Article

Interdisciplinary ICU Cardiac Arrest Debriefing Improves Survival Outcomes

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Abstract

In-hospital cardiac arrest is an important public health problem. High-quality resuscitation improves survival but is difficult to achieve. Our objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel, interdisciplinary, postevent quantitative debriefing program to improve survival outcomes after in-hospital pediatric chest compression events. Single-center prospective interventional study of children who received chest compressions between December 2008 and June 2012 in the ICU. Structured, quantitative, audiovisual, interdisciplinary debriefing of chest compression events with front-line providers. Primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included survival of event (return of spontaneous circulation for ≥ 20 min) and favorable neurologic outcome. Primary resuscitation quality outcome was a composite variable, termed "excellent cardiopulmonary resuscitation," prospectively defined as a chest compression depth ≥ 38 mm, rate ≥ 100/min, ≤ 10% of chest compressions with leaning, and a chest compression fraction > 90% during a given 30-second epoch. Quantitative data were available only for patients who are 8 years old or older. There were 119 chest compression events (60 control and 59 interventional). The intervention was associated with a trend toward improved survival to hospital discharge on both univariate analysis (52% vs 33%, p = 0.054) and after controlling for confounders (adjusted odds ratio, 2.5; 95% CI, 0.91-6.8; p = 0.075), and it significantly increased survival with favorable neurologic outcome on both univariate (50% vs 29%, p = 0.036) and multivariable analyses (adjusted odds ratio, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.01-7.5; p = 0.047). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation epochs for patients who are 8 years old or older during the debriefing period were 5.6 times more likely to meet targets of excellent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (95% CI, 2.9-10.6; p < 0.01). Implementation of an interdisciplinary, postevent quantitative debriefing program was significantly associated with improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality and survival with favorable neurologic outcome.

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... Providing adult learners with meaningful feedback is likely to be an important contributor to improved future performance [1][2][3]. Debriefing following simulation-based medical education (SBME) events is a key step in allowing participants to identify performance gaps and sustain good practice [3][4][5]. To achieve this goal, it is acknowledged that effective debriefing is important [6,7]. ...
... Notably, the current debriefing literature does not extensively report on using such quantitative data for debriefer feedback. There is a precedent for using a datadriven approach to feedback in healthcare more broadly [2,15,16]. Studies of data-driven feedback for healthcare providers showed improved team performance and this approach has been evaluated in both the social science and sporting literature [15][16][17][18][19]. ...
... This is an encouraging finding. While it does not guarantee translation into better debriefing, in other settings data-driven feedback has been shown to significantly improve performance [2,23]. This study was interrupted by the recent COVID-19 pandemic leading to an under-recruitment of debriefings (n = 12), yet we were still able to observe a broad range of interdisciplinary simulation participants and 7 debriefers across 2 SBME sites (Table 1). ...
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Background Debriefing is an essential skill for simulation educators and feedback for debriefers is recognised as important in progression to mastery. Existing assessment tools, such as the Debriefing Assessment for Simulation in Healthcare (DASH), may assist in rating performance but their utility is limited by subjectivity and complexity. Use of quantitative data measurements for feedback has been shown to improve performance of clinicians but has not been studied as a focus for debriefer feedback. Methods A multi-centre sample of interdisciplinary debriefings was observed. Total debriefing time, length of individual contributions and demographics were recorded. DASH scores from simulation participants, debriefers and supervising faculty were collected after each event. Conversational diagrams were drawn in real-time by supervising faculty using an approach described by Dieckmann. For each debriefing, the data points listed above were compiled on a single page and then used as a focus for feedback to the debriefer. Results Twelve debriefings were included (µ = 6.5 simulation participants per event). Debriefers receiving feedback from supervising faculty were physicians or nurses with a range of experience ( n = 7). In 9/12 cases the ratio of debriefer to simulation participant contribution length was ≧ 1:1. The diagrams for these debriefings typically resembled a fan-shape. Debriefings ( n = 3) with a ratio < 1:1 received higher DASH ratings compared with the ≧ 1:1 group ( p = 0.038). These debriefings generated star-shaped diagrams. Debriefer self-rated DASH scores (µ = 5.08/7.0) were lower than simulation participant scores (µ = 6.50/7.0). The differences reached statistical significance for all 6 DASH elements. Debriefers evaluated the ‘usefulness’ of feedback and rated it ‘highly’ (µ= 4.6/5). Conclusion Basic quantitative data measures collected during debriefings may represent a useful focus for immediate debriefer feedback in a healthcare simulation setting.
... Approximately 6000 paediatric patients receive in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) each year, with 90% of these cardiac arrest events taking place in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). [1][2][3] Patients who have cardiac arrests represent a significant proportion of paediatric mortality, with only 45% surviving to hospital discharge. 1 High-quality CPR is associated with improved survival, 3 however, CPR guidelines are often not met during resuscitation attempts. ...
... [1][2][3] Patients who have cardiac arrests represent a significant proportion of paediatric mortality, with only 45% surviving to hospital discharge. 1 High-quality CPR is associated with improved survival, 3 however, CPR guidelines are often not met during resuscitation attempts. 4 In an effort to improve compliance with American Heart Association (AHA) resuscitation guidelines, the AHA launched the 'Get with the Guidelines-Resuscitation' programme. ...
... However, these systems focus strictly on improving technical aspects of basic life support performance. 3 A more comprehensive approach to resuscitation education is integration of post-arrest team debriefing tools into reviews of resuscitation efforts. This approach has been demonstrated to improve CPR quality, shortterm survival and neurological outcomes in both adult and paediatric patients. ...
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Thousands of children experience a cardiac arrest event in the hospital each year, with more than half of these patients not surviving to hospital discharge. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) depth, rate, velocity and percentage of high-quality chest compressions are modifiable factors associated with improved survival. Therefore, we created a novel and standardised process to track and analyse cardiac arrests in the Duke paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Our aim was to identify areas for improved American Heart Association (AHA) compliance and implement education and communication-based initiatives to enhance early recognition of at-risk patients leading to improved outcomes. From January 2017 to December 2018, all cardiac arrests in our PICU were tracked, reviewed and presented at monthly morbidity and mortality conference. We used the data to track compliance with AHA guidelines and identify opportunities for improvement. Through these efforts, we established a multidisciplinary cardiac arrest education and review programme. Over the 2-year period, we tracked 45 cardiac arrests, which comprised 2% of all PICU admissions. In 2017, during the first year of development, 16 of 22 arrests (73%) were not reported to code committee members in time for complete review. Of the six cardiac arrests with complete reviews, only 17% followed AHA guidelines. In 2018, all 23 arrest events were communicated and 76% of resuscitations were found to be compliant with AHA guidelines. Survival of patients to discharge was 47% in 2017 and increased to 63% in 2018 with similar percentage of PICU admissions having a cardiac arrest between the 2 years. The primary aim of this project was to establish a multidisciplinary comprehensive cardiac arrest review process. This programme allowed for comprehensive analysis of individual events, promoted quality improvement initiatives and improved consistent delivery of high-quality CPR.
... 343,344 Several systems of care demonstrated that attention to the principles of quality improvement and implementation science could make a difference in patient outcomes. 128,130,[345][346][347][348] Specific barriers to implementation of resuscitation guidelines have been identified. Bigham et al 341 found 10 barriers that delayed implementation of the 2005 AHA guidelines by as many as 750 days in emergency medical services within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. ...
... 372 It has been demonstrated that goal setting can improve system performance 373 and that measurement and feedback of individual performance can improve performance of various components of CPR for real cardiac arrest events and in training settings. 42,127,130,347,374,375 Furthermore, survival in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium increased during a 10-year period despite no randomized trial showing benefit for 1 therapy. It did, however, require careful data collection, comparisons across sites, enhanced training, and implementation of feedback to emergency medical services and providers. ...
... After clinical cardiopulmonary resuscitation events, debriefing programmes have demonstrated improved rate of return of spontaneous circulation, neurologic outcomes, hands-off compression times, and time delay to first compression. 11 Gilmartin et al. 2 found that after introducing a new programme to hot debrief after every cardiac arrest in their ED, the vast majority of their participants felt they benefited both clinically and psychologically from the process. ...
... Eine systematische Übersichtsarbeit zum Einfluss von Briefing oder Debriefing zeigte, dass keine Evidenz für den Einsatz von Briefing vor einem Kreislaufstillstand vorliegt. In Bezug auf Debriefing konnten Daten zur CPR-Qualität bei der innerklinischen Behandlung von Erwachsenen [112,113] und Kindern, [114] und bei der präklinischen Behandlung von Erwachsenen analysiert werden [115]. Alle Studien umfassten eine datengestützte Auswertung anhand verschiedener Quellen während des Debriefings. ...
Article
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Diese Leitlinien des European Resuscitation Council basieren auf dem internationalen wissenschaftlichen Konsens 2020 zur kardiopulmonalen Reanimation mit Behandlungsempfehlungen (International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations [ILCOR] 2020 CoSTR). Dieser Abschnitt bietet Bürgern und Angehörigen der Gesundheitsberufe Anleitungen zum Lehren und Lernen der Kenntnisse, der Fertigkeiten und der Einstellungen zur Reanimation mit dem Ziel, das Überleben von Patienten nach Kreislaufstillstand zu verbessern. = These European Resuscitation Council education guidelines are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. This section provides guidance to citizens and healthcare professionals with regard to teaching and learning the knowledge, skills and attitudes of resuscitation with the ultimate aim of improving patient survival after cardiac arrest.
... Hi gh-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves patient outcomes and the likelihood of surviving a cardiac arrest. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7] To develop competency, providers need to be trained in delivering CPR and to practice their skills periodically to retain them. Recertifying in basic life support (BLS) every 2 years, or even annually, is not sufficient for skill retention. ...
Introduction: The study examined how the spacing of training during initial acquisition of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skill affects longer-term retention and sustainment of these skills. Methods: This was a multiphased, longitudinal study. Nursing students were randomly assigned to 2 initial acquisition conditions in which they completed 4 consecutive CPR training sessions spaced by shorter (1 or 7 days) or longer (30 or 90 days) training intervals. Students were additionally randomized to refresh skills for 1 year every 3 months, 6 months, or at a personalized interval prescribed by the Predictive Performance Optimizer (PPO), a cognitive tool that predicts learning and decay over time. Results: At the end of the acquisition period, performance was better if training intervals were shorter. At 3 or 6 months after acquisition, performance was better if initial training intervals were longer. At 1 year after acquisition, compression and ventilation scores did not differ by initial training interval nor by 3-month or PPO-prescribed sustainment interval refreshers. However, 6-month interval refreshers were worse than the PPO for compressions and worse than 3 months for ventilations. At the final test session, participants in the personalized PPO condition had less variability in compression scores than either the 3- or 6-month groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that CPR learning trajectories may be accelerated by first spacing training sessions by days and then expanding to longer intervals. Personalized scheduling may improve performance, minimize performance variability, and reduce overall training time.
... 108À110 A systematic review of the impact of briefing and debriefing on resuscitation performance compared to no briefing or debriefing revealed, firstly, that no evidence was identified relating to briefing before cardiac arrest. Secondly, CPR quality metrics on debriefing after in-hospital cardiac arrest in adults 111,112 and children, 113 and after adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest could be analysed. 114 All studies included data-driven performance-focused recordings of different sources in the debriefing. ...
Article
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These European Resuscitation Council education guidelines, are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. This section provides guidance to citizens and healthcare professionals with regard to teaching and learning the knowledge, skills and attitudes of resuscitation with the ultimate aim of improving patient survival after cardiac arrest. Keywords: Basic and advanced life support; Education, Simulation; Faculty development; Resuscitation; Technology enhanced learning.
