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Nominication for strategic leadership: Best practices in Japanese-style communication for managerial purposes

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Abstract

Communication over drinks after work is an important part of workplace culture that has recently come to be called nominication in Japan, by combining the Japanese word for drinking (nomi) with the ending of the English word communication. It is also a social practice that is frequently used by Japanese managers to further their leadership agendas. In order to understand this form of professional communication in Japan more fully in the context of professional management, a survey of 30 Japanese leaders in different fields was conducted to see how this cultural phenomenon is currently viewed and practiced. From this information, a list of best practices was generated that the will be of interest to managers everywhere, as well as to educators and researchers who would like to investigate this type of managerial communication further.
978-1-61284-779-5/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE
Nominication for Strategic Leadership:
Best Practices in Japanese-Style Communication
for Managerial Purposes
Kazuaki Yamauchi
Office for Planning and Management
University of Aizu
yamauchi@u-aizu.ac.jp
Thomas Orr
Center for Language Research
University of Aizu
t-orr@u-aizu.ac.jp
Abstract Communication over drinks after work is
an important part of workplace culture that has
recently come to be called nominication in Japan, by
combining the Japanese word for drinking (nomi) with
the ending of the English word communication. It is
also a social practice that is frequently used by
Japanese managers to further their leadership
agendas. In order to understand this form of
professional communication in Japan more fully in the
context of professional management, a survey of 30
Japanese leaders in different fields was conducted to
see how this cultural phenomenon is currently viewed
and practiced. From this information, a list of best
practices was generated that will be of interest to
managers everywhere, as well as to educators and
researchers who would like to investigate this type of
managerial communication further.
Index Terms drinking, Japanese management, nominication,
managerial communication , managerial strategies
INTRODUCTION
In Japan, communication over drinks after work is an
important part of workplace culture that has existed for
centuries. In recent years, this social custom has come to
be labeled nominication, by combining the Japanese word
for drinking (nomi) with the ending of the English word
communication, and receives periodic attention in books
and articles targeted at the business community or the
general public. Notable publications, such as [1]-[10],
mention this social phenomenon and provide brief
descriptions of the culture, along with occasional
guidelines for proper behavior in order to avoid
embarrassment. But the recommendations from these
kinds of publications in Japan are typically based on
author experience rather than on any systematic study of
actual practice at sufficient depth. In addition, no
publications that we are aware of investigate how leaders
in different fields make strategic use of nominication to
accomplish specific managerial objectives as part of their
overall approach to leadership.
In this paper, we address this gap in the professional
communication literature by reporting on a small study we
conducted in Japan to investigate how nominication is
currently viewed and practiced by 30 Japanese managers
in diverse leadership situations. The initial assumptions
that we wished to test were 1) that nominication is viewed
and practiced by Japanese leaders for managerial purposes
in a range of diversity and depth of understanding that
surpasses that typically mentioned in publications
designed for managers or the general public, and 2) that
significant information could be learned from the situated
professional opinions and experiences of Japanese
nominicators in leadership positions that would be of
value to managers everywhere. The goal of this study was
not only to test these assumptions, but also to generate
some tentative best practices that would be of value to
managers everywhere who wish to understand how leaders
in other cultures manage within their specific contexts.
Additionally, we wished to lay some groundwork for other
studies on this topic for more exhaustive research later.
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows:
The next section, titled Japan’s Drinking Culture, presents
a brief overview of drinking culture in Japan according to
widely held beliefs and practices. The section after that,
titled Research Method, describes our project activities
and methodologies. This is followed by a presentation of
the results in the section titled Research Results. And after
that we offer some discussion of the findings along with
recommendations for specific applications and further
nominication research in the Discussion and Conclusion
sections. We believe that this information will be useful
to anyone in academic or corporate leadership as well as
anyone who is teaching professional communication from
an international perspective in order to better prepare their
students for the global workplace.
