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Enhanced Wellbeing Amongst Engineering Students Through Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (Alternate Nostril Breathing) Training : An Analysis

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The state of wellbeing is determined by individual’s Physical, Mental and Emotional health. This paper introduces the concept of pranayama (an ancient yogic technique that involves controlled deep rhythmic breathing). The underlying principle of pranayama is that the relation between emotion and breathing is two way i.e. not only emotions have affect on breathing but controlled rhythmic breathing has positive effects on emotions too. We selected a group of engineering students who volunteered to practise alternate nostril breathing i.e. Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (NSP) for three months. We applied the introspection (subjective observation) method of Psychology and analyzed the various traits related to wellbeing of the group on Likert’s five point psychometric scale before and after applying this technique. We applied t-test for statistical investigation. We observed that 75% of the subjects gained in terms of Feeling Healthy, 80% in terms of memory recall, 75% in terms of mental stress relief and 90% in terms of physical relaxation. This amazingly simple and yet highly effective ancient technique of NSP may become part of their physical training routine to be followed regularly. The paper aims at spreading the awareness of this yogic technique on the wellbeing of all human beings in general and engineering students in particular. Key words: Improved Wellbeing; Alternate Nostril Breathing; Nadi Shodhan Pranayama, Students.
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112 2011School of Doctoral Studies (European Union) Journal
School of Doctoral Studies (European Union) Journal - 2011
Enhanced Wellbeing Amongst Engineering Students
Through Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (Alternate Nostril
Breathing) Training : An Analysis
Anurag Joshi
M.E. (Electrical Engineering) Department of Electrical Engineering,
Thapar Polytechnic College, Patiala- 147004 (Punjab) India
Dr. Mandeep Singh
Ph.D. (Telecardiology) Department of Electrical and Instrumentation Engineering,
Thapar University, Patiala-147004 (Punjab) India
Dr. Bharat Bhushan Singla
Ph.D. (Management) School of Management Studies,
Punjabi University, Patiala-147002 (Punjab) India
Dr. Sunil Joshi
M.D. (Ayurveda Medicine) Babe Ke Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital,
VPO Daudhar, Via Ajitwal, Distt. Moga (Punjab) India
Abstract
The state of wellbeing is determined by individual’s Physical, Mental and Emotional health. This paper introduces the concept of
pranayama (an ancient yogic technique that involves controlled deep rhythmic breathing). The underlying principle of pranayama is that
the relation between emotion and breathing is two way i.e. not only emotions have affect on breathing but controlled rhythmic breathing
has positive effects on emotions too. We selected a group of engineering students who volunteered to practise alternate nostril breathing
i.e. Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (NSP) for three months. We applied the introspection (subjective observation) method of Psychology
and analyzed the various traits related to wellbeing of the group on Likert’s ve point psychometric scale before and after applying this
technique. We applied t-test for statistical investigation. We observed that 75% of the subjects gained in terms of Feeling Healthy, 80%
in terms of memory recall, 75% in terms of mental stress relief and 90% in terms of physical relaxation. This amazingly simple and yet
highly effective ancient technique of NSP may become part of their physical training routine to be followed regularly. The paper aims at
spreading the awareness of this yogic technique on the wellbeing of all human beings in general and engineering students in particular.
Key words: Improved Wellbeing; Alternate Nostril Breathing; Nadi Shodhan Pranayama, Students.
Improved wellbeing is the combination of feeling
good (including positive emotions such as happiness,
contentment, interest and affection) and functioning
well. We wanted to know the discernment of the students
about wellbeing. We conducted a survey amongst the
students, their parents and their teachers too to know
their perspicacity about wellbeing. The students view was
considered primarily where as the view of the parents and
teachers was to endorse the view of students. The major
aspects of improved wellbeing reported by the students
after the survey were Feeling Healthy, Memory Recall,
Mental Stress Relief and Physical Relaxation. Feeling
Healthy stands for freedom from corporeal disorder. If a
student suffers any physical anarchy, he may neglect the
study efforts and may not perform well in the examination.
Memory power plays most important role for getting good
grades in the examination. Hence achieving success in
the examination may be indicative of student’s wellbeing.
Mental Stress is caused due to examination phobia and peer
pressure as well, when they have to compete for anything.
