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Health Effects of Artificial Light

  • SciProof International AB
  • INSERM UMR1138 Cordeliers campus and Université Paris Descartes - Cochin Hospital Paris

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In general, the probability is low that artificial lighting for visibility purposes induces acute pathologic conditions, since expected exposure levels are much lower than those at which effects normally occur, and are also much lower than typical daylight exposures. Certain lamp types (including also incandescent light bulbs) may emit low level UV radiationAccording to a worst case scenario the highest measured UV emissions from lamps used in offices and schools, but not the very low emissions lamps used for household lighting, could add to the number of squamous cell carcinomas in the EU population. There is no evidence that blue light from artificial lighting belonging to Risk Group 0 ("exempt from risk") would have any impact on the retina graver than that of sunlight. Blue light from improperly used lamps belonging to Risk Groups 1, 2, or 3 could, in theory, induce photochemical retinal. There is no evidence that this constitutes a risk in practice. Other damages to the eye from chronic artificial light exposure during normal lighting conditions are unlikely. Exposure to light at night (independent of lighting technology) while awake (e.g. shift work) may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and also cause sleep, gastrointestinal, mood and cardiovascular disorders.
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... Also, photoelectrical stimulation could be real-time recorded sensitively because it did not create electromagnetic noise compared to other methods (Barbruni et al., 2020). Long term effects of photoelectrical stimulation are also well-known because of other artificial light application studies on retina (Mattsson et al., 2012). Photoelectrical stimulation has more higher long term biocompatibility compared to photothermal, magnetoelectrical and acoustic applications (Zimmerman & Tian, 2018). ...
... Even under ocular safety limits, Class-I (Noell et al., 1966) and Class-II (Ham et al., 1976) damages could negatively affect the retina. While Class-I damage occurs in long durations of white light under 10 W/m 2 intensity, because of photoreceptor and RPE damage, Class-II damage occur in short term light pulses by creating melanolipofucsin in RPE layer (Mattsson et al., 2012). Both types of damages should be considered during production and design of retinal prostheses. ...
Electrical stimulation of neural tissues is the one of the emerging technological areas in medicine. Although several attempts from various research groups, neuro-electronic interface technologies are still in infancy period. Especially in neurodegenerative situations, such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, neural stimulation could be effective rehabilitation method. For retina, photovoltaic surfaces are the pioneer concepts for recovery of sensation. The institutes, which are working on retinal prostheses, currently exploiting various photoactive electrical surfaces to stimulate bipolar and ganglion cells in the retina. However, they fail to fulfill functions of retinal prosthesis due to bio-incompatibility, external energy source necessity, lack of flexibility and mobility of prosthesis. Therefore, there is enormous necessity for innovative biomaterials at retinal prosthesis production. Quantum dot based photovoltaic devices are great candidates for nano-sized neural stimulators. Their working principle relies on photoelectric effect, which makes them possible replacement for rhodopsin based phototransduction mechanism in photoreceptor cells. For retinal implant production on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) surface, various types of quantum dot-based photovoltaic interfaces could be used, such as Lead(II)sulfide (PbS), Aluminum antimonide (AlSb). The main concerns on these biointerfaces are biocompatibility and effective electrical charge capacity on neurons which induce action potential activity. Compared to other photoactive polymer-based interfaces in literature, quantum dots-based materials could induce photoelectrical neurostimulation under lower light intensities due to their nanocrystal content. Also compared to other silicon-based biointerfaces, they do not need an external energy source or complicated processor systems, thanks to the photo-capacitive current production. The aim of the study is to investigate various types of quantum dots-based structures to produce effective photovoltaic interface for neural stimulation, which could be used as retinal prosthesis in the rats with retinal degeneration. For this purpose, different type quantum dots were examined with in vitro biocompatibility and electrophysiology experiments. Then, selected quantum dots based neural interfaces implanted to the subretinal spaces of the rats with and without retinal degeneration. After implantation, electrophysiology (VEP-EEG and ERG) and behavioral tests conducted to understand biocompatibility and recovery of visual sensation. After in vivo studies, the animals were euthanized and changes in the retina after implantations and photoelectrical stimulations were observed. By this way, both functional recovery of vision and the structural integrity of the different cell types in retina were demonstrated. Different types of quantum dots-based interfaces induce action potentials in primary hippocampal neurons, which enables neuromodulation with biocompatible photoactive interfaces. In in vivo step, PbS and AlSb QDs based retinal prostheses also induce retinal stimulation with light pulses. Unfortunately, required light levels for neural stimulation with these devices are significantly higher than ocular safety limits. Also, both AlSb and PbS QDs based retinal prostheses induce gliosis and retinal damage in subretinal implantation area. Because of those reasons, further investigations are required for quantum dots based retinal stimulation systems.
