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Abstract

That music has the ability to impact emotions and influence thoughts has been known for centuries. Of late, there has been a renewed interest in studying how music can be used as a tool to enhance customers’ shopping experience. A number of studies in the past have investigated the impact of music on customer / shopper behavior. We find that such studies are missing out in the Indian context. This study was conducted to analyze the impact of in-store music on shopper behavior in a simulated retail outlet. Using two student samples – one exposed to music (experimental sample) and another not exposed to music (controlled sample) the study tried to assess differences in shopper behavior in terms of the time spent in the store, the type of merchandise selected and value of merchandise purchased. The study also investigated the extent to which music created the desired Affect - a sense of pleasure and arousal? Results of the study indicate and strengthen existing beliefs about the importance of music on shopper behavior. While Western pop music influenced the time spent in the store, Indipop had a higher influence on the amount of money spent on merchandise. Indian classical music created a higher pleasure score whereas Western Instrumental created a higher arousal score. The two groups exhibited differences that could be attributed to the presence of background music. It is suggested that such studies be carried out in varied service formats and in actual settings in India to expand the horizons of the topic.
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 1
Impact of In-store Music on Shopper Behavior
Venu Gopal,
Icfai Business School
V. V. Gopal,
Icfai Business School
Key Words
Store atmospherics, in-store behavior, music, genre of music
Abstract
Store atmospherics is becoming an important determinant of differentiating products and
services across the globe. A number of papers have researched about store atmospherics and their
impact on customer / shopper behavior. We observed that studies incorporating these facets were
missing out in the Indian context. In order to analyze the impact of in-store music on shopper
behavior in a retail setting, a simulated retail outlet was created. For sake of simplicity the
merchandise was restricted to chocolates, toiletries and stationery items. Using two samples
one exposed to music (experimental sample) and second not exposed to music (controlled sample)
the study tried to assess differences in shopper behavior in terms of the time spent in the store,
the type of merchandise selected and value of merchandise purchased. If there was an impact, to
what extent did the genre of music play a role in influencing customer behavior? Did music
create the desired Affect in terms of creating a sense of pleasure and arousal?
Results of the study indicate and strengthen existing beliefs about the importance of music on
shopper behavior. While Western pop music influenced the time spent in the store, Indipop had a
higher influence on the amount of money spent on merchandise. Indian classical music created a
higher pleasure score whereas Western Instrumental created a higher arousal score.
It is suggested that such studies can be carried out in varied service formats and in actual
settings in India to further validate the results of the study.
Introduction
The nascent Indian retailing scenario is witnessing rapid change. Large corporations are
eyeing the huge Indian middle and upper middle class with their retailing strategies to
cater to the fast changing tastes and preferences of Indian customers. In order to
differentiate themselves retailers are making all out efforts to induce the customer.
Speaking specifically about the organized retail industry it is seen that in more
advanced nations where services are professionally established and run (especially the
retail sector) a great deal of importance is being given to in-store environment. In the
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 2
Indian context we witness that the industry is just catching up with some of the best
practices. A study by the National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad (2008)
1
points out
that despite the presence of global brands etc there has been a lack of understanding
and application in terms of space utilization, interior atmospherics leading many to
comment that Indian retailing has a long way to meet international standards. Despite
these hiccups organized retailing in India is growing and is expected to reach global
standards in a short time.
Retail managers, in an attempt to capture customer attention continually plan, build
and change physical surroundings of their retail outlets (Turley & Milliman, 2000)
2
.
In doing so, they are managing what is called in modern retail language as ‘retail
designing’. Retail managers are now seriously looking at atmospheric stimuli like
exteriors, general interiors, store layout, interior displays and human variables in order
to create greater customer satisfaction, enabling a greater extent of time being spent by
customers in stores. Apart from these areas of improvement, managers are also
considering the softer aspects of store atmospherics such as music and scent.
Past research has examined the main effects of many pleasant ambient stimuli such as
music ( Mattila & Wirtz, 2001)
3
and their subsequent impact on customer satisfaction.
According to Bruner (1990)
4
music has long been considered an efficient and effective
means for triggering moods and communicating non-verbally. Music has become a
major component of consumer marketing especially in retail outlets. Despite knowing
its importance not many managers and decision makers seem to have concentrated on
1
Economic Times (August 9, 2008) “Indian retail sector fails consumer-friendly test”.
2
Turley L.W. & Ronald E Milliman (2000), “Atmospheric Effects on Shopping Behavior: A
Review of the Experimental Evidence”,Journal of Business Research, 49, pp 193 211.
3
Mattila S Anna , Jochen Wirtz (2001), “Congruency of scent and music as a driver of in-store
evaluations and behavior”, Journal of Retailing, 77, pp 273 289.
4
Bruner, Gordon C (1990), “Music, Mood and Marketing”, Journal of Marketing, 54, 4, pp 94-
104.
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 3
this. This is unfortunate because music is an atmospheric variable readily controlled by
management (Milliman, 1982)
5
.
Though an important variable, this area has received sparse attention both in research
and actual settings. This study was partly motivated by this gap that such a study was
not undertaken in the Indian context.
Very specifically the purpose of this study was to understand how the presence of
music in a retail setting impacts customer behavior. The study has widespread
implications for the organized Indian retailing industry in particular and for services in
general.
Review of Literature and Hypothesis formulation
Studies abound in this area which, to the knowledge of the authors and available public
sources is primarily restricted to the Western context. We discuss some notable papers
in the area of the impact of music on shopper intentions and behavior and try to
identify relevant hypotheses for our study.
In a highly cluttered marketplace, one of the more important ways in which a retailer
can differentiate from competitors is by offering an attractive value proposition. The
differentiation could arise from any one platform viz., the physical platform comprising
the size, design and layout, the social dimension comprising the store personnel and the
class of shoppers and the ambient dimension or the store’s “background” stimuli
(Baker, 1986)
6
.
The impact of ambient factor on the shoppers’ attitude was postulated by the
environmental psychology model (Mehrabian & Russell, 1974)
7
which hypothesizes that
music affects approach avoidance behaviors through an emotional response. Over
thirty years of academic research clearly demonstrate the nature of the influence the
retail environment can have on consumer perceptions and behavior. The ability to
modify in- store behavior through the creation of an atmosphere has been
5
Milliman, Ronald E. (1982), Using Background Music to Affect the Behavior of Supermarket
Shoppers”, Journal of Marketing, Summer 1982, 46, pp 86.
6
Baker, J. (1986), “The role of the environment in marketing sciences; the customer
perspective”, in Capeil, J.A. et al. (Eds), The Services Challenge: Integrating for Competitive
Advantage, AMA, Chicago, IL, pp. 79-84
7
Mehrabian, A and Russell, J.A. (1974) An Approach to Environmental Psychology, MIT Press,
Boston, MA.
