push-ups test protocol among male and female students of Sports Science Program, Faculty of Sports Science and Coaching Sultan Idris University of Education. Samples (n = 300), consisted of males (n = 168) and females (n = 132) students were randomly selected for this study. Researchers tested the 90º push-ups on the sample twice in a single trial, test and re-test protocol in the bench press test. Pearson-Product Moment Correlation method's was used to determine the value of objectivity, reliability and validity testing. The findings showed that the 900 push-ups test protocol showed high consistency between the two testers with a value of r = .99. Likewise, The reliability value between test and re-test for the 90º push-ups test for the male (r=.93) and female (r=.93) students was also high. The results showed a correlation between 90º push-ups test and bench press test for boys was r = .64 and girls was r = .28. This finding indicates that the use of the 90º push-ups to test muscular strength and endurance in the upper body of males has a higher validity values than female students.
... The exercise is common in school, sport, and military fitness settings. And often is used to test shoulder girdle-strength and endurance (5). Several different test protocols have been developed. ...
... Instead of holding the body off the floor in the down portion of the repetition, the revised push-up requires participants to bring their torso (chest to knees) to the ground and then push back up. Baumgartner and colleagues created the revised push-up to improve problems with interrater reliability (5,14). A set of percentile norms for males and females was validated by Baumgartner et al in 2004 (4). ...
... A 45-63% difference in absolute strength in bicep curl, bench press and lat pull down exercises has been reported (16,17,15,3). When considered in relative terms (divided by lean body mass or muscle volume) the range reduces significantly (15,5). Data from Miller at el (17) and Bartolomei et al (3) show a difference of 30% in relative strength for isometric bicep curl and bench press exercises. ...
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The ACSM/CESP push-up test exemplifies the limiting nature of the gender binary in fitness. Males perform the standard push-up (from toes) while females perform the modified push-up (from knees), even if capable of multiple standard push-ups. Differences in upper body strength are used to justify the test protocol. Though the load difference between modified and standard positions is substantially less than the gender strength gap. Additionally, current fitness ratings are over 30 years old. The purpose of this study was to develop a new standard push-up rating scale for college-age females. Cis-female college students (n = 72) were recruited to perform maximal repetitions in the modified and standard positions. Health history and physical activity information was gathered prior to the test. Trained research assistants provided standardized warm-up, modelled correct form, and administered the tests. Order of the tests was randomized and there was at least 48 hours between test days. Mean push-ups in the standard position was 9 (8.87) and 17.5 (11.76) in the modified position. Participants who resistance train did significantly more repetitions of each. Linear regression was used to develop an equation to predict standard push-up repetitions from modified repetitions. The equation was applied to the current repetition ranges for each fitness category, and a new standard scale was developed. The new scale ratings are similar to the Revised Push-up but lower than the Fitnessgram® Healthy Zone. The modified or “girl” push-up contributes to gender stereotypes about muscular fitness. Providing females with the option to be graded on the standard push-up is a step to reducing gender bias in fitness. Future research is needed to validate this scale.
... Correctly done and completed sit ups were counted and recorded as a result (15). Push-ups in 30 sec (PU30s) has validity and reliability (16) to measure the muscular strength endurance of the chest and back arm muscles (16,17). Beside motor abilities, the sample body height (H), body weight (W) and body mass index (BMI) were determined however, these variables were not included in the analysis of the study but were given to explain the study sample. ...
... Correctly done and completed sit ups were counted and recorded as a result (15). Push-ups in 30 sec (PU30s) has validity and reliability (16) to measure the muscular strength endurance of the chest and back arm muscles (16,17). Beside motor abilities, the sample body height (H), body weight (W) and body mass index (BMI) were determined however, these variables were not included in the analysis of the study but were given to explain the study sample. ...
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Study Objectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of a 12-week plyometric training program on the power (explosive force), acceleration, strength endurance and body extremities speed performance of children aged 16 years-old. Methods: The research was conducted on a sample of 220 male volunteer students (the sample divided in to the experimental and control group) aged 16 years ± 6 months, who are students of ''Fehmi Lladroci'' high school from Glogoc, Republic of Kosovo. The tested plyometric training program was prepared according to the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) guides and applied 3-4 times per week (except for in the beginning and also in the last week of the program, where the program was applied twice a week). The details of the program are given in the methodology section of this paper. To process the results of the study, analysis of the data was done with the IBM SPSS Statistics 22 software. The statistics obtained were provided by two-way repeated analysis of variance (a repeated measure ANOVA). The development percentage in time were calculated by using the formula "%Δ = (x post-test-x pre-test) / pre-test *100" and values below p <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: According to the results of the study we observed that the plyometric training applied in the 12 week increased power performance (countermovement jump, standing broad jump, standing triple jump and standing medicine ball throw) by approximately 15-30%, acceleration performance (10 and 20 meter runs) by approximately 10-12%, lower and upper body extremities speed performance (plate tapping, and foot-tapping against the wall) by approximately 9-12% and strength endurance performance (sit-ups and push-ups in 30 secs) by approximately 40-45%. Conclusion: It was showed that the plyometric exercises applied to children aged 16 years-old increase the strength, acceleration and speed performance as well as the explosive force.
... Upper-body strength was estimated using a PU test to failure (Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, & Hales, 2002). The subjects were required to keep their bodies straight. ...
... Males executed the push-ups on their hands and toes, whereas females executed the push-ups on the hands and knees, based on the recommendation of Wood and Baumgartner (2004). The PU test protocol has previously been validated and is considered to be reliable in adolescents (Baumgartner et al., 2002;Wood & Baumgartner, 2004). ...
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A growing body of research argues that physical activity in various forms may be beneficial for the mental health of adolescents. However, less is known about why and for whom this relationship is true. This book investigates the role of the self as a possible change mechanism in the relationship between physical activity participation and mental well-being in adolescents, when also taking into account personal and contextual specificities. This book may help academics and professionals one step closer to knowing why and for whom physical activity and mental health are related, the potential optimal conditions under which these mechanisms operate, and the individual characteristics that may increase or reduce an individual’s responsiveness to mental-health gains.
... How many push-ups one can do is one simple assessment of the upper body muscle strength (for examples, Contreras et al., 2012;Suprack et al., 2011;Cogley et al., 2005;Wood et al., 2004;Baumgartner et al., 2002;Chou et al., 2002;Vossen et al., 2000;Mayhew et al. 1991;Dean et al., 1987). Dean et al., (1987) found that the push-up times body weight was a good predictor of muscle strength and Vossen et al., (2000) choose the medicine ball throwing for training of upper extremity strength. ...
... MVC of triceps (for elbow extensor) and 61% MVC of pectoralis (for shoulder adductor) and 42% MVC of anterior deltoid (for shoulder flexor) in college-aged men and women (Contreras et al., 2012;Baumgartner et al., 2002). Similarly, Cogley et al., (2005) found pectoralis major activity of 64% MVC in young men and 106% MVC in young women; ...
Article
The upper extremities are often used to protect the head and thorax by bracing for impact, particularly in falls to the ground. The impulsive loads they impose on the hand and wrist can be substantial, exceeding one body-weight. If the upper extremity then ???gives way??? or flexion buckles at the elbow then a head injury is likely, particularly in the elderly; but if the elbows are fully extended to prevent buckling, then the risk for wrist fracture increases. A current knowledge gap includes the biomechanical factors that determine the threshold load required to flexion-buckle the elbow of an end-loaded and pretensed human upper extremity. In this thesis we use computer simulations and in vivo experiments to explore how age, gender, initial elbow angle, arm muscle strength and pre-contraction level and lumped contractile properties about a joint affect upper extremity deflection under impulsive end-loading. The experimental results show that gender and age affect the rotational stiffness and damping coefficients of muscles acting about the elbow and shoulder when estimated by dynamic optimization. The pre-contraction levels of arm and shoulder muscles significantly affected these coefficients. Computer simulations predict that advancing age, female gender and insufficient arm and shoulder muscle pre-contraction level adversely affect upper extremity buckling loads. Kinetic, kinematic and myoelectric studies suggest the speed of propagation of the impulsive load along the upper extremity is such that arm and shoulder muscles must be pretensed prior to impact: no neuromuscular reflex is rapid enough to increase arm muscle tensile stiffness to prevent flexion buckling. Pre-contraction level and gender significantly affected the rate of propagation of an impulse along the upper extremity. The findings provide a framework for better understanding how biomechanical factors determine whether or not an arm will buckle when end-loaded during a fall arrest. We conclude that in order to help safely arrest falls older women and men need to avoid using hyperextended arms when possible, use an adequate pre-contraction level in the arm muscles to prevent buckling, and maintain as much arm protraction strength as possible, perhaps most conveniently by regular push-up exercises.
