Conference PaperPDF Available

Interference of touch dimmer lamps due to PLC and other high frequency signals

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The interference of touch dimmer lamps due to PLC signals has found to be a common interference problem in Finland after the installation of smart meters that use PLC. One reason for this is the lack of equipment immunity standards for voltage frequencies below 150 kHz. This paper will study controlled discontinuous high frequency signal burst effect to two touch dimmer lamps in the laboratory environment. Both lamps were disturbed due to these signals. Based on the results it is possible that interference problems can occur even if the distance between lamp and the PLC device is close to 100 m. Paper will also show the measurement results on how one plug-in type filter improve interference situation. Results show that the amplitude of the signal burst will decrease at lamp side but filter also affects signal levels at mains side.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... 24: Voltage and current waveform at bus-bar R1 when running on backup generator (G). Note that the voltage and current are indicative of the six pulse rectifier from the two online UPS's indicated inFigure 3.21. ...
... 10 and 4.11 show the impact on light output from lamps 24 and 27 respectively. For lamp24 it is seen that the high frequency distortion causes the average light output to drop as before and the modulation of light output to get almost completely attenuated (Notice that frequency components apart from DC have almost zero magnitude with test signals 1 and 2). It was noticed that lamp 27 showed minimum impact of high frequency interference with the average light output ...
... On the other hand, another reason of concern is the potential influence and consequences of high frequency emissions over PLC systems [23][24][25]. In fact, the noise model in PLC is more complex than in other traditional communication systems, since it consists of coloured broadband noise, narrowband interference and different types of impulsive noise [26]. ...
Preprint
Distributed Energy Resources might have a severe influence on Power Line Communications, as they can generate interfering signals and high frequency emissions or supraharmonics that may cause loss of metering and control data. In this paper, the influence of various energy resources on Narrowband Power Line Communications is described and analyzed through several test measurements performed in a real microgrid. Accordingly, the paper describes the effects on smart metering communications through MAC layer analysis. Results show that the commutation frequency of inverters and the presence of battery chargers are remarkable sources of disturbance in low voltage distribution networks. In this sense, the results presented can contribute to efforts towards standardization and normative of emissions at higher frequencies higher, such as CENELEC EN 50160 and IEC/TS 62749.
... Commonly used EMI emission limits for the frequency range from 150 kHz to 30 MHz are given in [22] for Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) devices, however, there has been no clear standard that regulates the frequency range from 2 kHz to 150 kHz [23]. The emissions that occur in this latter fre- quency range potentially affect amongst others the Power Line Communication (PLC), solid-state meters, and electronically controlled devices such as touch dimmer lamps [24,25]. Recently, the DM noise Compatibility Level (CL) for fre- quencies from 2 kHz to 30 kHz has been published in [26], and the CL for up to 150 kHz is expected soon [25]. ...
... [4] Photovoltaic (PV) micro-generation facilities in individual homes create noise voltage and harmonic distortions [5]. PLC smart meters can also create noise voltage to other devices interfering their operations [6]. Voltage transients have a very short duration, but can cause very high current and power. ...
Conference Paper
Power line communication (PLC) connects energy producers with energy consumers. In the European Union stricter guidelines are under development to limit disturbances in the 2–150 kHz frequency range, because devices utilising PLC do not work. This study measured voltage transients in 22 locations and identified sources for noise. Home environments and public buildings were measured. Measurements were conducted in the frequency range of 150 kHz–500 kHz (according to EN 55011 to EN 55022) and in the lower frequency range of 3 kHz to 95 kHz. Results indicate that voltage transients are generated mostly by switching mode power supplies, pumps, rectifiers, inverters and even low quality smart meters. Several of these devices exceeded PLC standard level, 122 dBμV. Additionally we demonstrate that basic power quality recordings do not provide enough information to mitigate PLC problems occurring within microseconds and frequency specific voltage transient measurements are needed.
