Article

Bologna Process, More or Less: Nursing Education in the European Economic Area: A Discussion Paper

International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship 01/2014; 11(1). DOI: 10.1515/ijnes-2013-0022
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Bologna Declaration and the subsequent processes is the single most important reform of higher education taking place in Europe in the last 30 years. Signed in 1999, it includes 46 European Union countries and aimed to create, a more coherent, compatible, comparable and competitive European Higher Education Area. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the Bologna Declaration achievements in nursing education at 2010 within eight countries that first signed the Declaration on 1999. Researchers primarily identified national laws, policy statements, guidelines and grey literature; then, a literature review on Bologna Declaration implementation in nursing was conducted on the Medline and CINAHL databases. Critical analyses of these documents were performed by expert nurse educators. Structural, organizational, functional and cultural obstacles are hindering full Bologna Process implementation in nursing education within European Economic Area. A call for action is offered in order to achieve a functionally unified system within nursing.

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Available from: Michael Bergin, May 20, 2015
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    • "In the European (EU) context, which is regulated by the Bologna process principles (Palese et al., 2014a), no studies based on international collaboration have been published to date with regard to the comparison of nursing student profiles enrolled in the 1st academic year and their academic outcomes. Moreover, enrolment trends in numerous countries predict a more academically diverse, older, and/or ethnically diverse (non-traditional) nursing student population (Jeffreys, 2007), suggesting greater international collaboration research among countries and nursing programmes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In the European context regulated by the Bologna Process principles, there is little evidence to date on the different profiles, if any, of nursing students enrolled in the 1st academic year and their academic outcomes. Aims: To describe and compare the nursing student profiles and their academic outcomes at the end of the 1st year across European Bachelor of Nursing Science (BNS) courses. Design: An exploratory multicentre cohort study involving five countries: Nursing students who were enrolled in nursing programmes for the academic year 2011/2012 in the participating BNS courses, willing to participate and regularly admitted to the 2nd academic year, were included in this study undertaken in 2013. Individual and faculty level variables were collected after having ensured the validity of the tools developed in English and then appropriately translated into the language of each participating country. Findings: A total of 378/710 (53.2%) students participated in the study. They attended from 390 to 810. h of lessons, while clinical experience ranged from 162 to 536. h. The students reported a mean average age of 21.4 (Confidence of Interval [CI] 95%, 21.0-22.3) and foreign students were limited in number (on average 3.7%). The students reported adopting mainly individual learning strategies (92.9%), duplicating notes or lecture notes prepared by professors (74.4%), and concentrating their study before exams (74.6%). The majority reported experiencing learning difficulties (49.7%) and a lack of academic support (84.9%). Around 33.2% reported economic difficulties and the need to work while studying nursing on average for 24. h/week. Personal expectations regarding the nursing role were different (45.6%) than the role encountered during the 1st year, as learning workloads were higher (57.2%) with regard to expectations. Around one-third of students reported the intention to leave nursing education while the proportion of those reporting early academic failure was on average 5.6%. Conclusions: More strategies aimed at harmonising nursing education across Europe, at supporting nursing students' learning processes during 1st year, and identifying factors influencing their intention to leave and their academic failure, are recommended.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Nurse education today
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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to explore the major concerns of specialist nurses pertaining to academic learning during their education and initial professional career. Specialist nursing education changed in tandem with the European educational reform in 2007. At the same time, greater demands were made on the healthcare services to provide evidence-based and safe patient-care. These changes have influenced specialist nursing programmes and consequently the profession. Grounded Theory guided the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions distributed at the end of specialist nursing programmes in 2009 and 2010. Five universities were included. Further, individual, pair and group interviews were used to collect data from 12 specialist nurses, 5e14 months after graduation. A major concern for specialist nurses was that academic learning should be " meaningful " for their professional future. The specialist nurses' " meaningful academic learning process " was characterised by an ambivalence of partly believing in and partly being hesitant about the significance of academic learning and partly receiving but also lacking support. Specialist nurses were influenced by factors in two areas: curriculum and healthcare context. They felt that the outcome of contribution to professional confidence was critical in making academic learning meaningful.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Nurse Education in Practice
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim was to explore the major concerns of specialist nurses pertaining to academic learning during their education and initial professional career. Specialist nursing education changed in tandem with the European educational reform in 2007. At the same time, greater demands were made on the healthcare services to provide evidence-based and safe patient-care. These changes have influenced specialist nursing programmes and consequently the profession. Grounded Theory guided the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions distributed at the end of specialist nursing programmes in 2009 and 2010. Five universities were included. Further, individual, pair and group interviews were used to collect data from 12 specialist nurses, 5-14 months after graduation. A major concern for specialist nurses was that academic learning should be “meaningful” for their professional future. The specialist nurses’ “meaningful academic learning process” was characterized by an ambivalence of partly believing in and partly being hesitant about the significance of academic learning and partly receiving but also lacking support. Specialist nurses were influenced by factors in two areas: curriculum and healthcare context. They felt that the outcome of contribution to professional confidence was critical in making academic learning meaningful.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Nurse Education in Practice
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