... Muscular endurance was assessed with using three 60-s tests: push-ups [38], sit-ups [34], and bodyweight squats [39] with full recovery between each test. For the push-up test, participants began in a prone planked position, lowered themselves to the floor until their chest and thighs touched and then pushed themselves up with a straight body until achieving elbow extension. ...
... For the push-up test, participants were instructed to maintain a neutral spine through the entire movement. The push-ups test has shown high reliability (r = 0.95 and 0.91) for predicting upper body muscular endurance in college-aged men and women [38]. Sit-ups were completed with the participants lying supine on the floor with their feet secured with dumbbells and legs at a 90-degree angle. ...
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While short-term high intensity functional training (HIFT) effects have been established, fitness improvements from program participation exceeding 16 weeks are unknown. This study examined the effectiveness of participation in HIFT through CrossFit. During 2013–2014, fitness performance testing was incorporated into an ongoing university CrossFit program. Participants included 45 adults (23 women, 22 men) with 0–27 months of HIFT experience (grouped into 0–6 months and 7+ months). Participants completed three separate days of assessments across 10 fitness domains before and after participating in the program for six months. For each sex, 2 (Time) × 2 (Group) RANOVA were used for each fitness test. For women, significant Time effects were found for four fitness domains (i.e., flexibility, power, muscular endurance, and strength), and a Group × Time interaction for cardiorespiratory endurance, with the 0–6-month group improving more. For men, significant Time effects were found for flexibility, muscular endurance, and strength. These data provide evidence for multiple fitness improvements after six months of CrossFit participation with greater 1.5 mile run time improvement among women with less experience.
... It provides a set of instruments, including field tests, for assessing health-related physical fitness in 10-to 18-year-old students. The validation of the tests that comprise the FITescola ® battery and the reliability of some tests, such as the 20 m shuttle run, horizontal jump, 4 × 10 m shuttle run, push-up test and the sit and reach has been previously examined in youth (general population) Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, & Hales, 2002;Ortega, Artero, et al., 2008;Ruiz et al., 2011;Vanhelst et al., 2016). Although some of the tests comprising the FITescola ® battery (e.g., the speed test) were tested for reliability in athlete samples from specific sports (e.g., football) (Pojskic et al., 2018), the reliability of the FITescola ® battery as a whole was never tested among young athletes. ...
... Previous studies in the general adolescent population have examined the validity and reliability of the push-up test (Baumgartner et al., 2002;Pate, Burgess, & Woods, 1993) and concluded that results are dependent on the relationship between upper body strength and body fat percentage (Castro-Pinero et al., 2009). In adult athletes, the push-up test sensibility, validity and reliability have been assessed using force plates (Gillen et al., 2018;Wang et al., 2017), but these characteristics have not been assessed in young athletes. ...
Article
Monitoring physical fitness in young athletes is essential to improve physical performance, identify talents, and develop injury prevention programs. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the reliability of the physical fitness tests from the FITescola® battery in young athletes with different sports backgrounds and competition levels. Participants comprised of 138 young athletes (boys n=92) aged 9 and 18 years old. Eight physical fitness tests assessing six components of physical fitness were performed: cardiorespiratory fitness (PACER); upper body muscular fitness (push‐up); flexibility (sit‐and‐reach); lower body muscular fitness (horizontal and vertical jump); agility (4x10 shuttle run); and speed ( sprint at 20m and 40m). Each test was performed twice, with a one‐week interval (7 days) between duplicate tests. No differences between duplicate tests were found (p>0.05), except for the speed at 20m in boys (p<0.001) and speed at 40m in girls (p=0.006). The battery of tests had good or excellent reliability and concordance of the ICC between the two trials (ICC≥0.75) with exception for the 20m speed run in girls that presented moderate reliability (ICC = 0.57). The Bland‐Altman plots showed high reliability for all the fitness tests for both sexes. Hence, The FITescola® battery may be a novel tool to assess the physical fitness of large groups of young athletes from different sports backgrounds.
... Es un test con alta practicidad debido al escaso costo de los materiales que se necesitan: un cronómetro y una colchoneta. No hemos encontrado estudios de validez para la prueba de Extensiones de brazos en 30 seg en adultos de población general pero sí de pruebas similares que han tenido un resultado favorable (Baumgartner, Oh, Chung & Hales, 2002). Los estudios disponibles son consistentes con una validez aceptable de esta prueba aunque esto necesita corroborarse. ...
... Valores normativos de referencia para la prueba de Salto horizontal según sexo y edad (cm) En cuanto a la evidencia de precisión una excepción es la prueba de Extensiones de brazos en 30 seg la cual se encuentra pendiente de validación, al menos en adultos. Sin embargo hemos decidido incorporarla debido a su frecuente uso, a su alta practicidad, a los altos índices de confiabilidad encontrados y a que pruebas similares han demostrado ser suficientemente válidas (Baumgartner et al., 2002) y han sido incorporadas a baterías internacionales (CSEP, 2013;Kaminsky, 2010). Por otro lado la prueba de Ir y volver 20 m para evaluar el componente cardiorrespiratorio no se ha visto que sea utilizada en las baterías de adultos de población general revisadas aquí. ...
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El objetivo es presentar una batería de pruebas suficientemente precisas y prácticas para evaluar la condición física en adultos argentinos de población general. Mediante una revisión no sistemática de la literatura se seleccionaron pruebas de campo suficientemente prácticas, precisas y con antecedentes de utilización en Argentina. Estas fueron Ir y volver 20 m para aptitud cardiorrespiratoria, Flexión de tronco modificado para flexibilidad y Prensión manual, Salto en largo y Extensiones de brazos en 30 segundos para fuerza muscular. Estas pruebas fueron administradas por especialistas a 410 estudiantes de educación física de 18 a 29,9 años de edad de ambos sexos pertenecientes a instancias iniciales y finales de la carrera para construir valores de referencia locales. Los datos fueron presentados según sexo y edad mediante percentiles, media y desvío estándar y se estudiaron las diferencias entre los grupos. Se encontraron en varones mayores niveles de fuerza y aptitud cardiorrespiratoria que en mujeres, mientras que no hubo diferencias entre sexos en flexibilidad. Algunas pruebas presentaron diferencias entre categorías de edad, pero estas diferencias no fueron regulares. La descripción de los resultados permitió presentar por primera vez valores de referencia de adultos argentinos para la evaluación de la condición física en población general.
... The FITNESSGRAM is a battery of tests that measures the components of muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition, and cardiovascular functioning. The FITNESSGRAM has demonstrated reliability and validity in past investigations (Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, & Hales, 2002;Boiarskaia, Boscolo, Zhu, & Mahar, 2011;Laurson, Eisenmann, & Welk, 2011;Mahar et al., 1997). The FITNESSGRAM was used to measure the health-related components (i.e., muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, and body composition) of physical fitness. ...
... Patterson, Wiksten, Ray, Flanders, & Sanphy, 1996). Validity for muscular strength using a 90˚ push-up showed correlates of .80 in women and .87 in men when compared to using a single rep bench max (Baumgartner et al., 2002). Last, validity measurements for muscular endurance when measured using the Robertson curl-up test were shown to be .93 in men and .97 in women (Robertson & Magnusdottir, 1987). ...