Also infatuation in adolescents and fear of rejection may
play a vital role to enhance Mental Stress. Lack of physical
2011 113
Joshi A., Singh M., Bhushan S. B, Joshi S. - Enhanced Wellbeing amongst Engineering Students through Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (Alternate Nostril Breathing)
Training : An Analysis
Enhanced Wellbeing Amongst Engineering Students Through Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (Alternate Nostril Breathing) Training : An Analysis
relaxation determines the performance in the workshop
jobs or playground activities due to which they tend to
experience fatigue and want quick relief from that. Also
survey revealed that some students may hook on to drugs to
attain state of wellbeing temporarily as they are not mature
enough to differentiate between right or wrong. This may
be due to their incorrect thinking and unawareness.
On basis of the survey reporting we decided the four
parameters i.e. Feeling Healthy, Memory Recall, Mental
Stress Relief and Physical Relaxation to determine the state
of wellbeing of engineering students.
Technique
Ancient yogic technique of alternate nostril breathing
also known as Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (NSP) is able to
create the feeling of being well and this aspect of NSP is
explored analytically in this paper. How the subject feels
well is a matter of self introspection and cannot be measured
by any instrument as such. One of the ways to know the
wellness feeling of the subject is to ask to report the state
of mind based on selected subjective parameters such as
Feeling Healthy, Memory Recall, Mental Stress Relief and
Physical Relaxation before and after NSP training. It may
look that the last parameter physical relaxation is a physical
state and not a mental state but on deeper instructions it is
found that a person may be physically tired but may report
as physically relaxed when he is emotionally positive. For
example if a person is about to receive a gold medal in
front of his colleagues, he may report physically relaxed
even though he may have travelled overnight without any
sleep. However to the same person if he is attending a close
relative in Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital may report
physically worn out even if he had all the physical features
of rest and comforts of air conditioned environment. It is
interesting to note that all diagnostic tests are recommended
by the doctor only when the subject rst feels diseased in his
being and consults the doctor. Based on these simple facts
the authors decided to make the subject self introspection
report on the above cited four parameters before and after
NSP training and analysed the results to know the efcacy
of this ancient technique of feeling well.
Yoga
Yoga has a rich base to deal with physical as well as
mental health. This is perhaps the reason that our Sages
used to lead a healthy and cheerful long life. If one practises
yoga, one can surely notice how certain asanas affect one’s
mind and body. Some poses may be easy to attain and put
our mind at ease, while other yoga poses are difcult and
may even cause us frustration. These physical and mental
feelings also help us in choosing the type of yoga that best
suits us. Health disorders related to Blood Pressure, Heart,
Lungs, Kidneys, Joints etc. are on the rise throughout the
world [1]. It is well established fact that physical health
is inuenced by mental wellbeing and vice versa. Mental
health is primarily more affected by negative emotions like
lust, anger, infatuation, greed, pride, anxiety, fear, depression
and inferiority complex [2]. Learning the management of
these negative emotions is therefore essential to maintain
good mental health. Yoga offers comprehensive solution
for managing the negative mental emotions. It is an ancient
Indian term signifying union of an individual with cosmic
being. This is achieved by following various techniques in
a disciplined way. The focus of this paper is on Pranayama
(Controlled Yogic breathing). The underlying principle
of Pranayama is that the relation between emotion and
breathing is two ways i.e. not only emotions have effect on
breathing but controlled rhythmic breathing have positive
effects on emotions too.
Pranayama
Breathing helps in maintaining the vital energy of life
and thus in yogic terms this is known as Prana. The process
of controlling the Prana is called Pranayama. So pranayama
is the science related to invigorating the vital force
supplying energy and controlling the mind-body complex.
The ancient texts emphasise that retention of air, increases
the level of prana (energy) in the body, it also regulates the
ow of pranic energy through out the body. So pranayama
helps to control most of the ailments and can also slow
down the inevitable aging process of the body [3] .
The mind inuences most of the endocrine and other
physical as well as the metabolic functions of the body
including breathing. When the mind is calm and relaxed, the
breathing is smooth and slow. If one is stressed breathing
is fast or shallow. In this way, the mental and emotional
state of a person has a positive or negative impact on health
through breathing [3].
The functioning of all the organs like heart, brain,
digestive organs, endocrine glands in the body have
certain rhythms. Similarly the breathing also has a rhythm.
114 2011School of Doctoral Studies (European Union) Journal
School of Doctoral Studies (European Union) Journal - 2011
Pranayama is deep rhythmic breathing bringing the breath
in desired rhythm by controlling the process of inhalation,
retention and exhalation [3].
