ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Learning to be mindful is a powerful skill that can help you face the stresses of day-to-day life and improve both your psychological and physical health. Because you don’t need any equipment to practice mindfulness, you can practice it discreetly anywhere, at any time. This 6-page fact sheet was written by Parth Naik, Victor Harris, and Larry Forthun, and published by the UF Department of Family Youth and Community Sciences, September 2013.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Mindfulness: An Introduction1
Parth Naik, Victor Harris, and Larry Forthun2
1. This document is FCS2335, one of a series of the Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date:
September 2013. Please visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.u.edu.
2. Parth Naik, undergraduate student, Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences; Victor Harris, assistant professor and Extension specialist,
Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences; and Larry Forthun, associate professor and Extension specialist, Department of Family, Youth
and Community Sciences; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to
individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national
origin, political opinions or aliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A&M University Cooperative
Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.
Take a minute to stop everything you are doing and focus
on your breath. Can you still your mind?
Sounds simple, right? Chances are if you are like most
Americans you found it challenging to calm your mind
for more than a few seconds. However, research suggests
this skill may be vital to deal with one of the biggest public
health issues facing America today: stress. So how can you
learn to be calmer, more centered, and less stressed? In
recent years, psychologists and physicians have turned to a
practice called mindfulness with promising results.
What Is Mindfulness?
“Mindfulness means paying attention in a particular way; on
purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally. -
Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn (1991)
Mindfulness is best thought of as a way of being rather
than an activity in and of itself. Almost any activity can be
carried out with mindful awareness. Originally associated
with Buddhist psychology, the term “mindfulness” comes
from the Sanskrit word “Smṛti,” which literally translates
to “that which is remembered” (Williams, Leumann, &
Cappeller, 2004). From this, we can understand mindful-
ness as remembering to pay attention to our present moment
experience (Shapiro & Carlson, 2009; Black, 2011).
Mindful awareness has three key features:
• PurposeMindfulness involves intentionally and
purposefully directing your attention rather than letting
it wander.
• Presence Mindfulness involves being fully engaged
with and attentive to the present moment. oughts about
the past and future that arise are recognized simply as
thoughts occurring in the present.
• AcceptanceMindfulness involves being nonjudgmental
toward whatever arises in the moment. is means that
sensations, thoughts, and emotions are not judged as
good or bad, pleasant or unpleasant; they are simply
noticed as “happening,” and observed until they eventu-
ally pass.
Figure 1. Credits: Rupert King (Digital Vision)
Mindfulness: An Introduction
Research into mindfulness and its applications has
increased exponentially over the past two decades.
Although originally a Buddhist concept, mindfulness is
now understood to be an inherent quality of consciousness
that can be measured empirically and scientically (Kohls,
Sauer, & Walach, 2009; Black, 2010). It is also understood
that mindfulness requires no religious, ethical, spiritual, or
ideological commitments to practice (Walach et al., 2007).
e scientic interest in mindfulness has been largely
credited to the work of Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn, founder of
the University of Massachusetts Medical School Stress
Reduction Clinic. Kabat-Zinn, an MIT-trained molecular
biologist, began researching mind-body medicine in the
mid-1970s, focusing on the clinical application of mindful-
ness meditation for individuals aicted with chronic pain
and stress-related illnesses (Kabat-Zinn, 2005; Kabat-Zinn,
1991). From this research, he developed the Mindfulness-
Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) curriculum, an eight-week
training course that has been successfully used with a wide
audience, from cancer patients to those suering from
depression to highly stressed business executives (Gross-
man, Niemann, Schmidt, & Walach, 2004; Walach et al.,
More than 200 major medical centers across the United
States now implement MBSR, and many adaptations of
mindfulness-based therapies have followed, including
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive erapy (Teasdale et al.,
Benets of Mindfulness
Mindfulness is a mind-body practice that has been found to
benet both psychological and physical health. e primary
psychological change that occurs during mindfulness
practice is an increased awareness of thoughts, feelings, and
sensations in the present moment. Over time mindfulness
practice can help you to become aware of the space between
noticing experiences and reacting to them by letting you
slow down and observe the processes of your mind (Black,
2010). e ultimate goal of mindfulness practice is for
you to take advantage of this space so you can make more
intentional decisions—to wake up from living life on
autopilot, based on unproductive habits of mind (Black,
2010; Walach et al., 2007).
