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Regional Development in Romania – From Regulations to Practice

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Abstract

Regional development is a concept focused on stimulating and diversifying the economic activities, stimulating investments in the private and public sector, meant to reduce the socio-economic differences between various areas, in order to improve the standard of living and offer high quality services to citizens. Regional development represents one of the main objectives of the European Union. The idea of region is nowadays a European one, a major functional principle of the Union, and also a condition of the administrative reform within the member or candidate states. Within the European Union the region is considered “the next level after the state” or “a territory that forms a net unit from geographical point of view, or a similar assembly of territories having continuity, population sharing certain common elements and willing to keep and develop their specificity in order to stimulate the cultural, social and economic progress”, rather administrative definition. At present, we cannot speak of administrative regions in Romania, but just economic, because the region is not yet included among the territorial-administrative units in the Constitution. The first post-revolutionary law regarding the regional development was the Law no. 151/1998, repealed in 2004 by the Law no. 315/2004 regarding the regional development of Romania, regulation that established the objectives of the policy in the field of regional development, the responsible institutions, competences and specific instruments meant to promote the actions of regional development.
Procedia Economics and Finance 8 ( 2014 ) 35 – 41
2212-5671 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of ESPERA 2013
doi: 10.1016/S2212-5671(14)00059-8
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
ScienceDirect
1st International Conference 'Economic Scientific Research - Theoretical, Empirical and Practical
Approaches', ESPERA 2013
Regional development in Romania from regulations to practice
Mihaela Adina Apostolache
a
*
a
Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, B-dul Bucuresti, No.39, Ploiesti, Prahova, Romania
Abstract
Regional development is a concept focused on stimulating and diversifying the economic activities, stimulating investments in
the private and public sector, meant to reduce the socio-economic differences between various areas, in order to improve the
stan
dard of living and offer high quality services to citizens. Regional development represents one of the main objectives of the
Eur
opean Union. The idea of region is nowadays a European one, a major functional principle of the Union, and also a condition
of the administrative reform within the member or candidate states. Within the European Union the region is considered “the next
level after the state” or “a territory that forms a net unit from geographical point of view, or a similar assembly of territories
having continuity, population sharing certain common elements and willing to keep and develop their specificity in order to
stimulate the cultural, social and economic progress”, rather administrative definition. At present, we cannot speak of
administrative regions in Romania, but just economic, because the region is not yet included among the territorial-administrative
uni
ts in the Constitution. The first post-revolutionary law regarding the regional development was the Law no. 151/1998,
r
epealed in 2004 by the Law no. 315/2004 regarding the regional development of Romania, regulation that established the
objectives of the policy in the field of regional development, the responsible in
stitutions, competences and specific instruments
meant to promote the actions of regional development.
© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Org
anizing Committee of ESPERA 2013.
Keywords: economic activities, administrative regions, regional development, standard of living, institutions, instruments;
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +0 040 728 078 338.
E-mail address: mihapostolache@yahoo.com
© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of ESPERA 2013
36 Mihaela Adina Apostolache / Procedia Economics and Finance 8 ( 2014 ) 35 – 41
1. Preliminaries
Regional development is a new concept which aims at creating an ap
propriate framework to achieve significant
and sustainable improvement of the living standards of citizens and decrease unemployment, diversifying and
boosting economic activity, stimulate investment in the private and public sectors, promoting an attractive local and
regional economic environment, able, according to Stefan, 2008, to support sustainable socio-economic
develo
pment. Closely related to regional development, local development is supported by flexible society and
in
stitutional mechanisms, highly cooperative and local interaction. In other words, local development is according to
Guigou, 1983 “the expression of local solidarity generating new social relationships and embodies the will of micro-
areas residents to value local
wealth, which leads to economic development”.
From the intertwining of the two concepts, the generic term r
egional and local development refers to the process
of increasing the capacity to use the production factors - capital, labour, land and technology - available to a region
or a local ec
onomy. In the current context of change, economic, social and administrative restructuring, regional and
local development involves a process dependent on innovation and entrepreneurship , internal growth and structural
changes, which aims to increase the standard of living of the local community due to improving capacity of
transformation and adaptation and to stimulating innovation as well.
Analytically, the concept of reg
ionalization considers the region as the best form of organizing information in
terms of space, the functional regions being considered of a major importance for the process and objectives of
planning development. The first meaning of the term region suggests the existence of a functional and relational
entity related to governmental and non-governmental efforts to determine the development of national communities
through more efficient social policies. Thus, as Wallerstein asserted, 1984, the region is a constitutive element of
th
e social progress, representing [...] a fundamental space type congruence of political, social and economic
proces
ses”. In the context of political reshaping of the European continent, CBC and inter-regional policies have
becom
e lately a very important topic of analysis. Modern regionalism became best known through the effects that
th
e European internal market liberalization and diminishing importance of national boundaries have had on the
Eu
ropean concept of “unification of the continent.”