... 3 Several hospitals have demonstrated that a multidimensional cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality improvement bundle paired with intensive debriefing can both improve resuscitation process of care, as well as survival outcomes, while simultaneously identifying opportunities for further improvement. 4,5 These successful programs were instituted by champions, but (until now) the impact of leadership, and characteristics of champions that lead to successful program implementation and improved survival outcomes, has not been systematically explored. ...
... Fernandez Castelao et al. konnten darstellen, dass ein kurzes Teamleitertraining vor einer Reanimation sowohl die Kommunikation und die Einhaltung der American-Life-Support-Leitlinien verbessert, als auch die "no-flow time" verkürzt [10]. Ebenso zeigten Yeung et al., dass messbar bessere Teamleitereigenschaften mit einer höheren Qualität der "cardiopulmonary resuscitation" (CPR) einhergehen(kürzere"handsoff time", kürzere Zeit bis zur ersten Schockabgabe, [11] [13]. Auch in den aktuellen Leitlinien des ERC wird auf den positiven Einfluss von Debriefings hingewiesen [14]. ...
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Zusammenfassung Hintergrund und Fragestellung Die klinische Notfallausbildung von WeiterbildungsassistentInnen (WBA) ist uneinheitlich. Pädiatrische Reanimationen sind seltener erforderlich als Reanimationen erwachsener Patienten; erstversorgende Teams treffen ad hoc zusammen und stehen initial oft unter der Leitung junger ÄrztInnen. Die Teamzusammenarbeit ist von besonderer Bedeutung für das Überleben und Outcome der PatientInnen. Ziel der Arbeit Die subjektive Sicherheit im Notfallmanagement der WBA in sächsischen Kinderkliniken sollte ermittelt werden. Material und Methoden Hierzu wurde ein Erhebungsbogen für eine webbasierte Umfrage entwickelt, die folgende Aspekte umfasste: Berufserfahrung, innerhäusliche Ausbildung, Erfahrung und gefühlte Sicherheit im Management von Notfallsituationen. Ergebnisse Von geschätzten 230 Pädiatrie-WBA in Sachsen antworteten 66 (ca. 29 %). Es fühlten sich 14 % der WBA gut (3 % sehr gut) für Notfallsituationen ausgebildet, wobei 11 % auch eine (sehr) gute Sicherheit in der Teamleitung von Notfällen angaben. Demgegenüber hatten 42 % bereits eine oder mehrere Reanimationen als TeamleiterInnen erlebt. Von den befragten WBA gaben 42 % an, in den letzten 12 Monaten kein Simulationstraining absolviert zu haben; die Mehrzahl der WBA wünscht sich jedoch mehr Training. Schlussfolgerung Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich viele WBA in sächsischen Kinderkliniken im Notfallmanagement unzureichend ausgebildet fühlen. Es besteht eine deutliche Diskrepanz zwischen den tatsächlichen Anforderungen und der innerklinischen Ausbildung.
... Effective debriefing needs simulation educators who have the skills and knowledge in conducting debriefing, such as those who are Certified Healthcare Simulation Educator (CHSE ). Some reports indicated that structured debriefing after handling the management of cardiac arrest, accelerated the return of spontaneous circulation and improved neurologic outcome of real patients (39,40). As such, there is immense potential of debriefing as a useful educational and quality improvement tool. ...
Article
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Simulation-based education (SBE) is increasingly used as an education tool to improve learning for healthcare providers. In newborn care practice, SBE is used in the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) and training in procedural skills. The NRP is a mandatory course in Malaysia for all house officers (interns) and medical officers (residents) during their pediatric rotation. Almost 30,000 of NRP providers have been trained over the last 5 years. The recent establishment of the Allied Healthcare Center of Excellence (AHCoE), an organization dedicated to promoting SBE, and Malaysian Society for Simulation in Healthcare (MaSSH) aims to enhance the integration of SBE into the healthcare training curriculum and set up a local healthcare simulation educator training program. Our experience in implementing SBE necessitated that we made several important choices. As there was no strong evidence to favor high-fidelity over low-fidelity simulation, and because simulation centers can be very costly to set up with limited resources, we chose SBE mainly in the form of low-fidelity and in situ simulation. We also identified an important developmental goal to train Malaysian instructors on structured debriefing, a critical activity for learning in SBE. Currently, debriefing is often carried out in our centers at an ad hoc basis because of time limitation and the lack of personnel trained. Finally, we aim to implement SBE further in Malaysia, with two axes: (1) the credentialing and recertification of physicians and nurses, and (2) the education of lay caregivers of high-risk infants before discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit.
... Diese sind für die Qualität und den korrekten Ablauf einer Notfallversorgung von entscheidender Bedeutung[22,23]. Neben regelmäßigen Trainings von Basismaßnahmen und Verwendung von Echtzeitfeedbacksystemen in der Reanimation wurde auch für strukturierte Postreanimationsnachbesprechungen (Debriefings) gezeigt, dass sie zu einer verbesserten Teamperformance und sogar einem verbesserten Überleben[24,25] führen können. Daher sind sie in den Leitlinien des European Resuscitation Council (ERC;[8]) und der American Heart Association (AHA;[2]) verankert.Trotz der vorliegenden Evidenz, einer positiven Wahrnehmung in den Teams und der Empfehlungen in den Reanimationsleitlinien werden strukturierte Nachbesprechungen nicht flächendeckend und regelhaft umgesetzt. ...
Article
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Communication errors and system problems negatively impact teamwork and shared decision-making and can cause patient harm. However, regular debriefings after critical events positively impact teamwork and patient outcome in pediatric emergency care. Team reflection promotes learning, helps teams to improve and to minimize errors from being repeated in the future. Nevertheless, debriefings in daily practice have not yet become a standard quality marker. Reasons include lack of time, lack of experienced debriefers and lack of support from the key stakeholders. Debriefings can take place at different timepoints with variable duration as needed. Due to the global pandemic, virtual debriefings or hybrid events with a mix of virtual and in-person participation are not only currently relevant but may perhaps also be of future relevance. Debriefings should focus on collaborative learning and future-oriented improvements. Not only life-threatening events but also potentially critical situations such as routine intubations warrant debriefings. Debriefing scripts promote a structured approach and allow even inexperienced moderators to navigate all relevant aspects. In addition to areas of challenge, debriefings should also explore and reinforce positive performance to facilitate learning from success. Debriefers should discuss not only obvious observable accomplishments, but also motivations behind key behaviors. This strategy promotes needs-based learning and focuses on solutions. Helpful strategies include specific questioning techniques, genuine interest and a positive safety culture.
... Das ILCOR publizierte eine systematische Übersichtsarbeit über die Nachbesprechung nach Kreislaufstillstand im Jahr 2020 [19]. Die Übersichtsarbeit umfasste vier Beobachtungsstudien und ergab, dass die Nachbesprechung mit Verbesserungen des Krankenhausüberlebens, des ROSC und der CPR-Qualität verbunden war [450][451][452][453]. In allen diesen Studien wurde die Verwendung einer Nachbesprechung beschrieben, die Daten zur CPR-Qualität enthielt, welche von Defibrillatoren heruntergeladen wurden [454]. ...
Article
These European Resuscitation Council Advanced Life Support guidelines are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. This section provides guidelines on the prevention of and ALS treatments for both in-hospital cardiac arrest and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
... The pediRES-Q Collaborative offers a bundle of QI interventions geared toward improving CPR outcomes for children that hospitals may choose to fully or partially implement. The bundle elements include as follows: (1) a checklist (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http:// links.lww.com/PQ9/A294) for the identification of patients at risk for cardiac arrest 16,17 ; (2) rolling refreshers to provide bedside just-in-time CPR training 18 ; (3) structured "hot" debriefings immediately following cardiac arrest events 19 ; (4) "cold" data-informed cardiac arrest debriefings provided at a later time 20,21 ; and (5) ...
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Introduction: Pediatric quality improvement (QI) collaboratives are multisite clinical networks that support cooperative learning. Our goal is to identify the contextual facilitators and barriers to implementing QI resuscitation interventions within a multicenter resuscitation collaborative. Methods: A mixed-methods evaluation of the contextual facilitators and barriers to implementation of a resuscitation QI bundle. We administered a quantitative questionnaire, the Model for Understanding Success in Quality (MUSIQ), to the Pediatric Resuscitation Quality (pediRES-Q) Collaborative. Its primary goal is to optimize the care of children who experience in-hospital cardiac arrest through a resuscitation QI bundle. We also conducted semistructured phone interviews with site primary investigators adapted from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research qualitative interview guide. Results: All 13 actively participating US sites completed the MUSIQ questionnaire. Total MUSIQ scores ranged from 86.0 to 140.5 (median of 118.7, interquartile range 103.6-124.5). Evaluation of the QI team subsection noted a mean score of 5.5 for low implementers and 6.1 for high implementers (P = 0.02). We conducted 8 interviews with the local QI team leadership. Contextual facilitators included a unified institutional approach to QI, a fail forward climate, leadership support, strong microculture, knowledge of other organizations, and prioritization of goals. Contextual barriers included low team tenure, no specific allocation of resources, lack of formalized QI training, and lack of support and buy-in by leaders and staff. Conclusions: Using mixed methods, we identified an association between the local QI team's strength and the successful implementation of the QI interventions.
... Students also indicated that they forgot that they were being evaluated during the simulation exercise, and they became fully immersed in the role of the nurse in an emergency situation. In addition, simulation allows students to put themselves into the position of a nursing professional, minimising the anxiety they feel towards being evaluated, by focusing solely on their professional performance [31]. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and perceptions of nursing students after applying advanced life support techniques on a hospitalised patient in cardiac arrest in a simulated setting. A qualitative descriptive phenomenological study was conducted. Fifty-four nursing students from the University of Almería (Spain) participated. Three main themes and six subthemes were identified, which illustrate the experiences and perceptions of nursing students about performing advanced life support. The main themes were: (1) Analysing practice as part of the learning process, with the subthemes “working in an unknown environment” and “acquiring knowledge as the key to success”; (2) Facing reality: nursing students’ perceptions of an emergency situation, with the subthemes “facing stressful elements” and “emotional impact in emergency situations”; (3) Experience as a key element to integrating advanced life support into the healthcare setting, with the subthemes “discovering and facing the experience as a team” and “linking and transferring the situation to a real clinical setting”. The nursing students reported that the process of practising for an emergency situation through simulation was a fundamental part of their training, as it allowed them to acquire skills necessary for emergency situations and improve their clinical performance in advanced life support. In addition, they considered the experience a key element in integrating advanced life support into the healthcare setting. The results of this study highlight the need to develop and implement training programs focused on clinical and teamwork skills in nursing programs.
... Interdisciplinary team debriefing with the basic assumption that all participants have the best interest of the patient in mind, can play a role in improving CPR quality. 87,391 To properly evaluate the effectiveness of their CPR attempts, it is important that emergency clinicians are informed about the outcome of their patients in a systematic quality improvement system. 29 Quality measurement, surveillance programs and feedback provided to prehospital providers regarding patient's outcome, and the team's performance compared with published guidelines, improves care due to the so called Hawthorne effect. ...
... While debriefing is frequently integrated into simulation-based training, it can be a powerful tool to reflect on clinical care and is often underutilized [83][84][85][86]. Both NRP and HBB have recently evolved to include debriefing as an essential component of their simulation trainings [4,87,88]. ...
Article
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One third of all neonatal deaths are caused by intrapartum-related events, resulting in neonatal respiratory depression (i.e., failure to breathe at birth). Evidence-based resuscitation with stimulation, airway clearance, and positive pressure ventilation reduces mortality from respiratory depression. Improving adherence to evidence-based resuscitation is vital to preventing neonatal deaths caused by respiratory depression. Standard resuscitation training programs, combined with frequent simulation practice, have not reached their life-saving potential due to ongoing gaps in bedside performance. Complex neonatal resuscitations, such as those involving positive pressure ventilation, are relatively uncommon for any given resuscitation provider, making consistent clinical practice an unrealistic solution for improving performance. This review discusses strategies to allow every birth to act as a learning event within the context of both high- and low-resource settings. We review strategies that involve clinical-decision support during newborn resuscitation, including the visual display of a resuscitation algorithm, peer-to-peer support, expert coaching, and automated guidance. We also review strategies that involve post-event reflection after newborn resuscitation, including delivery room checklists, audits, and debriefing. Strategies that make every birth a learning event have the potential to close performance gaps in newborn resuscitation that remain after training and frequent simulation practice, and they should be prioritized for further development and evaluation.