JAPANS DRINKING CULTURE
Japan is a drinker’s paradise and seems to have been
for a very long time. In the Sannai-Maruyama Ruins,
located in Aomori Prefecture, remnants of sake (rice
wine) brewing have been found that Japanese historians
date very roughly to sometime between 3,500-2,000 B.C.,
during Japan’s Jomon period. Ancient Chinese historians
also recorded information about drinking in Japan in the
3rd century, A.D., when they wrote that the people of
Yamatai (ancient Japan) loved to drink and dance [2].
Today, drinking continues to play a central role in
Japanese culture, in the home, in pubs after work, and at
every kind of religious ceremony or secular celebration,
ranging from weddings, anniversaries, and reunions to
festivals and funerals, where excessive drinking
accompanied by singing and dancing is a socially
acceptable form of normal public behavior, designed to
promote social bonding and to facilitate communal
celebration. Drinking with coworkers, business associates,
customers, and clients after work also plays a vital role in
Japanese society to help build relationships and conclude
business agreements. Correct behavior at these social
events in terms of attire, language, and manners receives
considerable attention in social training provided by
parents at home, professors in the university, mentors in
the workplace, or trainers in corporate new-employee
orientation programs, but how managers employ
nominication strategically as part of their leaderships
responsibilities is a topic that requires more investigation
to which this paper contributes a small part.
RESEARCH METHOD
In order to learn more about the perspectives and
practices of nominication by Japanese nominicators in
positions of leadership, 30 leaders were carefully selected
from among our rather large pool of professional
acquaintances in order to achieve a balance of informants
from different fields, workplace locations, and workplace
environments. These leaders where then surveyed via
email, telephone, and/or face-to-face interviews to gather
information about their nominication policies and
strategies. The Japanese ―managers‖ selected for this
research were the following, with specific names and
details made purposely vague in order to respect the
privacy of the informants and their organizations. All of
the managers worked for Japanese companies except
those where foreign affiliation is labeled.
1. Retired manager from a major electronics
manufacturer, currently working as an adjunct
university professor
2. Executive director of a major hospital
3. General director of a government bureau
4. President of a natural gas company
5. President of a major heavy equipment company
6. Manager in a prefectural government office
7. Superintendent of a city board of education
8. Executive director of a tour bus company
9. Manger at the Japan branch of a major foreign
company
10. Director of a government division
11. Sales manager for a trading company
12. Branch manager of a major telecommunications
company
13. Administrator at a prefectural university
14. Manager at the Tokyo branch of a major foreign bank
15. Managing partner of an international executive search
firm
16. Branch director of the Osaka office for an
international trading company
17. CEO of a major electronics manufacturer
18. CEO of a major machinery manufacturer
19. Elected city council leader
20. Head priest of a Buddhist temple
21. President of a software development company
22. President of a graphic design company
23. President of a systems engineering company
24. President of a software development company
25. President of a software development company
26. CEO of a real estate company
27. Head of a university research laboratory
28. Manager at a major publishing company
29. Executive at a major producer of alcoholic and non-
alcoholic beverages
30. Chair of a university department and director at its
affiliated hospital.
Most of these leaders have held many different
management positions in one or more organizations, and
developed their perspectives and practices in a number of
different circumstances with different groups of peers and
subordinates, through personal experience as well as
through mentor advice and/or more formal training.
Data gathered from these informants were assembled
in an electronic database and studied to primarily identify
two things. One was how informants viewed the pragmatic
goal or function of nominication, and the other was what
guidelines informants believed would assure the greatest
success in achieving a manager’s desired goals from
nominication. Information about the context within which
this advice was situated was also considered. This
information was then used to construct a list of best
practices built from the combined input of all 30
informants, which was then reviewed and refined by the
authors in order to generate a list that represented the full
breadth of the informants’ professional philosophies. The
list would also serve as a baseline for further investigation
in the future to see how closely this list matched the
thinking of other leaders across Japan, as well as studies
of how consistently these practices actually worked to
achieve their intended managerial objectives.
