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Enhancing television advertising: Same-language subtitles can improve brand recall, verbal memory, and behavioral intent

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Abstract

This research explores how same-language subtitles—on-screen text that matches the spoken language—can enhance advertising effectiveness for television commercials on normal viewing audiences outside of foreign-language or deaf-viewer contexts. A preliminary eye-tracker study shows that same-language subtitles capture disproportionate visual attention, and a first study highlights that same-language commercial subtitles can increase brand recall and memory of other verbal ad information. Three further studies using 12 additional ads reinforce the positive effects of subtitles and show how same-language subtitle effectiveness varies with changes in visual and verbal ad complexity. In addition to showing how subtitles can increase behavioral intent, results also highlight how varying subtitle content affects memory gains and illustrate how subtitles can lead to negative effects in the uncommon situation that brand information is missing from the audio. As the efficacy of television advertising becomes increasingly debated, same-language subtitling is a simple way to boost advertising effectiveness.

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... When examining consumer reactions to placement integration, however, marketers should consider consumers' cognitive load, that is, the amount of mental effort that is imposed to their cognitive systems (Paas et al. 2003), because consumers are increasingly multitasking and operating under high cognitive loads (Bardhi, Rohm, and Sultan 2010;Brasel and Gips 2011). Thus, we use multitasking to indicate cognitive load. ...
... By conceptual replication, we mean that we included slight changes in the original research procedures (Schmidt 2009;Rosenthal 1991). Because American movies that are exported require either dubbing or subtitling to be available to foreignlanguage markets (Wissmath, Weibel, and Groner 2009), and subtitles are a source of cognitive load (d'Ydewalle et al. 1991;Brasel and Gips 2014), we focused on subtitled movies only. ...
... Considering that consumers are increasingly multitasking (Brasel and Gips 2011), investigations of cognitive load and product placement effectiveness can yield fruitful research. Therefore, we explored the interaction between placement integration and multitasking by replicating Yoon et al.'s (2011) study in France. ...
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... Consumer-based strategy is organizational strategy that is developed based on insights about consumers. Such strategy can be developed based on understanding consumers' wants and needs (e.g., Lam et al. 2013;Olson 2013), the costs consumers incur to purchase and own goods and services (e.g., Choi et al. 2014;Zielke and Komor 2015), the convenience of obtaining goods and services (e.g., Baker and Wakefield 2012;Lim et al. 2015), or what makes communication between the organization and the consumer more effective (e.g., Brasel and Gips 2014;Mikolon et al. 2015). All of these insights share a focus on consumers as the unit of analysis: data about needs, costs of purchase and ownership, convenience, and communication effectiveness can be collected for each consumer. ...
... Users of consumer-based strategy may include for-profit firms (e.g., Brasel and Gips 2014;Brocato et al. 2015), nonprofits (e.g., Pappu and Cornwell 2014), and governmental bodies (e.g., Burton et al. 2015;Lwin et al. 2007). Firms may wish to persuade consumers to purchase their products and services; generating consumer insights can help them develop the right products and services for the right prices and effectively persuade consumers to buy them. ...
... First, the phenomenon being studied must be of interest to organizations, whether these are for-profit firms, non-profits, or governmental agencies. For example, Brasel and Gips (2014) compared consumers' reactions to advertisements with and without same-language subtitles; this is relevant to managers because organizations have choices to make about the format of the advertisements they place. Second, the dependent variables that are measured must be relevant to decision makers within these organizations. ...
... Auditory messages can reinforce a matching visual, as in the case of product placements presented both visually and auditorily (Russell 2002). Written information can reinforce auditory information; for instance, in the context of TV commercials, text subtitles that visually reiterate the information conveyed in the auditory channel attract the viewers' attention and enhance recall and memory of the auditory message (Brasel and Gips 2014). ...
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... The impact of multi-language stimuli, such as subtitled and multilingual advertising. For example, Brasel and Gips (2014) show that, among L1 speakers of the language used in a commercial, subtitles in the same language can influence attention and increase recall. The influence of relatively small variations in language, such as accents and dialects. ...
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... Neuromarketing methods are useful to study consumer behavior in a noninvasive way, bringing better understanding of the decision-making process which is much more emotional than once thought (Fugate, 2007(Fugate, , 2008Balconi, 2014;Booth & Freeman, 2014;Droulers et al., 2014;Sebastian, 2014;). These new methods raise the issues of advertising impact on decision making to a new level (Macklem, 2005;Babiloni et al., 2014;Brasel & Gips, 2014;Venkatraman et al., 2014). Over the past decade, the application of neuroscience to the consumer psychology of brands has gained popularity (Plassman et al., 2012). ...
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... Further, when examining customer responses for consumer-based marketing strategy questions, Hamilton (2016) presents useful guidance. When done well, results from experiments provide evidence of how and/or why the phenomenon works, such as, for example, why a change in product subtitling might result in a change in sales (Brasel and Gips 2014). ...