... [11][12][13][14][15] Performance debriefings after IHCA are associated with improved CPR quality and survival outcomes. 16,17 International resuscitation guidelines therefore recommend the use of data-driven performance evaluation debriefings to improve survival outcomes. [18][19][20] The guidelines also emphasize that healthcare systems with a responsibility for the management of patients in cardiac arrest should evaluate their cardiac arrest treatment to ensure the best achievable survival rates. ...
Article
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Purpose: To improve cardiac arrest survival, international resuscitation guidelines emphasize measuring the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We aimed to investigate CPR quality during in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and study long-term survival outcomes. Patients and methods: This was a cohort study of IHCA from December 2011 until November 2014. Data were collected from the hospital switch board, patient records, and from defibrillators. Impedance data from defibrillators were analyzed manually at the level of single compressions. Long-term survival at 1-, 3-, and 5 years is reported. Results: The study included 189 IHCAs; median (interquartile range (IQR)) time to first rhythm analysis was 116 (70-201) seconds and median (IQR) time to first defibrillation was 133 (82-264) seconds. Median (IQR) chest compression rate was 126 (119-131) per minute and chest compression fraction (CCF) was 78% (69-86). Thirty-day survival was 25%, while 1-year-, 3-year-, and 5-year survival were 21%, 14%, and 13%, respectively. There was no significant association between any survival outcomes and CCF, whereas chest compression rate was associated with survival to 30 days and 3 years. Overall, 5-year survival was associated with younger age (median 68 vs 74 years, p=0.003), less comorbidity (Charlson comorbidity index median 3 vs 5, p<0.001), and witnessed cardiac arrest (96% vs 77%, p=0.03). Conclusion: We established a systematic collection of IHCA CPR quality data to measure and improve CPR quality and long-term survival outcomes. Median time to first rhythm check/defibrillation was <3 minutes, but median chest compression rate was too fast and median CCF slightly below 80%. More than half of 30-day survivors were still alive at 5 years.
... Demian Szyld , 1,2,3 Alexander F Arriaga 3,4,5,6 Critical event debriefing (CED) or 'hot debriefings' (HoDs) can be described as a trigger-based, immediate postevent, interprofessional, expertly facilitated conversation where clinicians recount, reflect on, and improve personally and as a team. 1 The process and experience of clinicians who cared for the patient is more complex and involves thoughts and emotions that go beyond the 'case' or 'resuscitation' and the debriefing itself. 2 The American Heart Association guidelines for neonatal resuscitation highlight 'team debriefing' as a key step in their cognitive aid. 3 There is evidence that implementing a 'Cold Debrief ' programme for teams that care for patients in cardiac arrest improves outcomes 4 yet in practice 33% of events are routinely debriefed. 5 Critical events in anaesthesia are debriefed infrequently and those associated with communication breakdowns were even less likely to be debriefed 6 . ...
... Its members are usually from 4 to 6 and mainly concern a training manager in CPR (usually as a 'leader'), a cardiologist, an anesthesiologist/ intensivist and a nurse. [11] Rapid Response Systems are used by hospitals to identify and treat patients in emergency care by calling interdisciplinary teams. [12] Such teams are 'ΜΕΤ' (Μedical Emergency Teams) led by a doctor, 'RRT' (Rapid Response Teams) led by a doctor or nurse and 'CCOT' (Critical Care Outreach Teams) led by a nurse. ...
Article
The management of emergency cardiovascular events and especially cardiac arrest, which is occurring more and more often globally, requires the establishment of special interdisciplinary teams (blue code, RRT), both to prevent its occurrence and to increase survival rates. Special communication and organization tools of these groups (SBAR, RSVP) have been established worldwide and attention has been given to the development of non-technical skills of their members (ANTS). The aim of this review was to examine the current literature on the function and effectiveness of interdisciplinary teams in the treatment of in-hospital cardiovascular emergencies during the Covid-19 pandemic. Studies from USA, Sweden, Brazil and S. Korea showed a reduction of mortality and numbers of in-hospital cardiac arrests after RRT teams implementation and interventions. Covid-19 pandemic is resulting in delaying in CPR implementation to emergency incidents as these teams are required to use special both personal and general protective equipment while managing these incidents. Despite differentiations among countries and health systems globally, it’s comprehensible that interdisciplinary teams have to be reinforced by the set-up and implementation of programs and training courses both to improve survival and save heath recourses. Keywords: Emergency cardiac diseases, Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Interdisciplinary teams, Pandemic, Coronavirus/covid-19.
... Debriefings have a positive impact on team performance and employee satisfaction, leading to an increase of the quality of care. Furthermore, they increase survival rates of resuscitated children (35,36). ...
... Its incorporation into clinical practice allows the whole team to discuss real events, encourages reflection and allows a deep level of experiential learning. There is growing evidence that it contributes to improving clinical outcomes [4][5][6]. It contributes to building resilience, strengthening shared mental models and facilitating adaptation to changing circumstances, such as the ones faced in this crisis [7][8][9]. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent pressures on healthcare staff and resources have exacerbated the need for clinical teams to reflect and learn from workplace experiences. Surges in critically ill patients, the impact of the disease on the workforce and long term adjustments in work and life have upturned our normality. Whilst this situation has generated a new ‘connectedness’ within healthcare workers, it also continues to test our resilience. An international multi-professional collaboration has guided the identification of ongoing difficulties to effective communication and debriefing, as well as emerging opportunities to promote a culture of dialogue. This article outlines pandemic related barriers and new possibilities categorising them according to task management, teamwork, situational awareness and decision making. It describes their direct and indirect impact on clinical debriefing and signposts towards solutions to overcome challenges and, building on new bridges, advance team conversations that allow us to learn, improve and support each other. This pandemic has brought clinical professionals together; nevertheless, it is essential to invest in further developing and supporting cohesive teams. Debriefing enables healthcare teams and educators to mitigate stress, build resilience and promote a culture of continuous learning and patient care improvement.
Article
Aim For successful simulation‐based learning (SBL), a structured interactive and bidirectional debriefing should be a prerequisite. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of instructor‐led hot debriefing (debriefing immediately after simulation) and cold debriefing (debriefing occurring after a certain period following simulation) in simulation with case‐based learning (CBL). Method This study used a nonequivalent control group pretest‐posttest design. A sample of 59 fourth‐year nursing students in South Korea were invited and randomly divided into two groups, a post‐simulation hot debriefing (PSHD, male = 4, female = 26), and cold debriefing (PSCD, male = 3, female = 26). We used clinical performance competency, satisfaction with CBL and SBL, and debriefing tools. The study period was from October to December of 2019. We analyzed the data with SPSS 23.0 software, using descriptive statistics and the t test. Results Clinical performance competency means that the scores of both groups were significantly improved in the posttest (PSHD = 33.13 ± 5.11, PSCD = 34.10 ± 4.15) as compared to those in the pretest (t = −7.010, p < .001). The knowledge (t = −12.689, p < .001) and skill (t = −5.338, p = .001) scores of clinical performance competency in the PSCD were higher than those in the PSHD. The mean satisfaction scores of the PSHD group with CBL (4.53 ± 0.60) and debriefing (4.66 ± 0.55) was higher than for those in the PSCD group. Conclusion As a result of this study, PSHD and PSCD led by an instructor improved student clinical performance competency. The PSHD method, in particular, might be a positive influence on learner satisfaction with CBL, SBL, and debriefing.
Article
These European Resuscitation Council Advanced Life Support guidelines, are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. This section provides guidelines on the prevention of and ALS treatments for both in-hospital cardiac arrest and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Article
Aims and objectives The purpose of this paper is to enhance nursing and collaborative practice by presenting a concept analysis of clinical debriefing and introducing an operational definition. Background Debriefing has taken many forms, using a variety of approaches. Variations and inconsistencies in clinical debriefing, and its related terms, still exist in the clinical setting. Design Concept analysis. Methods Walker and Avant’s eight‐step approach to concept analysis. Results The defining attributes of clinical debriefing identified in this analysis are described as the five E’s: educated/experienced facilitator, environment, education, evaluation, and emotions. Antecedents identified in this analysis include the critical event, the desire or need to review such an event, and the organizational awareness to execute clinical debriefs. The consequences of clinical debriefings are primarily advantageous and positively impact involved nurses, healthcare teams, patients, and organizations. Empirical referents of clinical debriefing are complex and multifactorial. The productivity of a clinical debrief can be enhanced through a series of proposed questions. Together, the defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences shape a proposed operational definition of clinical debriefing. Conclusion Clinical debriefing is a valuable tool within healthcare organizations. Debriefing can be a holistic, interprofessional, collaborative experience when all five defining attributes are present. Further investigation is required to standardize debriefing practices in clinical settings. Relevance to clinical practice A concept analysis on clinical debriefing promotes uniformity of debriefing practices, reflective practice among nurses and healthcare teams, and contributes to nursing science by creating a platform for the development of practice standards, research, and theory development.
Article
The European Resuscitation Council has produced these newborn life support guidelines, which are based on the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) 2020 Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendations (CoSTR) for Neonatal Life Support. The guidelines cover the management of the term and preterm infant. The topics covered include an algorithm to aid a logical approach to resuscitation of the newborn, factors before delivery, training and education, thermal control, management of the umbilical cord after birth, initial assessment and categorisation of the newborn infant, airway and breathing and circulation support, communication with parents, considerations when withholding and discontinuing support.
Thesis
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Face à des injonctions éthiques et sociales, la formation des professionnels santé est devenue un défi en particulier dans la gestion des risques en situation critique. La simulation interprofessionnelle (SIP) est un dispositif de formation incontournable dans la formation des professionnels de santé. Cependant, le dispositif de SIP favorise les effets induits par l’asymétrie sociale (peur du jugement, conflits de pouvoir, rôles hiérarchiques) perturbant la régulation des conflits sociocognitifs à la base du processus d’apprentissage. Nous avons proposé une évolution du dispositif standard vers un dispositif de SIP avec un débriefing combiné (entretien individuel avant le débriefing collectif - CODIS). Une méthodologie de recherche mixte a été menée avec comme intention de « connaître pour objectiver » les effets du dispositif et de « connaître pour expliquer » les effets observés ou mesurés. L’hypothèse principale était que le dispositif CODIS était plus efficace que la SIP standard pour le développement des compétences des équipes de soins aigus dans la gestion de situation critique. Une approche multidimensionnelle a permis de conclure que CODIS était plus efficace dans la régulation des émotions, a amélioré les interactions sociales au moment du débriefing collectif et a diminué les tensions hiérarchiques avec comme résultante l’amélioration de la performance des équipes de soins aigus dans la gestion d’une situation critique en particulier dans les comportements liés au leadership. Une réflexion épistémologique nous a conduit à nous questionner sur les modèles d’évaluation des dispositifs de formation par simulation dans le domaine de la santé. Nous proposons une approche méthodologique différente suite à ce travail de recherche afin d’explorer les effets internes et externes du dispositif. De nouvelles recherches devront être menées dans une visée transformative.