2. The regional development at European level
A natural question to be answered would be: “What kind of Europe do we want - for ourselves and for future
g
enerations?” The European sense seeks the regional level according to Ferréol, 2000 as “an administrative level
having its place in the administrative hierarchy of the Member States in a position immediately below the central
level” i.e., “echelon immediately below that of the state”, echelon that depending on the competences that have been
granted to it (in case of centralized systems) or granted them by itself (in federal systems), manages administratively
and politically a territorial community whose size varies widely according to Alexandru, 2008. The European
Parliament, 1988, also gives a definition in The Community Chart of Regionalization, which defines it in the in
Article 1“as a territory forming geographically a net unit or a similar assembly of territories having continuity, the
population having certain common elements and willing to keep the specificity this resulted and developing it in
order to stimulate the cultural, econ
omic and social process.”
By statistical and data collection reasons, at EU level has been created a territorial unit called NUTS
(Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) which is organized in six territorial levels (depending on the
n
umber of inhabitants and the degree of territorial development). Within the Union, regional development policy is
ma
de at NUTS II level. The average size of the regions qualified at this level is of approx. 2.5 million inhabitants,
13.000 sq. km.
Increasing the role and importance of regions in Europe originated the so-called regional power that raised the
iss
ue of the European territory remodelled by the new internal equilibrium of states. The question is whether
governments have adapted to the European area” becau
se the general trend seems to be, at national level,
decentralization and integration into European structures”. Th
us, the region is according to Rougement, 1978 above
all a space for civic participation”, a “basic community”. The experience of countries members of the European
Union on r
egional development policy, understood along with industrial policy as a necessary component of any
strategy for socio-economic development, is the premise of the new features of regional policy in these countries
acco
rding to Matei, 2005, characterized byregionalization of institutional structures in Western European
37
Mihaela Adina Apostolache / Procedia Economics and Finance 8 ( 2014 ) 35 – 41
countries” in The Green Paper, EC, 1997. Uniform definition of regions is difficult, according to Marcou, 1997,
given the characteristics individualizing each country, the cultural phenomenon, trad
itions, issues of economic and
social existing policy, its own legal and institutional system, endogenous resources, etc. The legislative and
in
stitutional framework in the EU Member States concerning the administrative structures and regional institutions
involved in regional economic development justifies the difficulty of finding a full definition of the region,
acco
rding to Matei, 2005.
Regions are territorial cuttings pragmatically built on neighbouring units, based on principles of similarity, or
f
unctionality. It follows that there is no region, no good regionalization by itself or generally, but only in relation to
a specific use or purpose. NUTS regions, 2003 EU institutional stipulated in EU by EC Directive 1059/2003, have a
f
undamental function of statistical reporting, according to Sandu, 2012. Regional model differs from state to state
depending on the degree of autonomy and areas of competence of local authorities. It is important to distinguish
bet
ween regions as administrative entities, between regional policies, including regional development and
regionalism/federalism as a political movement and thought, according to Bull, 1999.
At European level, apart from the EU, the regional development policy is a concern of the Council of Europe,
too. It has developed the concepts of “good gover
nance” and “local self-governmentand regional cooperation”,
transnational cooperation” b
etween the territorial -administrative units neighbouring borders. Council of Europe's
approach is complementary to the European Union and serves to facilitate the use of Union's specific instruments,
acco
rding to Ionescu and Toderas, 2007. Thus, there was its concern for the issue of regionalization, going up to the
ad
option of legislation on regional autonomy in the form of a recommendation (Rec. 34/1997).
Since the moment of its shaping, the European Union can be seen as a supranational actor in the European
political plan, as a macro-region in the global economy, which changed the traditional balance of power between
micro-regions and nation-states, according to Gruber, 1999. Regarding the implementation of regional development
policies, it
was found that it is manifested in two ways: the preventive effect, i.e., by removing the causes that
g
enerated sometimes lack of development or troublesome development of regions and combative sense, by
r
emoving backwardness effects of the regions developing. Thus, the purpose of regional development policies is to
reduce disparities and strengthen economic and social cohesion of the European countries. The development of less
favo
ured regions results in more rational distribution of industrial objectives, labour and infrastructure.
Three decisive directions that define the ascendancy of the regional reality can be highlighted, according to Roca
Ju
nyert, 1995: firstly, the regions contribute to economic development and to the achievement of economic and
social co
hesion; secondly, the regions contribute to the required citizens' approach of the reality of EU, enabling
g
reater institutional democratization; thirdly, the regions are exponents of a pluralist Europe, where very diverse
cult
ural, linguistic and social realities coexist. The European Parliament (EP Rez., 1993) itself has stated that “the
road to the EU passes through the manifestation and promotion of European cultural ident
ity, which is the result of
an interaction of civilizations and of national, regional and local cultural plurality.”