... Learning, storage, retrieval Impact of field dependency on brand information Ng and Houston (2009) Structure in memory Consumers' memory retrieval and choice process Biehal and Chakravarti (1982), Keller (1987) Influence of the level of involvement on learning and memory Hawkins and Hoch (1992) Consumers' recall and recognition of advertisements, brand names, brand memory Alba and Chattopadhyay (1986), Bagozzi and Silk (1983), Baker (2003), Brasel and Gips (2014), Kelting and Rice (2013), Lerman and Garbarino (2002) (2002) Nature of consumer knowledge Perspectives on and implications for the nature of consumers' brand-related memory , Ratnayake et al. (2010), Teichert and Schöntag (2010) Memory research reviews Synthesizes memory (affect and persuasion) research including information processing, interplay between motivation and cognition, and implicit memories' impact on consumer behavior Johar et al. (2006), Schacter (1987) behavior researchers. Not surprisingly, a large amount of research investigating diverse facets of brand knowledge structures has been produced over the years (summarized in Table 1). ...
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... The modality principle suggests that it is generally beneficial to receive both visual and audio information in the learning process (Low & Sweller, 2014). Similarly, subtitles have been shown to enhance learning: same-language subtitles in video advertisements were shown to enhance the viewers' memory of the brand and slogan (Brasel & Gips, 2014), and watching recorded lectures with subtitles was associated with better comprehension performance (Kruger & Steyn, 2014). ...
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... These observations are consistent with extensive literature pertaining to dual-versus single-modality presentations and impact on information processing. 37,38 Therefore, policy makers and drug ad sponsors should consider dual modality to be a critical element in the effectiveness of this approach. Without dual modality, far fewer consumers may notice and remember the disclosure statement. ...
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... The impact of multi-language stimuli, such as subtitled and multilingual advertising. For example, Brasel and Gips (2014) show that, among L1 speakers of the language used in a commercial, subtitles in the same language can influence attention and increase recall. The influence of relatively small variations in language, such as accents and dialects. ...
Chapter
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... Tipo de anuncio (Bellman et al., 2016) (Bellman, Schweda, & Varan, 2012) (Brasel & Gips, 2014) (Cartwright, McCormick, & Warnaby, 2016) (Chan, Su, & Huang, 2010) Comercial y publicidad estática (Roozen & Meulders, 2015) Medios tradicionales: televisión, radio, impresos y sitio web ...
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... 2. Improves comprehension for all students -SLS can have a powerful impact on comprehension for all students, Steinfeld (1998), Kothari (2008), Brasel and Gips (2014). Providing this kind of access for students is an excellent example of UDL principle 1 (Provide multiple means of representation): it can enable the curriculum for all students, not just those with disabilities. ...
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... The use of these subtitles has resulted in learners experiencing a lot of improvement in their target language. The use of these subtitles has resulted in learners experiencing a lot of improvement in their target language (Ahn, 2013;Baker, 2001;Brasel & Gips, 2014;Caimi, 2006;Danan, 2004;Hinkin, Harris, & Miranda, 2014;Lee, 2017;Mitterer & McQueen, 2009;Yoon, 2018;Yu, 2013). Markham (1989) conducted a study focusing on the effectiveness of using captioned video in the development of listening comprehension skills of ESL students belonging to various proficiency levels. ...
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Many advertisers have argued that 15-sec TV commercials should be used only to reinforce effects created by longer commercials. However, this recommendation is based on studies that have several weaknesses, including use of single exposure levels, established commercials, and learning as the primary dependent variable. The authors report the findings of an experiment in which they compared the effectiveness of 15- and 30-sec commercials by using novel commercials with different message appeals (informational vs emotional), exposing 138 undergraduates multiple times, and employing multiple dependent variables. Informational 15-sec commercials were as effective as informational 30-sec commercials in several situations and could be used as stand-alone units. Emotional 30-sec commercials were superior to emotional 15-sec commercials in influencing a viewer's learning of brand name and attitude. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Dubbing and subtitling are the two most common methods of translating television broadcasts or movies. Both dubbing and subtitling may present specific advantages and disadvantages. In this study, the effects of these two methods on presence, transportation, flow, and enjoyment were investigated in an experimental approach. Participants ( N = 154) watched a 30-min segment of a movie. Between-subject factors were translation method (dubbing without subtitles, dubbing with subtitles in a foreign language, and original language with subtitles) and genre (drama, comedy, and thriller). Findings indicate that subtitles in a foreign language decrease feelings of spatial presence, transportation, and flow. However, the difference between dubbing and subtitling failed to reach significance. No effect of translation method on enjoyment was found. The pattern of results is equal for all genres. Further analyses showed spatial presence, transportation, and flow to be related. In addition, transportation is more strongly related to enjoyment than flow and spatial presence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Students viewed a computer animation depicting the process of lightning. In Experiment 1, they concurrently viewed on-screen text presented near the animation or far from the animation, or concurrently listened to a narration. In Experiment 2, they concurrently viewed on-screen text or listened to a narration, viewed on-screen text following or preceding the animation, or listened to a narration following or preceding the animation. Learning was measured by retention, transfer, and matching tests. Experiment 1 revealed a spatial-contiguity