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 4
acknowledged by many retail executives and retail organizations (Yalch &
Spangenberg, 1990
8
., Chebat, Gélinas-Chebat and Filiatrault, 1993
9
; Dubé, Chebat, and
Morin, 1995
10
). In a review of some 60 experiments that manipulated portions of a
store’s complex atmosphere, Turley and Milliman (2000)
11
remark that each of these
studies uncovered some statistically significant relationship between atmospherics and
shopping behavior.
Milliman (1982)
12
examined the effects of background music on in store shopping
behavior in a supermarket. Using experimental design groups Milliman used different
settings such as (1) no music (2) slow tempo ( 72 beats or lower) and (3) fast tempo
music ( 94 beats and over). Results of the study indicate that (a) Pace of in-store traffic
was slower with slow tempo music. (b) Higher sales were consistently recorded with
slower tempo music while lower sales were associated with faster tempo music. (c)
Analysis of data using chi square test did not reveal any significant findings relating to
awareness of music playing in the store’s background while the respondent was
shopping.
A study conducted by Milliman (1986)
13
tried to understand the impact of music on
consumers in a restaurant setting. He based the study on the AAD which states that
people respond differently to different environmental settings (Mehrabian and Russell,
8
Yalch, Richard F, and Eric Spangenberg (1990), Effects of Store Music on Shopping
Behavior, The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 7, 2, 55-63.
9
Chebat, Jean-Charles, Claire Gélinas-Chebat, Pierre Filiatrault (1993), Interactive effects of
musical and visual cues on time perception: an application to waiting lines in banks, Perceptual
& Motor Skills, 77, pp. 995-1020.
10
Dubé, Laurette, Jean-Charles Chebat and Sylvie Morin (1995), The Effects of Background
Music on Consumers' Desire to Affiliate in Buyer-Seller Interactions”, Psychology and
Marketing, 12, pp. 305-319.
11
Turley, L.W. and Ronald E. Milliman (2000), Atmospheric Effects on Shopping Behavior: A
Review of the Experimental Evidence, Journal of Business Research, 49, August pp 193-211.
12
Milliman, Ronald E. (1982), “Using Background Music to Affect the Behavior of Supermarket
Shoppers” Journal of Marketing, Summer 1982, 46, pp 86.
13
Milliman, Ronald E (1986), “The Impact of Background Music on the Behavior of Restaurant
Patrons” Journal of Consumer Research, 13, pp 286 289.
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 5
1974
14
, Russell, 1980
15
and Russell and Pratt, 1980
16
). Findings suggested that consumers
took longer time to complete their dinner when the music was on slow tempo. No
significant differences on the amount of money spent was recorded on food items
purchased but there were differences on alcohol spend.
Yalch & Spangenberg (1990)
17
looked at customer moods and perceived time spent in a
retail setting. They analyzed whether background and foreground music formats had
any differential impact on customers. Findings from their study suggest that shoppers
respond psychologically and behaviorally to music though few consciously noted the
presence of music. Shoppers felt more active when there was no music. The time of
shopping and music setting did not create any distinctive impact.
Baker et al.,(1992)
18
added a new dimension to this field by introducing the idea of
Ambient factor and Social factor. The impact of ambient cues (involving lighting and
music) and social cues (number and friendliness of employees) were tested. Results of
the study indicated that the ambient cues interact with the social cues to influence
respondents’ pleasure and arousal in the store environment.
Areni (1993)
19
studied whether playing (classical vs Top 40) background music in a
wine store would impact (1) merchandise examined (2) handled (3) purchased and (4)
14
Mehrabian, A and Russell, J.A. (1974), An Approach to Environmental Psychology, MIT
Press, Boston, MA.
15
Russell, James A. (1980), A Circumplex Model of Affect, Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 39 (December), pp.1161-78.
16
Russell, James A. and G.Pratt (1980), A Description of the Affective Quality Attributed to
Enviornments”, Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 38, pp. 311-22
17
Richard and Spangenberg Eric (1990), Effects of Store Music On Shopping Behavior. The
Journal of Services Marketing. 4, 1, pp 36 39.
18
Baker,Julie; Levy,Michael; Grewal,Dhruv (1992), An Experimental Approach to Making
Retail Store Environmental Decisions Journal of Retailing. 68, 4, 445.
19
Charles S. Areni (1993), The Influence of Background Music on Shopping Behavior:
Classical Versus Top-Forty Music in a Wine Store”, Advances in Consumer Research, 20. pp
336.
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 6
time spent in the store. The study revealed that there was little or no impact of
background music on the number of items examined, the number of items handled, the
number of items purchased or the time spent in the store. Music, though, did influence
the amount of money spent. Patrons spent more money when classical music was
played than when Top-forty music was played. Rather than increasing the number of
items purchased, classical music led the customers to buy more expensive items as
compared to Top-forty music. Hence, we hypothesize that…
Hypothesis 1: Type of music played and Type of Merchandise selected in the store are
independent.
Yalch (1993)
20
studied the effects of music on consumers shopping in different
departments of a large apparel store. In all 106 respondents belonging to three broad
age groups participated in an experimental design with one manipulated factor (type of
music played), two context factors (men’s sportswear and women’s coats and dresses)
and four self-reported factors (shopping purpose, shopping alone or with a companion,
age and gender). Respondents were interviewed when leaving the store. The exact time
when they were entering and leaving the store was recorded by observers. It was
observed that music did not affect total expenditure because the average amount spent
per person making a purchase was highest in the no music condition. Young shoppers
(under age 50) preferred the foreground music and Older shoppers (50 and over)
preferred background music. Moreover shoppers spent more money and also perceived
the store to be friendlier when background music was played (as against foreground
music) in the Women’s department. In the Men’s department, shoppers were more
likely to make a purchase and spent more when foreground music was played as
against background music.
Duncan (1996)
21
studied the effects of music in service environments. His research
centered on some important questions. Does the time shoppers spend in a service
setting reduce due to loud music? Is there a relationship between the tempo of music
and time spent in a service setting and does it impact the amount spent. MANCOVA for
the difference in shopping time and purchase amount indicated no differences among
the background music factor levels for either time or money spent. The tempo and
volume of the background music did not influence shopping time or expenditures of
shoppers. The MANCOVA for differences in shopping time and purchase amount
indicate that preference for background music did influence behavior.
20
Yalch, F. Richard (1993), Using Store Music For Retail Zoning: A Field Experiment
Advances in Consumer Behavior. 20, pp 632.
21
Duncan, Herrington, J. (1996) Effects of music in service environments: A field study The
Journal of Services Marketing. 10, 2, pp 26.