RESEARCH RESULTS
The combined and refined perspectives on
nominication gathered from the 30 informants surveyed in
this research are listed below in two lists. The first list
describes best practices for the use of nominication to
accomplish specific managerial goals. And the second list
offers a wide array of best practices to guide managers in
how to think, speak, and behave so as to obtain the best
results from their efforts. None of these lists in their
entirety came from the survey and interview responses of
any single informant; however, the combined list of
informant opinions resonated strongly with those who
were shown the combined lists after they were completed
and confirmed that this information was both accurate and
highly reflective of their own fuller understanding of
nominication best practices.
I. The Objectives of Nominication
For Relationship Building
To allow employees or project members who do not
know each other to begin to get to know each other. This
means learning not only each person’s job title and
workplace responsibilities, but also getting to know their
personalities and interests, and perhaps even their
strengths and weaknesses.
To build a strong foundation of friendship and good
will that is prerequisite for successful teamwork and
cooperation, and prepares subordinates to understand,
accept, and wholeheartedly follow a manager’s lead.
To create a stronger network among company
employees in different divisions to further a productive
exchange of ideas and expertise among people who
normally do not have much contact with each other during
their daily workplace duties.
To build stronger ties between company employees
and clients or project team members from other
organizations.
To build stronger ties of loyalty and appreciation
among spouses or family members (when the event is
designed to include them) so that they can more fully
understand and support the hard work, long hours, and
sacrifice of their breadwinner in the organization that
employs themand to show spouses or family members
that the organization cares about them, too.
To match single peers or subordinates with potential
marriage partners to demonstrate that the company or
organization is interested in all aspects of an employee’s
happiness.
For Vital Info Exchange and Managerial Input
To create an environment where peers and
subordinates feel free to let down their guards and speak
more freely, openly, and honestly about what they really
think or feel especially introverted types who may need
a little assistance from the atmosphere and alcohol in
order to share what they have been thinking in silence.
To gather useful information about subordinate
interests, talents, and preferences that cannot be easily
gathered in the workplace so that managers can better
match employees with job assignments that will bring the
organization greater success and bring employees greater
satisfaction.
To celebrate the completion of a project or milestone
by showing appreciation to all of the project members for
their hard work.
To celebrate the promotion, achievement, or
retirement of a peer or subordinate to help them feel
appreciated as well as to build confidence in others that
the organization’s leadership values the organization’s
members individually as persons.
To counsel and encourage a peer or subordinate who
is suffering from harmful perspectives and emotions and
thus needs to see people and circumstances in more
positive and productive ways.
To communicate to unhappy subordinates that the
company wishes them to stay with the company.
To communicate to problematic subordinates that the
company would like to assist them find a position in
another division within the company or employment at an
entirely different company that would be a much better
match and thus make them happier and more successful.
II. Advice to Assure Success with Nominication
Communication Advice
Mangers should make sure they properly greet and
communicate with everyone they invite to participate, so
as not to offend, embarrass, or disappoint anyone.
Mangers should listen carefully and respectfully to
what their peers or subordinates say, especially if their
goal is to know them more deeply in order to build
stronger ties with them.
Mangers should offer advice or talk about their
personal experiences only after they have interested their
subordinates enough for them to appreciate what the
managers have to say. If subordinates are only listening
to managers politely because of their higher rank, then the
managers’ words will not influence their listeners in ways
they expect.
Managers should be careful not to destroy the positive
energy and good relationships they built during
nominication by speaking and behaving badly in the
workplace afterwards. And conversely, managers should
not expect communication to go smoothly and positively
during nominication if they have made relationships
complicated and uncomfortable for their subordinates
prior to the event during normal working hours.
Managers should not speak maliciously against others
who are not present, especially in a perverted attempt to
build people’s respect for themselves by damaging
people’s respect for others.
Managers and their drinking mates should only speak
critically of a project or the project members who are
present during nominication if everyone agrees to this
beforehand. This is because most people join drinking
events to refresh themselves with cheerful thoughts and
conversations rather than to discuss heavy topics.
Mangers should share some private or embarrassing
information about themselves if they want to create an
environment where subordinates feel comfortable sharing
private or embarrassing information about themselves.
Managers should select their stories, carefully, however,
so as not to create unexpected problems in other social
domains.
Managers should not make important promises or
decisions while drinking, since their memory or
professional judgment may not be working at peak
performance.