It is easy to see how mindfulness could be benecial in
dealing with stress or other dicult emotions. For example,
we have all been in situations where we became angry or
stressed and said or did things we didn’t mean. In these
moments, we may have felt we had no control over our
words or actions—as if we were reacting to situations
without thinking.
If you experience a moment like this, mindfulness can help
in several ways. First, being mindful can help you become
more aware of your emotions before they escalate and
control you. Instead of recognizing your anger only aer
you lash out at someone, you can catch your anger when
it is still mild and take steps to diuse it. Furthermore,
mindfulness can help you look at your thoughts and
emotions with more objectivity. Instead of letting minor
events trigger negative thinking, mindfulness lets you take
a step back to recognize you are feeling stressed or anxious
and this anxiety may be inuencing your thoughts.
So how can mindfulness help you respond to your emotions
aer you have recognized them? Problems with regulating
emotions fall into two categories, either repression or exces-
sive reactivity. Instead of ignoring emotions completely or
acting on every emotion impulsively, mindfulness provides
a third option: “being with” emotions. By holding your
emotions in mindful awareness, you can separate your
raw emotions and the accompanying sensations from the
thoughts you have about them. is would be the dierence
between thinking about all the reasons you are upset and
simply recognizing you are upset. Being with your emotions
in this way lets you observe your emotions closely until
they naturally pass, and it also lets you intentionally make
decisions about how to respond to the information your
emotions provide.
Figure 2. Credits: iStockphoto
Mindfulness: An Introduction
According to the American Psychological Association,
some empirically supported benets of mindfulness include
the following (Davis & Hayes, 2011):
Psychological Benets
• Increased awareness of one’s mind
• Signicantly reduced stress, anxiety, and negative
• Increased control over ruminative thinking (a major
cause and symptom of depression and anxiety)
• Increased mental exibility and focus
• More working memory
• Decreased distracting thoughts
• Decreased emotional reactivity
• Increased capacity for intentional, responsive behaviors
• Increased empathy, compassion, and conscientiousness of
other’s emotions
Physiological Benets
• Enhanced immune system functioning
• Increased brain density and neural integration in areas
responsible for positive emotions, self-regulation, and
long-term planning
• Lowered blood pressure
• Lowered levels of blood cortisol (a major stress hormone)
• Greater resistance to stress-related illnesses such as heart
Spiritual Benets
• Increased self-insight and self-acceptance
• Increased acceptance of others
• Increased compassion and empathy
• Increased sense of morality, intuition, and courage to
• Increased control over automatic behaviors
• Increased self-discipline
How Can You Start Practicing
“Mindfulness is a habit, it’s something the more one does, the
more likely one is to be in that mode with less and less eort
. . . it’s a skill that can be learned. It’s accessing something we
already have. Mindfulness isn’t dicult. Whats dicult is to
remember to be Mindful.-
John Teasdale, co-originator of MBCT (Rock, 2009)
With mindfulness practice, learning how to be mindful is
only the tip of the iceberg. e bulk of this practice is about
familiarizing yourself with what it feels like to be mindful,
and getting better at “remembering” to maintain mindful
awareness. is means that almost any activity can be
turned into a mindfulness practice if it involves the follow-
ing basic components:
1. Direct involvement of one of your ve senses – Focus-
ing on one of your senses grounds you in the present
moment. It also provides you with the opportunity to
separate the sensory experience from the thoughts you
are having about it.
2. An “anchor” – e anchor serves as the object of atten-
tion during mindfulness practice. For example, if you are
being mindful of your breath, you should try to maintain
a continual awareness of the physical sensation of your
breath entering and leaving your body. is could mean
feeling the air entering and exiting your nostrils, or even
the sensation of your lungs expanding and contracting.
e exact sensation doesn’t matter as long as you can
keep focused on it. Some other common examples of
anchors are the sound of a bell, or the taste and texture of
food. e range of possibilities is practically limitless, so
feel free to experiment.
3. Returning to the anchor – is is where the power of
mindfulness practice comes from. Chances are you will
only be able to remain focused on your anchor for a few
moments before becoming distracted. is is OK and to
be expected. When you realize you have lost focus, gently
refocus your attention on the anchor.
With time and practice, your mind will begin to settle into
calmness and you will nd yourself able to focus for longer
periods. While at rst you may only notice yourself driing
from your anchor long aer you start daydreaming, eventu-
ally you will start to notice distractions (such as thoughts or
sensations) as they arise. Instead of being lured away from
your anchor by these distractions, it will be easier to simply
notice them and let them pass. A helpful metaphor to keep
Mindfulness: An Introduction
in mind is that your distractions are like clouds passing in
the sky—notice them without judgment and then let them
pass without a trace.
Experiment with creating your own mindfulness practices
throughout the day. Being mindful of the sensation on
the soles of your feet as you walk to your car or the taste
and texture of your morning coee can transform routine
moments into deeply satisfying practices. However, having
a ritualized and structured practice can be benecial. Below
are instructions for two common mindfulness practices.
Mindful Breathing (Formal Seated Breath
1. Posture – Assume a comfortable upright but relaxed
sitting posture. ere is no requirement to sit on the oor,
and sitting in a chair is perfectly acceptable. e key is to
choose a posture that lets you be comfortable and alert.
You can choose to keep your eyes open, but if you are
a beginner, it may be easier to keep your eyes closed to
avoid distractions. If you choose to keep your eyes open,
let your gaze rest soly a few feet in front of you on the
oor without focusing on a particular object.
2. Getting grounded – Take a few moments to notice any
tension you may be holding in your body. Relax your face
and jaw, and let your shoulders relax. Feel the weight of
your body resting on the ground or in your chair.
3. Notice your breath – Once you begin to feel grounded
in your body, try to notice the sensation of your breath.
Some sensations you could focus on include the air as it
enters and leaves your nose, the expanding and contract-
ing of your lungs, or the sound of the air in your throat.
If you have diculty feeling your breath, it may help to
place one hand on your belly so that you can feel it rising
and falling as you breathe.
4. Staying with your breath – Now that you have settled
your attention on your breath, try to keep your attention
on it as long as you can. Remember to stay relaxed with
both your posture and attention. If you feel yourself
becoming rigid or dozing o, feel free to reset your
posture and release any tension you feel.
If you notice that your attention has dried away from
your breath, gently guide it back to feeling your breath in
the present moment. If you notice thoughts arising, try
not to judge them or yourself! Simply acknowledge their
presence and let them pass. Always remember that the
most important part of this practice is not how long you
can stay focused, but gently returning your attention to
your breath when you lose focus.
Mindful Walking
1. PostureStand straight and alert, but not rigidly so.
Evenly distribute your weight between your feet. You can
relax your arms by your sides or hold them behind your
back if they are distracting. Take a moment to feel the
weight of your body supported by the ground. Soen and
drop your gaze slightly if this helps you focus.
2. Choosing your pathIf this is your rst time trying
mindful walking, you may feel more comfortable if you
choose a short path (no longer than 100 feet) and walk
back and forth on that path. As you become comfortable
with the practice, feel free to choose a more elaborate
path or even try walking mindfully as you go about your
3. Wa lk i ng As you take your rst steps, focus your
attention on the sensation of your weight shiing on the
soles of your feet. If you are barefoot, try noticing the
textures of the ground. Maintain a steady rhythm as you
walk; it may also be useful to walk a bit slower than you
usually would.
4. Staying with the steps – As you fall into rhythm, keep
your attention focused on the sensations coming from the
soles of your feet. If you catch yourself driing o, gently
guide your attention back to your feet. Once again, the
most important aspect of this practice is not how long
you stay focused, but rather noticing your mind wander-
ing and then refocusing it.