In the process of breathing, the diaphragm, intercostal
muscles and accessory muscles of respiration are used. The
diaphragmatic breathing is called vertical breathing and
is considered to be more efcient way to inhale air than
inhaling while expanding the chest which is considered
to be the horizontal breathing which involves simply
expanding the chest. In pranayama, one should utilize the
diaphragm efciently to get more oxygen without making
much effort. The diaphragm is attached to the organs
like heart and lungs on superior surface and to the liver,
spleen, pancreas and stomach on inferior surface. Efcient
movement of the diaphragm makes the functioning of these
organs more efcient [3].
Many researchers and Yogis have reported the benets
of practising pranayama on Diabetes Mellitus [4], Heart
Rate [5] and Nervous System [6]. Also research through
Yoga Meditation has shown remarkable improvement in
Patience, Physical Relaxation, Mental Stress relief [7] and
physical relaxation [8] of the chosen subjects.
Nadi Shodhana Pranayama (Yogic breathing control)
has benecial effects on Autonomic Nervous System. It
decreases sympathetic discharge, lowers metabolic rate
and increases parasympathetic discharge. This study also
proves long term benecial effects to body on stressors if
yogic breathing exercises are practiced regularly. [9]
This systematic breathing pattern results in improvement
in Feeling Healthy, enhancing Memory Recall, decreasing
Mental Stress and imparting Physical Relaxation.
Methodology
Pranayama techniques are best practised while sitting
on the oor on a blanket or a carpet or a mat. This form
of practice is applicable to padmasana also. Padmasna is a
posture in which the subject sits in a cross legged position as
shown in the gure P1. However, any other posture is also
acceptable provided the back is kept erect from the base of
the spine to the neck and perpendicular to the oor. Bad and
poorly performed posture leads to shallow breathing and
low endurance. One must empty the bladder and bowels
before starting pranayama. The best time for practice is the
early morning, preferably before sunrise when the pollution
is at its lowest level, and the body and brain are relatively
relaxed. However, if morning is unsuitable, pranayama may
be practiced after sunset, when the air is cool and pleasant.
The place suitable for all kinds of Yoga must be clean and
calm. The practice of pranayama should be preferably
carried out 3 hours after taking solid food and 1 hour after
taking liquid food.
We chose our subjects in the age group 16-19 years,
who practiced Pranayama, in Padmasna posture at evening
time (6 p.m. to 7 p.m.) after attending their course classes.
This age group was specically selected for the reason that
the newly found energy in this age is often not utilized
judiciously. Practicing the pranayama helps in channelising
this enormous energy [10].
The subjects practiced Pranayama for three months
regularly.
There are various techniques of Pranayama but we
applied the technique of Nadi Shodhan Pranayama on the
subjects. This Pranayama is one of the simplest exercises
which require no pre-requisite and the technique followed
by the subjects is given in the subsequent section.
In NSP, the subjects are made to sit down in a comfortable
place assuming a cross legged position on a mat. They are
instructed to sit erect, remain calm and close their eyes. The
breathing process starts by closing the right nostril with the
right thumb, followed by inhaling slowly through the left
nostril. After complete inhalation, the left nostril is to be
pressed with the ring nger of the right hand and close the
left nostril. Then the right nostril is opened to exhale slowly.
After complete exhalation, the breath is inhaled through
the right nostril. It is followed by closing the right nostril
by pressing it with the right thumb. Finally the left nostril
is opened to breathe out slowly. This explicitly described
process is called one round of Nadi Shodhan Pranayama or
Anuloma Viloma Pranayama (Alternate Nostril Breathing)
and is depicted in gure P2. This is to be continued for 10
-15 rounds [11], [12], [13] and [14].
Analysis
We chose a group of twenty subjects who practised
Pranayama techniques for three months. The different
characteristics such as Feeling Healthy, Memory Recall
, Mental Stress Relief and Physical Relaxation were
observed on the basis of the self introspection i.e. subjective
observation by the person practicing these techniques. These
were recorded using a well established Likert’s ve-point
psychometric scale [15]. In this scale the subject is asked to
self introspect his status of his trait in term of percentage.
This percentage is taken as 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90%.