Article
Objectives: Event debriefing has established benefit, but its adoption is poorly characterized among pediatric ward providers. To improve patient safety, our hospital restructured its debriefing process for ward deterioration events culminating in ICU transfer. The aim of this study was to describe this process' implementation. Methods: In the restructured process, multidisciplinary ward providers are expected to debrief all ICU transfers. We conducted a multimethod analysis using facilitative guides completed by debriefing participants. Monthly debriefing completion served as an adoption metric. Results: Between March 2019 and February 2020, providers across 9 wards performed debriefing for 134 of 312 PICU transfers (43%). Bedside nurses participated most frequently (117 debriefings [87%]). There was no significant difference in debriefing by unit, acuity, season, or nurse staffing. Compared with units fully staffed by rotational frontline clinicians (FLCs; eg, resident physicians), units with dedicated FLCs whose responsibilities are primarily limited to that unit (eg, oncology hospitalists) completed significantly more monthly debriefings (average [SD] 57% [30%] vs 33% [28%] of PICU transfers; P = .004). FLC participation was also higher on these units (50% of debriefings [37%] vs 24% [37%]; P = .014). Through qualitative analysis, we identified distinct debriefing themes, with teaming activities such as communication cited most often. Conclusions: Implementation of a multidisciplinary debriefing process for ward deterioration events culminating in ICU transfer was associated with differential adoption across providers and FLC staffing models but not acuity or nurse staffing. Teaming activities were a debriefing priority. Future study will assess patient safety outcomes.
Article
The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) has produced these Systems Saving Lives guidelines, which are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. The topics covered include chain of survival, measuring performance of resuscitation, social media and smartphones apps for engaging community, European Restart a Heart Day, World Restart a Heart, KIDS SAVE LIVES campaign, lower-resource setting, European Resuscitation Academy and Global Resuscitation Alliance, early warning scores, rapid response systems, and medical emergency team, cardiac arrest centres and role of dispatcher.
Article
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Study aim To summarize the current state of knowledge of deliberate practice and mastery learning (DP and/or ML) as teaching methods for resuscitation education. Methods A scoping review of PubMed, Scopus, and Embase was conducted through March 1, 2021. Studies examining the effect of the incorporation of either deliberate practice and/or mastery learning during resuscitation education were eligible for inclusion. Included studies were dichotomized into studies comparing deliberate practice and/or mastery learning to other training methods (randomized controlled trials) and studies examining before and after impact of deliberate practice and/or mastery learning alone (observational studies). Studies and findings were tabulated and summarized using the scoping review methodology published by Arksey and O’Malley. Results 63 published studies were screened; sixteen studies met all inclusion criteria (4 randomized controlled trials and 12 observational studies). One randomized controlled trial and eleven observational studies demonstrated improvement in skill and/or knowledge following educational interventions using deliberate practice and/or mastery learning. Significant variability between studies with regard to research designs, learner groups, comparators, and outcomes of interest made quantitative summarization of findings difficult. Conclusions The incorporation of deliberate practice and/or mastery learning in resuscitation education may be associated with improved educational outcomes and less skill decay than other educational methods. Current literature on DP and ML suffers from a lack of consistency in research methodology, subjects, and outcomes. Future research should employ uniform definitions for deliberate practice and mastery learning, follow research design that isolates its effect, and examine generalizable and translatable outcomes.
Article
The history of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the Society of Critical Care Medicine have much in common, as many of the founders of the Society of Critical Care Medicine focused on understanding and improving outcomes from cardiac arrest. We review the history, the current, and future state of cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Article
Background The emergency department witnesses the close functioning of an interdisciplinary team in an unpredictable environment. High stress situations can impact well-being and clinical practice both individually and as a team. Debriefing provides an opportunity for learning, validation, and conversation amongst individuals who may not typically discuss clinical experiences together. The current study examined how a debriefing program could be designed and implemented in the emergency department so as to help teams and individuals learn from unique, stressful incidents. Methods Based on the theory of Workplace Based Learning and a design-based research approach, the evolved nature of a debriefing program implemented in the real-life context of the emergency department was examined. Focus groups were used to collect data. We report the design of the debriefing intervention as well as the program outcomes in terms of provider’s self-perceived roles in the program and program impact on provider’s self-reported clinical practice, as well as the redesign of the program based upon said feedback. Results The themes of barriers to debriefing, provision of perspectives, psychological trauma, and nurturing of staff emerged from focus group sessions. Respondents identified barriers and concerns regarding debriefing, and based upon this information, changes were made to the program, including offering of refresher sessions for debriefing, inclusion of additional staff members in the training, and re-messaging the purpose of the program. Conclusions Data from the study reinforced the need to increase the frequency and availability of debriefing didactics along with clarifying staff roles in the program. Future work will examine continued impact on provider practice and influence on departmental culture.
Article
OBJECTIVES Clinical event debriefing (CED) can improve patient care and outcomes, but little is known about CED across inpatient settings, and participant experiences have not been well described. In this qualitative study, we sought to characterize and compare staff experiences with CED in 2 hospital units, with a goal of generating recommendations for a hospital-wide debriefing program. METHODS We conducted 32 semistructured interviews with clinical staff who attended a CED in the previous week. We explored experiences with CED, with a focus on barriers and facilitators. We used content analysis with constant comparative coding to understand priorities identified by participants. We used inductive reasoning to develop a set of CED practice recommendations to match participant priorities. RESULTS Three primary themes emerged related to CED barriers and facilitators. (1) Factors affecting attendance: most respondents voiced a need for frontline staff inclusion in CED, but they also cited competing clinical duties and scheduling conflicts as barriers. (2) Factors affecting participant engagement: respondents described factors that influence participant engagement in reflective discussion. They described that the CED leader must cultivate a psychologically safe environment in which participants feel empowered to speak up, free from judgment. (3) Factors affecting learning and systems improvement: respondents emphasized that the CED group should generate a plan for improvement with accountable stakeholders. Collectively, these priorities propose several recommendations for CED practice, including frontline staff inclusion. CONCLUSIONS In this study, we propose recommendations for CED that are derived from first-hand participant experiences. Future study will explore implementation of CED practice recommendations.
Article
Objective: To describe the use of a postarrest debriefing tool (DBT) within a university teaching hospital and to evaluate user perceptions of the tool. Design: Observational study over a 1-year period and associated hospital clinical personnel survey. Setting: University teaching hospital. Interventions: Qualitative data surrounding the use and utility of the DBT were analyzed, as well as survey results. Measurements and main results: Forty-four arrests occurred during the study period. Debriefing was performed after 26 of 44 (59%) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) events, of which 22 of 26 (85%) were recorded using the DBT and four without the DBT. Return of spontaneous circulation did not significantly affect the use of the DBT (p = 0.753). Most events in which debriefing was not performed occurred outside of business hours (13/18; 72%). The most frequent positive debriefing comments related to cooperation/coordination within the team (22/167; 13%). The most frequent negative debriefing comments concerned equipment issues (36/167; 22%). Of the action points generated, 57% (34/60) were directed at equipment use/availability. Teams reported that emergency drugs were appropriately administered in 21 of 22 (95%) cases. In contrast, closed loop communication was reportedly only used during 6 of 22 (27%) events. The hospital survey response rate was 56 of 338 (17%) clinical staff, of whom 37 of 56 (66%) agreed or strongly agreed that debriefing had improved team performance during CPR. Overall, 33 of 56 (60%) staff felt that the DBT had improved the debriefing process at the hospital. However, 3 of 56 (5%) staff members felt that they were unable to state their opinions in a blame-free environment during debriefing. Conclusions: Implementation of a DBT enabled formal identification of strengths and training needs of resuscitation teams, and its implementation was viewed positively by the majority of hospital staff. However, further refinement of the tool and prospective studies evaluating its efficacy in improving outcome are warranted.
Article
Patients who experience an in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest event often have poor outcomes. Those outcomes are influenced by institutional factors, including the effectiveness of the responding team. Two main types of response teams may exist for in-hospital settings: basic life support trained staff providing initial interventions, and advanced cardiac life support teams. The interface between these two responses, and differences in discipline, experience, and skill mix, adds complexity to team dynamics. In-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest teams benefit from addressing these and other factors, which may lead to lack of clarity in role and responsibility identification and ultimately team performance.
Chapter
Debriefing skills honed in simulation can be translated to the bedside with the goals to improve patient care and learn from real life clinical scenarios. Pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest is associated with significant morbidity and mortality; debriefing afterwards has been demonstrated to improve patient outcomes. This chapter discusses the structures and processes of both “hot” and “cold” debriefing after clinical events, and describes how to optimize facilitators, address barriers, and manage difficult situations. Integration of debriefing into comprehensive resuscitation programs can improve resuscitation performance and patient outcomes.
Article
The use of clinical debriefing promotes team reflexivity, aligns with Safety II principles and allows organisation leaders to engage clinicians in collaborative change. There is ample evidence of its benefits regarding patient outcomes and team dynamics. This article introduces TALK©, a practical approach to clinical debriefing which supports an inclusive culture of dialogue and empowers clinicians to act and improve. It is underpinned by well defined values that foster positive communication strategies and continued commitment to patient safety. The TALK© structure consists of four steps: Target, Analysis, Learning and Key actions, which guide individuals in having focussed and constructive conversations with practical outcomes. It enables effective communication across diverse health care professional teams that work together on a regular or occasional basis in any healthcare environment.
Article
Simulation training has taken a prominent role in otolaryngology–head and neck surgery (OTO-HNS) as a means to ensure patient safety and quality improvement (PS/QI). While it is often equated to resident training, this tool has value in lifelong learning and extends beyond the individual otolaryngologists to include simulation-based learning for teams and health systems processes. Part III of this PS/QI primer provides an overview of simulation in medicine and specific applications within the field of OTO-HNS. The impact of simulation on PS/QI will be presented in an evidence-based fashion to include the use of run and statistical process control charts to assess the impact of simulation-guided initiatives. Last, steps in developing a simulation program focused on PS/QI will be outlined with future opportunities for OTO-HNS simulation.
Article
Objective In 2013, our intubations highlighted a safety gap – only 49% achieved first-pass success without hypoxia or hypotension. NAP4 recommended debriefing after intubation, but limited published methods existed. Primary aim is to implement a feasible process for immediate debriefing and feedback for emergency airway management. Secondary aims are to contribute to reduced frequency of adverse intubation-related events and implement qualitative improvements in patient safety through team reflection and feedback. Methods A component of a prospective quality improvement (QI) study over 4 years in the ED of the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Debrief and feedback after intubation was one of seven study interventions. Targeted staff training and involvement of departmental leaders occurred. A post-intervention cohort was audited in 2016. Analysis included the Team Emergency Assessment Measure. Results Immediate post-event debriefing occurred in 39 (85%) of 46 intubations. Debriefing was short (median duration 5 min, interquartile range [IQR] 5–10) and soon after (median time 20 min, IQR 5–60). Commonest location was the resuscitation room (92%), led by the team leader (97%). Commonest barrier preventing immediate debriefing was excessive workload. Two QI process measures were assessed during debriefing (adequate resuscitation, airway plan) and case summaries distributed for 100% of intubations. Performance outcomes included contribution to 78% first-pass success without hypoxia or hypotension. Team reflection prompted changes to environment (signage, stickers), training (skill drills), teamwork and process (communication, clinical event debriefing). Conclusion Structured and targeted debriefing after intubating children in the ED is feasible and contributes to measurable and qualitative improvements in patient safety.
Article
Background Emergency department nurses are faced with traumatic patient events while functioning as members of multidisciplinary teams. Postresuscitation debriefings have been shown to benefit health care professionals and patient clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the use of post resuscitation debriefings and perceptions of teamwork in emergency department nurses. The study also addressed the type and timing of debriefing to determine whether these factors are associated with perceptions of teamwork. Methods A nationwide survey was disseminated to emergency department nurses throughout the United States. The design aimed to compare the results from the Nursing Teamwork Survey with the data regarding frequency, type, and timing of debriefings. An ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc was done as well. Results The 68 responses which were included in the data were from 27 different states. Results showed that when debriefings were done more frequently (η = .41, p = .02), were conducted using a formal debriefing method (η = .36, p = .01), and were held immediately after a situation (η = .36, p = .03), there was a significant positive relationship (eta coefficient) with higher levels of trust, team orientation, backup, shared mental model, and leadership. Conclusion Findings may be used to increase utilization of debriefings and improve perceptions of teamwork among emergency department nurses.