Figure 3. Credits: iStockphoto
Mindfulness: An Introduction
Common Problems and Tips for
Dealing with Them
eres a saying that goes “those who don’t have time to
meditate need to meditate the most!” Finding the time
to maintain a “mindfulness practice” can be one of many
diculties in today’s fast-paced world, but keep in mind
that even ten minutes of practice a day adds up! Here are
some other common problems and tips to deal with them:
• “I can’t stop thinking.” – e key to dealing with thoughts
while practicing mindfulness, as paradoxical as it
seems, is not to resist them. Instead, the idea is to notice
thoughts without identifying with them, as if observing
your own thoughts from a distance while resting in the
still space of your mind.
• “I feel too restless to be mindful” – It’s normal to feel
restless when trying to sit still, especially when most of
your time is spent rushing around in an overstimulating
world! Oen you may feel the need to move around and
get things done while trying to practice mindfulness. e
best way to deal with this is to stick with the practice until
your body and mind have had time to slow down. When
they slow down, the restlessness will naturally dissipate.
• I feel too tired to be mindful” – Slowing down and
checking in with yourself can make you realize how tired
you really are. If you consistently feel tired while trying
to practice mindfulness, you may want to check your
sleeping habits. However, if you suspect your drowsiness
is coming from boredom, you may want to try a more
physically active mindfulness practice such as mindful
• Dealing with uncomfortable emotions that arise – It is
common for emotions that have been ignored throughout
the day to arise as you shi your focus inward. Sometimes
these emotions can be uncomfortable or unpleasant, and
you may feel the urge to resist them. Instead, if you allow
these feelings to arise without judging them or following
the stories your mind creates about these emotions, you’ll
nd that your emotions will naturally pass. One way to
do this is to focus on observing the physical sensations
that accompany your emotions, such as the tightness in
your chest that anxiety may produce. Of course, if these
emotions are very powerful or especially disturbing,
it may be helpful to seek support from a professional
Learning to be mindful is a powerful skill that can help you
face the stresses of day-to-day life and improve both your
psychological and physical health. Because you don’t need
any equipment to practice mindfulness, you can practice
it discreetly anywhere, at any time. Although mindfulness
may be easy to learn, the diculty comes with remember-
ing to be mindful throughout the day. On the following
page there is a chart you can use to help track how mindful
you are being throughout the week (Table 1). You may want
to keep this chart with you or put it somewhere you will
see it every day, such as on the refrigerator door. Feel free
to place a “+” next to each mindful behavior you practice
throughout the day.
So, next time you are feeling anxious, stressed, or uncom-
fortable, take a moment to check in with yourself and be
more mindful!
Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., &
Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to
explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45.
Black, D. S. (2011). A brief denition of mindfulness.
Mindfulness Research Guide. Retrieved from http://www.
Black, D. S. (2010). A 40-year publishing history of mind-
fulness. Mindfulness Research Monthly, 1(5). Retrieved from
Davis, D., & Hayes, J. (2011). What are the benets of
mindfulness? A practice review of psychotherapy-related
research. Psychotherapy, 48(2), 198–208. doi:10.1037/
Grossman, P., Neimann, L., Schmidt, S., & Walach, H.
(2004). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health
Figure 4. Credits: iStockphoto
Mindfulness: An Introduction
benets: A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Re-
search, 57, 35–43. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00573-7
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2005). Wherever you go, there you are:
Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York, NY:
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1991). Full catastrophe living: Using the
wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and
illness. New York: Delacorte
Kohls, N., Sauer, S., & Walach, H. (2009). Facets of
mindfulness – Results of an online study investigating the
Freiburg mindfulness inventory. Personality and Individual
Dierences, 46, 224–230. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.10.009
Rock, D. (2009, October 11). e neuroscience of
mindfulness. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://
Shapiro, S. L. & Carlson, L. E. (2009). e art and science of
mindfulness: Integrating mindfulness into psychology and the
helping professions. Washington, DC: APA
Teasdale, J., Williams, J., Soulsby , J., Segal, Z., Ridgeway,
V., & Lau, M. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in
major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4),
615–623. doi:10.1037//0022-006X.68.4.615
Walach, H., Nord, E., Zier, C., Dietz-Waschowski, B.,
Kersig, S., & Schupbach, H. (2007). Mindfulness-based
stress reduction as a method for personnel development: A
pilot evaluation. International Journal of Stress Management,
14(2), 188–198. doi:10.1037/1072-5245.14.2.188
Williams, M., Leumann, E., & Cappeller, C. (2004). Etymo-
logically and philologically arranged with special reference
to cognate Indo-European languages. New Delhi: Bharatiya
Granth Niketan.