effect in which students learned better when visual and verbal materials were physically close. Both experiments revealed a modality effect in which students learned better when verbal input was presented auditorily as speech rather than visually as text. The results support 2 cognitive principles of multimedia learning. Technological advances have made possible the combina-tion and coordination of verbal presentation modes (such as narration and on-screen text) with nonverbal presentation modes (such as graphics, video, animations, and environmen-tal sounds) in just one device (the computer). These ad-vances include multimedia environments, where students can be introduced to causal models of complex systems by the use of computer-generated animations (Park & Hopkins, 1993). However, despite its power to facilitate learning, multimedia has been developed on the basis of its technologi-cal capacity, and rarely is it used according to research-based principles (Kozma, 1991; Mayer, in press; Moore, Burton, & Myers, 1996). Instructional design of multimedia is still mostly based on the intuitive beliefs of designers rather than on empirical evidence (Park & Hannafin, 1994). The purpose of the present study is to contribute to multi-media learning theory by clarifying and testing two cogni-tive principles: the contiguity principle and the modality principle.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the redundancy effects obtained when spoken information was duplicated in writing during the learning of a multimedia document. Documents consisting of diagrams and spoken information on the development of memory models were presented to three groups of students. In the first group, no written text was presented. In the second, written sentences redundant with the spoken information were progressively presented on the screen while in the third group, these written sentences were presented together. The results show that whatever the type of text presentation (sequential or static), the duplication of information in the written mode led to a substantial impairment in subsequent retention and transfer tests as well as in a task in which the memorization of diagrams was evaluated. This last result supports the hypothesis that the visual channel is overloaded as the cognitive theory of multimedia learning suggests.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit that listeners obtain from visually presented output from an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system during listening to speech in noise. Auditory-alone and audiovisual speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured. The SRT is defined as the speech-to-noise ratio at which 50% of the test sentences are reproduced correctly. In the auditory-alone SRT tests, the test sentences were presented only auditorily; in the audiovisual SRT test, the ASR output of each test sentence was also presented textually. The ASR system was used in two recognition modes: recognition of spoken words (word output), or recognition of speech sounds or phones (phone output). The benefit obtained from the ASR output was defined as the difference between the auditory-alone and the audiovisual SRT. We also examined the readability of unimodally displayed ASR output (i.e., the percentage of sentences in which ASR errors were identified and accurately corrected). In experiment 1, the readability and benefit obtained from ASR word output (n = 14) was compared with the benefit obtained from ASR phone output (n = 10). In experiment 2, the effect of presenting an indication of the ASR confidence level was examined (n = 14). The effect of delaying the presentation of the text relative to the speech (up to 6 sec) was examined in experiment 3 (n = 24). The ASR accuracy level was varied systematically in each experiment. Mean readability scores ranged from 0 to 46%, depending on ASR accuracy. Speech comprehension improved when the ASR output was displayed. For example, when the ASR output corresponded to readability scores of only about 20% correct, the text improved the SRT by about 3 dB SNR in the audiovisual SRT test. This improvement corresponds to an increase in speech comprehension of about 35% in critical conditions. Equally readable phone and word output provides similar benefit in speech comprehension. For equal ASR accuracies, both the readability and the benefit from the word output generally exceeded the benefits from the phone output. Presenting information about the ASR confidence level did not influence either the readability or the benefit obtained from the word output. Delaying the text relative to the speech moderately decreased the benefit. The present study indicates that speech comprehension improves considerably by textual ASR output with moderate accuracies. The study shows that this improvement depends on the readability of the ASR output. Word output has better accuracy and readability than phone output. Listeners are therefore better able to use the ASR word output than phone output to improve speech comprehension. The ability of older listeners and listeners with hearing impairments to use ASR output in speech comprehension requires further study.
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Previous research has shown that redundant information in faces and voices leads to faster emotional categorization compared to incongruent emotional information even when attending to only one modality. The aim of the present study was to test whether these crossmodal effects are predominantly due to a response conflict rather than interference at earlier, e.g. perceptual processing stages. In Experiment 1, participants had to categorize the valence and rate the intensity of happy, sad, angry and neutral unimodal or bimodal face-voice stimuli. They were asked to rate either the facial or vocal expression and ignore the emotion expressed in the other modality. Participants responded faster and more precisely to emotionally congruent compared to incongruent face-voice pairs in both the Attend Face and in the Attend Voice condition. Moreover, when attending to faces, emotionally congruent bimodal stimuli were more efficiently processed than unimodal visual stimuli. To study the role of a possible response conflict, Experiment 2 used a modified paradigm in which emotional and response conflicts were disentangled. Incongruency effects were significant even in the absence of response conflicts. The results suggest that emotional signals available through different sensory channels are automatically combined prior to response selection.