2.1. Risks in the implementation of regionalization
The issue of regions is, according to
Munteanu, 2000, in a certain way, quite risky. Recognizing the regionalism
in its objective quality of an essential factor for social progress, economic and political integration of united Europe
does not mean triggering a war against national states. One of the risks regionalism would be subjected is to be
monopolized by certain movements which do not accept the supremacy of human rights and the principle of local
auton
omy, democracy in the society.
Another risk derives from the terminology used in the discussions about the regionalization. State and nation are
generally concepts that do not conform to cultural anthropology, being
used to express political ideas of integrity,
unity. Therefore, the studies on the impact that local developments and regions have on the national centres of
po
wer, have a major influence. Regionalism as an argument in favour of developing the principles of local
auton
omy, subsidiarity, strengthening democracy at the local level and use of the administrative practices in the
serv
ice of the national interest of all its citizens, is, according to Alexandru, 2008, a movement that comes from the
bottom
up in relation to the phases of the regional process
.
The analysis of the necessity of regionalization should take into account any regional imbalances to be realized in
dev
eloping a multi-criteria strategy of decentralization and devolution to regional level of economic activities taking
place within the national or European space. Concerning the usefu
lness of regionalization, experts in the field, like
38 Mihaela Adina Apostolache / Procedia Economics and Finance 8 ( 2014 ) 35 – 41
Tourraine, 1965, have identified a number of phenomena, which in various degrees and combinations, are the main
causes of regional dynamics present in Europe:
regional imbalances - is one of the problems which existence does not require long demonstration; almost all
European states show unequal development in territory;
ethno-cultural alienation - was acknowledged at regional level by communities which consider without support
ling
uistic and cultural dependencies in relation to other regions; meantime, communities disagree with the assertion
of their inability to manage their own problems;
centralism,
having a close connection with ethno-cultural alienation is characterized by the process by which
any decision, regardless of its scope, is taken at the central level of state;
"socialization" of European policy - has a direct impact on regional phenomenon, representing the increasing
i
mportance of the state in all sectors of social life and even individual.
In the regional process, these causes generate, according to Alexandu, 2007, three major phases in their
develo
pment, phases that sometimes overlap, intertwine and even oppose in the same time: the eme
rgence of
regional consciousness, regional movements or regionalist actions, the developmen
t of regional institutions or
regional powers.
3. The regional development in Romania
In Romania, according to the Constitution provisions (Rom
anian Constitution, 2003), territory is organized
administratively into villages, towns and counties (art.3, par.3), and public authorities work in the administrative
units (art.120-123). In this context, it should be noted that the pu
blic administration is divided into central and
territorial administration, state administration, autonomous local administration, respectively (art.116-123). State
ad
ministration and autonomous administration are two complementary categories in the state since the country's
administration is entrusted to state authorities - the central state structures - and some local authorities - local public
ad
ministration - that characterizes the local administration of public a
ffairs. It can be appreciated therefore that in
Romania there are two levels, the local one (village and town/city) and the intermediate (county). Local government
system base is given by the local community (village , town/city), represented by the human communities formed as
a natural community of population; between villages, respectively cities/municipalities and the state there is the
intermediate community, the county , community historically validated and determined by law, as Matei L. and
Matei A., 2002, asserted.
Following the Constitution of Romania review of the 2003, the current art.135 was completed with regional
development issues: “
The State shall ensure the implementation of regional development policies in line with the
European Union objectives
(Art.135 alin.2 lit.g Romanian Constitution, 2003). Regionalization of national
territory, i.e. creation or de facto acceptance of the regions is, according to Apostolache A
. and Apostolache C.,
2010, a strategically important geopolitical action oriented toward various political, economic or development needs
or in
terests. The stake of regional development is not territorial segregation, but the harmonious development of
statistical areas for socio-economic development, according to Ionescu and Toderas, 2007. Some regions are deeply
marked by their history, thus the specific relationships and attachments are more powerful than the power of the
state constructions they are today.
Law no.315/2004 on regional development establishes the institutional framework, objectives, powers and
in
struments of regional development policy in Romania. According to article 5 of this law, in Romania are set up 8
develo
pment regions. Regarding their status, it is expressly provided that they are not administrative-territorial
units and do not have legal personality”, prov
ision in accordance with the dispositions of art.3 par.3 of the
Romanian Constitution. Developing regions are areas that include related counties territories, respectively
Bucharest. Names and composition of the developing regions are provided in Appendix which forms an integral part
of the Law no.315/2004.
Developing regions constitute the frame of development, implementation and evaluation of regional development
policies and specific statistical data collection in accordance with European regulations issued by Eurostat for the
se
cond level of the territorial classification, NUTS 2, existing in the European Union. Regions, counties and/or
localities in the counties that are part of different regions may be associated in order to achieve objectives of inter-
regional and/or inter-counties common interest.