For example, if the person is feeling too weak physically
and thinks he is terribly sick, he may choose 10% as his
status of health. If the subject feels that he is somewhat
2011 115
sick he may choose 30% on this Likert’s scale. Conversely,
if he feels that he is in perfect state of health, he may
tick at 90%, while for more than average health, he may
choose 70%. For average health condition, he may choose
50%. Similarly the choice is made for all other traits. It
is a standard practice with Likert’s ve-point psychometric
scale to simplify the analysis by clubbing the 10% and 30%
categories and considering it as 20% and assumed as Low
scale, 50% is retained unchanged and assumed at Medium
Scale while and the values of 70% and 90% are clubbed
and considered as 80%, assumed as High Scale.
The results are shown in Table 1.
The variation of these characteristics (before and after
practicing Nadi Shodhan Pranayama techniques) has been
shown in the gures (1 - 4). These effects are mentioned as
follows.
Results & Discussion
A NSP technique was applied on a set of 20 engineering
students. None of the students reported any decline in
the status of health after this Pranayama. 15 out of these
20 students reported better in Feeling Healthy after this
exercise. It can therefore be concluded 75% students
(15 out of 20) improved in the Feeling Healthy level
after Pranayama. Figure {1(a) - 1(b)}
Similarly 80% of the students (16 out of 20) experienced
better state of Memory Recall after Pranayama. None of
the students reported any decline. Figure {2(a) - 2(b)}
Mental Stress level of 75% students (15 out of 20)
decreased after Pranayama. None of the students
reported any decline. Figure {3(a) - 3(b)}
State of Physical Relaxation of 90% students (18 out
of 20) improved after Pranayama. None of the students
reported any decline. Figure {4(a) - 4(b)}
After Pranayama, the low scale values of the Memory
Recall and Physical Relaxation characteristics have been
reduced to nil, whereas high scale values of Feeling
Healthy, Memory Recall and Physical Relaxation have been
drastically increased (Table 2, 3 and 5). The results for the
Mental Stress characteristics are highly encouraging. Table
4 indicates drastic shift of Mental Stress from high scale to
low scale after practice of Nadi Shodhan Pranayama.
The results obtained above are for the prescribed
optimal technique of alternate nostril breathing. A common
query that was posed by many participants to the authors
was, what if it is not practically possible to attain these
conditions?
It is hereby assured that the practitioners shall get
some stress relief, even if he is not sitting in cross-legged
position, or has skipped the gap time i.e. has eaten some
solid or liquid food to quench his hunger and thirst. The
result will be positive though not to the extent documented
above, even if this technique is applied for shorter duration
of time while traveling or sitting in ofce chair.
Table 1. Characteristics analysis before and after practicing Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (NSP)
S No. Student Codes Likert’s scale of Feeling
Healthy
Likert’s scale of Memory
Recall
Likert’s scale of Mental
Stress
Likert’s scale of Physical
Relaxation
Before After Before After Before After Before After
1. S1 50 70 50 70 50 10 70 90
2. S2 50 70 50 70 70 50 30 70
3. S3 30 90 50 50 70 30 50 70
4. S4 50 90 50 70 70 70 50 70
5. S5 70 90 50 70 70 70 50 70
6. S6 50 90 50 70 70 70 30 90
7. S7 70 90 70 90 50 10 50 90
8. S8 70 70 30 50 50 50 50 70
9. S9 30 70 30 70 70 30 70 90
10. S10 50 90 50 50 70 50 50 50
11. S11 70 90 50 70 70 70 50 50
12. S12 50 50 50 50 70 30 30 50
Joshi A., Singh M., Bhushan S. B, Joshi S. - Enhanced Wellbeing amongst Engineering Students through Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (Alternate Nostril Breathing)
Training : An Analysis
Enhanced Wellbeing Amongst Engineering Students Through Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (Alternate Nostril Breathing) Training : An Analysis
116 2011School of Doctoral Studies (European Union) Journal
School of Doctoral Studies (European Union) Journal - 2011
S No. Student Codes Likert’s scale of Feeling
Healthy
Likert’s scale of Memory
Recall
Likert’s scale of Mental
Stress
Likert’s scale of Physical
Relaxation
Before After Before After Before After Before After
13. S13 30 50 50 70 50 30 30 50
14. S14 30 30 50 70 70 70 70 90
15. S15 50 50 30 50 30 10 30 50
16. S16 30 50 50 70 50 30 30 50
17. S17 30 70 50 70 50 30 30 50
18. S18 30 70 30 70 90 50 30 50
19. S19 50 50 50 50 70 30 30 70
20. S20 50 70 30 70 50 30 30 90
Feeling Healthy; Memory Recall; Mental
Stress Relief; Physical Relaxation.