... These levels of illuminance are adequate to uniformly light the skin surface of the patient at the focusing distance of the camera rig and account for light losses during the image's capture. According to [14], fluorescent light sources with similar characteristics belong to the Risk Group 0 (RG0, " exempt from risk " ) of photo-biological hazard. Moreover, the effects of short-term exposure to ultraviolet radiation emitted by a fluorescent light source are thought to be negligible. ...
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In visible light communications (VLC) technology, the outdoor applications are less explored when compared to those indoors. This is due to the fact that: (i) the dual use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) is not always practicable in the outdoor VLC environment; (ii) the level of interference and noise is considerably higher in outdoor VLC; (iii) many other communication technologies are available to be used which, due to their specific characteristics, adapt better to the outdoor environment when compared to VLC technology. Nevertheless, several outdoor VLC applications have been identified. They include and are not limited to building-to-building (B2B), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and road-to-vehicle (R2V) communications. Deploying light fidelity (Li-Fi) using street and park lights is also feasible. Finally, some applications exploit the ability of solar panels to simultaneously harvest the electrical energy and serve as a VLC receiving antenna. The implementation of these communication systems faces lots of challenges. Most of them are related to environmental factors such as fog, rain, sunlight, haze, snow, dust, and atmospheric disturbances. Some challenges are based on parameters such as the geometrical aspect of the light diffusion, which is Lambertian in most cases. These challenges contribute to lower interest in outdoor VLC to date. However, the environment presents several opportunities. In this article, we explore the outdoor VLC environment, review and present some promising applications selected from the literature. Furthermore, we underline likely research opportunities based on the actual state-of-the-art and our outdoor VLC characterisation experiments.
We investigated sleep quality and melatonin in 12 adults who wore blue-light shield or control eyewear 2 hours before sleep while using a self-luminous portable device, and assessed visual quality for the two eyewear types. Overnight melatonin secretion was significantly higher after using the blue-light shield (P < 0.05) than with the control eyewear. Sleep efficacy and sleep latency were significantly superior for wearers of the blue-light shield (P < 0.05 for both), and this group reported greater sleepiness during portable device use compared to those using the control eyewear. Participants rated the blue-light shield as providing acceptable visual quality.
Many traffic accidents take place throughout the world every day claiming lives as well as commodities and people involved in the accidents have to stay long periods at the hospitals. Traffic accidents are caused by many reasons. One of the reasons is the driver's having a heart attack just before the accident took place. If the heartbeat of the driver can continuously be measured, then most probably one of the reasons of traffic accidents can be eliminated. The designed model aims to measure the driver's heartbeat using infrared imaging. Some car models already have a driver heartbeat monitoring system and it measures the heartbeats by using the back seat electrodes. But these systems are expensive and unique to their models and what is more; its adaptation to other car models can pose a difficulty. Implementing on the car's rear-view mirror this new design monitoring system is very cheap and also it can be mounted to all motor vehicles easily.
Energy efficient light sources have been introduced across Europe and many other countries world wide. The most common of these is the Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), which has been shown to emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are an alternative technology that has minimal UV emissions. This brief review summarises the different energy efficient light sources available on the market and compares the UV levels and the subsequent effects on the skin of normal individuals and those who suffer from photodermatoses.
Cytochrome oxidase (CYO), a key enzyme in the respiratory chain, was observed as an indicator of retinal metabolism after an in vivo blue light exposure. Thirty Sprague—Dawley rats were exposed to optic radiation of 404 nm with a retinal dose of 110kJ/m². Immediately after exposure, the CYO activity in the pigment epithelium, in the outer and inner segments of photoreceptors, and in the outer plexiform layer of the exposed retina, was reduced to one—third—to—half of the control level. However, there was an increase in CYO activity in the exposed retina one day after exposure. One week after exposure, the CYO activity in the inner segment and the outer plexiform layer was higher, while the activity in the other two layers was lower, than that at one day, although still higher than in the control. Two weeks after exposure, the CYO activity in the four retinal layers returned to the level of the control retina, as did the activity four weeks after. After exposure, no ophthalmoscopically visible retinal change and no light‐microscopically evident morphological alterations were found. There was no retinal edema or loss of photoreceptor cells. The observed alteration in CYO activity after blue light exposure may represent an inhibition of retinal metabolism. The inhibition was reversible. If this compensation mechanism is overwhelmed, retinal damage may occur. 1993 Institution Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica