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Koncept ke zkoumání volebních podvodů: Případová studie ruských parlamentních voleb 2011

Abstract

The aim of this article is to create a concept for a research of election frauds which would be able to respond to the limits of the recent interpretation of this term. For achieving this goal it is necessary to accept the term election fraud which reduce the most of its possible limits. Then the new concept can be created. Hence, the research questions is: How will the concept reacting to this definition look like? This question is answered through the use of the instrumental case study of Russian elections to State duma which took place on the 4th December 2011. The quantitative content analysis is used here for the categorization of the official complaints about violations of electoral process submitted to the electoral commissions of the subjects of the Russian Federation.
          
    
     
  

                       
                   
                  
                  
                  
                
             

        

              
             
         
            

             

            
              
              
            
            

              
            
           
              
            
             
            
                 
               
              
              
             
           
    
          
                
             
             
             
          
             
          
              
            
     
             
              
            
               
            
             
              
          
            
             
           
           
            
              
                
       
             
             
     
          
             
           
             

             
               
           
   
 
              
             
              
             
             
            
            
           
            
              
             
          
             
             
 
            
  
         
        
 
         
   
 
     

  
 
     
      
  
 
         
  
   
             
             
           
            
             
    
 
 
    
      
   
      
    
   
          
    
       
   
      
    
      
  
   
   
       
         
  
 
         
       
    
    
  
  
   
       
   
  
   
  
          
        
         
 
        
         
      
   
      
   
        
       
         
   
   
     
   
   
             
            
             
             
  
          
             
             
            
           
             
           
                
              
      

              
            
             
           
            
             
          
    
          
            
             
             
            
            
             
            
              
           
              
          
              
            
               
               
             
     
           
                
               
              
            
             
              
 
     
           
           
            
             
            
              
              
        
   
 
             
             
           
             
               
              
    
        
               
               
                    
                 
               
                  
          
              
          
 
            
               
             
             
          
             
                 
  
           
            
          
           
        
             
            
           
             
            
           
                 
             
               
   

            
             
            
           
               
            
              
               
             

          
               
  
     
          
              
           
             
             
                 
 
               
            
             
           
              
             
            
             
             
              
              
             
               
            
   
  
              
            
             
              
               
              
  
            
              
           
             
                
 
            
            
           
              
            
      
                
             

   
            
            
              
           
           
               
              
             
      
          
    
           
          
               
            
             
             
            
    
           
            
                 
           
            
 
 
              
           
               
             
              
              
          
    
           
              
              
              
           
              
               
  
 
            
            
            
              
            
         
             
              
   
 
             
             
             
             
               
          
     
              
            
              
           
              
  
    
            
             
                
             
                   
               
            
            
             
       
 
             
               
                
                
              
              
             
           
                
                
             
             
             
              
                
            
 
             
              
            
             
              
               
              
                
                
      
          
           
            
   
                
          
            
            
             
            
             
            
               
              

            
             
           
           
             
               
              
            
    
              
               
              
              
          
              
              
              
            
              
           
              
            
             
           
    
                  
              
                 
               
   
             
                  
             
       
      
      
       
       
       
         
            
      
      
        
      
        
         
         
       
        
      
       
      
           
       
        
         
       
       
        
       
       
        
     
        
       
       
         
      
         
      
         
     
       
         
        
    
                
           
          
             
                
            
           
            
           
             
          
              
               
          
             
                 
          
               
               
             
             
           
             
             
              
             
              
              
              
            

    
            
            
               

               
           
               
           
          
         
          
           
               
                 
                
                 
                 
               
             
             
               
         
         
               
         
             
        
      
           
        
           
        
          
      
      
          
        
     
           
             
             
            
             
               
         
              
           
            
              
                
          
          
              
              
              
           
               
              
                 
             
              
 
              
               
          
               
             
               
             
              
              
               
            
                
   
             
             
      
      
      
          
      
  
      
  
         
     
   
    
    
    
     
     
        
     
       
  
  
       
 
  
       
     
         
    
               
            
           
             
            
             
            
          
                
             
             
           
               


            
           
                 
          
            
            
              
       
             
            
            
              
             
         
            
             
            
          
            
            
             
          
            
               
             
        
            
            
            
            
              
             
 
           
             
            
            
           
             
              
          
           
            
              
             
  
  
             
         


            
         


            
    
                
 
          

            
          


               
     

            
     
               
            
      

                 
 
      

                 
            
    
        
             
         

        

             
               
          
  

            
   
           
            
     


                
 
            
           

                
              
         
 
               
    
           
             

              
            
  

               
   

             
          
      

            
        
           
        

             
        

           
   


          
         


             
  

           
   

            
 

            
     
             
  

           
         

           

             
       
  


... Having outlined the structural conditions leading to biased behaviour on the part of the Election Commission of Russian Federation and election officials, we will now analyse the systemic set-up and potential behaviour of the bodies in practice. First, in accordance with Jarabinský's (2013) 7 classification of potential electoral fraud, we can closely observe the existing complaints about the behaviour of the Election Commission and election officials. Both the complaints and their rulings can serve as proxies for electoral fraud. ...
... The analysed collection of complaints allows us to follow a number of variables. On the basis of quantitative content analysis, Jarabinský (2013) categorises these complaints according to the individual types of potential electoral fraud. 10 The document also allows us to track other variables , including how the election commissions dealt with the complaints. ...
... The field of action for candidates and political parties is in contrast defined rather negatively, which means that a party may do whatever the law does not forbid. It is necessary to add, however, that in this sense, Russian laws are drawn up very restrictively in general (N 51-FZ 2005; Jarabinský 2013), which can also be one cause of the large number of complaints, since there is a greater number of rules that can be broken. Second, public access is logically much easier to political campaign events and candidates than to the meetings and decisions of election commissions. ...
Article
Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21599165.2014.990960 This text focuses on the Russian Electoral Commission (EC) and its performance during the Russian parliamentary elections in 2011. The three-step analysis consists of (1) the EC’s role and organisational structure; (2) a description of the complaints over the EC’s performance and (3) a detailed focus on the EC’s decisions on these complaints’ relevance. Quantitative content analysis is used to analyse the original data and a new forensic method is developed to look for potential biases in the EC’s decisions on raised complaints. Evidence indicate loss of professionalism, dependence, and biased behaviour. Therefore the EC lacks its credibility.
Article
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This article deals with the argumentation between opponents and advocates of the electoral reform which was approved by the Romanian parliament in May 2012. The text discusses the validity of the arguments raised by both sides of the dispute. For this purpose, the text considers only parliamentary debates and the argumentation of the Constitutional Court. The author employs arguments from the fields of political science and law to discuss the three main areas of the dispute. These are the representativeness of the intended electoral system, the number of elected representatives, and the timing of the electoral reform. The analysis concludes that the arguments to support each of the two main forms of electoral system – majoritarian and proportional – were used correctly. However, the arguments in favour of each system sometimes omitted important disadvantages connected with that system. Although the Constitution of Romania allows wide-ranging changes to the electoral system, the omitted consequences have to be taken into consideration. The text supplements discussions on electoral engineering with a focus on the constitutionality and validity of the arguments raised during the debate. From this perspective, it is necessary to take into consideration not just the mechanical effects of the electoral system but also its possible broader impact.
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