Table 1.
Mindful Behaviors Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
I am able to observe my thoughts and
feelings without getting lost in them.
I am aware of my body and physical
sensations throughout the day.
I can easily nd words to describe my feelings.
I can easily describe dierent sensations that
I am feeling.
I notice when my mind is wandering, and
return it to the present.
I am aware of the thoughts and emotions
inuencing my actions and behaviors.
I can accept unpleasant experiences without
judging them.
I can be aware of my thoughts and emotions
without judging them to be good or bad.
I can notice my thoughts and emotions
without having to react to them.
I can pause before reacting in dicult or
stressful situations.
*Adapted from the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006)
... There appears to be a small deviation between the groups' results in relation to the blood measurements. According to previous studies, the change in pressures and even small changes that are not clinically significant demonstrate that mindfulness practices are associated with a reduction in blood pressure that contributes to a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases [25][26][27]. ...
Full-text available
Mindfulness-based interventions have increasingly gained the interest of health professionals in the last decade, especially practices that are short, economical, easily accessible, and physically, cognitively, and psychologically compelling. Nurses of Emergency Departments are a special, dynamic, but at the same time vulnerable group of health professionals who work in shifts and face multiple challenges. Considering the recent literature and the fact that stress and a hostile work environment are the top ranked health professionals’ challenges, there is a need for a further study of the use of mindfulness. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the application of mindfulness on nurses in the Emergency Department on several factors related to daily nursing practice and that directly affect these specific health professionals. This experimental study was performed on 14 participating nurses in the Emergency Department of a Public General Hospital in Athens, randomized into two groups: a control and an intervention group. The data collection tools were two digital smart devices, participatory observation, and semi-structured interviews. By practicing mindfulness meditation, the participating nurses in the intervention group showed improvement in their cognitive functions (attention, thinking, memory, concentration), professional interpersonal relationships, personal satisfaction and communication with patients and caregivers, sleep rate, negative emotions, and behaviors. The findings suggest that the application of mindfulness practices should be considered an easy, affordable, economical, accessible, and effective method that nurses can use to strengthen and empower themselves, enjoying its multiple benefits. The effectiveness of the application of mindfulness remains an important issue for future research in other health professionals as well.
... Based on the results of experimental research, it was found that mindfulness exercise was proven to reduce stress [2]. Mindfulness is described by Naik et al. [16] as a condition that has three key characteristics, namely: (1) having a purpose, (2) being fully present, and (3) acceptance. Having a goal means that when you are in a state of mindfulness, a person is deliberately and aimed at directing his attention to one thing rather than directing his attention to various things. ...
Full-text available
Writing is an essential apparatus for life that can help people develop healthy relationships with themselves, their immediate environment, and the wider world. Combining Creative Writing with Mindfulness has recently given us a new tool, Mindful Writing, a contemporary term, although as a concept one that stretches back in time from ancient writings to the most modern autography. The thesis, Creative Writing, Mindfulness, and Self-Awareness, explores the process of writing as a way of practising Mindfulness and examines the practices of Mindfulness as valuable tools for creativity, the development of self-awareness, and the constitution of an integrated self. In the second creative part of the paper, a five-level program is developed, with creative writing activities aimed at practising Mindfulness.