Managers should be careful not to scold, caution, or
embarrass a peer or subordinate during nominication.
Stern instructions should be saved for the office in the
context of work, and pleasant words saved for the
drinking environment to better enable an employee to hear
and accept stern instructions in the workplace.
Managers should keep up-to-date on current issues at
the company and in the world, as well as continue to
expand and deepen their knowledge of many different
topics so that they can participate in conversations in
admirable ways that will be both useful and respected by
their peers and subordinates.
Managers should not think that simply holding a
drinking event with subordinates will automatically
generate the desired results. Managerial objectives are
only accomplished successfully during nominication if the
manager’s words, attitudes, and behavior are carefully
aligned with the desired objectives and used in
professional ways. Nominication only provides an ideal
environment for the manager to exercise his/her
communication skills. It is the communication that takes
place in this environment that does the real work.
Participant Selection Advice
Managers should match the participant list with the
objectives of the nominicative event so that goals can be
accomplished smoothly and efficiently. For example, if
the goal is to make the environment as fun as possible to
help team members relieve some stress, then inviting
some attractive members of the opposite sex may be wise
to help get everyone’s mind off the pressures at work.
Care should be taken, however, to avoid introducing new
problems in other areas that may adversely affect work
later.
Managers should not invite a workplace subordinate
of the opposite sex to drink with him or her alone or
misunderstandings may surface that can make their work
unnecessarily complicated.
Seating Advice
Managers should consider seating arrangements and
participant seat locations carefully in order to allow
communication channels to complement the overall
communication objectives for the event. Depending on
the circumstances, this will mean that seats will be
assigned, selected freely, or chosen by lot. For one-to-one
nominication that addresses sensitive issues, seating side-
by-side at a bar may be less stressful than sitting face-to-
face at a table. And sitting where the conversation will not
be overheard by others will also facilitate a freer
exchange of private information.
Drinking Advice
Managers should eat and drink with moderation
during nominication since they need to be in full control
of their minds and emotions in order to accomplish their
objectives. If managers need to unwind and let their
words or emotions run free, they should not do this with
their subordinates because improper words, attitudes and
behavior will be nearly impossible to erase from their
subordinates’ memories, and thus severely hinder future
management efforts. However, if a manager can avoid
acting or speaking unwisely while drinking heavily,
circumstances may sometimes dictate that a manager get
appropriately drunk in order to win the hearts of others
who feel the need to get drunk, too.
Financial Advice
Managers should consider carefully how each
nominication event will be funded so as not to burden
anyone with expenses or heavy social obligations that they
do not appreciate. This means that sometimes the
manager will pick up the tab, sometimes the older
members will chip in to treat the younger or new members,
that everyone will share the total cost equally, or that each
member will cover his/her own expenses. Sensitivity to
the participants’ circumstances and preferences will help
managers to decide which option is the most suitable in
each situation.
Managers should consider carefully the
socioeconomic circumstances, interests, and budgets of
their subordinates and match nominication locations and
activities appropriately. Nominication with some
subordinates may be more effective when accompanied by
expensive liquor served at exclusive clubs, while
nominication with others may be more effective over
beers at a karaoke studio or the company baseball
diamond. Effective managers are prepared to participate
fully, strategically, and enjoyably in all nominication
environments.
Scheduling Advice
Mangers should be aware that younger Japanese
professionals these days tend to value their private time
with friends or family members more than their time after
work with others in their workplace. Wise managers
understand these new competing allegiances, and thus
adjust the hours and frequency of nominication
accordingly and perhaps even use these outside loyalties
to their organization’s advantage by creating events that
friends or family members can participate in, too.
Managers should set appropriate time limits and not
allow nominication to drag on past the interests and
attention spans of the other participants.
Location Advice
Manages should be aware that a growing number of
young professionals do not drink alcohol or enjoy being
in smoke-filled places. Wise managers need to adjust their
organization’s nominication practices to fully include
these preferences, while at the same time satisfying the
preferences of those who enjoy drinking and/or smoking
heavily.