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This study examined the perceptions of Spanish students as they participated in seasons of Sport Education. Participants were two hundred and seventy students across different regions of Spain, from different schooling levels, and who played different sports. Students completed the “Physical Education Season Survey” (Mohr, Townsend, Rairigh, & Mohr, 2003; Hastie & Sinelnikov, 2006) and participated in small-group interviews. Data provided a consistent message that students found their experiences to be particularly positive, and they prefered Sport Education as a form of physical education compared with their more traditional style and shorter units. These students reported that participation in Sport Education was not only more fun, but they work harder and learn more. These results are consistent with studies from other countries (e.g., Australia, New Zealand, Ireland, Russia, and the United States), and also reinforce previous findings confirming a high level of attraction of Sport Education for girls and lower-skilled boys. Key words: sport education, physical education, games teaching, students’ perceptions, curricular models
... The sit-ups in 30 sec (SUP30s) test measured by bending the elbows from the straight position, then approaching the ground and straightening the elbows again; correctly done and completed sit-ups were counted and recorded [13]. Push-ups in 30 sec (PU30s) have validity and reliability [14] to measure the muscular strength endurance of the chest and back arm muscles [14,15]. General body balance was used by the Flamingo Balance (FLB). ...
... The sit-ups in 30 sec (SUP30s) test measured by bending the elbows from the straight position, then approaching the ground and straightening the elbows again; correctly done and completed sit-ups were counted and recorded [13]. Push-ups in 30 sec (PU30s) have validity and reliability [14] to measure the muscular strength endurance of the chest and back arm muscles [14,15]. General body balance was used by the Flamingo Balance (FLB). ...
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Background and Study Aim: The aim of this research is to evaluate the effects of plyometric training on the shot put technique. It was oriented to improve the basics for the development of power related-indicators such as power (explosive force), acceleration speed, and strength endurance. Material and Methods. The study sample included 220 male students, aged 16 years ± 6 months from Fehmi Lladrovci High School, Glogoc municipality, Republic of Kosovo from the 2019/2020 academic year. The experimental group (110 male students) applied a 12-week program (see the training program paragraph). The control group (110 male students) continued only with their regular physical education lessons (2 times a week). To determine the differences between pre- and post-test values of the control and experimental groups ANOVA calculations were made. The development percentage in time (between pre-test and post-test) were calculated using the formula: Δ% = (x post-test – x pre-test) / pre-test *100. Results: Results of the study show that pre- and post-test average values (tests within subjects) of the shot put technique (p
... Participants were encouraged to give maximal effort during the test. The detailed test procedure of the push-up test was carried out as stated by Baumgartner et al (Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, & Hales, 2002). ...
... Cet exercice fonctionnel est idé al pour é valuer la force des triceps brachiaux et des pectoraux [52][53][54][55]. Ce mouvement de « poussé e » se retrouve dans les dé placements en fauteuil roulant manuel et lors de diffé rents transferts (exemple : passage fauteuil roulant-toilettes). ...
Article
Aim. – Our study aimed at testing whether high intensity strength training protocols (20 minutes duration, twice a week, without exercise machine) improve functional independence and quality of life in cerebral palsy patients. Method. – Eighteen children (eleven boys, seven girls, aged eight to twenty years old) suffering from cerebral palsy and receiving physical therapy interventions. The experimental group received 20 minutes of high intensity strength training twice a week (during the physical therapy session) for three months. The control group receives classical physical therapy intervention. Before and after the protocol, two test sessions measured: muscle force and muscle endurance (maximum number of repetitions in 30 s, four exercises; maintain isometric positions for a maximal duration, four positions), walking speed (six minutes walking test), functional motor abilities (EMFG scale item D and E) and quality of life (Kidscreen 27 scale). Results. – The group receiving high intensity strength training significantly improved his performance (force, endurance and function) compared to the control group. A similar trend was observed for the quality of life although differences did not reach significance. Conclusion. – This study shows that patients suffering from cerebral palsy can benefit from short high intensity strength training protocols. Twenty minutes of such an intervention, twice a week, without any exercise machine, seems to be an effective and realistic strategy to improve force, endurance, motor function and quality of life. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Objectif. – Le but de notre intervention est de tester si des protocoles de musculation à haute intensité (protocoles courts et intenses : 20 minutes, deux fois par semaine ; sans machine de musculation) améliorent l’indépendance fonctionnelle et la qualité de vie des personnes atteintes de paralysie cérébrale. Méthode. – Dix-huit enfants (11 garc¸ons, sept filles, âgés de huit à20 ans) atteints de paralysie cérébrale poursuivent leurs séances de kinésithérapie. Le groupe expérimental bénéficie de 20 minutes de musculation à haute intensité pendant la rééducation et cela deux fois par semaine pendant trois mois. Le groupe témoin poursuit sa prise en charge classique. Avant et après le protocole deux séances de tests ont visé à mesurer : la force et l’endurance musculaire (maximum de répétitions en 30 s pour quatre mouvements ; maximum de temps maintenus pour quatre positions), la vitesse de marche (test des six minutes marche), la motricité fonctionnelle globale (échelle EMFG item D et E) et la qualité de vie (échelle Kidscreen 27). Résultats. – Après trois mois d’entraînement, le groupe musculation a significativement augmenté ses performances (force, endurance, fonction) par rapport au groupe témoin et une tendance similaire a été observée sur la qualité de vie. Conclusion. – Cette étude sur des sujets atteints de paralysie cérébrale montre l’efficacité de courts protocoles de musculation à haute intensité. Vingt minutes de renforcement musculaire à haute intensité , deux fois par semaine, sans contrainte de dispositif, semblent être une stratégie efficace et réaliste pour améliorer la force, l’endurance, la fonction motrice, et la qualité de vie.
... Por la misma razón, para valorar la fuerza-resistencia a nivel del tronco, es aconsejable la realización de la prueba de encogimientos (abdominales) mediante la aplicación del curl-up test, de dicha batería. Como factores a tener en cuenta, conviene reseñar que algunos autores han criticado las propiedades psicométricas de la Fitnessgram por haber sido establecidas a través de pequeñas muestras seleccionadas convenientemente (Morrow, James, Martin, & Jackson, 2010), mientras que otros han comprobado que el protocolo de la prueba 90º push-up test"debería modificarse para mejorar el nivel de las mismas (Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, & Hales, 2002). De todos modos los sucesivos estudios que se vienen publicando acerca de la validez y fiabilidad de estas y otras pruebas de esta batería no se realizan con ni ños/as menores de 6 años, por lo que no es posible obtener información a este respecto. ...
Article
La valoración de la condición física en población escolar por medio de test de campo es un tema ampliamente estudiado en el campo de las ciencias de la salud y el deporte. Sin embargo, muy poco se sabe acerca de qué tipo de pruebas pueden ser consideradas como de mayor utilidad en el contexto del segundo ciclo de la educación infantil (3-6 años). Esta revisión bibliográfica trata de aportar información sobre los test de campo considerados cómo más aconsejables para valorar la condición física en niños y niñas en edad preescolar, basándose en el estudio de sus propiedades psicométricas, facilidad y sencillez de aplicación, necesidad de recursos materiales y posibilidad de localizar valores medios orientativos que permitan conocer el nivel de competencia del evaluado. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que, a pesar de que existen diferentes pruebas para cada componente de la condición física, son escasos los test que cumplen todos los requisitos anteriormente mencionados.
... The push-up test [24] was administered to assess upper body strength. Students instructed proper push-up form depending on gender and ability as per ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription [25]. ...