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 7
With the help of unstructured telephone interviews using exploratory open-ended
questions posed to (quota sample) members of the Australian Hotels Association and
Australian Restaurant and Catering Association and Areni (2003)
22
investigated
“implicit” industry theories regarding the effects of atmospheric music on consumer
behavior. It was found that music plays an integral part in creating an image of the
hotel or restaurant and the pace at which diners eat can be influenced by the tempo of
atmospheric music. None of the respondents made the inference that classical music can
induce customers’ to buy more expensive items. An interesting finding was that playing
the “right” music induces customers to stay longer than they would have otherwise.
“Heavy metal” was identified as a genre that encouraged aggression and Classical
music as having the power to placate aggressive customers.
Hypothesis 2: Type of music played in the store and Time spent in the store are
independent.
Hypothesis 3: Type of music played in the store and Amount of money spent in the store
are independent.
Broekemier et al.,(2006)
23
evaluated the effect of different genre of music
(happy/sad, liked/disliked) on shopping intentions at a women’s clothing store. It was
found that happy/sad music has a significant direct effect on shopping intentions. Most
but not all subjects, liked the happy music more than the sad music. Thus, whether the
music was happy or sad did influence people’s liking for music. Moreover while
playing happy music significantly increased subjects’ intentions to shop in the stimulus
store, shopping intentions were greatest when the music was liked as well.
Vida, et.al.,(2007)
24
tried to assess the impact of music valence on customer appraisal of
store offerings as well as store personnel. Additional objectives of the study were to
assess the length of shopping time and the value of purchase as also the influence of
perceived music fit with the overall store image on the time spent in the store. Chi sq
tests revealed that there was no direct effect of music on shoppers’ appraisal of store
offering and on money spent nor for the relationship between shoppers’ appraisal of
22
Charles S. Areni (2003) Exploring managers’ implicit theories of atmospheric music:
comparing academic analysis to industry insight”, Journal of Services Marketing. 17,2, Pp 161-
184.
23
Broekemier, Greg, Ray Marquardt and James W. Gentry (2006), “An exploration of happy/sad
and liked/disliked music effects on shopping intentions in a women’s clothing store service
setting”, Journal of Services Marketing, 22,1, pp 59-67.
24
Vida, Irena Claude Obadia and Michelle Kunz (2007) The Effects of Background Music on
Consumer Responses in a High-end Supermarket International Review of Retail, Distribution
and Consumer Research. 17, 5, pp 469-482.
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 8
sales personnel on time and on money spent in the store. The study proved that
background music induced positive feelings in shoppers.
In another study Vida (2008)
25
studied the merchandise evaluation, time spent and
expenditure by shoppers based on perceived music fit. Data were collected from 259
shoppers in Ljubljana, Slovenia using store-intercept method as shoppers left the
checkout counter from two hypermarkets and three specialty retailers focusing on
sports merchandise (apparel and equipment). The study revealed that greater the
perceived music fit, the more positive shoppers evaluative judgments will be of the
merchandise resulting in longer time spent at the store. The time spent in a store has a
positive influence on shoppers’ expenditures and the perceived music fit with the
retailer’s image is significantly better when atmospheric music is planned than when
atmospheric music is unplanned.
Sweeney and Wyber (2002)
26
studied how musical characteristics (tempo and genre)
affect emotional states (pleasure and arousal) as well as cognitive processing (service
and merchandise quality). The method adopted was a 2x2 between subject
experimental design, which manipulated two characteristics of background music
tempo (fast, slow) and genre (top 40, classical). The study revealed that liking of music
was particularly related to service quality, merchandise quality and arousal. Familiarity
of music was not significantly related to any of the emotional or cognitive outcomes.
Hypothesis 4: The type of background music played and the Affect created (pleasure and
arousal) are independent.
Hypothesis 5: There exist no differences between the experimental group and the control
group in terms of the time spent in the store and value of merchandise purchased.
With the above discussion the following objectives were identified.
Objectives of the study
The study was designed to achieve the following objectives...
1. To analyze whether an association exits between the types of music and
a. Type of merchandise selected ( H1)
b. Time spent in the store (H2)
25
Vida, Irena (2008) The Impact of Atmospherics On Consumer Behavior: The Case Of The
Music Fit In Retail Stores”, Economic and Business Review. 1,1, pp 21-35.
26
Sweeney, Jullian C. and Fiona Wyber (2002), The role of cognitions and emotions in the
music-approach-avoidance behavior relationship. Journal of Services Marketing,16, 1, pp 51-
69
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 9
c. Amount spent in the store (H3)
2. To assess how music in general creates an Affect on the respondent in an
experimental setting and analyze whether an association exists between these
scores based on the type of music played.(H4)
3. To assess the differences between the control and experimental groups on
….(H5)
a. Time spent in the store
b. Value of merchandise purchased
Methodology adopted
Taking sufficient cues and hints from earlier research papers and experiments, this
study tried to look at how music or the lack of it could impact consumer responses and
behavior in the store. In order to conduct the study a simulated shop environment was
created. Four types of music were identified (English pop, Western instrumental, Indian
classical and Indipop). Two groups of students were identified, one the Experimental
group and the other the Control Group. (n=51 for the experimental group and 49 for the
control group). The Experimental group was further divided into four groups and
exposed to one type of music each. The Control group was not exposed to any music.
Because of the experimental nature of the study the merchandise on display was
restricted to chocolates, toiletries and greeting cards categories to which the students
closely relate to. Music was played via speakers concealed in the wall. The music player
too was concealed so that nobody saw the source of music.
The experimental and control groups were given an initial briefing in separate
rooms on the nature of the study and asked to consider purchasing the merchandise
displayed in the simulated environment. No mention of the presence or absence of
music was made to any group to avoid any kind of preconceived judgments or getting
alerted that would have resulted in respondent bias.
To begin with, students belonging to the experimental group were sent in groups of two
to three members into the simulated shopping environment. They went through the
merchandise on display, purchased the items and while paying cash were given the
questionnaire. Similarly, in the no music scenario students went through the
merchandise and were asked to rate the environment and were analyzed for the
amount spent shopping for the merchandise. Only the experimental group was asked to
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 10
respond on feelings and arousal (using the Affect Grid of Russell and Mendelsohn,
1989
27
).
The questionnaire was designed to capture the following….
Question
Experimental
group
Control Group
Consciousness about music while shopping
Yes
No
Familiarity with the music played
Yes
No
Necessity of music in the store
Yes
No
Time spent in the store due to the music
Yes
No
Product evaluation due to music
Yes
No
Affect (Pleasure) score
Yes
No
Affect (arousal) score
Yes
No
Table No. 1
Differences between the two groups of respondents were captured on the following
counts..