Article
Objectives The aim of the study was to compare the effect of synchronous online and face-to-face cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training on chest compressions quality in a manikin model. Methods A total of 118 fourth-year medical students participated in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: the online synchronous teaching group and the face-to-face group. Then, the participants were further randomly distributed to 1 of 2 feedback groups: online synchronous teaching and training with feedback devices (TF, n = 30) or without feedback devices (TN, n = 29) and face-to-face teaching and training with feedback devices (FF, n = 30) or without feedback devices (FN, n = 29). In the FN group and FF group, instructors delivered a 45-min CPR training program and gave feedback and guidance during training on site. In the TN group and TF group, the participants were trained with an online lecture via Tencent Meeting live broadcasting. Finally, participants performed a 2-min continuous chest compression (CC) during a simulated cardiopulmonary arrest scene without the audiovisual feedback (AVF) device. The outcome measures included CC depth, CC rate, proportions of appropriate depth (50–60 mm) and CC rate (100–120/min), percentage of correct hand location position, and percentage of complete chest recoil. Results There was little difference in the CC quality between the synchronous online training groups and the face-to-face training groups. There was no statistically significant difference in CC quality between the TN group and FN group. There were also no statistically significant differences between the TF and FF groups in terms of correct hand position, CC depth, appropriate CC depth, complete chest recoil or CC rate. However, the FF group had a higher appropriate CC rate than the TF group (p = 0.045). In the face-to-face training groups, the AVF device group had a significantly greater CC depth, appropriate CC depth, CC rate, and appropriate CC rate. However, there was a lack of statistically significant differences in terms of correct hand position (p = 0.191) and appropriate CC depth (p = 0.123). In the synchronous online training groups, the AVF device had little effect on the CC rate (p = 0.851) and increased the appropriate CC rate, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.178). Conclusions Synchronous online training with an AVF device would be a potential alternative approach to face-to-face chest compression training. Synchronous online training with AVF devices seems to be a suitable replacement for face-to-face training to offer adequate bystander CPR chest compression training.
Article
Debriefing is a form of discussion used in human medicine following significant events, such as cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) and resuscitation. There are no studies in veterinary medicine specifically exploring the benefits of debriefing post CPA, showing known knowledge gaps. However, there are studies in training for resuscitation and staff resilience that mention debriefing as tools, and there are studies in human medicine that look at different types of debriefing and benefits. This literature review discusses ways in which debriefing may be implemented into a veterinary environment as well as the impact it could have on staff training, wellbeing and patient outcome.
Article
Importance: Approximately 40% of children who experience an in-hospital cardiac arrest survive to hospital discharge. Achieving threshold intra-arrest diastolic blood pressure (BP) targets during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and systolic BP targets after the return of circulation may be associated with improved outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a bundled intervention comprising physiologically focused CPR training at the point of care and structured clinical event debriefings. Design, setting, and participants: A parallel, hybrid stepped-wedge, cluster randomized trial (Improving Outcomes from Pediatric Cardiac Arrest-the ICU-Resuscitation Project [ICU-RESUS]) involving 18 pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) from 10 clinical sites in the US. In this hybrid trial, 2 clinical sites were randomized to remain in the intervention group and 2 in the control group for the duration of the study, and 6 were randomized to transition from the control condition to the intervention in a stepped-wedge fashion. The index (first) CPR events of 1129 pediatric ICU patients were included between October 1, 2016, and March 31, 2021, and were followed up to hospital discharge (final follow-up was April 30, 2021). Intervention: During the intervention period (n = 526 patients), a 2-part ICU resuscitation quality improvement bundle was implemented, consisting of CPR training at the point of care on a manikin (48 trainings/unit per month) and structured physiologically focused debriefings of cardiac arrest events (1 debriefing/unit per month). The control period (n = 548 patients) consisted of usual pediatric ICU management of cardiac arrest. Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge with a favorable neurologic outcome defined as a Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category score of 1 to 3 or no change from baseline (score range, 1 [normal] to 6 [brain death or death]). The secondary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Results: Among 1389 cardiac arrests experienced by 1276 patients, 1129 index CPR events (median patient age, 0.6 [IQR, 0.2-3.8] years; 499 girls [44%]) were included and 1074 were analyzed in the primary analysis. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome of survival to hospital discharge with favorable neurologic outcomes in the intervention group (53.8%) vs control (52.4%); risk difference (RD), 3.2% (95% CI, -4.6% to 11.4%); adjusted OR, 1.08 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.53). There was also no significant difference in survival to hospital discharge in the intervention group (58.0%) vs control group (56.8%); RD, 1.6% (95% CI, -6.2% to 9.7%); adjusted OR, 1.03 (95% CI, 0.73 to 1.47). Conclusions and relevance: In this randomized clinical trial conducted in 18 pediatric intensive care units, a bundled intervention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training at the point of care and physiologically focused structured debriefing, compared with usual care, did not significantly improve patient survival to hospital discharge with favorable neurologic outcome among pediatric patients who experienced cardiac arrest in the ICU. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02837497.
Article
The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) has produced these Systems Saving Lives guidelines, which are based on the 2020 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Science with Treatment Recommendations. The following topics are covered: chain of survival, measuring performance of resuscitation, social media and smartphones apps for engaging the community, European Restart a Heart Day, World Restart a Heart, KIDS SAVE LIVES campaign, lower-resource setting, European Resuscitation Academy and Global Resuscitation Alliance, early warning scores, rapid response systems, and medical emergency team, cardiac arrest centres and role of dispatchers.
Article
Full-text available
The European Resuscitation Council has produced these newborn life support guidelines, which are based on the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) 2020 Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendations (CoSTR) for Neonatal Life Support. The guidelines cover the management of the term and preterm infant. The topics covered include an algorithm to aid a logical approach to resuscitation of the newborn, factors before delivery, training and education, thermal control, management of the umbilical cord after birth, initial assessment and categorisation of the newborn infant, airway and breathing and circulation support, communication with parents, considerations when withholding and discontinuing support.
Article
Aim The aim of our review was to understand the effect of interventions to improve system-level performance on the clinical outcomes of patients with cardiac arrest. Methods We searched PubMed, Ovid EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases to identify randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies published before July 21, 2020 reporting systems interventions to improve outcomes. Characteristics, study design, evaluation methods and outcomes of included studies were extracted. (PROSPERO registration CRD42020161882). Results One cluster randomised trial and 26 non-randomised studies were included. There were 18 studies focusing on interventions for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and 9 studies for patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest. Interventions included implementation of a bundle of care strategy, evaluation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality with feedback/debriefing, data surveillance, and CPR training programs. Although improved survival with favorable neurologic outcome at discharge after the implementation of specific interventions was found in 13 studies, improved survival to hospital discharge in 14 studies and improved survival to admission in 3 studies, there were still 7 studies showing no significant improvement of clinical outcomes after interventions. Conclusion Although only moderate to very low certainty of evidence exists to support the effect of system-level performance improvement on the clinical outcomes of patients, we recommend that organisations or communities evaluate their performance and target key areas with the goal to improve performance because of no known risks and the potential for a large beneficial effect.
Article
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Background: Despite advances in resuscitation care in recent years, it is not clear whether survival and neurologic function after in-hospital cardiac arrest have improved over time. Methods: We identified all adults who had an in-hospital cardiac arrest at 374 hospitals in the Get with the Guidelines-Resuscitation registry between 2000 and 2009. Using multivariable regression, we examined temporal trends in risk-adjusted rates of survival to discharge. Additional analyses explored whether trends were due to improved survival during acute resuscitation or postresuscitation care and whether they occurred at the expense of greater neurologic disability in survivors. Results: Among 84,625 hospitalized patients with cardiac arrest, 79.3% had an initial rhythm of asystole or pulseless electrical activity, and 20.7% had ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. The proportion of cardiac arrests due to asystole or pulseless electrical activity increased over time (P<0.001 for trend). Risk-adjusted rates of survival to discharge increased from 13.7% in 2000 to 22.3% in 2009 (adjusted rate ratio per year, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.06; P<0.001 for trend). Survival improvement was similar in the two rhythm groups and was due to improvement in both acute resuscitation survival and postresuscitation survival. Rates of clinically significant neurologic disability among survivors decreased over time, with a risk-adjusted rate of 32.9% in 2000 and 28.1% in 2009 (adjusted rate ratio per year, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.00; P=0.02 for trend). Conclusions: Both survival and neurologic outcomes after in-hospital cardiac arrest have improved during the past decade at hospitals participating in a large national quality-improvement registry. (Funded by the American Heart Association.).
Article
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To investigate the effectiveness of brief bedside cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training to improve the skill retention of hospital-based pediatric providers. We hypothesized that a low-dose, high-frequency training program (booster training) would improve CPR skill retention. CPR recording/feedback defibrillators were used to evaluate CPR quality during simulated arrest. Basic life support-certified, hospital-based providers were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 study arms: (1) instructor-only training; (2) automated defibrillator feedback only; (3) instructor training combined with automated feedback; and (4) control (no structured training). Each session (time: 0, 1, 3, and 6 months after training) consisted of a pretraining evaluation (60 seconds), booster training (120 seconds), and a posttraining evaluation (60 seconds). Excellent CPR was defined as chest compression (CC) depth ≥ one-third anterior-posterior chest depth, rate ≥90 and ≤120 CC per minute, ≤20% of CCs with incomplete release (>2500 g), and no flow fraction ≤ 0.30. Eighty-nine providers were randomly assigned; 74 (83%) completed all sessions. Retention of CPR skills was 2.3 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-4.5; P=.02) more likely after 2 trainings and 2.9 times (95% CI: 1.4-6.2; P=.005) more likely after 3 trainings. The automated defibrillator feedback only group had lower retention rates compared with the instructor-only training group (odds ratio: 0.41 [95% CI: 0.17-0.97]; P = .043). Brief bedside booster CPR training improves CPR skill retention. Our data reveal that instructor-led training improves retention compared with automated feedback training alone. Future studies should investigate whether bedside training improves CPR quality during actual pediatric arrests.
Article
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To investigate whether real-time audio and visual feedback during cardiopulmonary resuscitation outside hospital increases the proportion of subjects who achieved prehospital return of spontaneous circulation. A cluster-randomised trial. 1586 people having cardiac arrest outside hospital in whom resuscitation was attempted by emergency medical services (771 procedures without feedback, 815 with feedback). Emergency medical services from three sites within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium in the United States and Canada. Real-time audio and visual feedback on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) provided by the monitor-defibrillator. Prehospital return of spontaneous circulation after CPR. Baseline patient and emergency medical service characteristics did not differ between groups. Emergency medical services muted the audible feedback in 14% of cases during the period with feedback. Compared with CPR clusters lacking feedback, clusters assigned to feedback were associated with increased proportion of time in which chest compressions were provided (64% v 66%, cluster-adjusted difference 1.9 (95% CI 0.4 to 3.4)), increased compression depth (38 v 40 mm, adjusted difference 1.6 (0.5 to 2.7)), and decreased proportion of compressions with incomplete release (15% v 10%, adjusted difference -3.4 (-5.2 to -1.5)). However, frequency of prehospital return of spontaneous circulation did not differ according to feedback status (45% v 44%, adjusted difference 0.1% (-4.4% to 4.6%)), nor did the presence of a pulse at hospital arrival (32% v 32%, adjusted difference -0.8 (-4.9 to 3.4)), survival to discharge (12% v 11%, adjusted difference -1.5 (-3.9 to 0.9)), or awake at hospital discharge (10% v 10%, adjusted difference -0.2 (-2.5 to 2.1)). Real-time visual and audible feedback during CPR altered performance to more closely conform with guidelines. However, these changes in CPR performance were not associated with improvements in return of spontaneous circulation or other clinical outcomes. Trial Registration Clinical Trials NCT00539539.