Table 2
Scale of Feeling Healthy Before Pranayama After Pranayama
Low scale 35% (7 out of 20) 05% (1 out of 20)
Medium scale 45% (9 out of 20) 25% (5 out of 20)
High scale 20% (4 out of 20) 70% (14 out of 20)
Table 3
Scale of Memory Recall Before Pranayama After Pranayama
Low scale 25% (5 out of 20) Nil
Medium scale 70% (14 out of 20) 30% (6 out of 20)
High scale 05% (1 out of 20) 70% (14 out of 20)
Table 4
Scale of Mental Stress Before Pranayama After Pranayama
Low scale 05% (1 out of 20) 55% (11 out of 20)
Medium scale 35% (7 out of 20) 20% (4 out of 20)
High scale 60% (12 out of 20) 25% (5 out of 20)
Table 5
Scale of Physical
Relaxation Before Pranayama After Pranayama
Low scale 50% (10 out of 20) Nil
Medium scale 35% (7 out of 20) 40% (8 out of 20)
High scale 15% (3 out of 20) 60% (12 out of 20)
Figure 1 (a)
0
20
40
60
80
100
1234 5678910 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Individual Subject
Feeli ng Healthy
(on Liker t's Scale)
Before NSP Training After NSP Training
Figure 1 (b)
0
20
40
60
80
100
1234 5678910 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Individual Subject
Feeli ng Healthy
(on Liker t's Scale)
Before NSP Training A fter NSP Training
Figure 2 (a)
0
20
40
60
80
100
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Individual Subject
Memor y Recall
(on Liker t's Scale)
Before NSP Training After NSP Training
2011 117
Figure 2 (b)
0
20
40
60
80
100
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Individual Subject
Memor y Recall
(on Liker t's Scale)
Before NSP Training A fter NSP Training
Figure 3 (a)
0
20
40
60
80
100
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Individual Subject
Mental S tress
(on Liker t's Scale)
Before NSP Training After NSP Training
Figure 3 (b)
0
20
40
60
80
100
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Individual Subject
Mental S tress
(on Liker t's Scale)
Before NSP Training A fter NSP Training
Figure 4 (a)
0
20
40
60
80
100
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Individual Subject
Physical Relaxatio n
(on Liker t's Scale)
Before NSP Training After NSP Training
Figure 4 (b)
0
20
40
60
80
100
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Individual Subject
Physical Relaxatio n
(on Liker t's Scale)
Before NSP Training A fter NSP Training
Figure P1
Joshi A., Singh M., Bhushan S. B, Joshi S. - Enhanced Wellbeing amongst Engineering Students through Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (Alternate Nostril Breathing)
Training : An Analysis
Enhanced Wellbeing Amongst Engineering Students Through Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (Alternate Nostril Breathing) Training : An Analysis
118 2011School of Doctoral Studies (European Union) Journal
School of Doctoral Studies (European Union) Journal - 2011
Figure P2
NADI SHODHAN PRANAYAMA POSTURE
The observed results are analyzed using t-test for
knowing the statistical signicance and presented in tables
6-9. The t-test is used to identify the signicant difference
in the means of two samples, namely before and after
practising nadi shodhan pranayama.
Table 6
t-Test
Feeling Healthy Before Meditation After Meditation
Mean 47 70
Variance 222.1052632 336.8421053
Observations 20 20
Pearson Correlation 0.461811804
Hypothesized Mean
Dierence
0
df 19
t Stat -5.877033172
P(T<=t) two-tail 1.16684E-05
t Critical two-tail 2.09302405
Table 7
t-Test
Memory Recall Before Meditation After Meditation
Mean 46 65
Variance 109.4736842 121.0526316
Observations 20 20
Pearson Correlation 0.365758478
Hypothesized Mean
Dierence
0
df 19
t Stat -7.024622676
P(T<=t) two-tail 1.09232E-06
t Critical two-tail 2.09302405
Table 8
t-Test
Mental Stress Before Meditation After Meditation
Mean 62 41
Variance 185.2631579 441.0526316
Observations 20 20
Pearson Correlation 0.618651309
Hypothesized Mean
Dierence
0
df 19
t Stat 5.687824835
P(T<=t) two-tail 1.75242E-05
t Critical two-tail 2.09302405
Table 9
t-Test
Mental Stress Before Meditation After Meditation
Mean 62 41
Variance 185.2631579 441.0526316
Observations 20 20
Pearson Correlation 0.618651309
Hypothesized Mean
Dierence
0
df 19
t Stat 5.687824835
P(T<=t) two-tail 1.75242E-05
t Critical two-tail 2.09302405
t –test (dependent Sample)
t-test is used to identify the signicant difference in the means of two
dependent samples.