As it was highlighted in Apostol Tofan, 2006, regional development is a complex process that involves legal
iss
ues, professional training, change of mentality, establishing new types of relationships between the public and
39
Mihaela Adina Apostolache / Procedia Economics and Finance 8 ( 2014 ) 35 – 41
private sectors, between authorities and communities, between employers and trade unions. Regional development
policies are implemented in line with the overall development objectives and priorities of Romania and with the EU
ob
jectives in the field of economic and social cohesion, according to Petrescu, 2009. In Romania, the regional
develo
pment policy is considered a factor that facilitates the absorption of EU funds. It is expected, therefore, that
an
y territorial, traditional, linguistic and historical disputes are replaced by the capacity to implement projects
fi
nanced by the Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund. In terms of content, the map of the eight regions existing at
presen
t in Romania is challenged because the regions would be too large, artificial, in that it does not comply with
borders of
the historical regions or of ethnical micro-regions, lack of identity brand.
Local and regional economic development occurs as a result of activities carried out by three main factors:
companies, markets and institutions, public function having only a minor role in its administration. Therefore,
region
al development policy cannot be successful in a depressing national economic environment, with repressed
markets and negative growth, in such a context cannot be regions more developed”, but only a relative wealth and
th
at only by comparison with the poor standards. A possible model for optimizing the administrative-territorial
or
ganization made by Săge
ată, 2004, should be based on central (national), regional (most important, consisting of
administrative regions formed on the basis of historical provinces), de
partmental (county), communities (cities,
towns and villages) and sub-community level (administrative districts within cities and hamlets in the villages).
Re
ducing the gaps and harmonious development involve essentially new programs, additional financial resources
and people trained to implement regional development programs. By Government Decree no.111/2004, after article
4 of the Law no.315/2004 was introduced a new Article 3¹, where cross-border cooperation is understood as a
co
mponent of regional development policy which aims to ensure economic growth and balanced and sustainable
social develo
pment of border regions.
4. Conclusions and perspectives
It is clear that each EU Member State has implemented regional development policy based on its historical
evolu
tion, the quality of politicians and of the responsible institutions and the way they used planning and
sched
uling tools to increase the living in said region or across the country. Regional development policy contributes
to the orderly development of the EU Member States. Instead, to benefit from sustainable development at
co
mmunity level, each region of over 266 EU regions should implement at its level of skills, all the instruments
available and to facilitate the exchange of experience. Thus, the regional development policy is an indispensable
in
strument in the process of European political, economic and social unification, by Ionescu and Toderas, 2007.
Taking into account the European and national context, regulated by community and national legislation
con
cerning the regionalism or regionalization, we can say, like Otel, 2012, that utility of regionalization is intrinsic,
no longer be doubted, but the manner in which Romania will perform administrative and/or socio-economic
region
alization must be subject of debate.
In the years that passed since the establishment of the developing regions, Petrescu, 2009, observed that they
w
ere defined on the basis of several criteria, such as economic, social and cultural homogeneity, functional
coherence, belonging to certain historic provinces. However, there were discrepancies between the 8 regions,
especiall
y in economically and socially terms or of the real possibilities of accessing European funds. It should be
considered reducing disparities and harmonious developing, requiring mainly new programs, additional resources
and people trained to implement regional development programs. Economic development occurs as a result of the
activities carried out by three main factors: companies, markets and institutions, public function having only a minor
role in its administration. Regional development policy cannot be successful in a depressing national economic
environment, with repressed markets and negative growth, in such a context there are no “more developed” regions,
but only a relative wealth and that only by comparison with poor standards. According to Otel, 2012, reducing the
gaps must target economic growth nationwide, encouraging competitiveness and regional capacity to grow through
themselves.
To this end we reaffirm the p
rinciples on which the regionalization- decentralization process in Romania must
take place: the principle of subsidiarity, which is to exercise the authority of local government located at the
administrative level closest to the citizen and who has the necessary administrative capacity; the principle of
prov
ision of the necessary resources to ensure full exercise of the powers transferred; the principle of responsibility
of local and regional public authorities in relation to their powers, which imposes the obligation of achievement of
40 Mihaela Adina Apostolache / Procedia Economics and Finance 8 ( 2014 ) 35 – 41
quality standards in the provision of public services and public utilities; the principle of providing a steady,
predictable, transparent decentralization process, based on objective criteria and rules that do not constrain the
activ
ity of local or regional authorities or limit the financial local autonomy; the principle of fairness, which
involves providing all citizens access to public services and public utilities; the principle of participatory democracy,
which implies the involvement of community and civil society stru
ctures in defining and implementing regional
decentralization policies in the field of regional decentralization.
Originally conceived as a space for economic development, t
he region strives to gain in Romania too, an
administrative dimension. The proposed amendment to the Constitution of Romania, prepared by the Parliamentary
Committee constituted in this regard, states that administrative-territorial units in Romania will be the village, the
to
wn (city), the county and the region. Like other administrative-territorial units, the region will have elected
ad
ministrative authorities - regional council and president of the regional council and the manner of their election
sh
all be determined by law. It will have its own budget, patrimony and staff. Regarding the designation of
representatives of the region, the legislature should remain consistent with formula established for designating
authorities at village, town or county level that means by choosing them directly by the community, and not to opt
for the indirect election from among elected local or county. Of course, this should be correlated with duties which
will fall after the regional administrative-territorial reorganization because tasks must relate to legitimate authority
th
at has the authority and the place it holds in the institutional architecture of the state. On the number of these
reg
ions, the various positions taken up by policy makers revealed that there is no consensus on the subject, being
circulated several versions. What should not be lost throughout this process is that the administrative-territorial
reo
rganization should not start from the person who will lead the region or place where the region capital will be
placed
, but from principles and values. In this respect, the citizens, as beneficiaries of
public administration, need to
be aware of the need of the establishment of a new administrative level or bureaucratic level, of powers of regional
auth
orities, criteria used to group the actual counties in future regions, changes brought by regionalization to local
communities and benefits for citizens.
Will it ensure faster economic growth? It will reduce pu
blic spending? It will streamline public services? It will
easily attract European funds? There are a few questions that initiators of regionalization should give an answer.
Regionalization would be beneficial to initiate a participatory approach towards local and regional level, allowing
citizen
s to participate in decision-making at national level and to have a picture of the problem to be solved locally.
In
a system based on decentralization there is a social control over the political decision, which restricts socio-
economic cost of poor governance. Citizens have more control over local government policy decision to push an
approach
to regional needs.
Romania's administrative regionalization is impossible to be effectively reached in a very short time, within a
y
ear. Discussions and proposals on regionalization should be based on analysis and regional impact studies,
intended to prepare the administration for such a complex process. Otherwise, we risk creating new regional
institutions without a clear understanding of responsibility and tasks. To avoid a possible regional administrative
chaos that encourages clienteles, bureaucracy and corruption, we believe that civil society and private sector
representatives should be involved in decisions on the regionalization process and how it will be achieved. However,
the regionalization process should coincide with decentralization, which transfers to the regional government
decision on tax collection and sharing of resources.
Romania, in a future regional configuration could be between m
inimum 8 and maximum 16 regions, but when all
assumptions are analysed it might be concluded that the optimum is 12 or 13. It would be preferable, in terms of
lower costs, bringing together territories of 2-4 actual adjacent counties to provide a new region. Exceptionally,
h
owever, according to Popescu, 2012, a county might be divided between two regions where economic calculation
requires. One mention that must be made is that the lines between regions are simple formal administrative
boundaries, such as the present boundaries of counties. Between regions will not be boundaries in the sense of
f
rontiers. So the phrase “how Romania will be divided” is erroneous; Romania will be not divided into regions, but
will be administratively organized in regions (as it is currently administratively organized in counties, towns and
v
illages).
In accordance with the subsidiarity principle, the newly
created regions must have legal personality, which
involves changing the Constitution. It appears in question the hypothesis of increased bureaucracy by creating new
structures , even if it would start in parallel with partially overlapping structures, but as long as the duties, powers
and responsibilities of each are clearly defined, this problem will be solved along the way. In this way, some will
disappear naturally, but it would be good that if the weight of decision goes down to the regional level. NUTS 2
41
Mihaela Adina Apostolache / Procedia Economics and Finance 8 ( 2014 ) 35 – 41
structures appear to have an optimum size, not too big to not know the problems and recognize opportunities in
detail, nor too small to be limited by insufficient resources and lack of diversity of the development strategies. All
this should be accompanied by fiscal decentralization, which region sends a percentage of revenue centre local share
of funding necessary to national structures and infrastructures.
The primary mission of future regional institutions is to provide public authorities all the necessary tools for the
des
ign and implementation of development strategies balanced. In the long run, as Dănăci
că, 2011, asserted, the aim
is the modernization of the Romanian society as a whole by reducing imbalances between regions, linking various
government sectorial policies at regional level and stimulates regional and local initiatives, aspect mentioned by the
R
omanian Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration, 2013. In a regionalized Romania, good
practices and successful actions can be quickly taken over by other regions through mediatisation. But we need first
to be g
ood managers of the country, using its resources, respecting it and preserving it.
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... It is addressed to all the EU regions, both rural and urban, and it aims to boost economic growth and employment, in order to finally improve the quality of life through strategic financial investments (European Commission, 2020). Regional development focuses on creating and diversifying the economic activities, by stimulating investments meant to reduce the socio-economic differences between various regions (Apostolache, 2014). ...
... At this level, the average size of the regions is 2.5 million people, and 13.000 sq. km (Apostolache, 2014). ...
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An increasing number of scientific papers has been written on the topic of resilience. It explains the way individuals and regions face to shocks and stressors. It focuses on farmers' resilience and food security. The main shocks related to food insecurity are weather variability, volatility, and agricultural assets. We assume that the level of assets plays a role in assessing the risk level of individuals' exposure to shocks and stressors. The case of Romania is discussed, using statistical data concerning land, machineries and livestock, as main agricultural assets. The data have been analyzed using simple regression model. The results show medium influences of the agricultural assets on food supply. Significant influences have registered in macro region four: West and South-West, for land, machineries and swine. The results can be used in political frameworks and strategies and to widening the knowledge in the field of farmers' resilience.
... The authorities paid attention to the territorial organization and administrative and territorial structure in their works [2,[10][11][12][13]. ...
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... Penelitian yang telah dilakukan [1] mengemukakan bahwa percepatan pembangunan wilayah pesisir meningkatkan pertumbuhan populasi aktif dan disertai oleh dampak antropogenik terhadap lingkungan laut (pembentukan irigasi dan sistem drainase, pembangunan infrastruktur dan ekonomi dari zona pesisir), sehingga untuk meningkatkan karakteristik dan pola pembangunan di wilayah pesisir perlu adanya 'revolusi pesisir'. Sedangkan penelitian yang dilakukan oleh [2] umumnya wilayah pesisir mengalami pertumbuhan penduduk yang menyebabkan dampak pada ekosistem pesisir dan laut sehingga pembangunan wilayah pesisir sangat penting untuk dilakukan. [3] mengatakan bahwa faktor-faktor sosial ekonomi dan lingkungan menjadi isu dalam pembangunan wilayah pesisir sehingga perlu ada prioritas dalam konsep pembangunan berkelanjutan di wilayah pesisir untuk dijadikan landasan dalam strategi pembagunan sehingga pembangunan kawasan pesisir sepenuhnya harus dilakukan dengan perencanaan yang tepat. ...
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ABSTRAK Kawasan pesisir selatan DIY menjadi salah satu Kawasan Strategi Provinsi DIY. Berbagai upaya dari pemerintah untuk mengembangkan kawasan tersebut menjadi gerbang ekonomi DIY diantaranya dengan membangun bandara yang berskala internsional di Kecamatan Wates serta pembangunan Jalur Jalan Lintas Selatan yang melewati seluruh kecamatan yang terletak di kawasan pesisir DIY diharapkan dapat memicu munculnya aktifitas-akstifitas baru sehingga membentuk pusat-pusat pertumbuhan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hirarki pusat-pusat pertumbuhan di kawasan Pesisir DIY. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah pendekatan deskriptif kuantitaif dengan teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis skalogram dan analisis indeks sentralitas dari analisis tersebut diketahui bahwa Pusat Pertumbuhan Pertama berada di Kecamatan Wates, Pusat Pertumbuhan Kedua berada di Kecamatan Kretek dan Pusat Pertumbuhan Ketiga berada di Kemacatan Saptosari. Dengan diketahuinya hirarki di kawasan pesisir maka diharapkan pembangunan bisa tetap sasaran.
... However, the same report (NALAS, 2012, p. 13) argues that communes, municipalities and cities (or the first tier) have a more important 4 According to the same source, total municipal debt in Romania was 3.1 billion Euro in 2010. 5 The same two-tier system categorization (with municipalities and regions) is mentioned by the Association of Local Democracy Agencies (ALDA, 2011, p. 15). function as sub-national governments 'in both fiscal terms and public service terms' than counties. ...
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... Entender porque alguns países ou regiões tem maior sucesso enquanto outros fracassam quando o assunto é desenvolvimento regional (Eren e Koşan, 2012;Apostolache, 2014), é tema frequente em estudos e pesquisas na área de Engenharia de Produção, Economia e Ciências Sociais. Muitos destes estudos revelaram claramente as ações de diferentes atores que contribuíram de forma decisiva paro o desenvolvimento de um país ou região. ...
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Many researchers and academics believe that the discussions of urban and rural development are separated from each other. Such studies can be conducted in the form of regional development strategies. Therefore, strategies and policies for regional development have an important role in boosting economic activities and the development of deprived areas to reduce differences between regions. Regional allocation of public facilities and funds can be a step forward to achieving balanced development and reducing regional inequalities; otherwise, the continuation of existing trends by focusing on economic development in developed areas will lead to divergence and dissonance in national development. In general, regional development is seeking to create conditions and framework conditions suitable for continuous improvement of living standards to reduce unemployment, diversify economic activity, increase investment in the private and public sectors, promote economic prosperity, and, as a result, social and economic sustainable development. Given the importance of economic growth, the objectives of the strategy of regional development are justice, poverty elimination, and economic sustainability. Much research has been done based on the assessment of regional disparities at the global and national levels. However, with the increasing number of case studies from developing countries, there are plenty of reports of failure of the sustainable development approach in the achievement of environmental, economic, and ideal goals. Rural communities have special problems, resources and facilities, needs, and priorities of their own. For this reason, in the context of national development planning, it is necessary to consider the requirements as a special and specific section. In relation to Iran, although the managers and decision-makers periodically have increased issues, such as rural planning, rural management, a fair distribution of resources, and poverty elimination, there are serious problems and inequality in rural areas of Iran despite the attempts of different organizations in the affairs of villages. This is a holding back at the expense of not developing in other areas and increases the gap between regions. Thus, it seems necessary to determine the weaknesses of each of the townships from the different indicators of development at the provincial level. It would be a good base to determine distribution for local managers and the needs of the regions on a comparative assessment and by taking advantage of spatial planning with the maximum optimal use of resources. In this study, to meet the situation township of the province we selected about 76 variables in the form of 8 indicators, using