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Changes in the media landscape have made simultaneous usage of the computer and television increasingly commonplace, but little research has explored how individuals navigate this media multitasking environment. Prior work suggests that self-insight may be limited in media consumption and multitasking environments, reinforcing a rising need for direct observational research. A laboratory experiment recorded both younger and older individuals as they used a computer and television concurrently, multitasking across television and Internet content. Results show that individuals are attending primarily to the computer during media multitasking. Although gazes last longer on the computer when compared to the television, the overall distribution of gazes is strongly skewed toward very short gazes only a few seconds in duration. People switched between media at an extreme rate, averaging more than 4 switches per min and 120 switches over the 27.5-minute study exposure. Participants had little insight into their switching activity and recalled their switching behavior at an average of only 12 percent of their actual switching rate revealed in the objective data. Younger individuals switched more often than older individuals, but other individual differences such as stated multitasking preference and polychronicity had little effect on switching patterns or gaze duration. This overall pattern of results highlights the importance of exploring new media environments, such as the current drive toward media multitasking, and reinforces that self-monitoring, post hoc surveying, and lay theory may offer only limited insight into how individuals interact with media.
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Three central problems in the recent literature on visual attention are reviewed. The first concerns the control of attention by top-down (or goal-directed) and bottom-up (or stimulus-driven) processes. The second concerns the representational basis for visual selection, including how much attention can be said to be location- or object-based. Finally, we consider the time course of attention as it is directed to one stimulus after another.
Book
This text provides a snapshot of issues reflecting the changing nature of translation studies at the beginning of a new millennium. Resulting from discussions between translation theorists from all over the world, topics covered include: the nature of translation; English as a "lingua franca"; public service translation and interpreting; assessment; and audio-visual translation. The first part of the work covers a discussion stimulated by Peter Newmark's paper, and the second part allows invited colleagues to develop his topics. © 2003 Gunilla Anderman, Margaret Rogers and the authors of individual chapters. All rights reserved.
Chapter
In daily life people are often confronted with more than one source of information at a time, as, for example, when watching television. A television program has at least two channels of information: a visual one (the image) and an auditory one (the sound). In some countries most of the television programs are imported from abroad and subtitled in the native language. The subtitles, then, are a third source of information. Characteristically, each of these three sources of information are partly redundant: they do not contradict but rather supplement one another, or express the same content in a different form.
Book
For hundreds of years verbal messages such as lectures and printed lessons have been the primary means of explaining ideas to learners. Although verbal learning offers a powerful tool, this book explores ways of going beyond the purely verbal. Recent advances in graphics technology have prompted new efforts to understand the potential of multimedia and multimedia learning as a means of promoting human understanding. In Multimedia Learning, Second Edition, Richard E. Mayer asks whether people learn more deeply when ideas are expressed in words and pictures rather than in words alone. He reviews twelve principles of instructional design that are based on experimental research studies and grounded in a theory of how people learn from words and pictures. The result is what Mayer calls the cognitive theory of multimedia learning, a theory introduced in the first edition of Multimedia Learning and further developed in The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning.
Article
This experiment involved the question of where human observers look in a picture. The results indicated that observers fixate earlier, more often, and with longer durations on objects that have a low probability of appearing in a scene (e.g., an octopus in a farm scene) than on objects that have a high probability of appearing (e.g., a tractor in a farm scene). These findings (a) imply a role of cognitive factors in peripheral visual processing and (b) suggest a possible relationship between the nature of information initially acquired from a picture and subsequent recognition memory for that picture. Language: en
Chapter
In Experiment 1, subjects reported on the speed of three presentation times of subtitles (4-, 6- and 8-seconds rules), with the 6-seconds rule as the one used by most TV stations (normal presentation time). In Experiment 2, three time rules (2-, 4- and 6-seconds rule) were used in three different tapes of the same movie and the eye movements were recorded. Subjects did or did not master the spoken language; a third group did not receive the sound track. The findings suggest that, under normal presentation time, time spent in reading the subtitle does not change as a function of the knowledge and the availability of the spoken language, due to the longstanding experiences of our subjects with such a presentation time. A number of episodic effects of the movie are to be explained by their confounding with the number of lines in the subtitle: As the time to switch from the movie to the subtitle is more or less the same in all cases, more viewing time is available with two lines. In general, processing of subtitles seems to be an automatic or “encapsulated” activity, at least if it is not disturbed by abnormal presentation times.