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Few data exist on pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality. This study is the first to evaluate actual in-hospital pediatric CPR. We hypothesized that with bedside CPR training and corrective feedback, CPR quality can approach American Heart Association (AHA) targets. Using CPR recording/feedback defibrillators, quality of CPR was assessed for patients >or=8 years of age who suffered a cardiac arrest in the PICU or emergency department (ED). Before and during the study, a bedside CPR training program was initiated. Between October 2006 and February 2008, twenty events in 18 patients met inclusion criteria and resulted in 36749 evaluable chest compressions (CCs) during 392.3 minutes of arrest. CCs were shallow (<38 mm or <1.5 in) in 27.2% (9998 of 36749), with excessive residual leaning force (>or=2500 g) in 23.4% (8611 of 36749). Segmental analysis of the first 5 minutes of the events demonstrated that shallow CCs and excessive residual leaning force were less prevalent during the first 5 minutes. AHA targets were not achieved for CC rate in 62 (43.1%) of 144 segments, CC depth in 52 (36.1%) of 144 segments, and residual leaning force in 53 (36.8%) of 144 segments. This prospective, observational study demonstrates feasibility of monitoring in-hospital pediatric CPR. Even with bedside CPR retraining and corrective audiovisual feedback, CPR quality frequently did not meet AHA targets. Importantly, no flow fraction target of 10% was achieved. Future studies should investigate novel educational methods and targeted feedback technologies.
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The health and policy implications of regional variation in incidence and outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest remain to be determined. To evaluate whether cardiac arrest incidence and outcome differ across geographic regions. Prospective observational study (the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium) of all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in 10 North American sites (8 US and 2 Canadian) from May 1, 2006, to April 30, 2007, followed up to hospital discharge, and including data available as of June 28, 2008. Cases (aged 0-108 years) were assessed by organized emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, did not have traumatic injury, and received attempts at external defibrillation or chest compressions or resuscitation was not attempted. Census data were used to determine rates adjusted for age and sex. Incidence rate, mortality rate, case-fatality rate, and survival to discharge for patients assessed or treated by EMS personnel or with an initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation. Among the 10 sites, the total catchment population was 21.4 million, and there were 20,520 cardiac arrests. A total of 11,898 (58.0%) had resuscitation attempted; 2729 (22.9% of treated) had initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia or rhythms that were shockable by an automated external defibrillator; and 954 (4.6% of total) were discharged alive. The median incidence of EMS-treated cardiac arrest across sites was 52.1 (interquartile range [IQR], 48.0-70.1) per 100,000 population; survival ranged from 3.0% to 16.3%, with a median of 8.4% (IQR, 5.4%-10.4%). Median ventricular fibrillation incidence was 12.6 (IQR, 10.6-5.2) per 100,000 population; survival ranged from 7.7% to 39.9%, with a median of 22.0% (IQR, 15.0%-24.4%), with significant differences across sites for incidence and survival (P<.001). In this study involving 10 geographic regions in North America, there were significant and important regional differences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and outcome.
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Age is an important determinant of outcome from adult cardiac arrests but has not been identified previously as an important factor in pediatric cardiac arrests except among premature infants. Chest compressions can result in more effective blood flow during cardiac arrest in an infant than an older child or adult because of increased chest wall compliance. We, therefore, hypothesized that survival from cardiac arrest would be better among infants than older children. We evaluated 464 pediatric ICU arrests from the National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation from 2000 to 2002. NICU cardiac arrests were excluded. Data from each arrest include >200 variables describing facility, patient, prearrest, arrest intervention, outcome, and quality improvement data. Age was categorized as newborn (<1 month; N = 62), infant (1 month to <1 year; N = 105), younger child (1 year to <8 years; N = 90), and older child (8 years to <21 years; N = 207). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine the association between age and survival. Overall survival was 22%, with 27% of newborns, 36% of infants, 19% of younger children and 16% of older children surviving to hospital discharge. Newborns and infants demonstrated double and triple the odds of surviving to hospital discharge from a cardiac arrest in an intensive care setting when compared with older children. When potential confounders were controlled, newborns increased their advantage to almost fivefold, while infants maintained their survival advantage to older children. Survival from pediatric ICU cardiac arrest is age dependent. Newborns and infants have better survival rates even after adjusting for potential confounding variables.
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Expert guidelines advocate defibrillation within 2 minutes after an in-hospital cardiac arrest caused by ventricular arrhythmia. However, empirical data on the prevalence of delayed defibrillation in the United States and its effect on survival are limited. We identified 6789 patients who had cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia at 369 hospitals participating in the National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Using multivariable logistic regression, we identified characteristics associated with delayed defibrillation. We then examined the association between delayed defibrillation (more than 2 minutes) and survival to discharge after adjusting for differences in patient and hospital characteristics. The overall median time to defibrillation was 1 minute (interquartile range, <1 to 3 minutes); delayed defibrillation occurred in 2045 patients (30.1%). Characteristics associated with delayed defibrillation included black race, noncardiac admitting diagnosis, and occurrence of cardiac arrest at a hospital with fewer than 250 beds, in an unmonitored hospital unit, and during after-hours periods (5 p.m. to 8 a.m. or weekends). Delayed defibrillation was associated with a significantly lower probability of surviving to hospital discharge (22.2%, vs. 39.3% when defibrillation was not delayed; adjusted odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.42 to 0.54; P<0.001). In addition, a graded association was seen between increasing time to defibrillation and lower rates of survival to hospital discharge for each minute of delay (P for trend <0.001). Delayed defibrillation is common and is associated with lower rates of survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest.
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Recent investigations have documented poor cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance in clinical practice. We hypothesized that a debriefing intervention using CPR quality data from actual in-hospital cardiac arrests (resuscitation with actual performance integrated debriefing [RAPID]) would improve CPR performance and initial patient survival. Internal medicine residents at a university hospital attended weekly debriefing sessions of the prior week's resuscitations, between March 2006 and February 2007, reviewing CPR performance transcripts obtained from a CPR-sensing and feedback-enabled defibrillator. Objective metrics of CPR performance and initial return of spontaneous circulation were compared with a historical cohort in which a similar feedback-delivering defibrillator was used but without RAPID. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality and outcome data from 123 patients resuscitated during the intervention period were compared with 101 patients in the baseline cohort. Compared with the control period, the mean (SD) ventilation rate decreased (13 [7]/min vs 18 [8]/min; P < .001) and compression depth increased (50 [10] vs 44 [10] mm; P = .001), among other CPR improvements. These changes correlated with an increase in the rate of return of spontaneous circulation in the RAPID group (59.4% vs 44.6%; P = .03) but no change in survival to discharge (7.4% vs 8.9%; P = .69). The combination of RAPID and real-time audiovisual feedback improved CPR quality compared with the use of feedback alone and was associated with an increased rate of return of spontaneous circulation. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation sensing and recording devices allow for methods of debriefing that were previously available only for simulation-based education; such methods have the potential to fundamentally alter resuscitation training and improve patient outcomes. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00228293.
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Outcome after cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation is dependent on critical interventions, particularly early defibrillation, effective chest compressions, and advanced life support. Utstein-style definitions and reporting templates have been used extensively in published studies of cardiac arrest, which has led to greater understanding of the elements of resuscitation practice and progress toward international consensus on science and resuscitation guidelines. Despite the development of Utstein templates to standardize research reports of cardiac arrest, international registries have yet to be developed. In April 2002, a task force of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) met in Melbourne, Australia, to review worldwide experience with the Utstein definitions and reporting templates. The task force revised the core reporting template and definitions by consensus. Care was taken to build on previous definitions, changing data elements and operational definitions only on the basis of published data and experience derived from those registries that have used Utstein-style reporting. Attention was focused on decreasing the complexity of the existing templates and addressing logistical difficulties in collecting specific core and supplementary (ie, essential and desirable) data elements recommended by previous Utstein consensus conferences. Inconsistencies in terminology between in-hospital and out-of-hospital Utstein templates were also addressed. The task force produced a reporting tool for essential data that can be used for both quality improvement (registries) and research reports and that should be applicable to both adults and children. The revised and simplified template includes practical and succinct operational definitions. It is anticipated that the revised template will enable better and more accurate completion of all reports of cardiac arrest and resuscitation attempts. Problems with data definition, collection, linkage, confidentiality, management, and registry implementation are acknowledged and potential solutions offered. Uniform collection and tracking of registry data should enable better continuous quality improvement within every hospital, emergency medical services system, and community.
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Purpose of review: Evidence of suboptimal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) delivery in practice has driven interest in strategies to improve CPR quality. Early data suggest that debriefing may be an effective strategy. In this review, we analyse types of debriefing and the evidence to support their usage. Recent findings: There is a general lack of standardization in terminology and methods used for debriefing that limits evaluation. Debriefing interventions generally take two different formats. Hot debriefing is one where individuals or teams are provided with debriefing immediately after the event. Although perhaps the most widely used and easiest to implement, research evidence for its effectiveness is scant. Cold debriefing, where individuals or teams are provided with feedback sometime after the event, is associated with improvements in process and patient outcomes. Such feedback usually involves the use of objective performance data, such as defibrillator downloads or videotape records. Before and after cohort studies have found that both verbal debriefing in groups and individual written feedback seem to be associated with an improvement in performance. Summary: Debriefing is a useful strategy to improve resuscitation performance, but the optimal delivery method remains unclear. Future high-quality research is required to identify the most effective form of debriefing.
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Background: Despite ongoing efforts to improve the quality of pediatric resuscitation, it remains unknown whether survival in children with in-hospital cardiac arrest has improved. Methods and results: Between 2000 and 2009, we identified children (<18 years of age) with an in-hospital cardiac arrest at hospitals with >3 years of participation and >5 cases annually within the national Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine temporal trends in survival to discharge. We also explored whether trends in survival were attributable to improvement in acute resuscitation or postresuscitation care and examined trends in neurological disability among survivors. Among 1031 children at 12 hospitals, the initial cardiac arrest rhythm was asystole and pulseless electrical activity in 874 children (84.8%) and ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia in 157 children (15.2%), with an increase in cardiac arrests due to pulseless electrical activity over time (P for trend <0.001). Risk-adjusted rates of survival to discharge increased from 14.3% in 2000 to 43.4% in 2009 (adjusted rate ratio per year, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.16; P for trend=0.02). Improvement in survival was driven largely by an improvement in acute resuscitation survival (risk-adjusted rates: 42.9% in 2000, 81.2% in 2009; adjusted rate ratio per year: 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.08; P for trend=0.006). Moreover, survival trends were not accompanied by higher rates of neurological disability among survivors over time (unadjusted P for trend=0.32), suggesting an overall increase in the number of survivors without neurological disability over time. Conclusions: Rates of survival to hospital discharge in children with in-hospital cardiac arrests have improved over the past decade without higher rates of neurological disability among survivors.