1. Time spent in the store
2. Merchandise selected
3. Value of merchandise
Sample breakup
Group
Type of Music Played
Indian
classical
Western
instrumental
Western pop
Indipop
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Experimental
8
4
5
6
7
6
7
8
27
24
51
Control
( no music played)
18
31
49
Total
45
55
100
Table No. 2
Operationalizing the variables
Dependent variables
Amount of money spent while shopping was taken as the dependent variable. This
measure was taken based on the actual billing value obtained from the merchandise
purchased by the respondent.
27
Russell, J.A., Weiss, Anna., Mendelsohn, G.A (1989), Affect Grid : A Single Item Scale of
Pleasure and Arousal, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, pp 493 502.
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 11
Time spent in the store was taken as the second dependent variable as it is hypothesized
that greater the time spent greater the likelihood for product evaluation and purchase.
The time was recorded based on one single entry time and multiple exit times as
different respondents spent different times while shopping.
Arousal and pleasure was calculated using the Affect Grid scale originally developed by
Russel and Mendelsohn (1989)
28
. It is a single item scale that measured Arousal on a 9
point scale (caused sleepiness to aroused my feelings) and Pleasure measured on a 9
point scale (extremely unpleasant to extremely pleasant). Respondents who were
exposed to the music were assessed here.
Independent variables
a. Type of music played in the store
b. Type of Merchandise displayed in the store
Hypothesis testing
H1: There is no association between type of music played and type of merchandise selected
Category
Preferred
Type of music played
Indian
classical
Western
Instrumental
Western pop
Indipop
Total
Chocolate
3
7
8
7
25
Greeting cards
5
2
2
4
13
Toiletries
4
2
2
5
13
Total
12
11
12
16
51
Table No. 3
Chi square test shows significant association for us to reject the null hypothesis of no
association. ( Chi square = 21.336 , p value = 0.011, df 9)
H2: Type of Music played in the background and time spent in the store are independent.
Time spent in Store by Music type
N
Mean score
SD
28
Ibid
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 12
Music Type
Indian Classical
12
5.5
1.73
Western
Instrumental
11
5.72
1.27
Western Pop
12
6.23
1.36
Indipop
16
4.28
0.82
Table No.4
ANOVA table
Time spent in
store (in minutes)
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
166.893
4
41.723
23.84
0.000
Within Groups
166.267
47
1.75
Total
333.16
51
Table No.5
The differences were significant. The type of music does play a role in how much time
respondents spent in the store. Western pop had the highest patronage among
respondents. The hypothesis was rejected.
H 3: Type of Music played in the background and amount spent on merchandise are
independent.
Value of
merchandise
N
Mean
Std.
Deviation
Rupees
Rupees
Indian classical
12
21.17
11.33
Western
instrumental
11
13.55
17.08
Western pop
12
13.77
15.33
Indipop
16
20.07
13.26
None
49
11.22
7.52
Total
100
14.24
11.77
ANOVA Table
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F
Sig.
Between
Groups
1516.03
4
379.007
2.949
0.024
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 13
Within
Groups
12208.21
95
128.507
Total
13724.24
99
Table No. 6
Overall the average amount spent in the music condition was higher than the no music
condition. See table 6 for mean scores. There are significant differences between groups
based on the type of music played and the actual amount spent by the respondent on
purchase of the selected merchandise. The null hypothesis is rejected.
H 4: Pleasure and Arousal scores are independent of the type of music played.
Type of
Music
Indian
classical
Western
Instrumental
Western Pop
Indipop
Total
N / Mean
N / Mean
N / Mean
N / Mean
N / Mean
Pleasure
score
12 /5.58
11 / 4.55
12 / 3.85
16 / 4.14
51 / 4.50
F value =
2.149
P value =
0.107
Arousal
Score
12/ 5.5
11 / 5.73
12 / 3.77
16/ 3.86
51 / 4.64
F value =
3.374
P value =
0.026
Table No.7
The differences are only significant on the arousal score. The hypothesis could not be
rejected totally.
H5: There are no differences between the control and experimental groups on (1) time spent in
the store and (2) value of merchandise purchased.
Group
N
Mean
SD
‘t’ value
/ d.f
significance
Value of
Merchandise
(Rs)
Experimental
51
17.26
14.31
2.64 /
98
0.01
Control
49
11.22
7.52
Time spent in the
store (in
minutes)
Experimental
51
4.74
2.2
4.81 /
98
0.00
Control
49
3.04
1.17
Table No.8
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 14
The differences between the two groups are significant as can be seen from the
independent sample t test.
Findings, Conclusions and Limitations
Music is known to create a soothing effect on patrons in retail and other service settings.
That its impact has been emphasized even in this study is no tall discovery. The study
was a modest attempt at understanding the complex linkage between background
music in a store and its influence on customers. To assess whether music does play a
role, two groups of students were identified. One group was exposed to music and
merchandise while the other was just exposed to merchandise alone. Product categories
on display were restricted to those which were easily recognizable and respondents
could relate to.
Key findings of the study suggest that there exists an association between the type of
music and the type of merchandise selected. There is also an association between the
type of music and amount of time spent in the store and value of merchandise
purchased. Respondents spent more time in store when music was playing in the
background compared to a silent scenario. The value of merchandise too showed
significant differences with the respondents exposed to music spending a higher
amount of money.
The type of music is an important determinant on the extent of time spent in the store.
Western pop tended to attract the audience than other types. However, Indipop music
type resulted in a higher spending by the respondents. Service organizations need to
realize that music needs to be varied depending on the type of service setting and
customer profiles. Differences between the Control group and the Experimental group
were significant in terms of time spent and value of merchandise purchased etc.
The study has some definite limitations. Results have to be verified in an actual retail
scenario. This will require necessary permissions from the retailers. A cross section of
the consumers at various retail outlets exposed to a variety of music settings can throw
additional light on the topic. The size of the sample too, we believe, can be slightly
higher even in a controlled environment.
To conclude, we wish to state that this study was able to bring out the importance of
music in a retail setting and retail managers can take a cue from this study and take
necessary steps that will enhance customer satisfaction resulting in higher spending
from their respective outlets.
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 15
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Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 17
Determinants of Consumer Behavior in Buying RTE Foods
Ranjan Chaudhury
Key Words
Ready to Eat (RTE), Ready to Cook (RTC), Consumer Behavior
Abstract
In this article a statistical approach is used to measure the relative importance of consumer
motives of buying RTE foods. All items scored between one and five can be computed by
averaging (un-weighted) item ratings per scale. Mean ratings of each motivation provides a clear
picture that some determinants are rated highly by respondents, while others low. For consumers
taste is the primary motivation to buy RTE foods. Though the first priority is sensory appeal,
convenience has been given relatively more importance. Also, consumers are ready to spend more
if the food is available at a convenient place and if it tastes, smells and tastes good. From the
study it was found that the motives of purchasing RTE foods are sensory appeal, convenience,
mood and price. Apart from this brand also plays a significant role in determining consumer
behavior, the more the visibility of the brand more is the buying tendency for that particular
brand.
