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Health Effects of Artificial Light

Authors:
  • SciProof International AB
  • INSERM UMR1138 Cordeliers campus and Université Paris Descartes - Cochin Hospital Paris

Abstract and Figures

In general, the probability is low that artificial lighting for visibility purposes induces acute pathologic conditions, since expected exposure levels are much lower than those at which effects normally occur, and are also much lower than typical daylight exposures. Certain lamp types (including also incandescent light bulbs) may emit low level UV radiationAccording to a worst case scenario the highest measured UV emissions from lamps used in offices and schools, but not the very low emissions lamps used for household lighting, could add to the number of squamous cell carcinomas in the EU population. There is no evidence that blue light from artificial lighting belonging to Risk Group 0 ("exempt from risk") would have any impact on the retina graver than that of sunlight. Blue light from improperly used lamps belonging to Risk Groups 1, 2, or 3 could, in theory, induce photochemical retinal. There is no evidence that this constitutes a risk in practice. Other damages to the eye from chronic artificial light exposure during normal lighting conditions are unlikely. Exposure to light at night (independent of lighting technology) while awake (e.g. shift work) may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and also cause sleep, gastrointestinal, mood and cardiovascular disorders.
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... Also, photoelectrical stimulation could be real-time recorded sensitively because it did not create electromagnetic noise compared to other methods (Barbruni et al., 2020). Long term effects of photoelectrical stimulation are also well-known because of other artificial light application studies on retina (Mattsson et al., 2012). Photoelectrical stimulation has more higher long term biocompatibility compared to photothermal, magnetoelectrical and acoustic applications (Zimmerman & Tian, 2018). ...
... Even under ocular safety limits, Class-I (Noell et al., 1966) and Class-II (Ham et al., 1976) damages could negatively affect the retina. While Class-I damage occurs in long durations of white light under 10 W/m 2 intensity, because of photoreceptor and RPE damage, Class-II damage occur in short term light pulses by creating melanolipofucsin in RPE layer (Mattsson et al., 2012). Both types of damages should be considered during production and design of retinal prostheses. ...
Thesis
Electrical stimulation of neural tissues is the one of the emerging technological areas in medicine. Although several attempts from various research groups, neuro-electronic interface technologies are still in infancy period. Especially in neurodegenerative situations, such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, neural stimulation could be effective rehabilitation method. For retina, photovoltaic surfaces are the pioneer concepts for recovery of sensation. The institutes, which are working on retinal prostheses, currently exploiting various photoactive electrical surfaces to stimulate bipolar and ganglion cells in the retina. However, they fail to fulfill functions of retinal prosthesis due to bio-incompatibility, external energy source necessity, lack of flexibility and mobility of prosthesis. Therefore, there is enormous necessity for innovative biomaterials at retinal prosthesis production. Quantum dot based photovoltaic devices are great candidates for nano-sized neural stimulators. Their working principle relies on photoelectric effect, which makes them possible replacement for rhodopsin based phototransduction mechanism in photoreceptor cells. For retinal implant production on flexible PET (polyethylene terephthalate) surface, various types of quantum dot-based photovoltaic interfaces could be used, such as Lead(II)sulfide (PbS), Aluminum antimonide (AlSb). The main concerns on these biointerfaces are biocompatibility and effective electrical charge capacity on neurons which induce action potential activity. Compared to other photoactive polymer-based interfaces in literature, quantum dots-based materials could induce photoelectrical neurostimulation under lower light intensities due to their nanocrystal content. Also compared to other silicon-based biointerfaces, they do not need an external energy source or complicated processor systems, thanks to the photo-capacitive current production. The aim of the study is to investigate various types of quantum dots-based structures to produce effective photovoltaic interface for neural stimulation, which could be used as retinal prosthesis in the rats with retinal degeneration. For this purpose, different type quantum dots were examined with in vitro biocompatibility and electrophysiology experiments. Then, selected quantum dots based neural interfaces implanted to the subretinal spaces of the rats with and without retinal degeneration. After implantation, electrophysiology (VEP-EEG and ERG) and behavioral tests conducted to understand biocompatibility and recovery of visual sensation. After in vivo studies, the animals were euthanized and changes in the retina after implantations and photoelectrical stimulations were observed. By this way, both functional recovery of vision and the structural integrity of the different cell types in retina were demonstrated. Different types of quantum dots-based interfaces induce action potentials in primary hippocampal neurons, which enables neuromodulation with biocompatible photoactive interfaces. In in vivo step, PbS and AlSb QDs based retinal prostheses also induce retinal stimulation with light pulses. Unfortunately, required light levels for neural stimulation with these devices are significantly higher than ocular safety limits. Also, both AlSb and PbS QDs based retinal prostheses induce gliosis and retinal damage in subretinal implantation area. Because of those reasons, further investigations are required for quantum dots based retinal stimulation systems.
... These levels of illuminance are adequate to uniformly light the skin surface of the patient at the focusing distance of the camera rig and account for light losses during the image's capture. According to [14], fluorescent light sources with similar characteristics belong to the Risk Group 0 (RG0, " exempt from risk " ) of photo-biological hazard. Moreover, the effects of short-term exposure to ultraviolet radiation emitted by a fluorescent light source are thought to be negligible. ...
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