multiple attribute decision-making compensation method and integrated collection to specify the degrees of development of the province. This study is functional research in goal and in terms of methodology, it has a descriptive-analytical method. In order to achieve the research objectives, we initially classified rural development indicators in nine indices and 76 variables. The information about the variables is collected from the statistical yearbook 2012 of the Khuzestan governor-general. We have used some applications such as TOPSIS, Electre, Vikor, and Promethee to determine the level township of the province, based on the rate indicators for rural development in the form of Excel software. From the integration of different sectors of development indicators with shared overlap function, 27 counties of Khuzestan province were categorized into five groups. The first group contains the counties of Izeh, Dezful, and Shoosh; the second group contains the counties of Baghmalek, Behbehan, Shooshtar Ahvaz, Ramhormuz, and Shadegan; the third group contains the counties of Andika, Andymeshk, Abadan, Dashte Azadegan, Karoon, Bandar Mahshahr, and Bavi; The fourth group contains the counties of Ramshir, Khorramshahr, Lali, Omidiyeh, Hamidieh, Gotvand; The fifth group also includes the counties of Masjed Soleiman, Hendijan, Hoveize, Haftgel, and Aghajari. By this, we can spatially distinguish different parts of the province. The areas of the first and the second groups are located mainly in the north and east provinces and deprived areas are the fourth and fifth groups in the south and west. In this study, we tried to achieve balanced development of rural areas in the counties of Khuzestan province. This is to determine the distribution of rural development among the counties and their position relative to each other. The geographical distribution of rural development measures and the existence of spatial mismatch between the cities in Khuzestan province is significant at the province level in terms of indices of population issues of health, education, culture, politics, services, communications, and infrastructure. Most measures of development are concentrated in the north-central and western parts of Khuzestan province. A closer look at the results of the study could be detected in three separate areas in Khuzestan province; some of the counties experienced rapid growth and development, one located in the western province (Izeh) and two in the northern provinces (Dezful and Shoosh). In general, the county earns high ratings and this result of having potential environmental powers as well as long-term policies implemented in this field can cause the development of these areas. Deprived areas cover five counties of Aghajari, Haftgel, Hoveize, Hendijan, and Masjed Soleiman, with the lowest level of development in most criteria.
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ÖZET Son zamanlarda turizm sektörü sosyo-ekonomik, sosyo-kültürel ve çevresel faydaları açısından farklı yönleriyle öne çıkmaktadır. Günümüzde ise birçok ülkenin ekonomik kalkınmayı hızlandırmak amacıyla turizm sektörüne yöneldiği gözlenmektedir. Aynı zamanda artan rekabet koşulları nedeniyle her ülke ve bölge sosyo-ekonomik açıdan üstünlük kazanmak istemekte ve bu çerçevede turizm sektörünü kalkınmada stratejik bir araç olarak kullanmayı tercih ederek mevcut turizm potansiyelini harekete geçirmek için çaba sarf etmektedir. Bu bağlamda çalışmanın amacı, öncelikle turizm faaliyetlerinin bölgesel kalkınma üzerindeki etkilerinin ortaya konulması ve Kayseri ilinin kalkınması sürecinde turizm sektörünün rolünün incelenmesi olmuştur. Ayrıca Kayseri ilinin turizm potansiyelinin tespit edilmesi ve bu potansiyelin bölgenin kalkınmasını destekleyen önemli bir faktör olup olmadığı hususu bu araştırmada değerlendirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Çalışmanın amacı doğrultusunda Kayseri ilindeki turizm sektörü paydaşları araştırmanın evreni olarak belirlenmiştir. Yargısal örnekleme yöntemi ile bu evrenden seçilen 20 turizm sektörü paydaşı araştırmanın örneklemini oluşturmuştur. Veri toplama yöntemi olarak nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden biri olan mülakat yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Yarı yapılandırılmış mülakat tekniği ile toplanan veriler betimsel olarak analiz edilmiştir. Buna ek olarak diğer ülkelerden seçilen örnek destinasyonlar ile Kayseri ili karşılaştırmalı olarak analiz edilmiş ve Kayseri iline yönelik çeşitli politika önerileri geliştirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Sonuç olarak, turizm sektörünün Kayseri iline sosyo-ekonomik, sosyo-kültürel ve çevresel açıdan önemli faydalar sağladığı, ancak ilin kalkınmasına henüz daha mütevazi ölçüde katkıda bulunduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bununla birlikte turizm odaklı kalkınma konusunda şehirde önemli sorunlarla karşılaşıldığı ve bu sorunların ortadan kaldırılması durumunda ise ilin turizm potansiyelinin kalkınma açısından önemli ve etkili bir faktör olabileceği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Ayrıca karşılaşılan sorunları ortadan kaldırmaya yönelik çeşitli çözüm önerilerinde bulunulmuştur. Araştırma sonucunda diğer önemli bulgular ile kuramsal açıdan ve uygulamaya yönelik çeşitli sonuçlar ortaya konulmuş ve bu çerçevede gelecekteki araştırmalara yönelik bazı önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Literatürde Kayseri iline yönelik bu konuda daha önce yapılmış bir çalışmaya rastlanılmaması bu çalışmanın özgünlüğünü ve önemini artırmaktadır. Aynı zamanda çalışmanın mevcut literatüre de katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir. ABSTRACT Recently, the tourism sector stands out with its different aspects in terms of socio-economic, socio-cultural and environmental benefits. Nowadays, it is observed that many countries have turned to the tourism sector in order to accelerate economic development. At the same time, every country and region wants to gain socio-economic superiority due to the increasing competition conditions and in this context, it tries to activate the existing tourism potential by choosing to use the tourism sector as a strategic tool in development. In this context, the aim of the study was primarily to reveal the effects of tourism activities on regional development and to examine the role of the tourism sector in the development of Kayseri province. Furthermore, the determination of the tourism potential of Kayseri province and whether this potential is an important factor supporting the development of the region were tried to be evaluated in this research. In line with the purpose of the study, the tourism sector stakeholders in Kayseri province have been identified as the population of the research. 