Book
In recent years, multimedia learning, or learning from words and images, has developed into a coherent discipline with a significant research base. The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning is unique in offering a comprehensive, up-to-date analysis of research and theory in the field, with a focus on computer-based learning. Since the first edition appeared in 2005, it has shaped the field and become the primary reference work for multimedia learning. Multimedia environments, including online presentations, e-courses, interactive lessons, simulation games, slideshows, and even textbooks, play a crucial role in education. This revised second edition incorporates the latest developments in multimedia learning and contains new chapters on topics such as drawing, video, feedback, working memory, learner control, and intelligent tutoring systems. It examines research-based principles to determine the most effective methods of multimedia instruction and considers research findings in the context of cognitive theory to explain how these methods work.
Article
The plot structure in television advertisements can enhance consumers' brand attitudes and foster increasing consumer and industry recognition. A corpus analysis of contemporary television advertisements shows that advertisements using the repetition-break plot structure are a small percentage of television advertisements but a large percentage of Clio and Effie award-winning advertisements. They are also likely to attain postings and views on YouTube. Three experiments using television advertisements from contemporary brands show that repetitionbreak advertisements are persuasive, leading to more favorable brand attitudes and greater purchase intentions than similar plot structures and that this effect is attributable in part to the advertisements being more engaging. Thus, a theoretically explainable and generic plot structure yields effective advertisements. The result is a new and flexible tool for marketing professionals to use to generate advertisements, with guidelines for when and why it should and should not be effective.
Article
Historically television has been one of the most powerful marketing contacts. But the recent proliferation of TV channels and influence of digital contacts resulted in audience fragmentation and additional media clutter. These caused speculation that the influence of TV is waning. Based on the last four years' data across the globe, the empirical evidence refutes that conclusion. The data show that TV retains its clout among target audiences. Increased digital media influence has not caused a decrease of TV influence. However, influence of any communication contact varies by market. In closing we show contact influence in an electronics category in 12 global markets.
Article
■ Dubbing and subtitling are the most prevalent methods used to make foreign-language television programmes available to a domestic market. Each adaptation method has its advantages and disadvantages. This article provides an inventory of the pros and cons of both methods on the basis of three questions: Through which method can information best be transferred? What are the aesthetic advantages and disadvantages of each method? Which skills do viewers acquire `incidentally' by using one of the two adaptation methods? The answers given to these questions are based as much as possible on the results of empirical research on dubbing and subtitling. The conclusion is that there is no empirical evidence for some frequently claimed advantages and disadvantages. With regard to other pros and cons, it depends on the viewer, the type of television programme and the way in which a programme is subtitled or dubbed as to whether the argument should be taken seriously. ■
Article
This experimental study examines the effects of audio and visual redundancy on recall and story understanding in television news. College students viewed a series of voice-over news stories that varied in the amount of redundancy between the two channels and then responded to both auditory and visual recall measures. The results show higher auditory recall and story understanding in the high-redundancy condition than in the lower redundancy conditions. Visual recall shows the reverse pattern with higher recall scores in the lower redundancy conditions than in the high-redundancy condition.
Article
Two experiments examined visual attention distribution in learning from text and pictures. Participants watched a 16-step multimedia instruction on the formation of lightning. In Experiment 1 (N=90) the instruction was system-paced (fast, medium, slow pace), while it was self-paced in Experiment 2 (N=31). In both experiments the text modality was varied (written, spoken). During learning, the participants’ eye movements were recorded. Results from both experiments revealed that learners spent more time studying the visualizations with spoken text than those with written text. In written text conditions learners consistently started reading before alternating between text and visualization; moreover, they spent more time reading the text than inspecting the visualizations. While in Experiment 1 additional time that was made available in conditions with a slow or medium instruction pace was spent inspecting visualizations, in Experiment 2 longer learning times resulted from reading the text more intensively. With respect to learning outcomes (retention, transfer, and visual memory) Experiment 1 revealed an effect of text modality for visual memory only. In Experiment 2 no modality effects were found. Instruction pace was hardly related to learning outcomes. Overall, the results confirm prior findings suggesting that the distribution of visual attention in multimedia learning is largely guided by the text.
Article
Attitude toward the ad (Aad) has been postulated to be a causal mediating variable in the process through which advertising influences brand attitudes and purchase intentions. Previous conceptual and empirical research on this topic has suggested four alternative models of the relationships between brand-related cognitive, affective, and conative responses and ad-related cognitive and affective responses. The authors describe a structural equations analysis of these four models, utilizing two data sets generated within a commercial pretest setting. The results suggest that a dual mediation hypothesis, which postulates that Aad influences brand attitude both directly and indirectly through its effect on brand cognitions, is superior to the other three models under the particular set of conditions in the pretest setting.
Article
Eye movements of children (Grade 5–6) and adults were monitored while they were watching a foreign language movie with either standard (foreign language soundtrack and native language subtitling) or reversed (foreign language subtitles and native language soundtrack) subtitling. With standard subtitling, reading behavior in the subtitle was observed, but there was a difference between one- and two-line subtitles. As two lines of text contain verbal information that cannot easily be inferred from the pictures on the screen, more regular reading occurred; a single text line is often redundant to the information in the picture, and accordingly less reading of one-line text was apparent. Reversed subtitling showed even more irregular reading patterns (e.g., more subtitles skipped, fewer fixations, longer latencies). No substantial age differences emerged, except that children took longer to shift attention to the subtitle at its onset, and showed longer fixations and shorter saccades in the text. On the whole, the results demonstrated the flexibility of the attentional system and its tuning to the several information sources available (image, soundtrack, and subtitles).
Article
The growth of advertising on the World Wide Web requires research on users' general perceptions since these affect attitudes toward individual advertisements. This article presents results of an intercept survey focusing on the perceived value of Web advertising, an approach developed by the author for assessing advertising in the general media. Both the hypothesized model of advertising value and its role as an antecedent of overall audience attitudes are confirmed. The author maintains that advertising value is a useful measurement criterion for evaluating advertising effects generally, and particularly in the case of the Web.
Article
When foreign movies are subtitled in the local language, reading subtitles is more or less obligatory. Our previous studies have shown that knowledge of the foreign language or switching off the sound track does not affect the total time spent in the subtitled area. Long-standing familiarity with subtitled movies and processing efficiency have been suggested as explanations. Their effects were tested by comparing American and Dutch-speaking subjects who differ in terms of subtitling familiarity. In Experiment 1, American subjects watched an American movie with English subtitles. Despite their lack of familiarity with subtitles, they spent considerable time in the subtitled area. Accordingly, subtitle reading cannot be due to habit formation from long-term experience. In Experiment 2, a movie in Dutch with Dutch subtitles was shown to Dutch-speaking subjects. They also looked extensively at the subtitles, suggesting that reading subtitles is preferred because of efficiency in following and understanding the movie. However, the same findings can also be explained by the more dominant processing of the visual modality. The proportion of time spent reading subtitles is consistently larger with two-line subtitles than with one-line subtitles. Two explanations are provided for the differences in watching one- and two-line subtitles: (a) the length expectation effect on switching attention between picture and text and (b) the presence of lateral interference within two lines of text.
Article
The Viewer Response Profile (VRP) scale is often used in commercial advertising research, and frequently used and cited in the academic advertising literature. This paper describes an investigation of the psychometric soundness of the Schlinger scale among a very large sample of respondents (N = 4,800) who each view a single ad from a large set of ads. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) provides an alternative parsimonious 20-item version of the scale that is found to exhibit superior psychometric properties. Managerial and research implications are discussed and suggestions for further improvement of the scale are offered.
Article
A number of experimental studies have demonstrated the incidental acquisition of a foreign language by children and adolescents when watching foreign language television. While such experiments can only establish short‐term effects, this article investigates the extent to which children’s foreign language skills benefit from their long‐term consumption of media. An empirical study conducted in the Flemish (Dutch‐speaking) area of Belgium compared the self‐reported use of three English language media by 374 pupils in the last year of primary education with their scores on two oral translation tests: one from Dutch to English and one vice versa. Two general linear model analyses of variance reveal that pupils who frequently watch subtitled English television programs and movies perform significantly better on both tests. Interestingly, the effect of watching subtitled television and movies is stronger with girls than with boys. Furthermore, playing English computer games positively influences the scores on the English–Dutch test.
Article
Reports 2 studies, using a total of 304 university students, in which a likable or unlikable communicator delivered a persuasive message via writing, audiotape, or videotape. In both studies the likable communicator was more persuasive in video- and audiotape than in writing, but the unlikable communicator was more persuasive in writing. Thus, communicator likability was a significant determinant of persuasion only in the broadcast modalities. Other findings suggest that Ss process more communicator cues when exposed to video- and audiotape messages than when exposed to written ones and that communicator-based (rather than message-based) cognitions predicted opinion change primarily in video and audiotape conditions rather than in written ones. It is concluded that video- and audiotapes enhance communicator-related information, so that communicator characteristics exert a disproportionate effect on persuasion when messages are broadcast. Findings are also discussed in relation to "vividness" phenomena. (40 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In an experimental study, we analyzed the cognitive processing of a subtitled film excerpt by adopting a methodological approach based on the integration of a variety of measures: eye-movement data, word recognition, and visual scene recognition. We tested the hypothesis that the processing of subtitled films is cognitively effective: It leads to a good understanding of film content without requiring a significant tradeoff between image processing and text processing. Following indications in the psycholinguistic literature, we also tested the hypothesis that two-line subtitles whose segmen-tation is syntactically incoherent can have a disruptive effect on information processing and recognition performance. The results highlighted the effectiveness of subtitle processing: Regardless of the quality of line segmentation, participants had a good understand-ing of the film content, they achieved good levels of performance in both word and scene recognition, and no tradeoff between text and image processing was detected. Eye-movement analyses enabled a further characterization of cognitive processing during subtitled film viewing. This article discusses the theoretical im-plications of the findings for both subtitling and multiple-source communication and highlights their methodological and applied implications.