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An e-service-learning teleexercise program, 5% Healthier, provided a remote experiential learning opportunity for students and a supervised exercise program for participants during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study retrospectively evaluated whether students achieved course learning outcomes and improved their ability to work in teleexercise and if the intervention was a successful exercise program for participants. Supervised by graduate students, undergraduate student coaches provided 10 weeks of personalized exercise coaching to participants. Pre- and postperformance assessments were collected on participants, and anonymous surveys were administered to students and participants. Twenty-two undergraduate students and nine graduate students participated. Students’ perceptions of the e-service-learning experience were generally positive, and almost all felt it allowed them to meet the course learning outcomes and improved their ability to work in teleexercise. Seventy-three participants completed the exercise program and showed improvements in all performance assessments (body composition (weight, BMI), shoulder and hamstring flexibility, upper and lower body muscular endurance, and overall function ( p < 0.01 )). Participants rated the program highly and agreed that 5% Healthier helped them gain fitness (93%). The 5% Healthier e-service-learning program is a successful model for experiential learning in exercise physiology, and the teleexercise program improved participants’ performance outcomes.
... Ten tests were used to assess different components of physical function (aerobic capacity, upper and lower body muscle strength and power, speed, agility, balance, and flexibility) related to rugby. These included: yo-yo intermittent recovery test 12 ; push-up test 13 ; isometric midthigh pull test 14 ; single leg bridge test 15 ; vertical jump test 16 ; 40-m speed test 17 ; Illinois agility test 18 ; Y balance test 19 ; sit and reach test 20 ; and Thomas test. 21 Good to excellent test-retest and interrater reliability of these tests have been demonstrated previously. ...
Article
Objectives: To investigate injury incidence and the influence of physical fitness parameters on the risk of severe injuries in players on rugby sevens university teams. Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Rugby players from three universities (N=104; 90M:14F; 20.6±1.9years) were recruited before the beginning of the season. Players underwent pre-season assessments of power, strength, speed, agility, endurance, stability, and flexibility. Throughout the season, rugby-related injury and exposure data were collected. Potential predictor variables were analyzed using Cox proportional regression model to identify risk factors associated with severe injuries (time loss>28days). Results: Thirty-one injuries occurred during the rugby season. The match and training injury incidence rates were 59.3 injuries and 3.3 injuries per 1000 player-hours, respectively. Lower limb injuries were most common and most severe. The ankle joint was the most prevalent site of injury, and ligamentous injury was most common (48.4%). Nine severe injuries were sustained resulting in an average time loss of 51.3±14.6days. Female (hazard ratio [HR]=8.35; 95% confidence intervals [CI]=2.01-34.8), slower (HR=3.51; 95% CI=1.17-10.5), and less agile (HR=2.22; 95% CI=1.26-3.92) players as well as those with hip flexors tightness (HR=1.12; 95% CI=1.00-1.25) were at significantly greater risk for sustaining severe injuries. Conclusions: Limited studies are available on risk factors associated with amateur rugby players in the Sevens version. The development of gender-specific injury prevention measures that emphasize speed and agility training, and improve hip flexor extensibility may be important to reduce the risk of severe injuries.
... Por la misma razón, para valorar la fuerza-resistencia a nivel del tronco, es aconsejable la realización de la prueba de encogimientos (abdominales) mediante la aplicación del curl-up test, de dicha batería. Como factores a tener en cuenta, conviene reseñar que algunos autores han criticado las propiedades psicométricas de la Fitnessgram por haber sido estableci- das a través de pequeñas muestras seleccionadas conve- nientemente (Morrow, James, Martin, & Jackson, 2010), mientras que otros han comprobado que el protocolo de la prueba 90º push-up test"debería modificarse para me- jorar el nivel de las mismas (Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, & Hales, 2002). De todos modos los sucesivos estudios que se vienen publicando acerca de la validez y fiabilidad de estas y otras pruebas de esta batería no se realizan con ni ños/as menores de 6 años, por lo que no es posible ob- tener información a este respecto. ...
... Celui-ci doit faciliter l'analyse ultérieure en optimisant la performance de l'individu, tout en visant à obtenir une distribution discriminante qui évite les effets plancher et plafond. Un effet plancher important a été observé avec des pompes exécutées sur les pieds et les mains chez les femmes(Baumgartner et al., 2002;Wood & Baumgartner, 2004). La modification du mouvement pour les femmes, en effectuant celui-ci à partir des genoux plutôt que des pieds, permet de diminuer l'effet plancher et d'allonger la distribution des performances.La vitesse d'exécution a un impact important dans l'évaluation de l'endurance musculaire. ...
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At the request of the “Réseau du Sport étudiant du Québec”, the “En forme au secondaire” fitness test (B-EFAS) was developed. A total of 1626 high school students in Montreal and Saguenay were tested through a series of physical fitness tests : the 20-metre shuttle run test with 1 minute stage, the RSEQ anaerobic test, the fifteen-metre sprint round trip, the vertical jump, the paced push-ups, the paced sit-ups and the V-test. Multivariate analysis with distinctions of sexual and regional disparities was used to obtain a portrait of fitness. It is corroborated that boys get higher score at muscular tests and that girls perform better in flexibility. Forty-four percent (44%) of participants have obesity-related health risk. Between 1981 and 2014, the young were taller (♀ +1.67 cm, ♂ +2.25 cm), heavier (♀ +5.8 kg, ♂ + 5.6 kg) and their VO2max fell 13% (♀ -5 ml min-1 kg-1, ♂ -7 ml min-1 kg-1). The VO2max regresses between the ages of 12 and 17 among Quebeckers. Preliminary norms were built using LMS methods for all tests. Our research demonstrate that the RSEQ battery is evaluating and monitoring the progress of fitness at the High School level. Our study also shows that the physical condition of young people is likely to be affected by the global obesity epidemic and that significant changes in their lifestyle will be needed in order to reverse the situation. ---- À la demande du Réseau du sport étudiant du Québec, la batterie de tests « En forme au secondaire » a été développée. Un total de 1626 élèves de niveau secondaire à Montréal et Saguenay ont été testés par une série d’épreuves d’évaluation de la condition physique : la course navette de 20 mètres avec palier de 1 minute, le test anaérobie RSEQ, le sprint 2 x 15 mètres, le saut vertical, les pompes et semi-redressement assis sur rythme imposé et le V-test. Des analyses multivariées avec distinctions des disparités sexuelles et régionales ont permis de dresser un portrait de la condition physique. Il y a corroboration que les garçons ont des résultats supérieurs aux tests musculaires et que les filles ont des résultats supérieurs à la flexibilité. Quarante-quatre pour cent (44 %) des participants ont un bilan de santé à risque relié à l’obésité. Entre 1981 et 2014, les jeunes sont plus grands (♀ +1,67 cm, ♂ +2,25 cm), sont plus lourds (♀ +5,8 kg, ♂ +5,6 kg) et leur VO2max a chuté de 13 % (♀ -5 ml min-1 kg-1, ♂ -7 ml min-1 kg-1). Le VO2max régresse entre 12 et 17 ans chez les Québécois. Des normes préliminaires ont été bâties avec la méthode LMS pour l’ensemble des tests. La recherche démontre que la batterie du RSEQ évalue et suit l’évolution de la condition physique au secondaire. Notre étude démontre également que la condition physique des jeunes est vraissemblablement affectée par l'épidémie mondiale d'obésité et que des changements importants à leurs habitudes de vie seront nécessaires afin de renverser la situation.
... The push-up test protocol described by Jackson, Fromme, Plitt and Mercer (1994) was employed (Baumgartner et al., 2002). To accurately assess upper body strength, participants were asked to complete as many push-ups as possible until failure of technique or having to stop due to fatigue. ...
Article
Young people experiencing psychotic illness engage in low amounts of physical activity have poor fitness levels and poor sleep quality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of these modifiable cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals with at-risk mental states (ARMS), who are at increased risk of developing psychosis. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a community-based youth mental health service. Thirty participants (23%♀, 21.3 ± 1.7 years old) were recruited, 10 with ARMS, 10 with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 10 healthy volunteers. Physical activity levels were assessed using self-report and objective measures. Aerobic capacity, upper body strength, hamstring flexibility, forearm grip strength and core endurance were assessed. Sleep quality, depression and anxiety were measured by self-report questionnaire. The ARMS group did not differ significantly on anthropometric measures from FEP or healthy volunteers. They engaged in significantly less physical activity (p < 0.05) and had poorer sleep quality (p < 0.05) than healthy volunteers. Our results are consistent with other studies that found that youth with ARMS are at greater cardiometabolic risk. Interventions aimed at improving these modifiable risk factors may assist with preventing the decline in physical health associated with the development of psychiatric illness.