2011 119
Null Hypothesis (Ho :)
There is no signicant difference in the means of the
parameters of Feeling Healthy, Memory.
Recall, Mental Stress and Physical Relaxation before
and after practising nadi shodhan pranayama.
Alternative Hypothesis (Ha :)
There is a signicant difference in the means of the
parameters of Feeling Healthy, Memory.
Recall, Mental Stress and Physical Relaxation before
and after practising nadi shodhan pranayama.
Results of t-test
From the Table 6-9 the t-critical value for all the
parameters is 2.093 and the standard value at 1% signicance
level (99% condence level) is 1.96. For interpretation, if
the t-calculated value is less than the standard value then Ho
: is accepted. But in this case t-calculated value is more than
the standard value at both the levels. So here Ho : is rejected
and Ha : is accepted i.e. there is a signicant difference in
the means of the parameters of Feeling Healthy, Memory
Recall, Mental Stress and Physical Relaxation among the
students before and after practising nadi shodhan pranayama
i.e. the technique of practising nadi shodhan pranayama is
proved to be useful for the subjects. Also it is observed
from the results of t test, mean value of Feeling Healthy
is shifted from 47 to 70, Memory Recall is shifted from 46
to 65, Mental Stress is shifted from 62 to 41 and Physical
Relaxation is shifted from 43 to 68 before and after the test.
The average value in this case is 50 since is the lowest and
90 is the highest value, while recording the responses. It
means the content of Mental Stress declines where as the
level of Feeling fHealthy, Memory Recall and Physical
Relaxation rises after practising nadi shodhan pranayama.
Conclusion
Yoga is a proven technique for bringing desirable changes
in behavioral traits leading to wellbeing. The present study
afrmatively proves the effect of practice of Nadi Shodhan
Pranayama (NSP) in enhancing Feeling Healthy, Memory
Recall, Mental Stress Relief and Physical Relaxation. It
was observed that 75% of the subjects gained in terms of
Feeling Healthy, 80% in terms of Memory Recall, 75% in
terms of Mental Stress Relief and 90% in terms of Physical
Relaxation. NSP improves the traits of Feeling Healthy,
Memory Recall and Physical Relaxation characteristics. It
reduces Mental Stress level, which is highly contributing
factor to disturb wellbeing of anyone. Also the higher stress
level leads to many diseases. The regulation and control of
above traits is highly signicant to enhance the wellbeing
of Engineering students. The authors want to spread the
message through this research paper that to maintain good
health, to get rid of diseases and lead a fullling life, which
is the basic necessity at all levels of our society, NSP is a
very effective technique. It may be safely concluded that
NSP has immense potential of increasing the wellbeing of
its practitioners irrespective of their age. It may become a
universal tool for making this globe a happier place.
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Joshi A., Singh M., Bhushan S. B, Joshi S. - Enhanced Wellbeing amongst Engineering Students through Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (Alternate Nostril Breathing)
Training : An Analysis
Enhanced Wellbeing Amongst Engineering Students Through Nadi Shodhan Pranayama (Alternate Nostril Breathing) Training : An Analysis
120 2011School of Doctoral Studies (European Union) Journal
School of Doctoral Studies (European Union) Journal - 2011
[8]Joshi Anurag, Joshi Sunil, Singh Mandeep, Kaur
Sukhwinder. STRESS A BANE – YOGA THE
CURE in National Seminar on Ayurveda, 2009; 20-
24.
[9]Dr. Arun Kumar SR “Effect of Nadi Shodhana
Pranayama on Autonomic functions among healthy
young school children in the age group of 11-16
years” Dissertation of Master Degree in Physiology,
Submitted To The Rajiv Gandhi University Of
Health Sciences, Bangalore (Karnataka), India
(2006).