Introduction
"Ready-to-eat" is defined as the status of the food being ready for immediate
consumption at the point of sale. It could be raw or cooked, hot or chilled, and can be
consumed without further heat-treatment including re-heating [1].
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 18
Ready to eat foods are food products that require no further processing to ensure their
safety. They may or may not have been cooked: i.e. Fruits, sushi, some species of
shellfish, spices. Foods such as luncheon meats, tuna salad, bakery products and
cheeses are also considered RTE foods [2, 3].
Categories within RTE Cereals
According to their different ingredients, RTE cereals can be categorized into five types,
Corn Flakes, Shredded Wheat, Bran, Oats, and Hybrid.
[Source: http://etd.lib.nsysu.edu.tw/ETD-db/ETD-search/getfile?URN=etd-0114108-
170634&filename=etd-0114108-170634.pdf]
The RTE Industry
There are five fundamental processes of producing RTE cereals (Nevo, 1998):
granulation, flaking, shredding, puffing and extrusion. With the exception of Nestle, all
the major RTE producers have their origins from the United States, and thus forming
one of the most concentrated US industries today. Since the 1980’s, the Federal Trade
Commission has been investigating and prosecuting the largest three cereals makers on
the charge of shared monopoly (Wall Street Journal, 1980). Advertising is the major
means of competition in this industry, especially by television advertising (Ippolito &
Mathios, 1990). The television advertising expenditure is second only to automobile
producers. Advertising ratio to sales is about 13 percent, while the average in food
industry is only 2 4 percent. Born with the convenience trend, the industry today,
however, has undergone changes in customers’ concern. Diet nutrition gradually
replaces convenience as one of customers’ most concerned factor when purchasing RTE
cereals. More than half of men and women are reported to consider nutritional factors
such as fiber, vitamins, and sugar content when purchasing RTE cereals. Women
express the most concern about the amount of sugar and fat, while men are more
interested in vitamin content.
Observation in Indian Context
The pioneer introduction of retorting technology in India has made the sale of ‘Ready-
to-Eat’ food products commercially viable with great taste [7, 8]. In normal practice, the
ready-to-eat food are consumed in a short span of time, but with the advancement in
packaging technology, it is now possible to produce these items commercially and to
extend the shelf-life up to a few years [10, 11, 12].
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 19
Various RTE brands in India
Brands
Description
Amul
Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) is India's
largest food products marketing organization. Apart from being known
for its dairy products, Amul has ventured into the ready-to-eat industry
and includes Processed Cheese, Pure Ghee, Shrikhand, Nutramul and
Mithaee Gulab Jamuns among its offerings.
Gits
Gits produces the selected range of popular ready to cook and instant
foods that cover a range of ethnic Indian cuisine-and where the recipes
have "Global pallete acceptance".
Haldirams
The traditional Indian Sweet-Maker from a small set up has transformed
into a full fledged processing food industry and taking its wares beyond
the domestic frontiers to the Western World. Offers packaged Bhel puri
chats such as Sev Puri, Chana Masala, Samosa, Pakoras, Alu Tikki, Pao
Bhaji, Gol Gappa, Dhokla among others
Ethnic Kitchens
Offers packaged sweets,syrups,namkeens, cookies, pickles, aloo Masala,
Bhujia, Bhelpuri, Chana Dal, Kajui Ladoo and many more items.
Kitchens Of India
ITC's Flagship brand 'Kitchens of India ' has begun to carry this exotic
taste of Indian cuisine beyond the shores of India . Connoisseurs of
Indian food in the US, UK, Switzerland, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Hongkong,
Tanzania, Canada and Australia now have the opportunity to taste these
delicious recipes.
ITC
Aashirvaad and Kitchens of India’ products from the ITC stable of India
include a wide assortment of ready to cook foods and dishes ranging
from Bukhara (Uzbek recepie) to Murgh Methi and other exoctic cuisines
and includes "regular" Biryanis, Curry Pastes and dishes.
MTR
Amongst the top five processed food manufacturers in India, the
company claims to "market and export a wide range of packaged foods to
global markets" that include USA, UK, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia,
Singapore, UAE and Oman. MTR foods currently comprises twenty-two
delicious and completely authentic Indian curries, gravies and rice.
Priyafoods
Priya has a range of popular traditional recipes starting from Dal
Makhani, Navaratan Kurma to Palak Paneer, Paneer Butter Masala,
Punjabi Chhole and Rajma Masala along with true southern delicacies
like Andhra Veg Pulav, Mango Dal, Gongura Dal. Priya's products are
available in USA, Canada, West Indies, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait,
Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, U.K., New Zealand
etc.
Rajbhog Foods Inc.
Specializing in Indian sweets and snacks in America, Rajbhog is
capitalizing on this niche by franchising its model across the US and
Canada, manufacturing and distributing sweets, snacks, savories, frozen
foods, ice cream and beverages.
RainbowFoodsIndia
Exporters, manufacturers & suppliers of all types of Indian Frozen
Vegetables, Meals & Snacks to USA and UK. They procure Frozen
Vegetables, Meals, Fruits, Parathas, Punjabi Veg Curries, vegetables,
fruits, pickles, pastes and Snacks.Reputed professionals from 5-star
hotels. Supply of Indian Frozen Vegetables, Meals & Snacks foods.
Products
Satnam Overseas
Kohinoor Heat & Eat Indian Curries are a range of ready - to - eat Indian
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 20
Ltd
delicacies. Kohinoor claims that "Heat & Eat range of curries use the well-
established retort technology to offer extended shelf life to the products
through steam sterilization."
Shana
Shana Frozen Foods specializes in ready to cook Ethnic foods. Shana is a
popular brand in the frozen Asian Ethnic food segment in U.K. and
Canadian market. Includes new South Indian Range of frozen Idlis,
Vadas, Masala Dosas and Mini Uttapams.
Tasty Bite
Tasty Bite has a range of entrées and Ready Meals. They have exceptional
retort pouches which was developed for the Apollo space program.
Tested to withstand extreme temperatures and heights from well below
sea level to as high as the moon, this retort packaging has made Tasty Bite
a favorite with campers, mountain climbers, sailing expeditions, desert
safaris.
Veekay Impex.com
Exporters of Fresh Fruit Juice, ready to eat food products; kairameen
Moliee(Pearl-spot fish), Motha Fish curry, see Fish Curry,Chilly Chicken
(boneless).
Ashoka Ready to
Eat
The premier online Indian store, iShopIndian, creates a shopping
experience with gourmet Indian grocery, music, DVDs and health
products delivered right to your door. Ashoka-Aloo-Matar, Baigan-
Bharta, Bhindi Masala, Carrot Halwa and lot more.