... Finally, some other publications address detected problems of high frequency harmonics in public LV distribution grids, such as [25][26][27]. On the other hand, another reason of concern is the potential influence and consequences of high frequency emissions over PLC systems [28][29][30][31]. In fact, the noise model in PLC is more complex than in other traditional communication systems, since it consists of coloured broadband noise, narrowband interference and different types of impulsive noise [32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Distributed Energy Resources might have a severe influence on Power Line Communications, as they can generate interfering signals and high frequency emissions or supraharmonics that may cause loss of metering and control data. In this paper, the influence of various energy resources on Narrowband Power Line Communications is described and analyzed through several test measurements performed in a real microgrid. Accordingly, the paper describes the effects on smart metering communications through the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer analysis. Results show that the switching frequency of inverters and the presence of battery chargers are remarkable sources of disturbance in low voltage distribution networks. In this sense, the results presented can contribute to efforts towards standardization and normative of emissions at higher frequencies higher, such as CENELEC EN 50160 and IEC/TS 62749.
... Equipment manufacturers should be made aware of the voltage dip check list created by CIGRE/CIRED/UIE WG C4.110 [8]. The dip immunity tests that were done 10 to 20 years ago should be repeated for modern equipment to assess their voltage-dip immunity. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper gives a status report of joint working group C4.24. Next to an overview of the different activities started, more details are given of the work done on voltage dips, new sources of emission, feeder reconfiguration, demand side management and power quality and economics.
... Tests were also made with discontinuous sinusoidal signals of different frequencies to determine the sensitivity of TDLs to disturbance signals reminiscent of the PLC signal. The test results are reported in detail in [3]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
According to Finnish legislation, at least 80 % of the energy meters in Finland have to be remotely readable and provide hourly based energy data by the end of 2013. Based on a questionnaire made to Finnish DSOs, a conservative estimate can be made that approx. 30...50 % of these meters will use PLC communication in LV network. In a sample of 110 647alredy installed meters approx. 3.6 % of the meters using PLC had experienced communication problems either in commissioning stage or during operation. On-site measurements to study common customer apparatus disturbing the PLC were conducted in the networks of a few DSOs. Most common disturbance sources were frequency converters and switch-mode power supplies. A method based on HF current measurements was developed to facilitate the location of the disturbance source. The measurements indicate that in addition to insufficient emission limit standardization below 150 kHz the aging of customer equipment is a relevant cause of interference problems.
... Tests have also been made with discontinuous sinusoidal signals of different frequencies to determine the sensitivity of TDLs to disturbance signals reminiscent of the PLC signal. The test results are reported in [3]. Touch dimmer lamps are especially problematic for DNOs, since the lamps themselves are quite cheap, but correcting the problem is usually quite expensive for the DNO. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
According to Finnish legislation, at least 80 % of the energy meters have to be remotely readable and provide hourly based energy data by the end of 2013. In April 2011 Tampere University of Technology (TUT) in co-operation with Finnish Energy Industry conducted a questionnaire to Finnish distribution network operators (DNOs) to map the installation status of the remotely readable meters, the communication technologies used in the meters and the interference problems experienced so far, related to, especially, PLC (power line communication) systems. The questionnaire dealt with both the interference caused by customer apparatus to PLC and vice versa. On-site measurements to study common customer apparatus disturbing the PLC were also conducted in 2012 in the networks of a few DNOs. Most common disturbance sources were frequency converters and switch mode power supplies. The measurements indicate that in addition to the lack of emission standards below 150 kHz the aging of customer equipment may be a relevant cause of interference problems.
Article
With the advent of new electricity production modes, power electronics, LED lamps and underground cables, new types of disturbances will appear, including an increase in distortion between 2 kHz and 150 kHz that is referred to as ‘supraharmonics.’ A shift of resonances to lower frequencies may partly compensate for the increased emissions at higher frequencies, but the transfer of disturbances will become less predictable. Equipment immunity also is likely to become less predictable.