[10]“Secret of Eternal Youth” available at http://www.
ashram.org/doc/SecretOfEternalYouth.pdf
[11]Nadi Shodhan Pranayama http://www.yogapoint.
com/info/pranayama.htm
[12]“Nadi Shudhi” available at http://www.
healthandyoga.com/html/pran/nadishudhi.htm
[13]“Breathing Exercise (Pranayama) - Alternate
Nostril (Anuloma Viloma)” {Demo Pictures of
One Round of Anuloma Viloma (Alternate Nostril
Breathing)} available at http://www.abc-of-yoga.
com/pranayama/basic/viloma.asp
[14]Video demonstration of “Alternate Nostril
Breathing (Nadi Sodhana)” available at http://www.
metacafe.com/watch/735686/alternate_nostril_
breathing_nadi_sodhana/
[15]Walia J.S. “Chief Methods of Psychology”,
Manual of Psychology, 1st ed. Paul Publishers,
Jalandhar (Punjab) India, 2002.16-17.
... Two particular PB techniques, Nadi Shodhana Pranayama (NSP) and Bhramari Pranayama (BP), stand out as the most commonly practiced techniques and were employed in this study. Nadi Shodhana, which is a PB method that is practiced smoothly, does not demand any equipment or prior exercises to be applied (Joshi et al., 2011). NSP is usually illustrated as an alternative technique of breathing through the nostrils (Sengupta, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the impact of pranayamic breathing (PB) as a positive psychology exercise on mitigating foreign language anxiety (FLLA) and test anxiety (TA) of undergraduate English students studying at a Turkish university. Additionally, the study examined the effects of PB on academic achievement in listening and reading comprehension skills of the participants as well as exploring learners’ and their instructor’s perceptions of using PB techniques in their classrooms. The sample consisted of 140 sophomore English language learners. Two intact classes, each comprising 70 participants, were selected as the experimental and the control group using convenience sampling. Two basic PB techniques, Nadi Shodhana Pranayama and Bhramari Pranayama, were implemented to the experimental group on a weekly basis for a total of 7 weeks. In this mixed-method study, the quantitative data were gathered using English Language Learning Anxiety Scale, Foreign Language Test Anxiety Scale, and listening and reading achievement pre- and post-tests, while the qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews, and the teacher’s reflective journal. The findings revealed that the implementation of positive psychology technique of pranayama breathing mitigated the FLLA and TA levels significantly and also improved listening and reading comprehension skills of the participants to a considerable extent. The findings also demonstrated that both the students and their instructor perceived PB implementation as a useful and a practical medium in alleviating the anxious feelings, promoting the general class atmosphere and regulating daily habits despite the implementational challenges shared by the instructor.
... Joshi et al. proposed developmental model for stress management in laboratories for academic institutions using modern day electronic instruments that monitor physiological changes (Fuller, 1977). Joshi et al. (2011) opined that deep breathing techniques decrease blood pressure and reduce stress amongst engineering students. Joshi et al. (2016Joshi et al. ( , 2017a also reported reduction of stress in engineering students by using other techniques like musical hymns and breathing. ...
... 14 This systematic breathing pattern results in improvement in Feeling Healthy, enhancing Memory Recall, decreasing Mental Stress and imparting Physical Relaxation. 15 Regular practices of yoga is associated with the reduction of basal cortisol and catecholamine secretion, a decrease in sympathetic activity with the corresponding increase in parasympathetic activity, reduction in metabolic rate and oxygen consumption with beneficial effect on cognitive functions and cerebral neurophysiology. 16 However, one study limitation is the lack of a control group in this investigation. ...
Article
Full-text available
The heart rate variability (HRV) is an indicator of the cardiac autonomic control. Two spectral components are usually recorded, viz. high frequency (0.15-0.50 Hz), which is due to vagal efferent activity and a low frequency component (0.05-0.15 Hz), due to sympathetic activity. The present study was conducted to study the HRV in two yoga practices which have been previously reported to have opposite effects, viz, sympathetic stimulation (kapalabhati, breathing at high frequency, i.e., 2.0 Hz) and reduced sympathetic activity (nadisuddhi, alternate nostril breathing). Twelve male volunteers (age range, 21 to 33 years) were assessed before and after each practice on separate days. The electrocardiogram (lead I) was digitized on-line and off-line analysis was done. The results showed a significant increase in low frequency (LF) power and LF/HF ratio while high frequency (HF) power was significantly lower following kapalabhati. There were no significant changes following nadisuddhi. The results suggest that kapalabhati modifies the autonomic status by increasing sympathetic activity with reduced vagal activity. The study also suggests that HRV is a more useful psychophysiological measure than heart rate alone.