... The pushup test has sufficient evidence to relate its score with the strength and endurance of the upper arm and shoulder girdle (Baumgartner et al., 2002). It should be noted that the performance of overweight children and adolescents might be weaker (Castro-Piñero et al., 2010). ...
... However, some studies also found that the hand-grip test was not valid [37], especially in accessing whole body muscle strength. Previous studies suggested that the knee bent pushup was a valid indicator of upper limb strength quality test [38,39]. Researchers used the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) leg extension test to assess the validity for lower-body muscular power and found that the standing long jump test can be a useful tool to assess lower-body muscular strength in children, but not whole body muscle strength [40]. ...
Article
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Objective To study the criterion-related validity of simple muscle strength test (SMST) indicators and assess whole body muscle strength in Chinese children aged 10 to 12 years old. Methods Two hundred and forty children were equally divided into four groups in different genders and residences. The SMST indicators (hand-grip, knee bent push-up, back muscle strength, sit-up, leg muscle strength, and standing long jump) were tested. We set up the total level of the whole-body muscle strength (Ftotal) through testing isokinetic muscle strength of the six joints' flexion and extension movements. Pearson correlation analyses were used to analyze the correlation between the SMST indicators and the Ftotal. Results (1) Leg muscle strength and back muscle strength demonstrated the highest validity scores. Sit-ups, hand grip, and standing long jump demonstrated the lowest validity scores. (2) Leg muscle strength had the highest validity for males, but back muscle strength had the highest validity for females. Conclusions Back muscle strength and leg muscle strength can give the highest validity of assessing whole body muscle strength, and also has higher validity in both the urban and rural children. For urban children, but not rural, the knee bent push-up also has a high validity indicator.
... Cronbach's Alpha is suitable for instruments in the form of essays or questionnaires (Yusup, 2018). Reliability can be understood as the consistency of test measurements when the measuring procedure is repeated (Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, & Hales, 2002;Scheuer et al., 2019). Reliable instruments will achieve the same conclusions when applied to the same subjects at different times (Fan, 2018). ...
Article
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Teachers need to understand students' early mathematical abilities before continuing learning on the next topic to retain the knowledge. This study aims to produce appropriate and reliable instruments for quality research related to early mathematical abilities. This research implemented R&D. The subjects were 113 sixth-grade students of the elementary school in Karawang. The instrument used was a test to measure early mathematical ability. Validity and reliability tests indicated that the five initial mathematical ability test items were considered valid, with r count > r table and p-value <0.05. The Cronbach's Alpha value was 0.875 (above 0.8 or high reliability). Thus, the five items of the early mathematical ability instrument on the volume of cubes and rectangular prisms can be used for further research to measure the same variables accurately. The results are not significantly different for the same subject even though the time and place are different.
... Test score (best of two attempts) is distance thrown (in centimeter). For the age of 12/ 13 and 15/16, this test was replaced by push-up test (PU) to failure (Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, and Hales, 2002). Subjects were required to keep their body straight. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate the difference in relative physical fitness between children with initially high and low gross motor competence in a ten-year prospective study. A sample of 49 children from a local primary school was tested on gross motor competence and physical fitness in 1st grade (5/6 years old). The children were tested again in 2nd (motor competence only), 7th, and 10th grade (15/16 years old). The sample was divided into two groups; initially high and low gross motor competence, according to score (median-split) on the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder-test battery in 1st grade. Results suggested that the initially high gross motor competence-group performed significantly better on a multidimensional physical fitness test, compared to the initially low gross motor competence-group at all time-points. There were also statistically significant differences between the groups in gross motor competence in 7th and 10th grade, with the initially high gross motor competence-group scoring most favorable. The findings from the present study highlight the importance of identifying and supporting young individuals with low gross motor competence, to prevent low levels of physical fitness in the future.
... 1RM determined as the weight of the last successfully completed lift. While, 1-minute push-up test procedure was adopted from Baumgartner, Oh, Chung and Hales (2002). Participants executed push-ups on the hands and knees for one-continuous-minute. ...
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Introduction: Various fitness challenges had been invented and innovated in order to integrate exercise in life, especially during the new norm of Covid-19 pandemic. There is a lack of study on the effect of push-up exercise on sedentary women. The study aimed to compare the effects of six-week push-up (PU) and low-load bench press (BP) exercise interventions towards muscular strength (MS) and muscular endurance (ME) among healthy sedentary female youth. Methodology: Forty (n= 40) healthy sedentary female youth (aged 18.93 ±.97 years; body mass index 23.44 ±4.5 kg/m2) were recruited in the study. Participants were divided into two groups of training interventions (push-up and bench press group). Resistance exercise intervention involving four sessions per week for six consecutive weeks. Each session comprised of 3 sets of 12 repetitions with one minute of rest between each set. Bench press exercise was performed at 40% 1RM for bench press group. One-repetition maximum bench press (1RM BP) test and one-minute push-up (1Min PU) test were performed at pre and post-intervention to measure muscular strength and muscular endurance. A 2 x 2 mixed model ANOVA was employed to compare the effects of the two interventions following six-weeks of training. Result: Muscular strength and muscular endurance for the push-up group have significantly improved (p < .05), with at the end of the intervention were 59.75 ±13.91 and 45.05 ±6.59 as compared to during the pre-intervention of 42.0± 11.40 and 28.95 ±5.93, respectively. A similar result also found for bench press group. Muscular strength and muscular endurance for bench press group had significantly increased (p < .05), from the pre-test of 44.50 ±9.58 and 29.95 ±6.28 to the post-test of 60.25 ±10.45 and 41.45 ±6.20, respectively. However, there is no significant difference observed between groups (bench press and push-up protocols) on muscular strength (p= .661) and muscular endurance (p= .472). Conclusions: The present study concludes that push-up and low-load bench press exercise interventions do significantly improve muscular strength and muscular endurance of sedentary female youth, with push-up as an alternative for bench press for sedentary female youth.
... **P < .001. Abbreviations: AQoL6D, The Assessment of Quality of Life (Baumgartner et al., 2002); BAI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (Åstrand & Ryhming, 1954); BDI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (Vancampfort et al., 2012); BREQ-3: Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire 3 (BREQ-3) (Bauman et al., 2009;Faulkner et al., 2006); PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (World Health Organization, 2010). a Significant after Bonferroni correction (0.002). ...
Article
Introduction: Youth with at-risk mental states (ARMS) have low levels of physical activity (PA), reduced fitness levels and experience poor sleep quality. These lifestyle factors exacerbate mental health symptoms and increase cardiometabolic disease risk. PA interventions can help prevent this decline in physical health whilst reducing mental health symptom severity. Whether PA interventions are feasible and acceptable amongst youth with ARMS is unclear. Methods: This study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of headspace Active, a pragmatic PA program offered to 14 to 25 year olds with ARMS. The 12-week exercise physiologist-led intervention was conducted in adjunct to usual care. Feasibility was determined by number of referrals, attendance, engagement in exercise sessions and dropout from the intervention. Acceptability was assessed by a 10-item questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included anthropometry, cardiorespiratory fitness and strength. Subjective PA levels, symptoms of depression and anxiety, sleep, motivation and quality of life were also assessed. Results: Within 12 months, 77% of referrals completed the 12-week intervention (n = 20), with six dropouts. Of the 20 "completers", 95% attended at least five sessions over the 12-week intervention. Participants found the program highly acceptable (mean = 41.2/50 on the 10-item acceptability questionnaire) and experienced significant improvements in PA, strength, motivation, depressive symptoms and sleep quality post-intervention. No changes in anthropometry were observed. Conclusion: Results suggest headspace Active was feasible and acceptable and was associated with improvements in physical and mental health outcomes among ARMS youth. Given the potential scalability of this real-world PA program to other youth mental health settings, these data have implications for best practice implementation of PA interventions for individuals with emerging mental illness.