Full-text available
Currently, there is a growing demand for plant bioextracts and natural dyes rich in bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity in the food and light industry. Obtaining and applying such natural bioextracts without harming the ecosystem and plants is one of the topical issues and requirements of our time. The aim of the study is to determine the optimal conditions for anthocyanins in bioextracts from the autumn leaves of Smoketree (Cotinius coggygria). Extraction of anthocyanins from leaves dried to constant mass under room conditions was superior to 70% ethanol and 1% citric acid 1:1 extractant (EtCitric) in both time and compared to 1% citric acid and distilled water extracts. In EtCitric solution t=75 min., A(abs)=0,2055; t=100 min in 1% citric acid solution, A(abs)=0,1853; in distilled water at t=130 min., A(abs)=0,1632 was determined. According to the results of the study, the most optimal extraction agent for the extraction of anthocyanins in autumnleaves was EtCitric solution, and the optimal time was determined to be 75 minutes at a temperature of 50-60 C and average pH value of the extract is 3,07.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Well-being is the experience of health, happiness, and prosperity. It includes having good mental health, high life satisfaction, a sense of meaning or purpose, and the ability to manage stress. Well-being is defined as a sense of health and vitality that arises from your thoughts, emotions, actions, and experiences. When we have well-being, we feel happy, healthy, socially connected, and purposeful most of the time. Mindfulness is an emerging and innovative trend in education. Specifically, in school-based education, there has been growing excitement surrounding the implementation of mindfulness. The ability to be fully present, aware of where we are and what we are doing, and not unduly reactive or overwhelmed by what is happening around us is known as mindfulness. Learning to be mindful is a powerful skill that can help you face the stresses of day-today life and improve both your psychological and physical health. Mindfulness helps in the wellbeing of the students. Mindfulness is an essential life skill for all children. Mindfulness benefits the whole child-the mind, body and emotions and research suggest that mindfulness can affect academic performance, executive functioning, and feelings of connectedness with self, others and the environment. Mindfulness techniques help focus attention and have the potential to enhance student wellbeing. Mindfulness practices centre on awareness of the mind, body and emotions and hence the development of the whole person.
Healthy ageing is becoming a demand rather than a privilege from personal to societal perspective. One of the inevitable components of healthy ageing is wellbeing which is dependent on the quality of the consciousness. Mindfulness nurtures consciousness leading to behaviour regulation and well-being. Generativity is an attribute which connects individual to the society and predicts well-being significantly. The primary objective of the research was to find the relationship between mindfulness, generativity and subjective well-being among the older adults. Whether pursuing hobbies and social engagements affect the mindfulness, generativity and subjective well-being of olds was also investigated. With the help of standardized questionnaires the data was collected from 205 willing male and female older adults between 60 and 70 years from selected areas of Mumbai and Pune Metropolitan Region. Independent sample t tests and regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses. The results revealed significant effect of pursuing hobbies and social engagement in mindfulness, generativity and subjective well-being of older adults from their counterparts. Mindfulness was found to be a significant predictor of generativity and wellbeing of older adults. Mindfulness and generativity together significantly predicted the subjective wellbeing although generativity did not individually contribute significant variance in the subjective wellbeing. The implications of the research are discussed in the context of enhancing subjective well-being in the older adults by mindfulness training and promoting activities to pursue hobbies and social engagement which would help them for healthy ageing.
Full-text available
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a potential candidate for learning to cope with stress in a high-stress professional environment. In a pilot study the authors evaluated the potential of MBSR for stress management. Workers participated in an MBSR training for stress-related problems (treatment, n = 12) or waited for such a course (control, n = 11). The authors conducted interviews and measured coping and well-being. Qualitative interviews indicated that subjects had attained more awareness of work-related problems contributing to stress and had grown more critical toward their work environment. In the treatment group, positive strategies of coping with stress increased and negative strategies of coping decreased (significant difference at post treatment: p = .039 compared to control). Eighty-two percent of the participants reported having reached their personal goal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Full-text available
Research suggests that mindfulness practices offer psychotherapists a way to positively affect aspects of therapy that account for successful treatment. This paper provides psychotherapists with a synthesis of the empirically supported advantages of mindfulness. Definitions of mindfulness and evidence-based interpersonal, affective, and intrapersonal benefits of mindfulness are presented. Research on therapists who meditate and client outcomes of therapists who meditate are reviewed. Implications for practice, research, and training are discussed.