Article
Full-text available
Pranayamic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to contribute to a physiologic response characterized by the presence of decreased oxygen consumption, decreased heart rate, and decreased blood pressure, as well as increased theta wave amplitude in EEG recordings, increased parasympathetic activity accompanied by the experience of alertness and reinvigoration. The mechanism of how pranayamic breathing interacts with the nervous system affecting metabolism and autonomic functions remains to be clearly understood. It is our hypothesis that voluntary slow deep breathing functionally resets the autonomic nervous system through stretch-induced inhibitory signals and hyperpolarization currents propagated through both neural and non-neural tissue which synchronizes neural elements in the heart, lungs, limbic system and cortex. During inspiration, stretching of lung tissue produces inhibitory signals by action of slowly adapting stretch receptors (SARs) and hyperpolarization current by action of fibroblasts. Both inhibitory impulses and hyperpolarization current are known to synchronize neural elements leading to the modulation of the nervous system and decreased metabolic activity indicative of the parasympathetic state. In this paper we propose pranayama's physiologic mechanism through a cellular and systems level perspective, involving both neural and non-neural elements. This theoretical description describes a common physiological mechanism underlying pranayama and elucidate the role of the respiratory and cardiovascular system on modulating the autonomic nervous system. Along with facilitating the design of clinical breathing techniques for the treatment of autonomic nervous system and other disorders, this model will also validate pranayama as a topic requiring more research.
Article
Diabetes is a complex condition with a multitude of metabolic imbalances involving the regulation and utilization of insulin and glucose (sugar) in the body. Diabetes is currently considered an epidemic disease that is largely preventable and treatable through yoga. Yoga's effectiveness at preventing and treating diabetes is due to its emphasis of a healthy diet and lifestyle as well as its ability to balance the endocrine system, massage and tone the abdominal organs, stimulate the nervous and circulatory systems, and reduce stress.
  • Dr
  • Silva Padmasiri De
Dr. Padmasiri de Silva "The Psychology of Emotions in Buddhist Perspective" Sir D. B. Jayatilleke Commemoration Lecture Colombo, 1976 Buddhist Publication Society Kandy • Sri Lanka The Wheel Publication/237
Pranayama -A Science of Breathing (I) " available at www.yogapoint.com/ pranayama/pranayama_science_1
  • Mandlik Gandhar
Mandlik Gandhar " Pranayama -A Science of Breathing (I) " available at www.yogapoint.com/ pranayama/pranayama_science_1.htm
Role of Acoustic Meditation in Stress Management An Analysis
  • Joshi Anurag
  • Singh Mandeep
  • Jindal Ritu
  • Parkash Jai
Joshi Anurag, Singh Mandeep, Jindal Ritu, Parkash Jai. Role of Acoustic Meditation in Stress Management An Analysis. International Journal of Management Sciences, 2008; 4:2 (Dec. 2008) 56-67.
STRESS A BANE -YOGA THE CURE in National Seminar on Ayurveda
  • Joshi Anurag
  • Joshi Sunil
  • Singh Mandeep
  • Kaur Sukhwinder
Joshi Anurag, Joshi Sunil, Singh Mandeep, Kaur Sukhwinder. STRESS A BANE -YOGA THE CURE in National Seminar on Ayurveda, 2009; 20-24.
Effect of Nadi Shodhana Pranayama on Autonomic functions among healthy young school children in the age group of 11-16 years" Dissertation of Master Degree in Physiology, Submitted To The Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences
  • Arun Dr
  • S R Kumar
Dr. Arun Kumar SR "Effect of Nadi Shodhana Pranayama on Autonomic functions among healthy young school children in the age group of 11-16 years" Dissertation of Master Degree in Physiology, Submitted To The Rajiv Gandhi University Of Health Sciences, Bangalore (Karnataka), India (2006).
Pranayama -A Science of Breathing (I) "available at www
  • Mandlik Gandhar
Mandlik Gandhar "Pranayama -A Science of Breathing (I) "available at www.yogapoint.com/ pranayama/pranayama_science_1.htm