Article

Revised Surveillance Case Definition for HIV Infection - United States, 2014

ABSTRACT

Following extensive consultation and peer review, CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have revised and combined the surveillance case definitions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a single case definition for persons of all ages (i.e., adults and adolescents aged ≥13 years and children aged <13 years). The revisions were made to address multiple issues, the most important of which was the need to adapt to recent changes in diagnostic criteria. Laboratory criteria for defining a confirmed case now accommodate new multitest algorithms, including criteria for differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection and for recognizing early HIV infection. A confirmed case can be classified in one of five HIV infection stages (0, 1, 2, 3, or unknown); early infection, recognized by a negative HIV test within 6 months of HIV diagnosis, is classified as stage 0, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is classified as stage 3. Criteria for stage 3 have been simplified by eliminating the need to differentiate between definitive and presumptive diagnoses of opportunistic illnesses. Clinical (nonlaboratory) criteria for defining a case for surveillance purposes have been made more practical by eliminating the requirement for information about laboratory tests. The surveillance case definition is intended primarily for monitoring the HIV infection burden and planning for prevention and care on a population level, not as a basis for clinical decisions for individual patients. CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists recommend that all states and territories conduct case surveillance of HIV infection using this revised surveillance case definition.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Bernard Branson, Apr 16, 2014
  • Source
    • "According to Center Disease Control (CDC) [1], the revised definition of AIDS criteria includes the biological criteria (CD4 below 200) and/or clinical criteria (opportunistic infections, cancers of the cervix, Kaposi sarcoma, and non- Hodgkin lymphoma) associated with infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim . To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among patients seen at the surgical oncology unit of Donka (Conakry, Guinea). Method . We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study of HIV infection in cancer patients from May 2007 to December 2012. Social characteristics (age, gender, marital status, and education) and immune status (HIV type, CD4 count) were reviewed. Results . Out of 2598 cancer patients, 54 (2.1%) tested positive for HIV. There were 11 (20.4%) defining AIDS and 43 (79.6%) nondefining AIDS cancers. The most frequent cancers were breast (14) (26.0%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6) (11.1%), liver (6) (11.1%), eye and annexes (6) (11.1%), and cervical cancer (5) (9.3%). These patients were female in 34 (63.0%) and had a median age of 39 years and body mass index was 20,3 Kg/m 2 . They were unschooled in 40 (74.1%) and married in 35 (64.8%). CD4 count showed a median of 317 cells/mL. Antiretroviral treatment was performed in 40 (74.1%). Conclusion . HIV prevalence is higher in patients in our unit of surgical oncology. Breast cancer was the most common in this association. A national survey of a large sample is needed to determine the true prevalence and impact of HIV on cancer prognosis.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Journal of Cancer Epidemiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the United States, of the 1.1 million persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the 2.7 million infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), approximately 16% and 50%, respectively, are unaware of their infection. Highly effective treatments have turned both diseases into manageable conditions, and in the case of hepatitis C, a disease that can be cured. Early diagnosis is imperative so that infected persons can take measures to stay healthy, get into care, benefit from therapy, and reduce the risk of transmission. In this report, we review current recommendations provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the United States Preventive Services Task Force on whom to screen for HIV and HCV infections, and recommendations from the CDC, the Association of Public Health Laboratories, and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute on how to test for these infections.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
  • Source

    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Pediatrics in Review
Show more