Article
The three key ad elements (brand, pictorial, and text) each have unique superiority effects on attention to adver-tisements, which are on par with many commonly held ideas in marketing practice. This is the main conclusion of an analysis of 1363 print advertisements tested with infrared eye-tracking methodology on more than 3600 con-sumers. The pictorial is superior in capturing attention, independent of its size. The text element best captures attention in direct proportion to its surface size. The brand element most effectively transfers attention to the other elements. Only increments in the text element's surface size produce a net gain in attention to the advertisement as a whole. The authors discuss how their findings can be used to render more effective decisions in advertising. Rik Pieters is Professor of Marketing, Marketing Department, Tilburg Uni-versity (e-mail: pieters@uvt.nl). Michel Wedel is Professor of Marketing, University of Michigan Business School (e-mail: wedel@bus.umich.edu). The authors thank Dominique Claessens and Chris Huijnen of Verify Inter-national for the eye-tracking data.
Article
The ubiquitous label ‘some assembly required’ signals the appearance of instructions for assembly procedures. These instructions come in various formats, some of which may be more effective than others. Previous research has demonstrated advantages for multimedia as compared to single-format presentations. The current study sought to outline the cognitive processes contributing to this advantage. Specifically, two experiments examined the working memory and source monitoring processes involved with remembering procedural instructions presented in three different formats. Participants learned procedural instructions while undertaking one of a variety of selective interference tasks targeting working memory subcomponents. Results, while supporting a multimedia advantage for learning, demonstrated selective working memory subsystem involvement with different instruction formats. Further, despite the multimedia advantage, participants often misremembered multimedia presentations as picture-based ones. These results provide further insight into the cognitive processes that underlie comprehension and memory for multimedia experiences. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chapter
The next 5 years will hold more change for the advertising industry than the previous 50 did. Increasingly empowered consumers, more self-reliant advertisers, and ever-evolving technologies are redefining how advertising is sold, created, consumed, and tracked. Our research points to four evolving future scenarios, and the catalysts that will be driving them. Traditional advertising players — broadcasters, distributors, and advertising agencies — may get squeezed unless they can successfully implement consumer, business model and business design innovation.
Article
This plenary address to the Society for Marketing Advances calls on the marketing discipline to be accountable, link its contributions to financial performance, and assert the value it contributes to the firm. The paper suggests a process for developing causal links among marketing activities, intermediate marketing outcomes, and financial performance metrics.
Article
Multimodal training involving both visual and auditory information was shown to improve text comprehension and reduce cognitive load. However, it is argued that in spatial tasks visual guidance can impair training effectiveness because it encourages shallow performance strategies and little exploration. Moreover, visual aids are attractive to both trainers as well as trainees, who tend to use them despite their potential disadvantages. To examine this potential training trap, two experimental studies were conducted. In Study 1, each trainer instructed trainees on how to perform a 3-D puzzle in two conditions: vocal guidance (17 trainees), where only vocal instructions were possible, and vocal guidance with mouse pointing (17 trainees), where the trainer could also use a mouse to point out positions on the trainee's screen. The results showed that while the use of the mouse pointer reduced trainees' mental load during training, it also drastically lowered performance level on a non-supervised test. In Study 2, a real-world version of puzzle was trained. A comparison of a vocal guidance group (16 trainees) to a group trained with an additional mouse pointing and drawing option (16 trainees) showed, as well, reduced performance levels with the additional visual aids. The results suggest that the abundant use of multimodal training in Augmented Reality (AR) applications should be re-evaluated.
Article
The present study examined attentional capture by an unannounced motion singleton in a visual search task. The results showed that a motion singleton only captured attention on its first unannounced occurrence when the observers had not encountered moving items before in the experiment, whereas it failed to capture when observers were familiar with moving items. This indicates that motion can capture attention independently of top-down attentional control settings, but only when motion as a feature is unexpected and new. An additional experiment tested whether salient items can capture attention when all stimuli possess new and unexpected features, and novelty information cannot guide attention. The results showed that attention was shifted to the location of the salient item when all items were new and unexpected, reinforcing the view that salient items receive attentional priority. The implications of these results for current theories of attention are discussed.
Article
How is our gaze dispersed across the screen when watching television? An exploratory eyetracker study with a custom-designed show indicated a very strong center-of-screen bias with gaze points following a roughly normal distribution peaked near screen center. Examining the show across time revealed that people were rarely all looking at the same location, and the amount of gaze dispersion within frames was highly variable. Different forms of programming yielded different levels of dispersion: static network 'bumpers' created the tightest visual groupings, and gaze dispersion for frames with show content was less than the dispersion for commercials. Advertising frames with brand logos generated higher dispersion than the non-branded advertisement portions, and repeated advertisements generated higher dispersion than their first-run counterparts.