Vimal Agro
Products
Vimal Agro Products with state of the infrastructural set up has the
potential to manufacture more than 80 different food products ranging
from canned vegetables, Fruit pulp and slices, Pickles, Chutney, papads
and Ready to eat foods and supply products to the retail sectors in
Canada, United Kingdom, United states of America under the brand
name VIMAL and SWAD
PRODUCT CATEGORY ANALYSIS
There is some lack of clarity about differentiation between RTE and Ready to Cook
(RTC) and both are commonly referred to as RTE. RTC products are mainly various
pastes where a consumer adds vegetables or meat to prepare a dish. RTE products, on
the other hand, normally come as a complete preparation in the frozen form or in the
cans or in packets with inner pouch and what is referred here are part of meals in
pouches and not the snack or other segments. RTE products have a shelf life of about
12-15 months. Thereafter the product may be safe but may lose colour and aroma [13].
Working couples with changing life style and lack of time have led to growth of RTE
products in the recent times. Some of the popular products in the market include dal
makhani, palak paneer, dal tadka, rajma, navratan korma, paw bhaji, various rice preparations
and host of others. Some entrepreneurs also have regional products and there are about
dozen brands from some of the companies like ITC, MTR, Tasty Bite, Satnam Overseas,
Capital Foods in the market with most of them exporting to the Middle East, Europe
and North America successfully. Current production is estimated at about 20,000 T of
which over 80% is exported.
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A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 21
RTE products are prepared in a large industrial kitchen like any other product but care
is taken in formulating the product with respect to ingredients and cooking it just bare
minimum as the product undergoes steam sterilization during processing. It is a
specialized technology requiring alertness, high degree of precision, process controls
and handling [14, 15, 16, 17, 18].
CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
Concepts of consumer behavior, factors influencing buying behavior,
motivation
At the general level, it has long been recognized that food availability and cultural
factors are dominant in food selection (Steptoe et al. (1995)). The system of provision,
including food production and manufacture, marketing message delivery and sale, has
also been shown to have a major impact on what people eat. In addition, access to
supermarkets selling a variety of food more cheaply than local corner shops affects
choice. The increasing trend of supermarkets located in the outskirts of towns has
significant implications for those who do not have their own cars. At the individual
level, taste or sensory appeal, likes and dislikes, and sheer habit are all relevant. A
growing interest in studying the attitudes and beliefs with healthy eating, for example,
has been witnessed in recent years. Weight control is a major determinant of food
choice for individuals concerned about their body weight. The growth in environmental
awareness during the past few decades has led to concerns about the use of natural
ingredients and environmentally friendly packaging. All these factors indicate that
health is one of many considerations relevant to food choice (Keane and Willetts (1994)).
Food, is also self-referent part of the repertoire from which personal identity is forged.
Changing one’s diet can effectively redefine the self. For example, eating differently
from the rest of the family is common in adolescence as a way of demonstrating
independence. Priorities change throughout the life-cycle (Ton Nu et al., 1996). Popular
concepts about gender also affect food choice. Ideas that men need more food than
women, despite differential energy expenditure and metabolic rates, are still pervasive.
The idea that women should not eat too much fuels the slimming industry. Surrounded
by images of thin, successful and beautiful models, women are constantly policing their
own food intake.
Increasingly, consumers not only want food products to be of high sensory quality but
also to deliver specific benefits in terms of health, safety and environment quality
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A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 22
(Grunert et al., 1996). It is, therefore, a crucial question to almost every marketing
oriented organization to understand what consumers value in their product category,
and to effectively and efficiently translate these consumer needs into concrete product
offerings.
Credence attributes, such as safety, environmental quality, and health are recognized
as important food choice motivations by consumers. Credence attributes are different
from search (e.g. price, size) and experience (e.g. taste, convenience) attributes in that
their “true” values cannot be verified by the average consumer not even upon normal
consumption of the food (Heuvel et al. 2007). Consumers’ credence motivations,
particularly those related to health, environmental friendliness, safety, and naturalness
are important determinants of consumer quality perception in-store. Increasingly, these
societal considerations are a driving factor for consumer choice and a competitive
weapon in food marketing. These societal considerations are linked with specific
purchase motivations, such as well being, social relationships, enjoyment, and pleasure.
Convenience is also one of the factors that are increasingly important to consumers
(Buckle et al., 2005). Different stages in the consumption process are: Planning,
Shopping, Storage & Preparation of food, Consumption, Cleaning up and disposal
items. Although the preparation stage is commonly regarded as most time and energy
consuming, convenience has to be seen in the context of all the stages of the
consumption experience. For example, a tendency to eat out may be driven by
reluctance to clean up, rather than reluctance to cook (Goften, 1995).
Information source of food purchase in consumer behavior field
When looking at food choice, influence of media cannot be ignored. Advertising aimed
at children is a particular concern, with a major content of food or drink (Keane and
Willetts, 1994). Of these 75% are for products with a high sugar or fat content. Through
the use of cartoon characters, media personalities can be effective in establishing
consumer loyalty at a very young age. In the supermarket it is often difficult for a
parent to resist the insistent demands of a child for a new food which they have seen on
TV.
Direct Mail (DM) is an important source and most commonly used for “direct
marketing” focusing on driving purchases that can be attributed to a specific “call-to-
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A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 23
action”. DM permits marketers to design marketing pieces in many different formats
and to send to customers using the postal service. Advertisers often call it “targeting
mailing”, mail is usually sent out following database analysis. To some extent, however,
DM has been related to junk mail, especially in many developed countries where DM
represents such a significant amount of the total volume of mail that wastes a large
quantity of money and paper. The result demonstrated that when it came to food
information, respondents valued DM sent by supermarkets and hypermarkets. In
comparison, the Internet was regarded as an unimportant medium when obtaining
food information. This could result from the low-involving characteristic of food
purchase that customers would rather seek information in a quicker way (e.g. asking
their friends and relatives) than spend time surfing the internet. Reflecting this,
consumers are now more discerning regarding the food they eat. Effectiveness of
company strategies depends on marketers’ understanding of the factors governing food
choice.
Food related determinants
Needless to say, Health plays a profound role in food choice. Following
Health is Mood. It suggests that people attached such an importance to
breakfast that they expect it to be pepped up at the beginning of a day.
Another important factor is taste or sensory appeal relevant to the product’s
own property; other factors are Price, Convenience. Health & Mood are both
defined as so called credence attributes that are different from search (e.g.
Price) and experience (e.g. Sensory Appeal, Convenience) attributes in that
their “true” valued cannot be verified by the average consumer not even
upon normal consumption of food (Heuvel et al., 2007)
Brand attitude toward RTE cereal
The next step is determining which important drivers a brand can and should own.