20 tourism sector stakeholders selected from this population with the purposeful sampling method constituted the sampling of the study. Interview method, one of the qualitative research methods, was used as the data collection method. Data collected by semi-structured interview technique were analyzed descriptively. In addition to this, Kayseri province is analyzed comparatively with sample destinations selected from other countries and and various policy suggestions for Kayseri province were tried to be developed. As a result, it has been determined that the tourism sector has provided significant benefits to the province of Kayseri in terms of socio-economic, socio-cultural and environmental aspects, but it has contributed to the development of the province more modestly. However, it has been concluded that there are important problems in the city regarding tourism focused development and if these problems are eliminated, the tourism potential of the province may be an important and efficient factor in terms of development. Besides, various solutions were proposed to eliminate the problems encountered. As a result of the research, various conclusions regarding theoretical and practical results were presented with other important findings and in this framework some suggestions for future research were made. The absence of a previous study on this subject in the province of Kayseri increases the originality and importance of this study. It is also thought that the study will contribute to the existing literature.
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Background and Amis: Unbalanced spatial distribution of industries in most regions of the developing countries, can be have undesirable economic, environmental and social effects. Understanding the spatial distribution patterns of industries is essential for their planning and distribution in the regions.The aim of present study is to analyze the distribution and spatial patterns of Ardabil ‎province industries. Another purpose of this study is to identify the main hubs of ‎industries and the relationship between the spatial distribution of industries with ‎economic, social and environmental variables. Recognition of spatial patterns and ‎spatial behavior of industries is essential for proper spatial planning of the regions. ‎This knowledge helps decision makers and planners to take proper measures.‎ Methodology: This research methods are descriptive and analytic. The statistical population of this research includes 1700 active industrial spaces in Ardebil province. The data of these industrial spaces were obtained from the organization of industry, mining and trade of Ardebil province and recorded in the geographic information system (GIS). In this research, spatial statistical methods such as standard distance, Moran’s spatial correlation index, General G* ord statistical model and geographic weighted regression (GWR) model are used. Findings:The research findings show that: a) the spatial distribution pattern of industries in Ardebil province is highly unbalanced and cluster; b) the geographical distribution of the northern part of the industry; c) the center of gravity of the focus of the industrial spaces towards the central parts of the province , C) Ardebil city is the dominant center of attraction of industrial activities; d) There is a significant relationship between population variables, migration rate, urbanization rate, employment rate in industrial sector, topography and hydrology, with the distribution pattern of industries. Conclusion: As a result, the distribution of industries in the province of Ardebil is clustered and unbalanced. At the end, recommendations are presented based on research findings.
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his study investigates the causal relation between school education and economic growth in Romania, using annual time series data from 1985 to 2009. The econometric approach of this paper is based on the bivariate Vector Autoregression (VAR) model, Granger causality test and unit root test. The empirical results show evidence of unidirectional causality between school education and economic growth in Romania.
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Public management and civil servant's performance, productivity and quality of public service, flexibility and responsiveness to challenges of change in administration, autonomy and decentralising, the reduced costs of reform represent only a part of the characteristics and requirement of administration. Administration as structure is approached from organisational perspective.The principles of public administration are the following: local autonomy, decentralising civil services of local interest, electing local government authorities, legality, consulting the citizens on local problems of special interest
Specific issues of the structure and relations between executive and legislature at local level in Romania, in “Executive and Legislature at Local Level
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Regionalizarea României şi descentralizarea administratiei publice, available on http://regionalizare.mdrap.ro, accesed on 12
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Dezvoltare economică locală
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