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Aim: To evaluate the association between cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality and hemodynamic measurements during in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that AHA recommended CPR rate and depth targets would be associated with systolic blood pressures≥80mmHg and diastolic blood pressures≥30mmHg. Methods: In children and adolescents <18 years of age who suffered a cardiac arrest with an invasive arterial catheter in place, a CPR monitoring defibrillator collected CPR data which was synchronized to arterial blood pressure (BP) tracings. Chest compression (CC) depths were corrected for mattress deflection. Generalized least squares regression estimated the association between BP and CPR quality, treated as continuous variables. Mixed-effects logistic regression estimated the association between systolic BP≥80mmHg/diastolic BP≥30mmHg and the AHA targets of depth≥38mm and/or rate≥100/min. Results: Nine arrests resulted in 4156 CCs. The median mattress corrected depth was 32mm (IQR 28-38); median rate was 111CC/min (IQR 103-120). AHA depth was achieved in 1090/4156 (26.2%) CCs; rate in 3441 (83.7%). Systolic BP≥80mmHg was attained in 2516/4156 (60.5%) compressions; diastolic≥30mmHg in 2561/4156 (61.6%). A rate≥100/min was associated with systolic BP≥80mmHg (OR 1.32; CI(95) 1.04, 1.66; p=0.02) and diastolic BP≥30mmHg (OR 2.15; CI(95) 1.65, 2.80; p<0.001). Exceeding both (rate≥100/min and depth≥38mm) was associated with systolic BP≥80mmHg (OR 2.02; CI(95) 1.45, 2.82; p<0.001) and diastolic BP≥30mmHg (OR 1.48; CI(95) 1.01, 2.15; p=0.042). Conclusions: AHA quality targets (rate≥100/min and depth≥38mm) were associated with systolic BPs≥80mmHg and diastolic BPs≥30mmHg during CPR in children.
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Background: During in-hospital cardiac arrests, how long resuscitation attempts should be continued before termination of efforts is unknown. We investigated whether duration of resuscitation attempts varies between hospitals and whether patients at hospitals that attempt resuscitation for longer have higher survival rates than do those at hospitals with shorter durations of resuscitation efforts. Methods: Between 2000 and 2008, we identified 64,339 patients with cardiac arrests at 435 US hospitals within the Get With The Guidelines—Resuscitation registry. For each hospital, we calculated the median duration of resuscitation before termination of efforts in non-survivors as a measure of the hospital's overall tendency for longer attempts. We used multilevel regression models to assess the association between the length of resuscitation attempts and risk-adjusted survival. Our primary endpoints were immediate survival with return of spontaneous circulation during cardiac arrest and survival to hospital discharge. Findings: 31,198 of 64,339 (48·5%) patients achieved return of spontaneous circulation and 9912 (15·4%) survived to discharge. For patients achieving return of spontaneous circulation, the median duration of resuscitation was 12 min (IQR 6-21) compared with 20 min (14-30) for non-survivors. Compared with patients at hospitals in the quartile with the shortest median resuscitation attempts in non-survivors (16 min [IQR 15-17]), those at hospitals in the quartile with the longest attempts (25 min [25-28]) had a higher likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation (adjusted risk ratio 1·12, 95% CI 1·06-1·18; p<0·0001) and survival to discharge (1·12, 1·02-1·23; 0·021). Interpretation: Duration of resuscitation attempts varies between hospitals. Although we cannot define an optimum duration for resuscitation attempts on the basis of these observational data, our findings suggest that efforts to systematically increase the duration of resuscitation could improve survival in this high-risk population. Funding: American Heart Association, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Clinical Scholars Program, and the National Institutes of Health.
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Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend a chest compression rate of at least 100 compressions per minute. Animal and human studies have reported that blood flow is greatest with chest compression rates near 120/min, but few have reported rates used during out-of-hospital (OOH) cardiopulmonary resuscitation or the relationship between rate and outcome. The purpose of this study was to describe chest compression rates used by emergency medical services providers to resuscitate patients with OOH cardiac arrest and to determine the relationship between chest compression rate and outcome. Included were patients aged ≥ 20 years with OOH cardiac arrest treated by emergency medical services providers participating in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. Data were abstracted from monitor-defibrillator recordings during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Multiple logistic regression analysis assessed the association between chest compression rate and outcome. From December 2005 to May 2007, 3098 patients with OOH cardiac arrest were included in this study. Mean age was 67 ± 16 years, and 8.6% survived to hospital discharge. Mean compression rate was 112 ± 19/min. A curvilinear association between chest compression rate and return of spontaneous circulation was found in cubic spline models after multivariable adjustment (P=0.012). Return of spontaneous circulation rates peaked at a compression rate of ≈ 125/min and then declined. Chest compression rate was not significantly associated with survival to hospital discharge in multivariable categorical or cubic spline models. Chest compression rate was associated with return of spontaneous circulation but not with survival to hospital discharge in OOH cardiac arrest.
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Objective: Globally, one third of deaths each year are from cardiovascular diseases, yet no strong evidence supports any specific method of CPR instruction in a resource-limited setting. We hypothesized that both existing and novel CPR training programs significantly impact skills of hospital-based healthcare providers (HCP) in Botswana. Methods: HCP were prospectively randomized to 3 training groups: instructor led, limited instructor with manikin feedback, or self-directed learning. Data was collected prior to training, immediately after and at 3 and 6 months. Excellent CPR was prospectively defined as having at least 4 of 5 characteristics: depth, rate, release, no flow fraction, and no excessive ventilation. GEE was performed to account for within subject correlation. Results: Of 214 HCP trained, 40% resuscitate ≥ 1/month, 28% had previous formal CPR training, and 65% required additional skills remediation to pass using AHA criteria. Excellent CPR skill acquisition was significant (infant: 32% vs. 71%, p<0.01; adult 28% vs. 48%, p<0.01). Infant CPR skill retention was significant at 3 (39% vs. 70%, p<0.01) and 6 months (38% vs. 67%, p<0.01), and adult CPR skills were retained to 3 months (34% vs. 51%, p=0.02). On multivariable analysis, low cognitive score and need for skill remediation, but not instruction method, impacted CPR skill performance. Conclusions: HCP in resource-limited settings resuscitate frequently, with little CPR training. Using existing training, HCP acquire and retain skills, yet often require remediation. Novel techniques with increased student: instructor ratio and feedback manikins were not different compared to traditional instruction.
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Debriefing is a process involving the active participation of learners, guided by a facilitator or instructor whose primary goal is to identify and close gaps in knowledge and skills. A review of existing research and a process for identifying future opportunities was undertaken. A selective critical review of the literature on debriefing in simulation-based education was done. An iterative process of analysis, gathering input from audience participants, and consensus-based synthesis was conducted. Research is sparse and limited in presentation for all important topic areas where debriefing is a primary variable. The importance of a format for reporting data on debriefing in a research context was realized and a "who, when, where, what, why" approach was proposed. Also, a graphical representation of the characteristics of debriefing studies was developed (Sim-PICO) to help guide simulation researchers in appropriate experimental design and reporting. A few areas of debriefing practice where obvious gaps that deserve study were identified, such as comparing debriefing techniques, comparing trained versus untrained debriefers, and comparing the effect of different debriefing venues and times. A model for publication of research data was developed and presented which should help researchers clarify methodology in future work.
Article
Our primary objective was to describe and determine the feasibility of implementing a care environment targeted pediatric post-cardiac arrest debriefing program. A secondary objective was to evaluate the usefulness of debriefing content items. We hypothesized that a care environment targeted post-cardiac arrest debriefing program would be feasible, well-received, and result in improved self-reported knowledge, confidence and performance of pediatric providers. Physician-led multidisciplinary pediatric post-cardiac arrest debriefings were conducted using data from CPR recording defibrillators/central monitors followed by a semi-quantitative survey. Eight debriefing content elements divided, a priori, into physical skill (PS) related and cognitive skill (CS) related categories were evaluated on a 5-point Likert scale to determine those most useful (5-point Likert scale: 1=very useful/5=not useful). Summary scores evaluated the impact on providers' knowledge, confidence, and performance. Between June 2010 and May 2011, 6 debriefings were completed. Thirty-four of 50 (68%) front line care providers attended the debriefings and completed surveys. All eight content elements were rated between useful to very useful (Median 1; IQR 1-2). PS items scored higher than CS items to improve knowledge (Median: 2 (IQR 1-3) vs. 1 (IQR 0-2); p<0.02) and performance (Median: 2 (IQR 1-3) vs. 1 (IQR 0-1); p<0.01). A novel care environment targeted pediatric post-cardiac arrest pediatric debriefing program is feasible and useful for providers regardless of their participation in the resuscitation. Physical skill related elements were rated more useful than cognitive skill related elements for knowledge and performance.
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The 2010 international guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recently recommended an increase in the minimum compression depth from 38 to 50 mm, although there are limited human data to support this. We sought to study patterns of cardiopulmonary resuscitation compression depth and their associations with patient outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases treated by the 2005 guideline standards. Prospective cohort. Seven U.S. and Canadian urban regions. We studied emergency medical services treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Epistry-Cardiac Arrest for whom electronic cardiopulmonary resuscitation compression depth data were available, from May 2006 to June 2009. We calculated anterior chest wall depression in millimeters and the period of active cardiopulmonary resuscitation (chest compression fraction) for each minute of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We controlled for covariates including compression rate and calculated adjusted odds ratios for any return of spontaneous circulation, 1-day survival, and hospital discharge. We included 1029 adult patients from seven U.S. and Canadian cities with the following characteristics: Mean age 68 yrs; male 62%; bystander witnessed 40%; bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation 37%; initial rhythms: Ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia 24%, pulseless electrical activity 16%, asystole 48%, other nonshockable 12%; outcomes: Return of spontaneous circulation 26%, 1-day survival 18%, discharge 5%. For all patients, median compression rate was 106 per minute, median compression fraction 0.65, and median compression depth 37.3 mm with 52.8% of cases having depth <38 mm and 91.6% having depth <50 mm. We found an inverse association between depth and compression rate ( p < .001). Adjusted odds ratios for all depth measures (mean values, categories, and range) showed strong trends toward better outcomes with increased depth for all three survival measures. We found suboptimal compression depth in half of patients by 2005 guideline standards and almost all by 2010 standards as well as an inverse association between compression depth and rate. We found a strong association between survival outcomes and increased compression depth but no clear evidence to support or refute the 2010 recommendations of >50 mm. Although compression depth is an important component of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and should be measured routinely, the most effective depth is currently unknown.
Article
The incidence and incidence over time of cardiac arrest in hospitalized patients is unknown. We sought to estimate the event rate and temporal trends of adult inhospital cardiac arrest treated with a resuscitation response. Three approaches were used to estimate the inhospital cardiac arrest event rate. First approach: calculate the inhospital cardiac arrest event rate at hospitals (n = 433) in the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry, years 2003-2007, and multiply this by U.S. annual bed days. Second approach: use the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation inhospital cardiac arrest event rate to develop a regression model (including hospital demographic, geographic, and organizational factors), and use the model coefficients to calculate predicted event rates for acute care hospitals (n = 5445) responding to the American Hospital Association survey. Third approach: classify acute care hospitals into groups based on academic, urban, and bed size characteristics, and determine the average event rate for Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation hospitals in each group, and use weighted averages to calculate the national inhospital cardiac arrest rate. Annual event rates were calculated to estimate temporal trends. Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry. Adult inhospital cardiac arrest with a resuscitation response. The mean adult treated inhospital cardiac arrest event rate at Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation hospitals was 0.92/1000 bed days (interquartile range 0.58 to 1.2/1000). In hospitals (n = 150) contributing data for all years of the study period, the event rate increased from 2003 to 2007. With 2.09 million annual U.S. bed days, we estimated 192,000 inhospital cardiac arrests throughout the United States annually. Based on the regression model, extrapolating Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation hospitals to hospitals participating in the American Hospital Association survey projected 211,000 annual inhospital cardiac arrests. Using weighted averages projected 209,000 annual U.S. inhospital cardiac arrests. There are approximately 200,000 treated cardiac arrests among U.S. hospitalized patients annually, and this rate may be increasing. This is important for understanding the burden of inhospital cardiac arrest and developing strategies to improve care for hospitalized patients.