... 23,24 The 30-second push-up test also evaluates the strength and endurance of the arm-shoulder girdle and is a recommended test in the physical fitness test battery. [25][26][27] The reason for the strong correlation of UULEX with these other tests may be related to the fact that they are similar in design. In addition, the use of standardized guidelines, equipment and an assessment protocol may reduce variations in the measurements. ...
Article
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Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease which affects the performance of the upper extremities. There is no method to evaluate the specific upper extremity endurance of individuals with this disease. The unsupported upper-limb exercise test (UULEX) is a performance test that evaluates upper extremity performance (functionality and endurance). Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of UULEX and the minimal detectable change (MDC) in individuals with RA. Methods and materials: The study included 71 patients (15 male, 56 female) with a mean age of 52.15 ± 10.11 years. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the reliability of UULEX. MDC estimates were calculated using baseline data. Correlations of UULEX with the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), 30-second push-up test and 6 pegboard ring test (6PBRT) were assessed for concurrent validity. Results: The level, weight and duration scores of the UULEX test were found to be excellent for intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.922, 0.960, 0.958). Intra-rater MDC values were determined to be 0.35, 2.04, and 0.80 seconds, respectively. Moderate-excellent correlations were found between UULEX and DASH, HAQ, 30-second push-up test and 6PBRT (P < .05). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that UULEX test is a valid and reliable method for the assessment of upper extremity performance in individuals with RA.
... The ecofit self-assessment is a brief tool based on measures which allows participants to monitor their physical progress and happiness throughout the intervention period. The self-assessment tool incorporates a 1-item happiness question [52], 12-min walk/run [53,54], sit-to-stand test [55,56] and the push-up test [57]. ...
Article
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Introduction: Regular physical activity can significantly reduce the risk of numerous chronic diseases, and improve bone density and mental health. Yet, only 50% of Australian adults meet the aerobic physical activity guidelines and 9-19% meet the resistance-based physical activity guidelines. The aim of this study is to enhance community-based aerobic and resistance-based physical activity through the use of publicly available outdoor exercise equipment, social support and smartphone technology. Research design and methods: The ecofit intervention will be evaluated using a two-arm randomized controlled trial. A total of 240 adults (aged 18-80) will be recruited and randomly allocated to either the ecofit intervention or a 'wait-list' control group. Both groups will have access to the two types of outdoor park exercise equipment, but the intervention group will be given access to the purpose-built ecofit app and a 90-min introductory group training session. To promote social support, participants can enrol in a group of up to four individuals and access the ecofit Facebook group. The ecofit app include workout plans that can be tailored to different locations, difficulty levels and workout-types (i.e., resistance-only or combined resistance and aerobic workouts). Outcome assessments will be conducted at baseline, 3- (primary-end point) and 9-months follow-up. The primary outcomes are upper and lower body muscular fitness. The secondary outcomes include physical activity, body composition, aerobic fitness, body mass index, self-report resistance-based physical activity, and mental health outcomes. The cost-effectiveness of the study will also be evaluated. Discussion: ecofit is an innovative, multi-component physical activity intervention that integrates smartphone technology, social support and the outdoor built environment to promote community-based aerobic and resistance-based physical. The findings will be used to guide future interventions and to support councils to promote community-based physical activity through the use of local outdoor exercise equipment. Trial registration: ACTRN12619000868189.
... In the second test case, some authors have suggested that its psychometric properties should be assessed again because they were established with small samples, which were conveniently selected (22). Furthermore, other authors have realized that the protocol of the 908 push-up test should be modified to improve its standards (5). Thus, just the "medicine ball throw" test seemed to be a valid and reliable measure of upper-body strength for kindergarten children (9), although its criterion validity through the use of a valid criterion measure needs to be further analyzed. ...
Article
Ayán Pé rez, C, Cancela, JM, Senra, I, and Quireza, E. Validity and reliability of 2 upper-body strength tests for preschool children. J Strength Cond Res 28(11): 3224-3233, 2014-The "bent knee push-up" and the "timed dipping" are 2 upper-body strength assessment tests whose simplicity and ease of use make them suitable to be applied to preschool children. Nevertheless, their psychometric properties have not been properly studied for this age group. This study aimed to fill this gap. To accomplish this, both tests were administered 3 times (familiar-ization, test, and retest) to a group of 120 children (mean age, 48.60 6 9.94 months; body mass index, 17.05 6 2.04 kg$m 22 ; 50% girls), with a week interval between each assessment. The obtained results in each test were compared with those obtained in the "handheld dynamometry" (the criterion measure) with the aim of identifying their construct validity. The reliability of the tests was analyzed by comparing the obtained results during the second (test) and the third (retest) time that each 1 was carried out. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to examine reliability, and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to examine validity. The bent knee push-up showed a moderate reliability for 3-year-old children (ICC, 0.690; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.379-0.845) and high for those aged 4 years (ICC, 0.848; 95% CI, 0.715-0.919) and 5 (ICC, 0.702; 95% CI, 0.441-0.841). Similar results were obtained for the timed dipping, in children aged 3 years (ICC, 0.522; 95% CI, 0.422-0.761), 4 years (ICC, 0.766; 95% CI, 0.560-0.875), and 5 years (ICC, 0.828; 95% CI, 0.677-0.908). Both tests showed a good construct validity, with the exception of the timed dipping in 3-year-old children (r = 0.200; p = 0.256). The results in this study suggest that the bent knee push-up and the timed dipping show psychometric properties that make them suitable to be used in research carried out with preschoolers.
... The pre-and post-intervention testing incorporated fitness components commonly associated with netball using methods described elsewhere in the literature: press-ups (Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, & Hales, 2002), prone and side holds (Kilding, Tunstall & Kuzmic 2008), jump performance (horizontal and vertical) (Harman, Rosenstein, Frykman, Rosenstein, & Kraemer, 1991;Maulder & Cronin, 2005) and the Illinois agility test (Cureton, 1951). All testing was conducted by the same person using standardised instructions and protocols. ...
... The "Push-Up test" is an indicator of strength and muscle resistance from the top of the body and in particular of shoulders. For this test, each subject performed as many push-ups as possible in 1 min [34]. ...
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The "Bent knee push-up" and the "Timed dipping" are two upper-body strength assessment tests whose simplicity and ease of use make them suitable to be applied to pre-school children. Nevertheless, their psychometric properties have not been properly studied for this age group. This study aimed to fill this gap. To accomplish this, both tests were administered three times (familiarization, test and retest) to a group of 120 children (mean age 48.60±9.94 months; BMI 17.05±2.04 kg/m; 50% girls), with a week interval between each assessment. The obtained results in each test were compared with those obtained in the "Hand-held dynamometry" (the criterion measure) with the aim of identifying their construct validity. The reliability of the tests was analyzed by comparing the obtained results during the second (test) and the third (retest) time that each one was carried out. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to examine reliability, and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine validity. The "Bent knee push up", showed a moderate reliability for 3 year old children (ICC: .690; 95% CI: .379-.845) and high for those aged 4 (ICC: .848; 95% CI: .715-.919) and 5 (ICC: .702; 95% CI: .441-.841). Similar results were obtained for the "Timed dipping", in children aged 3 (ICC: .522; 95% CI: .422-.761), 4 (ICC: .766; 95% CI: .560-.875) and 5 (ICC: .828; 95% CI: .677-.908). Both tests showed a good construct validity, with the exception of the "Timed dipping" in 3 year old children (r=.200; p=.256). The results in this study suggest that the "Bent knee push up" and the "Timed dipping" show psychometric properties that make them suitable to be employed in research carried out with preschoolers.