After that, marketers must build brand associations with those drivers, at key customer
touch points such as channel, product usage, and customer support. The next
generation of brand tracking aims to measure the brand’s ability to drive customers
from awareness through purchase to advocacy, relative to the competition. It also aims
to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing tactics in moving customers along this path
[25]. Marketers must understand a critical component of brand tracking: the purchase
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 24
funnel. There are important differences by category, in the steps customers take to
decide on a purchase and in the order they take them. For example, it’s not surprising
that consumers follow a different process for purchasing ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal than
for purchasing personal computers (PCs). In the RTE cereal process, category dynamics
suggest consumers move from awareness to consideration to trial. If they have a
positive experience, then they make the brand part of their stable or “repertoire” of
cereals. In the PC process, given the added risk and other category dynamics (e.g., high
purchase price, channel intermediaries), consumers move from awareness to
consideration to preference to purchase although they may not be able to afford what
they prefer [25]. Marketers must discern what drives movement, or conversion, from one
stage of the funnel to the next. Conversion drivers can range from tangible product or
service attributes and benefits (e.g., customer service representatives know my name
and my account, tellers always smile when they see me) to their abstract functional,
emotional, and self-expressive associations (e.g., customer service is friendly). In RTE
cereal, these may include the product’s texture, taste, packaging, and price. These may
also be consumers’ perceptions of how wholesome or indulgent the product is, and how
healthy it makes them feel [25]. In addition to these more product-based elements,
conversion drivers can be dimensions of the brand’s personality, its symbols, and its
user imagery: customer perceptions of the kinds of people likely to use the brand. In
RTE cereal, these may be consumer perceptions of the brand’s authenticity, its heritage
or point of origin, and its characters (e.g., Tony the Tiger, Cap’n Crunch). Ethnography,
focus groups, and other forms of qualitative research are helpful in identifying the full
set of potential conversion drivers [25].
Motivations to consume RTE cereal
The motives to consume RTE cereals are easy preparations, healthy foods, convenience,
safety and cleanliness, taste, affordability and familiarity. People who are accustomed to
eating breakfast at home, RTE cereal indeed provides great convenience, in that it only
requires one preparation step, pouring milk into a bowl. In other words, it seems that it
is not the products’ own properties that are valued by users, but the value-added
characteristics, e.g. it allows buyers to feel safe, to spend little time preparing and
obtaining it, and it complies with their healthy eating habits or objectives. Consumers
value the convenient and healthy properties of foods when buying RTE cereal; it is not
all certain whether this reflects the actual decision-making process or just an aspiration.
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 25
In other words, it may be that customers would like to choose foods with highly
desirable healthy properties, even if price is more influential in determining purchase
choices.
OTHER DETERMINENTS
Effect of Modern Retail on Consumption of RTE Cereals
A "supermarket revolution" has been underway in developing countries including India
since the early 1990s. Supermarkets (here referring to all modern retail, which includes
chain stores of various formats such as supermarkets, hypermarkets, and convenience
and neighborhood stores) have now gone well beyond the initial upper- and middle-
class clientele in many countries to reach the mass market. Within the food system, the
effects of this trend touch not only traditional retailers, but also the wholesale,
processing, and farm sectors. The supermarket revolution is a "two-edged sword." On
the one hand, it can lower food prices for consumers and create opportunities for
farmers and processors to gain access to quality-differentiated food markets and raise
incomes. On the other hand, it can create challenges for small retailers, farmers, and
processors who are not equipped to meet the new competition and requirements from
supermarkets. Developing-country governments can put in place a number of policies
to help both traditional retailers and small farmers pursue "competitiveness with
inclusiveness" in the era of the supermarket revolution. Some countries are already
taking such steps, and their experiences offer lessons for others [26].
Questionnaire: Food Questionnaire Review
The motivation questions toward breakfast of present study are based on Food
Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). Food choice questionnaire-36 items and 9 factors
It is important to me that the food I eat on a typical day:
Factor 1- Health
1. Contains a lot a vitamins and minerals
2. Keeps me healthy
3. Is nutritious
4. Is high in protein
5. Is good for my skin/teeth/hair/nails etc
6. Is high in fiber and roughage
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Factor 2- Mood
7. Helps me cope with stress
8. Helps me cope with life
9. Helps me relax
10. Keeps me awake/alert
11. Cheers me up
12. Makes me feel good
Factor 3- Convenience
13. Is easy to prepare
14. Can be cooked very simply
15. Take no time to prepare
16. Can be bought in shops close to where I live or work
17. Is easily available in shops and supermarkets
Factor 4- Sensory Appeal
18. Smells nice
19. Looks nice
20. Has a pleasant texture
21. Tastes good
Factor 5- Natural Content
22. Contains no addictives
23. Contains natural ingredients
24. Contains no artificial ingredients
Factor 6- Price
25. Is not expensive
26. Is cheap
27. Is good value for money
Factor 7- Weight Control
28. Is low in calories
29. Helps me control my weight
30. Is low in fat
Factor 8- Familiarity
31. Is what I usually eat
32. Is familiar
33. Is like the food I ate when I was a child
Factor 9- Ethical Concern
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A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 27
34. Comes from countries I approve of politically
35. Has the country of origin clearly marked
36. Is packaged in an environmentally friendly way
The approach taken in this survey begins with an examination of motivational factors
governing breakfast-buying decisions which serve as basic needs to purchase RTE
cereal for breakfast. The major questions of the questionnaire are measured on five-
point Likert scale, allowing participants to choose from one to five- “strongly disagree”
to “strongly agree”. It is relatively straightforward to understand and is in common
usage: a statement is made and the respondents indicate the degree to which they
agree/disagree with it. Participants are asked which of the five rating shown below:
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Descriptive statistics is used to describe the basic features of the data in a study. It
provides simple summaries about the sample and the measures. In the present study,
this statistical approach is used to measure the relative importance of all motives. All
items scored between one and five can be computed by averaging (un-weighted) item
ratings per scale. Mean ratings of each motivation provides a clear picture that some
determinants are rated highly by respondents, while others low. Sample Size: the
questionnaire was given to post graduate engineering and business administration
students. The sample size is 93. Consumer behavior of youth has been primarily studied
through this questionnaire.
The table below shows the mean score of each choice factor.