Innovation Advice
Mangers should feel free to improve the nominication
culture at their workplace if the previous style does not fit
the current needs and interests of their coworkers.
Adjusting nominication events to the preferences of one’s
peers and subordinates and the evolving new needs of the
organization usually generates better results than simply
following long-time traditions that perhaps only aging
managers still appreciate.
DISCUSSION
Several things can be observed from these lists as well
as noted from conversations with the informants in this
study that are worthy of mention. The information is
offered to readers without much analysis or scholarly
reflection since this initial investigation was not designed
to study these items with the academic rigor required to
take our understanding deeply below the surface. These
kinds of studies will need to come later when they can be
done properly and presented individually in much greater
length.
Observation: A few managers commented that less
experienced or less professional managers may think of
nominication in terms of clever schemes, techniques,
words, and behavior that could be used to manipulate
subordinates in personally or corporately advantageous
ways. However, more mature managers think of
nominication more broadly as proper managerial goals
and behavior for assuring that the genuine needs and
interests of everyone in an organization, as well as in
every part of society it touches, are met in the best ways
possible. Nominication corrupted by selfishness or
dishonesty will eventually make situations worse in the
long run rather than better.
Observation: Most managers stated that one
characteristic goal of Japanese organizations is to achieve
wa (harmony) among its members and that nominication
is an excellent tool for managers to help their
organizations achieve this state of maturity.
Observation: A couple of managers stated a ―truth‖ that
brought hearty agreement from others: Good sake never
tastes as good when consumed alone as it does when
enjoyed with friends. Thus, managers should not only
help their peers and subordinates discover better flavor in
their drinks but also make efforts to build the quality of
friendship among their drinking companions that would
assure the greatest pleasure from the companionship as
well.
Observations: Some managers who had experience
working in foreign companies or with foreign
professionals stated that in a society like Japan, where
responsibilities and expectations are seldom spelled out
on paper, nominication may be essential for managers to
mold employee thinking in proper ways that will benefit
both the employees as well as the company.
Observation: Nominication in major cities usually takes
place at bars or restaurants near the workplace since
employees typically commute from very different parts of
the city. The wealth of public transportation options in
urban centers also allow nominicators to travel home
safely without having to worry about driving drunk.
Nominication in small towns; however, has the advantage
of more options since communication can not only take
place at a local drinking establishment, but it can also take
place at someone’s home, at a park, or at a cookout beside
a river or on a beach. Small town nominication thus has
the advantage of including significant others or entire
families in the event when this option is preferred
something that urban nominication can seldom dowhich
can build useful bonds among a wider range of people
associated directly and indirectly to an organization. The
only disadvantage is that a lack of sufficient public
transportation in smaller communities can cause added
burdens to spouses who need to drive their breadwinner
home from a bar; it can add burdensome expense to
nominication by requiring the use of a taxi rather than an
inexpensive train or bus; or this can increase the risk of
drunken driving when nominicators attempt to drive
themselves home. Wise managers, however, are aware of
these situations and make the best use of the advantages
while taking great care to avoid the disadvantages.
Observation: In order to extend the range of advantages
that can come from nominication without having to go
somewhere after work for a drink, some managers are
creating other opportunities for quality member
communication in the workplace. These include activities
such as short speeches by employees on any topic that
concerns or interests them delivered before other
employees during extended lunch events. These in-house
communication events are especially useful when the
employee population includes working mothers, who need
to finish their workplace responsibilities quickly so that
they can pick up their infants at childcare centers or be
home in time to meet older children when they return
home from school.
Observation: All of the managers surveyed in this
project seemed to have a strong understanding of their
workplace context and the people who worked with them,
and they seemed to employ nominication strategies that fit
their specific circumstances well. Differences in
individual practices appeared to be more dependent on
local contexts than on differences in manager personality
or preferences; however, this will require further study to
determine how personalities figure into a manager’s
nominication philosophies and practices.