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Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on the physical fitness of children aged 16, living in Kosovo. The research was conducted on a sample of 41 students aged 16 years ± 6 months, who are high school students from the Republic of Kosovo (n = 41 boys). Physical tests included in the study to measure the anthropometric and motor abilities included, height, weight, body mass index, balance, flexibility, strength continuity, explosive force, and anaerobic peak power. The calculation of the data was made by using the SPSS 24 software program. The One-Way repeated measure ANOVA Analysis was used to calculate the statistical data of the tests that were included in the study (years: 2018, 2019, and 2020). The study results have shown statistically significant effects of the pandemic on motor abilities, such as on explosive force and anaerobic peak power. However, there is no significant effect of the pandemic on anthropometric characteristics, balance, and flexibility (p>0.05). The effects of the pandemic on the health of the children living in Kosovo were less in comparison with the effects of the pandemic reported by the World Health Organization and other countries. Moreover, the study also showed decreases in motor abilities in the years when the COVID-19 pandemic had not occurred. Keywords. Kosovo, pandemic (COVID-19), physical fitness.
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In the present study, the purpose was to determine the norm values in the evaluation of physical and bio-motoric developments in 11-17-year-old children in Kosovo. 742 students who were selected according to the Random Sampling Method from 24 schools determined in the cities and rural areas in all regions were included in the study (n = 347 girls, n = 395 boys). Volunteering students who did not have any acute or chronic disease that might avoid testing were included in the study after the permissions were received from the Ministry of National Education, Principals of the Schools, and the parents. The declarations of Helsinki were taken into consideration in the study. The Height (L), Weight (W), Body Mass Index (BMI), Flamingo Balance (FLB), Plate Tapping (PLT), Sit and Reach (SAR), Standing Broad Jump (SBJ), Hand Grip (HGR), 30-sec Sit Up (SUP), Bent Arm Hang (BAH), Shuttle Run 10x5 meters (SHR), 20 m Shuttle Run (ESHR) tests, which were included in the Eurofit Test Battery, were also included in the present study. In addition to the Eurofit Physical Fitness Test Battery, the Body Fat Percentage (BF%), Sit Up (SUP), Arch Up Test (AUT), Standing Medicine Ball Throw (MBTH), Push-up (PU), Squat Jump (SJ), Countermovement Jump (CMJ), Average Anaerobic Power (AAP), Maximal Anaerobic Power (MAP), 30-Meter Speed Test (30mST), Maximum Oxygen Intake (VO2 max) tests were also employed in the study. The results of each test were given as the norm values according to gender and age together with 20% groups, which is considered as the Canadian Standard. For the purpose of determining the percentages in norm values, the following percentage values, which are accepted as the Canadian Standard, were used. The scores below 20% were taken as "Very Low"; the scores between 21- 40% range were taken as "Low"; the scores between 41- 60% range were taken as "Normal"; the scores between 61-80% range were taken as "High", and the scores above 81% were taken as "Very High". The data on the physical and biomotoric characteristics of the children living in Kosovo were given as norm values as 20% groups, sex and age, which is considered as the Canadian Standard; and were compared with the data of the World Health Organization and the literature data of other countries. While the children living in Kosovo showed higher performances in the tests that were affected by anthropometric properties like height and body fat percentage and by genetic properties like the speed of the movements of the arms when compared with the children from other countries from the same age group; they had lower performances in the tests that were affected by life style and physical activity levels like endurance, long jump, and flexibility. Bu çalışmada, Kosova'da 11-17 yaş öğrencilerin fiziksel ve biyomotorik özelliklerine ait norm değerlerin yaş ve cinsiyete göre belirlenmesi, dünya sağlık örgütü verileri ve diğer ülkelere ait literatür bilgisi ile karşılaştırılması amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmaya yedi coğrafi bölgede 30 şehirden oluşan Kosova'da öğrenim gören yaklaşık 300 bin öğrenci arasından, eğitimden kaçınabilecek akut veya kronik her hangi bir hastalığı olmayan 347'si kız 395'i erkek olmak üzere toplam 742 gönüllü Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı, Okul Müdürleri ve velilerin desteğinden izin alındıktan sonra çalışmaya dahil edilmiştir. Çalışmaya Eurofit test bataryasında yer alan Boy Uzunluğu (BU), Ağırlık (VA), Beden Kitle İndeksi (BKİ), Flamingo Denge Testi (FDT), Disklere Dokunma Testi (DDT), Otur Eriş Testi (OET), Durarak Uzun Atlama (DUA), El Kavrama Kuvveti (EKK), 30 Saniyede Maksimal Mekik Testi (30sMMT), Bükülü Kolla Asılma Testi (BKA), 10 x 5 Metre Mekik Koşusu Testi (10x5mMK), 20 Metre Dayanıklık Mekik Koşusu Testi (20mDT) testleri dâhil edilmiştir. Eurofit Fiziksel Uygunluk Test Bataryası ile birlikte Vücut yağ yüzdesi (VYY), Mekik Testi (MT), Kasada Ters Mekik Testi (TM), Öne sağlık topu fırlatma testi (STF), Şınav testi (ŞT), Skuat sıçrama (SS), Dikey sıçrama (DS), Ortalama Anaerobik güç (OANG), Maksimal Anaerobik güç (MANG), 30 Metre Sürat Koşusu Testi (30mSK), Maksimal Oksijen Kullanım kapasitesi (VO2max) testleri de dâhil edilmiştir. Norm değerlerde yüzdeliklerin belirlenmesi amacıyla; Kanada standardı olarak kabul edilen aşağıda belirtilen yüzdelik değerler kullanılmıştır. %20'lik değerlerin altındaki skorlar "çok düşük", %21-40 aralık arasındaki değerler "düşük", %41-60 aralık arasındaki değerler "normal", %61-80 aralık arasındaki değerler "yüksek", %81'in üzerindeki değerler "çok yüksek" olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Her bir test sonucuna ait değerler, Kanada standardı olarak kabul edilen, %20'lik guruplar ile cinsiyet ve yaşa göre norm değerler halinde verilmiştir. Kosova'da yaşayan çocukların fiziksel ve biyomotorik özelliklerine ait veriler dünya sağlık örgütü verileri ve diğer ülkelere ait literatür bilgisi ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Ülkelere göre bakıldıgında Kosova'da yaşayan çocuklar diğer ülkelerde yaşayan aynı yaştaki çocuklara göre boy uzunluğu, vücut yağ yüzdesi gibi antropometrik ve kolların hareket etme sürati gibi kalıtsal özelliklerden daha çok etkilenen testlerde daha yüksek performans gösterirken, dayanıklık, uzun atlama ve esneklik gibi yaşam tarzı ve fiziksel aktivite düzeyinden daha çok etkilenen testlerde daha düşük performansa sahip olmuşlardır. Ky punim është bërë me qellim të përcaktimit të normave (standardeve) të faktorëve fizik dhe biomotorik të nxënesit e moshave 11-17 vjeqare që jetojnë në Kosovë dhe krahasimi i karakteristikave fizike dhe biomotorike me vlerat e dhëna nga Organizata Botërore e Shëndetësisë dhe vlerat e vendeve të tjera të dhëna në literatura të ndryshme. Nga afërsisht 300 mijë nxënës që ndjekin mësimet e tyre në Kosovë në shtatë rajone gjeografike ku gjënden tridhjetë qytete në ketë punim gjithsej janë përfshirë 742 nxënes vullnetar nga të cilet 347 vajza dhe 395 meshkuj të cilet nuk kanë poseduar ndonjë sëmundje akute apo kronike e cila do të mbajë jashtë procesit mësimor. Në ketë punim janë përfshirë testet që përfshihen në protokolin Eurofit të cilët janë Lartësia Trupore (LT), Pesha Trupore (PT), Indeksi i Masës Trupore (IMT), Testi i Ekuilibrit Flamingo (TEF), Tapingu me Dorë (TD), Zgjatja e Trungut Ulur (ZTU), Kërcimi së Gjati (KGJ), Forca Dinamometrike e Dorës (FDD), Anterfleksion i Trungut në 30 Sekonda (AT30Sek), Qëndrimi në Varje me Krahë të Mbledhur (QVKM), Vrapim Maksimal 10x5 Metër (VM10x5M) dhe Vrapimi i Qëndrueshmërisë 20 Metër (VQ20M). Krahas testëve që përfshihen në protokolin Eurofit janë përfshirë edhe Përqindja e Indit Dhjamor (%IDH), Anterfleksion i Trungut (AT), Retrofleksion i Trungut Mbi Tavolinë (RTMT), Hedhja e