Factor
Choice Factor
Mean
1. Health
Keeps me healthy
3.2366
1. Health
Is nutritious
3.1290
1. Health
Contains a lot a vitamins and minerals
3.0323
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 28
1. Health
Is high in fiber and roughage
3.0108
1. Health
Is high in protein
2.9355
1. Health
Is good for my skin/teeth/hair/nails etc
2.8065
2. Mood
Makes me feel good
3.6667
2. Mood
Cheers me up
3.5054
2. Mood
Helps me relax
3.2688
2. Mood
Keeps me awake / alert
3.1613
2. Mood
Helps me cope with life
2.9462
2. Mood
Helps me cope with stress
2.8817
3. Convenience
Is easily available in shops and supermarkets
4.1935
3. Convenience
Is easy to prepare
4.0430
3. Convenience
Can be bought in shops close to where I live or work
4.0215
3. Convenience
Can be cooked very simply
3.9677
3. Convenience
Take no time to prepare
3.8710
4. Sensory Appeal
Tastes good
4.2366
4. Sensory Appeal
Looks nice
3.7312
4. Sensory Appeal
Smells nice
3.7204
4. Sensory Appeal
Has a pleasant texture
3.4624
5. Natural Content
Contains natural ingredients
3.3441
5. Natural Content
Contains no addictives
3.2581
5. Natural Content
Contains no artificial ingredients
3.1398
6. Price
Is good value for money
3.5806
6. Price
Is not expensive
3.3226
6. Price
Is cheap
3.2366
7. Weight Control
Is low in calories
3.1613
7. Weight Control
Is low in fat
2.8495
7. Weight Control
Helps me control my weight
2.7097
8. Familiarity
Is familiar
3.4301
8. Familiarity
Is what I usually eat
3.0108
8. Familiarity
Is like the food I ate when I was a child
2.8817
9. Ethical Concern
Is packaged in an environmentally friendly way
3.2366
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 29
9. Ethical Concern
Has the country of origin clearly marked
2.8925
9. Ethical Concern
Comes from countries I approve of politically
2.4731
Rank order of top ten most important breakfast choice factors
Factor
Choice Factor
Mean
Sensory
Appeal
Tastes good
4.2366
Convenience
Is easily available in shops and supermarkets
4.1935
Convenience
Is easy to prepare
4.0430
Convenience
Can be bought in shops close to where I live or work
4.0215
Convenience
Can be cooked very simply
3.9677
Convenience
Take no time to prepare
3.8710
Sensory
Appeal
Looks nice
3.7312
Sensory
Appeal
Smells nice
3.7204
Mood
Makes me feel good
3.6667
Price
Is good value for money
3.5806
For consumers taste is the primary motivation to buy RTE foods. Though the first
priority is sensory appeal, convenience has been given relatively more importance.
Also, consumers are ready to spend more if the food is available at a convenient place
and if it tastes, smells and tastes good.
LIMITATIONS AND FURTHER STUDY
The study could be done by taking the responses from a greater sample size. There are
no questions related to information search, brand preference. As a part of further study
the following additions/changes can be made: Inclusion of gender; for the customers
who have never consumed RTE cereal, asking them reasons why they do not buy RTE
cereal; understand from which source most consumers collect information regarding
RTE cereal or food and evaluate the relative importance of their information sources,
and enquire about respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics, including questions
on age, sex, income education, marriage, residence, etc, which serve as independent
variables in examining their impact on breakfast and RTE cereal consumption
motivation.
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 30
CONCLUSION
The Ready to eat foods though having a very ancient history of being carried as ration
when food was carried for expeditions for long periods away from the main land,
primarily by soldiers and merchants on ships, they have grained significance and
prominence in recent times due to advent of newer technologies for storage and
packing of the food items. With the advent of modern trade and increasing working
population with higher disposable incomes ready to eat food categories have gained
prominence in recent times. Thus it has become extremely important to know and
understand the needs and expectations of consumers. This project basically studies
various behaviors of consumer decision making process with respect to ready to eat
food categories. From the study it was found that the motives of purchasing RTE foods
are sensory appeal, convenience, mood and price. Apart from this brand also plays a
significant role in determining consumer behavior, the more the visibility of the brand
more is the buying tendency for that particular brand.
REFERENCES:
www.cfs.gov.hk/english/food_leg/food_leg_mgref.html
www.aamp.com/fspdfs/rte.pdf
http://etd.lib.nsysu.edu.tw/ETD-db/ETD-search/getfile?URN=etd-0114108-
170634&filename=etd-0114108-170634.pdf
Nevo, A. (1998), Measuring Market Power in the Ready-to-Eat Cereal Industry,
Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Wall Street Journal. (1980, Oct 2), "FTC Asserts Big 3 Cereal Makers Reaped over
$ 1 Billion in Monopoly Overcharges."
Ippolito, P. M. & Mathios, A. D. (1990), "Information, Advertising and Health
Choices: A Study of the Cereal Market," The RAND Journal of Economics, 21,
459-480.
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Guide on Food Products, Vol II by Laad, V. D.
Modern Food Packaging
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research (JBRMR) Vol. 5 Issue 1October 2010
A Journal of The Academy of Business and Retail Management (ABRM) 31
Packaging India, Vol 35, No. 5, Dec–Jan ’03, Plastic Films for Processed Food
Special Requirements by Rashmi Motey, Smita Lele
Packaging India, Vol 33, No 5, Dec 2000 Jan ’01, Specialized Packaging for Food
Products by A. S. Athalye
Handbook of Packaging Plastics by A. S. Athalye
http://www.punebds.com/postarticle/viewcatwisedetail.aspx?name=Product%
20Development
http://www.punebds.com/postarticle/Home.aspx
http://www.scribd.com/doc/19018679/fast-food-industry-in-india-a-study
www.outlookprofit.com/article.aspx?261956
http://issuu.com/retailnews/docs/retailnews1sept08
Ministry of Food Processing Industries:
http://www.mofpi.nic.in/ContentPage.aspx?CategoryId=148
Steptoe, A., Pollard T. M. & Wardle, J. (1995), "Development of a Measure of the
Motives Underlying the Selection of Food: the Food Choice Questionnaire,"
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Ton Nu, C., MacLeod, P. & Barthelemy J. (1996), "Effects of Age and Gender on
Adolescents' Food Habits and Preferences," Food Quality and Preference, 7, 251-
262
Grunert, K. G., Bredahl, L. &Brunso, K. (2004), "Consumer Preception of Meat
Quality and Implications for Product Development in the Meat Sector a Review,"
Meat Science, 66, 259-272
Heuvel, T., Trijp, H., Woerkum, C., Renes, R. J. & Grenmmen, B. (2007), "Linking
Product Offering to Consumer Needs; Inclusion of Credence Attributes and the
Influences of Product Features, "Food Quality and Preference, 18, 296-304
Buckley, M., Cowan, C., McCarthy, M. & O'Sullivan, C. (2005), "The Convenience
Consumer and Food Related Lifestyles in Great Britain," Journal of Food
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Food Science, 4, 15-17.
www.marketingritson.com/documents/week1brandtracking.pdf
http://www.leaders-india.com
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