Article
This paper describes characteristics of PLT emission with experiment in semi-anechoic chamber and suggests the method for aggregating multiple interferences based on probabilistic approach in the situation in which multiple PLT modems are operating in close proximity to the radio receiver. The levels of the conducted and radiated emission and the APD characteristics are presented. And compatibility between PLT and radio receiver is analyzed with suggested method. This will be useful for assessing interference effect in the field of radio communication and electromagnetic compatibility.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
According to Finnish legislation, at least 80 % of the energy meters have to be remotely readable and provide hourly based energy data by the end of 2013. In April 2011 Tampere University of Technology (TUT) in co-operation with Finnish Energy Industry conducted a questionnaire to Finnish distribution network operators (DNOs) to map the installation status of the remotely readable meters, the communication technologies used in the meters and the interference problems experienced so far, related to, especially, PLC (power line communication) systems. The questionnaire dealt with both the interference caused by customer apparatus to PLC and vice versa. On-site measurements to study common customer apparatus disturbing the PLC were also conducted in 2012 in the networks of a few DNOs. Most common disturbance sources were frequency converters and switch mode power supplies. The measurements indicate that in addition to the lack of emission standards below 150 kHz the aging of customer equipment may be a relevant cause of interference problems.
Conference Paper
The empirical material for this paper was composed from Finnish market surveillance projects that inspected the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of products. The projects were carried out between 1997 and 2002 and they were concentrated on equipment groups whose EMC features had been known to be problematic: uninterruptible power supplies, personal computers, frequency converters and energy-saving lamps. In each project, typical products in this group were tested, results were analysed and the reasonableness of products' EMC requirements were evaluated from technical, as well as administrative points of view. In this paper, the lessons to be learned from these projects are discussed.
Article
This is the first part of a two-part series on communications over the European 240 V domestic powerline in the frequencies identified by the CENELEC European mains signalling standard using low-cost equipment for applications requiring data rates of no more than hundreds of bits per second (bits/s). To minimize costs, narrow-band modem techniques are considered. The series of papers identifies the key impairments introduced by the channel, proposes a novel model structure to simulate them, and gives quantitative values for simulation based on empirical measurements. The first paper describes the principal linear impairments; noise whose intensity cycles at twice the AC line rate, and linear signal attenuation. The second paper describes nonlinear multiplicative fading. Both papers present suitable modulation schemes based on orthogonal frequency division modulation (OFDM).
Article
This is the first part of a two-part series on communications over the European 240 V domestic power line in the frequencies identified by the CENELEC European mains signaling standard using low-cost equipment for applications requiring data rates of no more than hundreds of bits per second. To minimize costs narrowband modem techniques are considered. The series of papers identifies the key impairments introduced by the channel, proposes a novel model structure to simulate them, and gives quantitative values for simulation based on empirical measurements. Paper one describes the principal linear impairments; noise whose intensity cycles at twice the ac line rate, and linear signal attenuation. Paper two describes nonlinear multiplicative fading. Both papers present suitable modulation schemes based on orthogonal frequency division modulation (OFDM).
New EU standard places more EMC responsibility with users and operators
  • S Mccree
S. McCree, " New EU standard places more EMC responsibility with users and operators ", Vector, July 2008. http://www.eepublishers.co.za/images/upload/02%20DT%2002%20N ewEu.pdf
Attenuation and noise level – potential problems with communication via the power grid
  • S Rönnberg
  • M Lundmark
  • M Wahlberg
  • M Anderson
  • A Larsson
  • M Bollen
S. Rönnberg, M. Lundmark, M. Wahlberg, M. Anderson, A. Larsson, M. Bollen, " Attenuation and noise level – potential problems with communication via the power grid ", presented at 19 th International Conference on Electricity Distribution, Vienna, Austria, 2007.
Radio Frequency Interference -VLT 6000 HVAC
  • Danfoss
  • Inc
Danfoss, Inc., " Radio Frequency Interference -VLT 6000 HVAC ", Danfoss Application Note, 2004.
Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Compatibility, A handbook series on Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility
  • W G Duff
W. G. Duff, Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Compatibility, A handbook series on Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility, Vol. 1, Gainesville: Interference Control Technologies, 1988.
Annual Report on the Progress in Smart Metering
  • European Smart
  • Metering Alliance
Iskraemeco Energy Measurement and Management P 2LPC Data Concentrator
  • Datasheet