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Perishock pauses are pauses in chest compressions before and after defibrillatory shock. We examined the relationship between perishock pauses and survival to hospital discharge. We included out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Epistry-Cardiac Arrest who suffered arrest between December 2005 and June 2007, presented with a shockable rhythm (ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia), and had cardiopulmonary resuscitation process data for at least 1 shock (n=815). We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the association between survival and perishock pauses. In an analysis adjusted for Utstein predictors of survival, the odds of survival were significantly lower for patients with preshock pause ≥20 seconds (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 0.82) and perishock pause ≥40 seconds (odds ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval, 0.31 to 0.97) compared with patients with preshock pause <10 seconds and perishock pause <20 seconds. Postshock pause was not independently associated with a significant change in the odds of survival. Log-linear modeling depicted a decrease in survival to hospital discharge of 18% and 14% for every 5-second increase in both preshock and perishock pause interval (up to 40 and 50 seconds, respectively), with no significant association noted with changes in the postshock pause interval. In patients with cardiac arrest presenting in a shockable rhythm, longer perishock and preshock pauses were independently associated with a decrease in survival to hospital discharge. The impact of preshock pause on survival suggests that refinement of automatic defibrillator software and paramedic education to minimize preshock pause delays may have a significant impact on survival.
Article
Vasopressors administered IV late during resuscitation efforts fail to improve survival. Intraosseous (IO) access can provide a route for earlier administration. We hypothesized that IO epinephrine after 1 minute of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (an "optimal" IO scenario) after 10 minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest would improve outcome in comparison with either IV epinephrine after 8 minutes of CPR (a "realistic" IV scenario) or placebo controls with no epinephrine. Thirty swine were randomized to IO epinephrine, IV epinephrine, or placebo. Important outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 24-hour survival, and 24-hour survival with good neurological outcome (cerebral performance category 1). ROSC after 10 minutes of untreated VF was uncommon without administration of epinephrine (1 of 10), whereas ROSC was nearly universal with IO epinephrine or delayed IV epinephrine (10 of 10 and 9 of 10, respectively; P = 0.001 for either versus placebo). Twenty-four hour survival was substantially more likely after IO epinephrine than after delayed IV epinephrine (10 of 10 vs. 4 of 10, P = 0.001). None of the placebo group survived at 24 hours. Survival with good neurological outcome was more likely after IO epinephrine than after placebo (6 of 10 vs. 0 of 10, P = 0.011), and only 3 of 10 survived with good neurological outcome in the delayed IV epinephrine group (not significant versus either IO or placebo). In this swine model of prolonged VF cardiac arrest, epinephrine administration during CPR improved outcomes. In addition, early IO epinephrine improved outcomes in comparison with delayed IV epinephrine.
Article
Resuscitation guidelines recommend rescue ventilations consist of tidal volumes 7-10 ml/kg. Changes in thoracic impedance (ΔTI) measured using defibrillator electrode pads to detect and guide rescue ventilations have not been studied in children. We hypothesized that ΔTI measured via standard anterior-apical (AA) position can accurately detect ventilations with volume > 7 ml/kg in children. We also compared standard AA position with alternative anterior-posterior (AP) position. IRB-approved, prospective, observational study of sedated, subjects (6 months to 17 years) on conventional mechanical ventilation. Thoracic impedance (TI) was obtained via Philips MRx defibrillator with standard electrode pads for 5 min each in AA and AP positions. Ventilations were simultaneously measured by pneumotachometer (Novametrix CO(2)SMO Plus). Twenty-eight subjects (median 4 years, IQR 1.7-9 years; median 16.3 kg, IQR 10.5-39 kg) were enrolled. Data were available for 21 episodes in AA position and 22 episodes in AP position, with paired AA and AP data available for 18. For ventilations with volume < 7 ml/kg, the defibrillator algorithm detected 80.0% for both AA and AP (p=0.99). For ventilations ≥ 7 ml/kg, detection was 95.1% for AA and 95.7% for AP (p=0.38). Changes in thoracic impedance obtained via defibrillator pads can accurately detect ventilations above 7 ml/kg in stable, mechanically ventilated children, corresponding to rescue ventilations recommended during CPR. Both AA and AP pad positions were less sensitive to detect smaller volumes (< 7 ml/kg) than higher volumes (≥ 7 ml/kg), suggesting that shallow ventilations during CPR might be missed. There were no differences in impedance measurements between standard AA pad position and commonly used alternative AP pad position.
Article
To investigate the effectiveness of brief bedside "booster" cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training to improve CPR guideline compliance of hospital-based pediatric providers. Prospective, randomized trial. General pediatric wards at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Sixty-nine Basic Life Support-certified hospital-based providers. CPR recording/feedback defibrillators were used to evaluate CPR quality during simulated pediatric arrest. After a 60-sec pretraining CPR evaluation, subjects were randomly assigned to one of three instructional/feedback methods to be used during CPR booster training sessions. All sessions (training/CPR manikin practice) were of equal duration (2 mins) and differed only in the method of corrective feedback given to participants during the session. The study arms were as follows: 1) instructor-only training; 2) automated defibrillator feedback only; and 3) instructor training combined with automated feedback. Before instruction, 57% of the care providers performed compressions within guideline rate recommendations (rate >90 min(-1) and <120 min(-1)); 71% met minimum depth targets (depth, >38 mm); and 36% met overall CPR compliance (rate and depth within targets). After instruction, guideline compliance improved (instructor-only training: rate 52% to 87% [p .01], and overall CPR compliance, 43% to 78% [p < .02]; automated feedback only: rate, 70% to 96% [p = .02], depth, 61% to 100% [p < .01], and overall CPR compliance, 35% to 96% [p < .01]; and instructor training combined with automated feedback: rate 48% to 100% [p < .01], depth, 78% to 100% [p < .02], and overall CPR compliance, 30% to 100% [p < .01]). Before booster CPR instruction, most certified Pediatric Basic Life Support providers did not perform guideline-compliant CPR. After a brief bedside training, CPR quality improved irrespective of training content (instructor vs. automated feedback). Future studies should investigate bedside training to improve CPR quality during actual pediatric cardiac arrests.
Article
Complete recoil of the chest wall between chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is recommended, because incomplete chest wall recoil from leaning may decrease venous return and thereby decrease blood flow. We evaluated the hemodynamic effect of 10% or 20% lean during piglet cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Prospective, sequential, controlled experimental animal investigation. University research laboratory. Domestic piglets. After induction of ventricular fibrillation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was provided to ten piglets (10.7 +/- 1.2 kg) for 18 mins as six 3-min epochs with no lean, 10% lean, or 20% lean to maintain aortic systolic pressure of 80-90 mm Hg. Because the mean force to attain 80-90 mm Hg was 18 kg in preliminary studies, the equivalent of 10% and 20% lean was provided by use of 1.8- and 3.6-kg weights on the chest. Using a linear mixed-effect regression model to control for changes in cardiopulmonary resuscitation hemodynamics over time, mean right atrial diastolic pressure was 9 +/- 0.6 mm Hg with no lean, 10 +/- 0.3 mm Hg with 10% lean (p < .01), and 13 +/- 0.3 mm Hg with 20% lean (p < .01), resulting in decreased coronary perfusion pressure with leaning. Microsphere-determined cardiac index and left ventricular myocardial blood flow were lower with 10% and 20% leaning throughout the 18 mins of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Mean cardiac index decreased from 1.9 +/- 0.2 L . M . min with no leaning to 1.6 +/- 0.1 L . M . min with 10% leaning, and 1.4 +/- 0.2 L . M . min with 20% leaning (p < .05). The myocardial blood flow decreased from 39 +/- 7 mL . min . 100 g with no lean to 30 +/- 6 mL . min . 100 g with 10% leaning and 26 +/- 6 mL . min . 100 g with 20% leaning (p < .05). Leaning of 10% to 20% (i.e., 1.8-3.6 kg) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation substantially decreased coronary perfusion pressure, cardiac index, and myocardial blood flow.
Article
The objective of this study was to assess whether pediatric inpatients who receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for bradycardia with poor perfusion are more likely to survive to hospital discharge than pediatric inpatients who receive CPR for pulseless arrest (asystole/pulseless electrical activity [PEA]), after controlling for confounding characteristics. A prospective cohort from the National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation was enrolled between January 4, 2000, and February 23, 2008. Patients who were younger than 18 years and had an in-hospital event that required chest compressions for >2 minutes were eligible. Patients were divided into 2 groups on the basis of initial rhythm and pulse state: bradycardia/poor perfusion and asystole/PEA. Patient characteristics, event characteristics, and clinical characteristics were analyzed as possible confounders. Univariate analysis between bradycardia and asystole/PEA patient groups was performed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether an initial state of bradycardia/poor perfusion was independently associated with survival to discharge. A total of 6288 patients who were younger than 18 years were reported; 3342 met all inclusion criteria. A total of 1853 (55%) patients received chest compressions for bradycardia/poor perfusion compared with 1489 (45%) for asystole/PEA. Overall, 755 (40.7%) of 1353 patients with bradycardia survived to hospital discharge, compared with 365 (24.5%) of 1489 patients with asystole/PEA. After controlling for known confounders, CPR for bradycardia with poor perfusion was associated with increased survival to hospital discharge. Pediatric inpatients with chest compressions initiated for bradycardia and poor perfusion before onset of pulselessness were more likely to survive to discharge than pediatric inpatients with chest compressions initiated for asystole or PEA.
Article
Quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation contributes to cardiac arrest survival. The proportion of time in which chest compressions are performed in each minute of cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an important modifiable aspect of quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We sought to estimate the effect of an increasing proportion of time spent performing chest compressions during cardiac arrest on survival to hospital discharge in patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. This is a prospective observational cohort study of adult patients from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Cardiac Arrest Epistry with confirmed ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia, no defibrillation before emergency medical services arrival, electronically recorded cardiopulmonary resuscitation before the first shock, and a confirmed outcome. Patients were followed up to discharge from the hospital or death. Of the 506 cases, the mean age was 64 years, 80% were male, 71% were witnessed by a bystander, 51% received bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 34% occurred in a public location, and 23% survived. After adjustment for age, gender, location, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, bystander witness status, and response time, the odds ratios of surviving to hospital discharge in the 2 highest categories of chest compression fraction compared with the reference category were 3.01 (95% confidence interval 1.37 to 6.58) and 2.33 (95% confidence interval 0.96 to 5.63). The estimated adjusted linear effect on odds ratio of survival for a 10% change in chest compression fraction was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.21). An increased chest compression fraction is independently predictive of better survival in patients who experience a prehospital ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia cardiac arrest.
Article
High quality CPR skill retention is poor. We hypothesized that "just-in-time" and "just-in-place" training programs would be effective and well-accepted to maintain CPR skills among PICU staff. "Rolling Refreshers", a portable manikin/defibrillator system with chest compression sensor providing automated corrective feedback to optimize CPR skills, were conducted daily in the PICU with multidisciplinary healthcare providers. Providers practiced CPR until skill success was attained, prospectively defined as <3 corrective prompts within 30s targeting chest compression (CC) rate 90-120/min, CC depth > 38 mm during continuous CPR. Providers completing > or =2 refreshers/month (Frequent Refreshers [FR]) were compared to providers completing < 2 refreshers/month (Infrequent Refreshers [IR]) for time to achieve CPR skill success. Univariate analysis performed using non-parametric methods. Following actual cardiac arrests, CPR providers were surveyed for subjective feedback on training approach efficacy (5-point Likert scale; 1=poor to 5=excellent). Over 15 weeks, 420 PICU staff were "refreshed": 340 nurses, 34 physicians, 46 respiratory therapists. A consecutive sample of 20 PICU staff was assessed before subsequent refresher sessions (FREQ n=10, INFREQ n=10). Time to achieve CPR skill success was significantly less in FREQ (median 21s, IQR: 15.75-30s) than in INFREQ (median 67s, IQR: 41.5-84s; p<0.001). Following actual resuscitations, CPR providers (n=9) rated "Rolling Refresher" training as effective (mean=4.2; Likert scale 1-5; standard deviation 0.67). A novel "Rolling Refresher" CPR skill training approach using "just-in-time" and "just-in-place" simulation is effective and well received by PICU staff. More frequent refreshers resulted in significantly shorter times to achieve proficient CPR skills.