CONCLUSION
In this paper, we have presented the advice and best
practices constructed from the input of 30 Japanese
managers in different workplace situations. Validating our
assumptions, we found that this advice is deeper and more
diverse than that typically mentioned in publications
designed for managers or the general public, and that
significant information can indeed be learned from the
situated professional opinions and experiences of these
Japanese nominicators in leadership positions that has
value for managers everywhere. The list of nominication
objectives and the list of guidelines for effective
nominication practice also have value for researchers who
would like to refine this information and explain it with
more substantial research from other disciplinary
perspectives. Naturally, this study only addresses how
workplace communication is currently practiced and
evolving in Japan, so we encourage further studies to
compare these practices with those in other cultures to
better understand managerial communication there. We
also encourage further research on the specific advice
identified by our informants in order to better assess how
each strategy works within different contexts with
different types of people. Much remains to be understood
about how managers can communicate effectively with
their subordinates in order to achieve their managerial
aims that this project only began to investigate.
Ultimately, however, it appears that nominication is
not about the consumption of alcohol for managerial
purposes, for most managers will admit that successful
nominication can occur almost as easily over tea or coffee
if the circumstances dictate it. What is really at the core
of successful nominication is communication that
facilities human bonding between mangers and
subordinates in ways that may be impossible in the
workplace. And it is this kind of professional
communication that most managers aspire to since
harmoniously bonded people can be motivated to work in
mutually complementary ways that will bring greater
benefit to themselves and to their organizations.
REFERENCES
[1] H. Ohtsuka and Y. Ubatani, 伝わる
[Communicatize]. Tokyo: PHP Interface, 2008.
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Sanichishobo, 1998.
[3] T. Namai, 酒の飲み方で人生が変わる [Your life will
Change Depending on the Way You Drink].
Tokyo: Hamano Shuppan, 2002.
[4] K. Sakaguchi, 日本の酒 [Sake in Japan]. Tokyo: Iwanami,
2007.
[5] M. Shimada, 酒道入門 [Introduction to the Way of
Drinking]. Tokyo: Kadokawa Publishing, 2008.
[6] M. Sato, 交渉術 [The Art of Negotiation]. Tokyo:
Bungeishunju, 2009.
[7] H. Nishioka, なぜ, 日本人は桜の下で酒を飲みたくなる
の か ? [Why Japanese People Would Like to Drink Under
Cherry Trees in Full Bloom?]. Tokyo: PHP, 2009.
[8] 女子飲み: 職場に広がる三つの理由
[Women Drinking: Three Reasons Why Women Drink Together
in Their Workplace] Nihon Keizai Shimbun [Japan Economic
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けなび」[How to Judge Men's Style from Their Sake: Sake
Navigation for Business Leaders], Patinum Serai, January 2010.
[10] 飲みニケーションは必要ですか? [Is nominication
necessary?] The Asahi Shimbun, [The Asahi Newspaper], June 4,
2011.
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Kazuaki Yamauchi is an assistant professor at the
University of Aizu in the Office for Planning and
Management. He has a B.S. in Mining Engineering from
West Virginia University, a B.S. in Mining Engineering,
from Iwate University, and an M.Ed. in TESOL from
Temple University. After working in the field of
international marketing with Moritani & Co. Ltd. for 6
years and Teledyne Japan for 6 years, he joined the
University of Aizu in 1993 to work in research and
management. His research interests include second
language acquisition (SLA), English for specific purposes
(ESP), program design and training for industry and
higher education, university management, international
negotiation, and university-industry cooperation.
Thomas Orr, PhD, is a professor at the University of
Aizu’s Center for Language Research, where he conducts
research in professional development and communication
in science and technology with the aim of developing
effective educational programs and materials of benefit to
native and nonnative speakers of English. He has taught
English in the United States and Japan for roughly 30
years and has had his work published by IEEE,Wiley-
InterScience, Halldin, Rodopi, Baywood, Wiley-
Blackwell, TESOL, JALT, JACET and others. More
information can be found at http://www.u-aizu.ac.jp/~t-orr.