Full-text available
This study evaluated mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), a group intervention designed to train recovered recurrently depressed patients to disengage from dysphoria-activated depressogenic thinking that may mediate relapse/recurrence. Recovered recurrently depressed patients (n = 145) were randomized to continue with treatment as usual or, in addition, to receive MBCT. Relapse/recurrence to major depression was assessed over a 60-week study period. For patients with 3 or more previous episodes of depression (77% of the sample), MBCT significantly reduced risk of relapse/recurrence. For patients with only 2 previous episodes, MBCT did not reduce relapse/recurrence. MBCT offers a promising cost-efficient psychological approach to preventing relapse/recurrence in recovered recurrently depressed patients.
Full-text available
The authors examine the facet structure of mindfulness using five recently developed mindfulness questionnaires. Two large samples of undergraduate students completed mindfulness questionnaires and measures of other constructs. Psychometric properties of the mindfulness questionnaires were examined, including internal consistency and convergent and discriminant relationships with other variables. Factor analyses of the combined pool of items from the mindfulness questionnaires suggested that collectively they contain five clear, interpretable facets of mindfulness. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses suggested that at least four of the identified factors are components of an overall mindfulness construct and that the factor structure of mindfulness may vary with meditation experience. Mindfulness facets were shown to be differentially correlated in expected ways with several other constructs and to have incremental validity in the prediction of psychological symptoms. Findings suggest that conceptualizing mindfulness as a multifaceted construct is helpful in understanding its components and its relationships with other variables.
There is an ongoing discussion about the definition of mindfulness including the question whether mindfulness is a one-dimensional or multidimensional construct. Research on the Freiburg mindfulness inventory (FMI) has also reflected this debate. We have investigated the psychometric properties of the FMI-14-item in an online convenience sample of n = 244 individuals (150 female; mean age 28.7 (SD = 8.76)) with (n = 75) and without (n = 169) regular meditative training). A simplified version of the beck depression inventory (BDI-V) and the trait subscale of the state-trait-anxiety-inventory (STAI-T) were used for determining criterion validity. A one-dimensional (α = .83) and an alternative two-dimensional solution (αF1 = .77; αF2 = .69) of the FMI-14 were tested with a confirmatory factor analysis and yielded suboptimal fit indices. An exploratory analysis resulted in a reduced 8-item version of the two-dimensional solution with better fit indices, but low internal consistency (αF1 = .71; αF2 = .64). The factors could be identified as “Presence” (F1) and “Acceptance” (F2). Further investigation revealed that the substantial negative relationship between mindfulness and anxiety and depression is completely due to the “Acceptance” factor of mindfulness. This suggests that there may be heuristic value in the two-factorial solution, although for practical purposes it seems sufficient to assess mindfulness as one-dimensional construct.
A 40-year publishing history of mindfulness Retrieved from http What are the benefits of mindfulness? A practice review of psychotherapy-related research
  • D S Black
  • J Hayes
Black, D. S. (2010). A 40-year publishing history of mindfulness. Mindfulness Research Monthly, 1(5). Retrieved from Davis, D., & Hayes, J. (2011). What are the benefits of mindfulness? A practice review of psychotherapy-related research. Psychotherapy, 48(2), 198–208. doi:10.1037/ a0022062
Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life
  • J Kabat-Zinn
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2005). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York, NY: Hyperion.
The neuroscience of mindfulness. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://
  • D Rock
Rock, D. (2009, October 11). The neuroscience of mindfulness. Psychology Today. Retrieved from http:// the-neuroscience-mindfulness
A brief definition of mindfulness
  • D S Black
Black, D. S. (2011). A brief definition of mindfulness.
Etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages
  • M Williams
  • E Leumann
  • C Cappeller
Williams, M., Leumann, E., & Cappeller, C. (2004). Etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages. New Delhi: Bharatiya Granth Niketan.