Topit të Mendicinbollit (HTM), Përkulje Mbi Krahë (PMK), Kërcimi skuat (KS), Kërcimi Vertikal (KV), Forca Anaerobike Mesatare (FANM), Forca Anaerobike Maksimale (FANM), Vrapimi i Shpejtësisë 30 Metër (VSH30M) dhe Marrja Maksimale e Oksigjenit (MMO). Për të përcaktuar përqindjet e normave janë përdorur vlerat e mëposhtme të pranuara si Standardi Kanadez të cilat janë: më ulët se 20% “shumë dobët”, vlerat mes 21-40% “dobët, vlerat mes 41-60% “normal”, vlerat mes 61-80% “mirë” dhe vlerat mbi 81% “shumë mirë”. Për qdo vlerë veq e veq, duke u bazuar në moshë dhe gjini përqindjet e pranuara si Standardi Kanadez janë përcaktuar si norma (standarde) fizike dhe biomotorike. Vlerat fizike dhe biomotorike të meshkujve dhe femrave 11-17 vjeqare që jetojnë në Kosovë janë krahasuar me vlerat e moshave të njeta të nxënësve që jetonjë në vende të ndryshme të botës të dhëna nga Organizata Botërore e Shëndetësisë dhe literatura të ndryshme. Në analizën e aftësive fizike dhe biomotorike nga këndëveshtrimi krahasimtar është vërejtur se nxënësit që jetojnë në Kosovë në raport me nxënësit e moshave të njëjta që jetojnë në vendet tjera rezultojnë me performancë më të lartë në faktoret antropometrik siq janë lartësia trupore, përqindja e indit dhjamor dhe në testet siq janë shpejtesia e lëvizjes së kraheve respektivisht tapingu me dorë, faktor që kanë prirje të trashegohen. Ndërsa në testet apo faktorët motorik të cilet janë në korelacion me mënyren e jeteses dhe aktivitetet fizike siq janë qëndrueshmëria, forca eksplozive e këmbeve dhe fleksibiliteti i belit nxënësit që jetojnë në Kosovë në raport me nxënësit e të të njetave mosha që jetojnë në vende tjera të botës rezultojnë me performancë me të ulët. Fjalët kyqe: Vlerat normative, Statusi fizik dhe motorik, Eurofit, Kosova, Krahasim mes vendeve.
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High quality social-science surveys in general and surveys in travel behavior in particular are paramount for preparing decision-making processes, implementing integrative transport planning approaches, and for transportation modelling. Quantitative and qualitative indicators are necessary to determine the accuracy of the survey results. Based on an interdisciplinary overview of existing quality assessment approaches, this paper develops a Quality Indicator Set framework for systematically monitoring and assessing the quality of household travel surveys. 24 indicators are derived and classified along the three areas of Collection Quality, Content Quality, and Application Quality. For each indicator, the desired direction for improving quality and units for its measurement are given. No composite indicator is derived in order to keep the developed framework transparent, flexible and adaptable to each individual case study. The functionality of the developed Quality Indicator Set framework is demonstrated with the help of two exemplary applications. The provided Quality Indicator Set framework is applicable to traditional mixed-method household travel surveys but also to innovative approaches such as smartphone-based tracking of travel behavior and also to non-transport social science surveys. || Full-text available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2018.10.098
The purpose of this study was to determine the objectivity and stability reliability of the 90° push-up (90PU) test for elementary, high school (HS), and college-age students. One hundred fifty-six elementary and 70 HS students performed the 90PU test on 2 different days. Of those students, 49 elementary students were videotaped for the objectivity portion of the study. Eighty-four college students performed the 90PU on 2 different days, and each day they were scored by 2 to 4 judges. For the elementary girls and boys, the objectivity coefficients were .46 and .75, respectively, and the stability reliability coefficients ranged from .50 to .86 for the elementary and HS students. For the college students, the objectivity coefficients were between .16 and .91, with 6 of the 16 coefficients above .70. The reliability coefficients were between .22 and .87, with 5 of the 7 coefficients greater than .70. Several administration problems with the 90PU test were identified during the testing.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of five field tests (FTs) of upper body muscular strength and endurance (UBMSE) in 9-10-year-old children. Ninety-four children (38 boys, 56 girls) performed five FTs of UBMSE: pull-ups, flexed arm hang, push-ups, Vermont modified pull-ups (VMPU), and New York modified pull-ups. They also performed three criterion tests (CTs) of strength and three CTs of muscular endurance using a supported weight, set-resistance device. Zero-order correlations between the sum of the standard scores on the three CTs of strength (SUM1RM) and the FTs were nonsignificant. However, when SUM1RM was expressed relative to body weight (SUM1RM.kg-1), significant (p < .01) correlation coefficients were obtained for each FT. Highest correlations with SUM1RM.kg-1 were observed for the VMPU, and this same test yielded the smallest percentage of zero scores. Principal components analysis of the CTs, normalized for body weight, and FTs yielded a factor on which both the FTs and CTs of strength loaded significantly. These data indicate that the five FTs, though invalid as measures of absolute strength and muscular endurance, manifest concurrent and construct validity as measures of weight-relative muscular strength.
Standards for educational and psychological testing Objectivity and reliability of the 90° push-up for college students
  • T A Baumgartner
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Coun-cil on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association. Baumgartner, T. A. (1995). Objectivity and reliability of the 90° push-up for college students. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 66, A47–A48.
Biological determinants of the sex difference in muscular strength Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens. Department of the Army Army field manual (FM 20–21) The Prudential Fitnessgram: Test administration man-ual
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Bishop, P. A. (1983). Biological determinants of the sex difference in muscular strength. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens. Department of the Army. (1992). Army field manual (FM 20–21). Washington, DC: Author. Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research. (1992). The Prudential Fitnessgram: Test administration man-ual. Dallas, TX: Author.
Reliability and validity of a 1 minute push-up test for young adults
  • A W Jackson
  • C Fromme
  • H Plitt
  • J Mercer
Jackson, A. W., Fromme, C., Plitt, H., & Mercer, J. (1994). Reliability and validity of a 1 minute push-up test for young adults. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65, A57.
Practical measurements for evaluation in physical education
  • B L Johnson
  • J K Nelson
Johnson, B. L., & Nelson, J. K. (1986). Practical measurements for evaluation in physical education (4th ed.). Edina, MN: Burgess.
Stability reliability of the modified push-up in children
  • B G Mcmanis
  • D A Wuest
McManis, B. G., & Wuest, D. A. (1994). Stability reliability of the modified push-up in children. Re-search Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65, A58–A59.
Objectivity and reliability of two push-up test protocols for male college students
  • M S Murr
Murr, M. S. (1997). Objectivity and reliability of two push-up test protocols for male college students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens.
there will be a lot of straight-ening of the body at the waist in order to assume the correct down position
  • Further
Further, there will be a lot of straight-ening of the body at the waist in order to assume the correct down position. In these cases don't count the push-up.
A push-up is counted when the person being tested is in the up position
  • Baumgartner
  • Oh
  • Chung
  • Hales
A push-up is counted when the person being tested is in the up position. 242 BAUMGARTNER, OH, CHUNG, HALES FIGURE A6 Body slightly slumping profile. Downloaded by [Ams/Girona*barri Lib] at 09:09 08 October 2014