... The author also verified that those support professionals engaged more frequently in gatherings and parties in their department. Indeed, using drink and food to boost communication and cooperation is a well-known practice of Japanese corporative world, called 'nominication', from 'nomini', alcohol in Japanese language, and 'cation', from communication (Yamauchi, Orr, 2011). The friendly environment resulting from nominication practice can form the basis for developing the so-called 'ba', the knowledge creation and sharing environment, that is fueled by trust, love, care and respect, as define Takeuchi and Nonaka (2008). ...
Chapter
Software development is intensive in knowledge use, both tacit, regarding to experience, and explicit, concerning to project documentation. Knowledge must be shared, so the organization can learn, and employees can coordinately reach its objectives. Learning is impossible without organizational memory, which has formal and informal elements, related with tacit and explicit knowledge. Thus, the aim of this chapter is to discuss the relationship between knowledge, organizational learning, and organizational memory in software development, highlighting hurdles commonly faced and providing suggestions for improvement.
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Thesis
Full-text available
Em vista de sua complexidade, projetos de software são, comumente, desenvolvidos em equipes. Esta atividade requer a busca, uso e compartilhamento de informação e conhecimento, além do aprendizado e atualização constante das habilidades profissionais. São empregadas metodologias de projetos que enfatizam a produtividade e restringem processos considerados burocráticos, como a documentação. A documentação, contudo, é imprescindível para comunicar informações de projetos e compreender o código-fonte, visando sua adaptação e manutenção. Portanto, é relevante investigar o comportamento informacional dos desenvolvedores de software, verificando as barreiras para a satisfação de suas necessidades informacionais. Deste modo, os objetivos do presente estudo são: estudar o comportamento informacional dos referidos profissionais quanto à busca, seleção, uso, reuso e compartilhamento de informações e conhecimentos, salientando a influência da cultura organizacional. A hipótese apresentada é que a maior intensidade de uso da Internet por estes profissionais, evidenciada na literatura científica, resultaria da indisponibilidade de informações e conhecimentos registrados, na organização. Outra hipótese é que a rotina acelerada afetaria, por restrições de tempo, o compartilhamento de informações, essencial ao trabalho em equipe. Portanto, realizou-se um estudo de casos múltiplos com abordagem qualiquantitativa em uma empresa de desenvolvimento de software do município de Marília, São Paulo, membro da Associação de Empresas de Serviços de Tecnologia da Informação, e uma empresa do município de Garça, São Paulo, membro da Associação Comercial e Industrial de Garça. Buscou-se, por meio da dialética, uma síntese das perspectivas da cultura organizacional e do sujeito organizacional quanto ao comportamento informacional. Efetuou-se: a análise da missão, visão e valores nos sites das organizações; observação dos ambientes de trabalho e padrões de comunicação entre os profissionais; entrevistas com os gestores, verificando valores e políticas referentes à informação e ao conhecimento; aplicação de questionários aos desenvolvedores de software, verificando a eficácia de seu comportamento informacional; entrevistas finais com os profissionais, esclarecendo tendências e contradições nos dados. Os dados dos questionários foram analisados quantitativamente e os das entrevistas por meio da análise de conteúdo categorial. Os fatores culturais do comportamento informacional verificaram-se mediante a metodologia de análise cultural de Schein, e os individuais, pelo modelo de comportamento informacional complexo de Wilson. Como resultados, de modo geral, apurou-se nas empresas pesquisadas a valorização do conhecimento tácito e seu compartilhamento face a face, mediante a existência de confiança entre os colaboradores, bem como evidências de inconsistências na formalização de informação. Por fim, é proposto, para ambas as empresas, o processo de mudança cultural de Schein, para o aprimoramento do comportamento informacional, mediante conscientização das lacunas informacionais, adoção de comportamentos eficientes e sua sedimentação na cultura, utilizando incentivos de curto e longo prazo.
Article
This study examines contributing factors of alcohol misuse among college students in South Korea and the U.S. Exploratory factor analyses (EFA) on measurements of alcohol expectancy, alcohol efficacy, and accommodation resulted in social and personal causes for alcohol misuse. Social causes alone predicted alcohol misuse for both countries. Social factors constituted a much stronger predictor of alcohol misuse among South Korean students than among American students. Practical implications for effective deterrence of student binge drinking are discussed.
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