Article
Simultaneous reading and listening with a redundant display of visual text with speech output was investigated to determine how variations in verbal working memory capacity and content complexity affected comprehension. Previous work has found some evidence of a benefit for displays that blend speech and visual text; content complexity and verbal working memory capacity are likely to significantly determine this benefit. In the experiment reported here, a multimodal display of e-mail messages was compared with speech output alone and with a purely visual display. Comprehension of the messages was examined in relation to verbal working memory capacity and the complexity of the messages. Thirty-two users participated in the study, which used a repeated measures design. The data show that the multimodal interface did not affect comprehension relative to a purely visual interface, even when the content was more complex, although it did improve the comprehension of complex information relative to a purely auditory interface. Lower-capacity participants were neither especially advantaged nor disadvantaged by the multimodal interface. Participants expressed a marked preference for the multimodal display of the more complex sentences. The experiment suggests that a redundant multimodal display will neither assist nor disrupt understanding when compared with a purely visual display, but it will assist understanding of complex content when compared with speech output alone. Application: Redundant displays of visual text and speech have potential application in multitask situations, in multimedia presentations, and for devices with small screens.
Article
We propose a formal Bayesian definition of surprise to capture subjective aspects of sensory information. Surprise measures how data affects an observer, in terms of differences between posterior and prior beliefs about the world. Only data observations which substantially affect the observer's beliefs yield surprise, irrespectively of how rare or informative in Shannon's sense these observations are. We test the framework by quantifying the extent to which humans may orient attention and gaze towards surprising events or items while watching television. To this end, we implement a simple computational model where a low-level, sensory form of surprise is computed by simple simulated early visual neurons. Bayesian surprise is a strong attractor of human attention, with 72% of all gaze shifts directed towards locations more surprising than the average, a figure rising to 84% when focusing the analysis onto regions simultaneously selected by all observers. The proposed theory of surprise is applicable across different spatio-temporal scales, modalities, and levels of abstraction.
Article
This experiment involved the question of where human observers look in a picture. The results indicated that observers fixate earlier, more often, and with longer durations on objects that have a low probability of appearing in a scene (e.g., an octopus in a farm scene) than on objects that have a high probability of appearing (e.g., a tractor in a farm scene). These findings (a) imply a role of cognitive factors in peripheral visual processing and (b) suggest a possible relationship between the nature of information initially acquired from a picture and subsequent recognition memory for that picture.
Article
Recorded the eye movements of 20 undergraduates as they viewed each of 10 pictures for 20 sec. The informativeness of regions within the pictures was determined independently by subjective ratings from 20 different Ss. Mean informativeness of locations fixated decreased over time and reached an asymptote after about 10 sec of viewing time. Mean duration of fixation showed a steady increase and mean extent of saccadic eye movements showed a steady decrease as viewing time progressed. A pattern of visual exploration was found in which Ss initially made many long saccades to fixate informative elements for short fixations; this behavior gradually evolved to fixating informative features less frequently and with longer examination of less informative details.
Article
Recent studies of eye movements in reading and other information processing tasks, such as music reading, typing, visual search, and scene perception, are reviewed. The major emphasis of the review is on reading as a specific example of cognitive processing. Basic topics discussed with respect to reading are (a) the characteristics of eye movements, (b) the perceptual span, (c) integration of information across saccades, (d) eye movement control, and (e) individual differences (including dyslexia). Similar topics are discussed with respect to the other tasks examined. The basic theme of the review is that eye movement data reflect moment-to-moment cognitive processes in the various tasks examined. Theoretical and practical considerations concerning the use of eye movement data are also discussed.
Article
We examined how behavioral context influences novelty processing by varying the degree that a novel event predicted the occurrence of a subsequent target stimulus. Visual event-related potentials (ERPs) and reaction times (RTs) were recorded in 3 detection experiments (23 subjects). The predictive value of a novel stimulus on the occurrence of a subsequent target was varied as was novel-target pairing intervals (200-900 ms). In Experiment 1, novel stimuli always preceded a target, in Experiment 2, 40% of novel stimuli were followed by a target, and in Experiment 3, novel stimuli occurred randomly. In Experiment 1, RTs following 100% predictive novels were shortened for targets at all spatial locations and novel-target pairing intervals. Novel stimuli predicting a target generated a central negativity peaking at 300 ms and reduced P3a and P3b ERPs. In Experiments 2 and 3, target RTs were prolonged only when novel and target stimuli were presented in the same spatial location at short ISIs (200 ms). The central novel N2 was smaller in amplitude in comparison to Experiment 1, and novelty P3a and target extrastriate N2 and posterior scalp P3b ERPs were enhanced. The enhanced N2 for 100% predictive novel stimuli appears to index an alerting system facilitating behavioral detection. The same novel stimuli with no predictive value distract attention and generate a different ERP pattern characterized by increased novelty P3a and target P3b responses. The results indicate that behavioral context determines how novel stimuli are processed and influence behavior.